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Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Santiago Papini, Derek Pisner, Jason Shumake, Mark B Powers, Christopher G Beevers, Evan E Rainey, Jasper A J Smits, Ann Marie Warren
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in a substantial minority of emergency room admits. Inexpensive and accurate person-level assessment of PTSD risk after trauma exposure is a critical precursor to large-scale deployment of early interventions that may reduce individual suffering and societal costs. Toward this aim, we applied ensemble machine learning to predict PTSD screening status three months after severe injury using cost-effective and minimally invasive data. Participants (N = 271) were recruited at a Level 1 Trauma Center where they provided variables routinely collected at the hospital, including pulse, injury severity, and demographics, as well as psychological variables, including self-reported current depression, psychiatric history, and social support...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Peta N Maguire, Gavin I Clark, Bethany M Wootton
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is considered the psychological treatment of choice for anxiety disorders in the general population. However the efficacy of CBT for anxiety that occurs during the perinatal period, defined as the period from conception to 12 months post birth, is less understood. Perinatal anxiety is a complex and multifaceted problem that can affect both the pregnant women and the unborn child, as well as the wider family unit. The aim of this study was to synthesize the current empirical status of CBT for perinatal anxiety using a meta-analytic approach...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
M E Oglesby, N A Short, B J Albanese, A K Portero, N B Schmidt
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the perceived and/or actual behavioral capacity to tolerate negative emotional states, is considered an important risk factor for various externalizing and internalizing disorders. Despite the importance of DT in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, few reliable and valid indicators of DT have been developed. One potentially useful way to assess DT is through interpretation bias (IB) paradigms. The current study sought to examine the convergent validity, reliability, and clinical utility of a DT-focused IB paradigm by directly measuring an individual's interpretations of distressing information...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Thomas A Fergus, Marcantonio M Spada
Cyberchondria refers to the repeated use of the Internet to search for health information that leads to negative consequences. The present set of studies examined the tenability of a proposed metacognitive conceptualization of cyberchondria that includes metacognitive beliefs about health-related thoughts, beliefs about rituals, and stop signals. The contribution of those variables to cyberchondria was examined among 330 undergraduate students from a U.S. university in Study 1 and 331 U.S. community respondents in Study 2...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Meng Yu, Gregory S Chasson, Mengcheng Wang, Yawen Zhu, Qian Xu, Jianping Wang
The main purpose of current study was to investigate the characteristics of anxiety in Chinese adolescents using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. LPA was conducted with a sample of 2158 participants aged 12-20 years from 3 urban schools in Beijing, China. Results suggested a best-fitting model with three profiles: Low Group with Diffuse Types of Anxiety, Moderate Group with Predominant Generalized and Social Anxiety and High Group with Predominant Somatization Anxiety...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Rachel E Menzies, Matteo Zuccala, Louise Sharpe, Ilan Dar-Nimrod
Death anxiety has been proposed as a transdiagnostic construct, underlying numerous mental disorders. Although it has been argued that treatments, which reduce death anxiety, are needed, research investigating the impact of interventions on death fears has produced mixed results. As such, the current meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of psychosocial interventions on death anxiety. Overall, results from 15 randomised controlled trials suggested that psychosocial treatments produced significant reductions in death anxiety, with a small to medium effect size (g = ...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Hannah Pickard, Francesca Happé, William Mandy
Social and communication (SC) difficulties predict increased social anxiety (SA) symptoms in childhood. Peer victimisation and friendship quality are commonly associated with both SC difficulties and SA. Based on this, we tested for a cascade effect of early SC difficulties, peer victimisation and friendship quality on SA in late childhood, using a population-based sample of 8028 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Parent-reported data were collected on SC difficulties at age 7 and SA at age 7, 10 and 13...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Kelly R Peck, Scott F Coffey, Adam P McGuire, Andrew C Voluse, Kevin M Connolly
Dysfunctional trauma-related cognitions are important in the emergence and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the modification of such cognitions is a proposed mechanism of trauma treatment. However, the authors are not aware of any research examining trauma-related cognitions as a treatment mechanism in a sample of individuals with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder (SUD). Accordingly, the present study sought to address this gap in the literature and examined the relationship between trauma-related cognitions and treatment outcomes within a sample of seventy-two veterans diagnosed with PTSD and SUD...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Arne Kodal, Krister W Fjermestad, Ingvar Bjelland, Rolf Gjestad, Lars-Göran Öst, Jon F Bjaastad, Bente S M Haugland, Odd E Havik, Einar R Heiervang, Gro Janne H Wergeland
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven long-term effects in youth with anxiety disorders. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of long-term outcomes of CBT treatment. The present study investigated possible predictors of long-term treatment outcomes in youth with mixed anxiety disorders treated in community mental health clinics. A total of 139 youth (mean age at assessment 15.5 years, range 11-21 years) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and/or generalized anxiety disorder were evaluated a mean of 3...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Mark B Powers, Barbara O Rothbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Emily E Bernstein, Richard J McNally
