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Journal of Anxiety Disorders

Jack Tsai, Jianxun Shen, Steven M Southwick, Spencer Greenberg, Aislinn Pluta, Robert H Pietrzak
There has been little study of public literacy regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Public knowledge and attitudes about PTSD are important for encouraging treatment, prevention, and informing policies. Using a national online survey of 541 adults across 47 U.S. states in November 2016, we assessed attitudes and knowledge about PTSD. Most notably with respect to attitudes, 76-94% of the sample endorsed more federal funding for research, training, and practice for PTSD; and 76% of the sample also believed people with PTSD should have restricted access to firearms...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Assaf Soref, Nira Liberman, Amitai Abramovitch, Reuven Dar
Previous studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with OCD tend to rely on explicit processing while performing implicit learning tasks. We sought to investigate whether individuals with OCD are capable of implicit learning, but would demonstrate improved performance when explicit processing strategies are enhanced. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 non-psychiatric control (NPC) participants performed an implicit learning task in which they responded to a single target stimulus that successively appears at one of four locations according to an underlying sequence...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Louisa Lorenz, Philip Hyland, Andreas Maercker, Menachem Ben-Ezra
BACKGROUND: A new diagnostic concept of Adjustment Disorder (AjD) was proposed for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11). However, the symptom structure of AjD is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dimensionality of AjD as a stress-response syndrome. METHODS: A general population sample of the Israeli population (N = 1003) completed the Adjustment Disorder - New Module 20 and the WHO-5 Wellbeing Scale...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Dan V Blalock, Todd B Kashdan, Patrick E McKnight
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) have difficulty engaging in social situations because their actions are predicated on minimizing the subjectively biased high potential for rejection. That is, individuals with SAD frequently perceive social situations as challenging, and their performance as subpar. Yet when individuals perceive themselves as succeeding in challenging situations, they typically report these situations as enjoyable and rewarding. This subjective experience of succeeding in a challenging situation has been studied as flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; 2000)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
G Andrews, A Basu, P Cuijpers, M G Craske, P McEvoy, C L English, J M Newby
BACKGROUND: A 2010 meta-analysis of internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) RCTs argued 'computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders was effective, acceptable and practical health care' without data on effectiveness or practicality in routine practice. METHODS: Databases, reviews and meta-analyses were searched for randomised controlled trials of cCBT or iCBT versus a control group (care as usual, waitlist, information control, psychological placebo, pill placebo, etc...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Ohad Gilbar, Philip Hyland, Marylene Cloitre, Rachel Dekel
The International Classification of Diseases 11th Version (ICD-11) will include Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) as a unique diagnostic entity comprising core PTSD and DSO (disturbances in self-organization) symptoms. The current study had three aims: (1) assessing the validity of CPTSD in a unique population of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence; (2) examining whether exposure to different types of traumatic events would be associated with the two proposed CPTSD factors, namely PTSD or DSO; and (3) assessing the differential association of various sociodemographic and symptom characteristics with each factor...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jakob Fink, Elisa Pflugradt, Christian Stierle, Cornelia Exner
Contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (C-OCD) is characterized by strongly experienced disgust and fear, in response to potentially contaminating stimuli. Both emotions differ in their susceptibility for change by habituation and extinction, which are important processes for the success of exposure therapy. Even though the response rates for exposure therapy for C-OCD are very good, it seems promising to test additional therapeutic techniques which target disgust more directly. Therefore, imagery rescripting and cognitive reappraisal were evaluated for their potential to change levels of disgust (within-subject), in the two-session laboratory study with 30 participants, with diagnosed C-OCD, and 30 matched, healthy controls (between-subject), presented...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Richard J McNally
Socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals are at heightened risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to trauma. Yet a study of cross-national lifetime prevalence rates of PTSD revealed that countries scoring high on an index reflecting cultural and socioeconomic disadvantage exhibited lower rates of PTSD in response to trauma, evincing what the authors called "a vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder" Dückers, Alisic, & Brewin (2016a, p...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
M Edmonds, H D Hadjistavropoulos, L H Schneider, B F Dear, N Titov
Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is effective for treating anxiety and depression, but not for all patients. Predictors of dropout and outcomes from ICBT remain unclear and the literature could benefit from study of response to ICBT among larger community samples using advanced statistical techniques. In this study, we sought to identify predictors of dropout and symptom change in a large community sample (n = 1201) who received therapist-assisted transdiagnostic ICBT targeting anxiety and/or depression...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Robyn L Shepardson, Laura J Buchholz, Risa B Weisberg, Jennifer S Funderburk
Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in primary care, yet treatment rates are low. The integration of behavioral health providers into primary care via the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model offers a promising way to improve treatment options by adding a team member with the necessary skillset to deliver evidence-based psychological interventions for anxiety. We conducted a narrative review of psychological interventions for anxiety applied within adult primary care settings (k = 44) to update the literature and evaluate the fit of existing interventions with the PCBH model...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Madison W Silverstein, Nathalie Dieujuste, Lindsay B Kramer, Daniel J Lee, Frank W Weathers
Despite the factor analytic support for the seven-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little research has examined the degree to which newly established symptom clusters (i.e., negative affect, anhedonia, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal, externalizing behavior) functionally and meaningfully differ in their associations with other clinical phenomena. The aim of the current study was to examine the degree to which newly established PTSD symptom clusters differentially relate to co-occurring psychopathology and related clinical phenomena through Wald testing using latent variable modeling...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Andras N Zsido, Nikolett Arato, Orsolya Inhof, Jozsef Janszky, Gergely Darnai
Zoophobias are the most prevalent form of specific phobia worldwide. Two of the most widely used measures, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Spider Questionnaire (SPQ) are good indicators of specific fears, but researchers have recognised that shorter, yet nevertheless reliable measures are needed. Hence the aims of this research were to develop short forms of the SNAQ and SPQ using item response theory and to use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to determine cut-offs for use in future research...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Andres D Roque, David Rosenfield, Jasper A J Smits, Naomi Simon, Michael W Otto, Luana Marques, Mark H Pollack, Stefan G Hofmann, Alicia E Meuret
BACKGROUND: Prior studies examining the effect of d-cycloserine (DCS) on homework compliance and outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCS facilitates the effects of homework compliance on symptom reduction in a large-scale study for social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: 169 participants with generalized SAD received DCS or pill placebo during 12-session exposure-based group CBT...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Jasmeet P Hayes
We examined current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, trait disinhibition, and affective context as contributors to impulsive and self-destructive behavior in 94 trauma-exposed Veterans. Participants completed an affective Go/No-Go task (GNG) with different emotional contexts (threat, reward, and a multidimensional threat/reward condition) and current PTSD, trait disinhibition, and risky/self-destructive behavior measures. PTSD interacted with trait disinhibition to explain recent engagement in risky/self-destructive behavior, with Veterans scoring high on trait disinhibition and current PTSD symptoms reporting the highest levels of these behaviors...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Michelle Schoenleber, Christopher R Berghoff, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull
This study examined the relations of PTSD pathology to both the lability of three specific emotions (anxiety, anger, self-conscious emotions [SCE]) and the extent to which changes in one emotional state co-occur with changes in another emotional state (i.e. affective synchrony). Moreover, given evidence that emotional responding in PTSD may be heightened in response to trauma-related cues, these relations were explored in the context of a trauma cue versus neutral cue. Trauma-exposed patients in residential substance use disorder treatment (N=157) completed a diagnostic interview and two laboratory sessions involving presentation of neutral and individualized trauma scripts...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Arne Kodal, Krister Fjermestad, Ingvar Bjelland, Rolf Gjestad, Lars-Göran Öst, Jon F Bjaastad, Bente S M Haugland, Odd E Havik, Einar Heiervang, Gro Janne Wergeland
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has demonstrated favorable long-term outcomes in youth with anxiety disorders in efficacy trials. However, long-term outcomes of CBT delivered in a community setting are uncertain. This study examined the long-term outcomes of individual (ICBT) and group CBT (GCBT) in youth with anxiety disorders treated in community mental health clinics. A total of 139 youth (mean age at assessment 15.5 years, range 11-21 years) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social anxiety disorder (SOP), and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were evaluated, on average, 3...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Cate S Hearn, Caroline L Donovan, Susan H Spence, Sonja March
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Lauren S Hallion, Shari A Steinman, Susan N Kusmierski
Difficulty concentrating is one of the most common diagnostic criteria across DSM-5 categories, especially within the emotional (mood- and anxiety-related) disorders. A substantial literature has characterized cognitive functioning in emotional disorders using objective (behavioral) computerized cognitive tasks. However, diagnoses are typically formed on the basis of subjective (self-reported; clinician-rated) assessments of symptoms, and little is known about difficulty concentrating as a symptom. These questions are particularly important for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), which has long been the subject of nosological debates, and for which several theoretical models that suggest a central role for cognitive impairments (including difficulty concentrating) in the maintenance of psychopathology have been proposed...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Barbara Hoff Esbjørn, Nicoline Normann, Bianca Munkebo Christiansen, Marie Louise Reinholdt-Dunne
Metacognitive therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in adults. Studies have demonstrated that the underlying theoretical model is also supported in children. It has therefore been suggested that metacognitive therapy for children may be effective. Our study is an open trial of metacognitive therapy for children with generalized anxiety as their primary disorder. Therapy was provided in groups. Families were interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule - child/parent versions. They reported on the child's anxiety levels using the Revised Childrens Anxiety and Depression Scale - child/parent versions...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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