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Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Sarah M Kennedy, Niza A Tonarely, Jamie A Sherman, Jill Ehrenreich-May
Various efficacious treatment packages exist for youth anxiety, and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is now considered to be a well-established treatment for child anxiety disorders (Higa-McMillan, Francis, Rith-Najarian, & Chorpita, 2016). Improving outcomes for the significant proportion of anxious youth who demonstrate inadequate response to CBT is imperative, but our understanding of who does and does not benefit is incomplete. Further, there are no known empirical studies of predictors of treatment response for youth who receive a transdiagnostic intervention for anxiety or depression, and it is therefore unclear whether predictors of response to a transdiagnostic treatment for children are similar to those found in previous studies of anxiety-specific treatments...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Gordon J G Asmundson, Aleiia J N Asmundson
The relative health of a field of research can be approximated by assessing peer-reviewed journal publication trends for articles pertinent to that field. The most recent comprehensive assessment of publication trends in the anxiety disorders indicated that the field was on a continuing trajectory of growth (Boschen, 2008). We conducted an updated search of Medline for publications on each of the anxiety disorders from 2006 to 2016. Results indicated that there was continuing growth in anxiety disorders research overall and, particularly, for posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ryan L Rahm-Knigge, Mark A Prince, Bradley T Conner
Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, withdraw from or avoid social encounters and generally avoid risks. However, a subset engages in health risk sexual behavior (HRSB). Because sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity predict engagement in HRSB among adolescents and young adults, the present study hypothesized that latent classes of social interaction anxiety and these personality traits would differentially predict likelihood of engagement in HRSB...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Clara Strauss, Laura Lea, Mark Hayward, Elizabeth Forrester, Tamara Leeuwerik, Anna-Marie Jones, Claire Rosten
BACKGROUND: Only about half of people with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) show clinically significant improvement following the recommended therapy, exposure and response prevention (ERP), partly due to poor therapy acceptability. A mindfulness-based approach to ERP (MB-ERP) has the potential to improve acceptability and outcomes. METHODS: This was an internal pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of group MB-ERP compared to group ERP. 37 participants meeting DSM-IV OCD criteria were randomly allocated to MB-ERP or ERP...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Daniel Schulze, Norbert Kathmann, Benedikt Reuter
Previous research using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) suggests that the heterogeneous symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may reflect four underlying dimensions. However, past results vary substantially, which may be due to (a) the reliance on aggregated scores, (b) the common use of exploratory factor analyses, and (c) the exclusion of several symptoms. The present study tested the homogeneity of the original Y-BOCS categories using confirmatory factor analysis and modified categories where necessary...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Elizabeth R Duval, Sonalee A Joshi, Stefanie Russman Block, James L Abelson, Israel Liberzon
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by exaggerated reactivity to social threat, often documented by biased attention to threatening information, and increased activation in brain regions involved in salience/threat processing. Attention training has been developed to ameliorate the attention bias documented in individuals with SAD, with mixed results. We investigated patterns of brain activation underlying acute attention modulation in 41 participants (29 with SAD and 12 health controls). We then investigated how brain activation changed over time in both groups in response to a 4-session attention training protocol (toward threat, away from threat, no-training control)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Brian Csupak, Jordana L Sommer, Eric Jacobsohn, Renée El-Gabalawy
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to: 1) Establish the prevalence of co-occurring chronic pain conditions (i.e., arthritis, back pain, and migraines) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and 2) Examine levels of pain severity, disability, and work absenteeism among comorbid chronic pain conditions and GAD. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH; N = 25,113). Chi-square analyses assessed whether significant differences existed in pain severity in those with comorbid chronic pain and GAD versus pain conditions alone...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Marcella L Woud, Armin Zlomuzica, Jan C Cwik, Jürgen Margraf, Lorika Shkreli, Simon E Blackwell, Thomas E Gladwin, Thomas Ehring
Dysfunctional appraisals are a key factor suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Research has shown that experimental induction of a positive or negative appraisal style following a laboratory stressor affects analogue posttraumatic stress symptoms. This supports a causal role of appraisal in the development of traumatic stress symptoms and the therapeutic promise of modifying appraisals to reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating the effects of experimentally induced appraisals on reactions to a naturally occurring analogue trauma and by examining effects on both explicit and implicit appraisals...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
E Pepperdine, C Lomax, M H Freeston
Intolerance of Uncertainty is a transdiagnostic risk and maintenance factor in a range of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. However, the mechanism of action in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders is poorly understood, with the relationship between the constructs of uncertainty and threat appraisal remaining unclear. Most research to date has investigated IU in situations that are explicitly or implicitly threatening (i.e. where they have a negative outcome), which makes it difficult to establish whether it is the uncertainty or the prospect of a negative outcome (or threat) that people find aversive...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Lena Jelinek, Marit Hauschildt, Birgit Hottenrott, Michael Kellner, Steffen Moritz