Pattern separation is a facet of memory encoding that facilitates the adaptive integration of old and new experiences. At the computational level, this process reduces overlap between how two entities are represented. Behaviorally, this allows for greater memory resolution while avoiding memory interference; similar entities are perceived as distinct. Poor pattern separation could contribute to psychopathology, especially anxiety, as individuals with high anxiety tend to overgeneralize their perception of threat, or have difficulty distinguishing between currently safe contexts and previously threatening ones...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Tina Schweizer, Fritz Renner, Dali Sun, Birgit Kleim, Emily A Holmes, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
BACKGROUND: Peri- and post-traumatic factors predict the differential development of stress-associated mental disorders. Prospective designs assessing these risk factors in real-time under controlled experimental conditions can overcome limitations of retrospective designs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate multi-sensory, experimental analogues of a traumatic experience delivered in Virtual Reality (VR) or Script-Driven Imagery (SDI). METHODS: In a randomised controlled crossover design, differences in the induced analogue trauma symptoms between multi-sensory analogue trauma by either VR or SDI versus a neutral condition were assessed in 127 non-clinical participants...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ateka A Contractor, Talya Greene, Megan Dolan, Jon D Elhai
Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression following traumatic experiences are cumulatively associated with functional impairment. To examine mechanisms for the PTSD-depression comorbidity, we investigated their cluster-level associations. Using data obtained from Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform, 368 trauma-exposed participants were split into two subsamples: those with (n = 163) and without (n = 185) probable PTSD. In both subsamples, confirmatory factor analyses indicated an optimal seven-factor PTSD Hybrid Model...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Emily Carl, Aliza T Stein, Andrew Levihn-Coon, Jamie R Pogue, Barbara Rothbaum, Paul Emmelkamp, Gordon J G Asmundson, Per Carlbring, Mark B Powers
Trials of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety-related disorders have proliferated in number and diversity since our previous meta-analysis that examined 13 total trials, most of which were for specific phobias (Powers & Emmelkamp, 2008). Since then, new trials have compared VRET to more diverse anxiety and related disorders including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. With the availability of this data, it is imperative to re-examine the efficacy of VRET for anxiety...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Lily A Brown, Thea Gallagher, Julie Petersen, Kathy Benhamou, Edna B Foa, Anu Asnaani
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders commonly co-occur with suicidal ideation (SI). To our knowledge, no studies have reported on the baseline prevalence of SI and the reduction in SI in a naturalistic sample receiving cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders. METHODS: Participants (n = 355) recruited from an anxiety specialty clinic reported SI at pre-, mid-, and post-CBT. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models compared differences in SI endorsement over Time...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jonathan D Huppert, Yogev Kivity, Lior Cohen, Asher Y Strauss, Yoni Elizur, Michal Weiss
No studies have compared face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and attention bias modification (ABM) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) and their purported mechanisms. We asked: 1) Is CBT more effective than ABM? and 2) Are changes in attentional biases and cognitions temporally related to symptom change? Forty-three patients were randomly assigned to 8 sessions of ABM or up to 20 sessions of individual CBT. Intent-to-treat results revealed that CBT was superior to ABM in response rates and on symptom measures at endpoint, but not on other measures...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Diana-Mirela Cândea, Aurora Szentagotai-Tăta
There is a growing body of investigations showing that shame and guilt are important features of various psychological problems including anxiety disorders. This study quantitatively summarized the magnitude of the associations of shame and guilt with anxiety symptoms. We looked both at the associations with broader categories of anxiety symptoms (i.e., undifferentiated anxiety symptoms, trait and state anxiety), but also with symptoms specific to individual anxiety disorders. In most cases, shame was more strongly associated with anxiety symptoms (in general medium effect sizes) than guilt (in general small effect sizes)...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Natasha Benfer, Joseph R Bardeen, Ian Cero, Lindsay B Kramer, Sarah E Whiteman, Travis A Rogers, Madison W Silverstein, Frank W Weathers
Evidence suggests that posttraumatic stress (PTS) disorder (PTSD) symptom presentations may vary as a function of index trauma type. Network analysis was employed in the present study to examine differences in PTS symptom centrality (i.e., the relative influence of a symptom on the network), and PTS symptom associations across three trauma types: motor vehicle accident (MVA), sexual assault (SA), and sudden accidental/violent death of a loved one (SAD). The final sample comprised 554 female undergraduates who had experienced a MVA (n = 226), SA (n = 222), or SAD (n = 106) per Diagnostic Statistical Manual-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Verena Keil, Robert Hepach, Severin Vierrath, Detlef Caffier, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Christoph Klein, Julian Schmitz
Cognitive models and adult research associate social anxiety disorder (SAD) with hypervigilant-avoidant processing of social information, such as eye contact. However, processing biases in childhood SAD remain mostly unexplored. We examined 10- to 13-year-old children's eye contact processing and pupil dilation in response to happy, neutral, and angry faces in three groups: SAD (n = 31), mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 30), and healthy controls (HC; n = 32). Compared to HC, SAD children showed faster first fixations on the eye region of neutral faces and shorter first fixation durations on the eye region of all faces...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Renatha El Rafihi-Ferreira, Edwiges F M Silvares, Fernando R Asbahr, Thomas H Ollendick
Sixty-eight 4-6 year old children who co-slept with their parents and who avoided sleeping alone due to intense nighttime fears were randomized to a brief combined parent-based intervention (CBT-based bibliotherapy plus doll) or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were offered treatment. Co-sleeping patterns, sleep records, anxiety, general fears, and behavior problems were assessed with parent-report measures. Nighttime fears were assessed with parent-report measures and a single item visual analogue scale for the young children...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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