Studies have confirmed the efficacy of the cognitive intervention Association Splitting (AS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) when applied as a self-help technique. AS aims to alter symptom-provoking automated cognitive networks of OC-related stimuli by building new or strengthening established but weak neutral associations. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptance and benefits of therapist-assisted AS as an add-on to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). One hundred and nine patients with OCD who were undergoing CBT were randomly assigned to either AS or cognitive remediation (CR)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sandra L Cepeda, Dean McKay, Sophie C Schneider, Valérie La Buissonnière-Ariza, Jolenthe T N E Egberts, Elizabeth McIngvale, Wayne K Goodman, Eric A Storch
A significant proportion of the U.S. population report increased stress attributed to the political climate following the controversial 2016 United States (U.S.) Presidential election. The political stressors paired with the growth in news consumption and social media-use could be a potential trigger for obsessive-compulsive-like symptoms specific to politics in some individuals. This study aimed to elucidate the rate of Politically-focused Intrusive Thoughts and associated Ritualistic Behaviors (PITRB), their demographic and clinical correlates, and the degree of association with political ideology...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Amalia M Ciuca, Thomas Berger, Liviu G Crişan, Mircea Miclea
A growing body of evidence suggests that Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (ICBT) are effective to treat anxiety disorders. However, the effect of therapist guidance in ICBT is still under debate and guided ICBT offered in a real-time audio-video communication format has not yet been systematically investigated. This three-arm RCT compared the efficacy of guided with unguided ICBT (12 weeks intervention) and a waitlist (WL). A total of 111 individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (PD) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
R N Carleton, T O Afifi, T Taillieu, S Turner, R El-Gabalawy, J Sareen, G J G Asmundson
Canadian Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional service officers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) regularly experience potentially traumatic, painful, and injurious events. Such exposures increase risk for developing mental disorders and chronic pain, which both involve substantial personal and social costs. The interrelationship between mental disorders and chronic pain is well-established, and both can be mutually maintaining; accordingly, understanding the relationship between mental health and chronic pain among PSP is important for improving health care...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Emily L Escovar, Michelle Craske, Peter Roy-Byrne, Murray B Stein, Greer Sullivan, Cathy D Sherbourne, Alexander Bystritsky, Denise A Chavira
The present study examines how both between group (i.e., ethnic group membership) and within group cultural factors (i.e., nativity status, age of immigration, and perceived discrimination) may contribute to anxiety and related symptoms in Latinx with anxiety disorders. Baseline data were examined from patients who participated in one of the largest intervention studies for adults with anxiety disorders in primary care settings; 196 Latinx and 568 NLW (non-Latinx White) patients participated. Proportions of anxiety disorders were similar between Latinx and NLWs; however, Latinx, on average, had a greater number of anxiety disorders than NLWs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Allison M Waters, Yuan Cao, Rachel Kershaw, Georg M Kerbler, David H K Shum, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Michelle G Craske, Brendan P Bradley, Karin Mogg, Daniel S Pine, Ross Cunnington
Prior research indicates that positive search training (PST) may be a promising home-based computerised treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. It explicitly trains anxious individuals in adaptive, goal-directed attention-search strategies to search for positive and calm information and ignore goal-irrelevant negative cues. Although PST reduces anxiety symptoms, its neural effects are unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine changes in neural activation associated with changes in attention processing of positive and negative stimuli from pre- to post-treatment with PST in children with anxiety disorders...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Melissa Peskin, Katarzyna Wyka, Judith Cukor, Megan Olden, Margaret Altemus, Francis S Lee, JoAnn Difede
Two studies suggest that reductions in posttraumatic symptoms (Aderka et al., 2013) and cognitions (Zalta et al., 2014) precede reductions in depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female assault survivors. The present study explored the temporal relationship between posttraumatic and depressive symptoms in a randomized trial of D-Cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmented virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for chronic World Trade Center-related PTSD following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Rachel M Butler, Matthew T Boden, Thomas M Olino, Amanda S Morrison, Philippe R Goldin, James J Gross, Richard G Heimberg
We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Stefan G Hofmann, Aleena C Hay
Avoidance is typically considered a maladaptive behavioral response to excessive fear and anxiety, leading to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Exposure is a core element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. One important aspect of this treatment is repeated and prolonged exposure to a threat while discouraging patients from using avoidance strategies, such as escape or safety behaviors. We will first revisit the role of avoidance learning in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, including important insights from the neuroscience literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Brian E Bunnell, Tatiana M Davidson, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Peritraumatic distress is defined as the emotional and physiological distress experienced during and/or immediately after a traumatic event and is associated with the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychological difficulties. The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) is a widely-used self-report measure for which psychometric evaluation has been limited. This study sought to assess the factor structure and predictive validity of the PDI with a clinical sample of 600 traumatically injured patients admitted to a Level I trauma center, 271 of whom completed a phone-based PTSD screening ∼30-days post-injury...
April 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
April 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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