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Research in Developmental Disabilities

Florian B Pokorny, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Christa Einspieler, Dajie Zhang, Ralf Vollmann, Sven Bölte, Markus Gugatschka, Björn W Schuller, Peter B Marschik
BACKGROUND: Early speech-language development of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been repeatedly characterised by a co-occurrence of apparently typical and atypical vocalisations. AIMS: To describe specific features of this intermittent character of typical versus atypical early RTT-associated vocalisations by combining auditory Gestalt perception and acoustic vocalisation analysis. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We extracted N = 363 (pre-)linguistic vocalisations from home video recordings of an infant later diagnosed with RTT...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Marian Jenkins, Kate Sofronoff
BACKGROUND: Many parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that they are ill-equipped to support their children's behaviour, and these youths are known to be at substantially greater risk of emotional or behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. There is a need for an efficient and tailored parenting program for parents of adolescents with ASD that includes guidance on how to best support these youths' development and well-being. AIMS: The current study examined the feasibility of Building Bridges Triple P (BBTP), an eight-week (11...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Angela Crettenden, Joey Lam, Linley Denson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mothers who are primary carers of children with disabilities experience more mental health problems than mothers of typically developing children. We aimed to update and extend research into mothers' perceptions of grandparent support with care, and impacts for maternal psychological well-being, because although contemporary grandparents live longer they also work longer. METHODS: Surveys were completed by 72 mothers of clients (aged ≤8 years) of an Australian non-government disability agency...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Fabien Cignetti, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Aurelie Fontan, Marianne Jover, Marie-Odile Livet, Catherine Hugonenq, Frédérique Audic, Brigitte Chabrol, Christine Assaiante
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Cheng-Chen Pan, Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J S Morin
BACKGROUND: Little research has looked at the associations between sex, weight status and culture, and the physical self-perceptions and body dissatisfaction of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) involved in Special Olympics (SO) sports. AIMS: To examine sex- (male vs female), weight status- (non-overweight/obese vs. overweight/obese), and culture-based (North American vs. Asian) differences in physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among SO athletes...
March 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Hirokazu Doi, Takashi X Fujisawa, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Junko Matsuzaki, Chisato Kawasaki, Mamoru Tochigi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nobumasa Kato, Kazuyuki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have shown strong contribution of hereditary factors. On the basis the heterogeneity in ASD symptoms, it is highly possible that each independent domain of ASD symptom is linked to a different set of genetic risk factors. However, few empirical investigations have been carried out to examine this hypothesis. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in estrogen receptor genes, which several previous studies have identified as potential risk factors of ASD, and the severity of each independent aspect of ASD symptom within an Asian clinical sample...
March 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Rebecca Lyndsey Hardiman, Peter McGill
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) appears to be associated with an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour, particularly self-injury, relative to those with mixed aetiology learning disabilities. Such behavioural issues are reported to be of high concern for those providing support. As such, this systematic review aimed to gain further epidemiological data regarding challenging behaviours in individuals with FXS, including: self-injurious behaviour (SIB), hand-biting as a specific topography of SIB, aggression and property destruction...
March 7, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kathleen N Zimmerman, James E Pustejovsky, Jennifer R Ledford, Erin E Barton, Katherine E Severini, Blair P Lloyd
Varying methods for evaluating the outcomes of single case research designs (SCD) are currently used in reviews and meta-analyses of interventions. Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes-overlap measures (percentage non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and Tau) and parametric within-case effect sizes (standardized mean difference and log response ratio [increasing and decreasing])-were compared to determine if choice of synthesis method within and across classes impacts conclusions regarding effectiveness...
March 7, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kathleen N Zimmerman, Jennifer R Ledford, Katherine E Severini, James E Pustejovsky, Erin E Barton, Blair P Lloyd
Tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of single case research designs (SCD) are often used when conducting SCD syntheses. Preferred components include evaluations of design features related to the internal validity of SCD to obtain quality and/or rigor ratings. Three tools for evaluating the quality and rigor of SCD (Council for Exceptional Children, What Works Clearinghouse, and Single-Case Analysis and Design Framework) were compared to determine if conclusions regarding the effectiveness of antecedent sensory-based interventions for young children changed based on choice of quality evaluation tool...
March 3, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Wiebe Braam, Friederike Ehrhart, Anneke P H M Maas, Marcel G Smits, Leopold Curfs
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by a combination of de novo inherited variation and common variation as well as environmental factors. It often co-occurs with intellectual disability (ID). Almost eight hundred potential causative genetic variations have been found in ASD patients. However, not one of them is responsible for more than 1% of ASD cases. Low melatonin levels are a frequent finding in ASD patients. Melatonin levels are negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments, it is important for normal neurodevelopment and is highly effective in protecting DNA from oxidative damage...
February 28, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Melinda Raab, Carl J Dunst, Deborah W Hamby
AIM: The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. METHOD: Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3)...
February 27, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Charlotte Whittle, Catherine Butler
BACKGROUND: The normalisation movement calls for more recognition of the sexual rights of people with intellectual disabilities to challenge classically paradoxical cultural beliefs: 'hypersexual' versus 'asexual'. AIMS: This meta-ethnographic qualitative synthesis aimed to explore the voices of people with intellectual disabilities in regards to their experiences and perceptions of sexuality using a Coordinated Management of Meaning framework to derive new conceptual understandings of how their sexuality exists within multiple contexts...
February 24, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mireille Krischler, Ineke M Pit-Ten Cate, Sabine Krolak-Schwerdt
BACKGROUND: Students with special educational needs (SEN) remain one of the most socially excluded and vulnerable groups. To this extent, negative attitudes and stereotypes may impede their inclusion. Theoretical frameworks have suggested that stereotypes and attitudes elicit differential expectations and judgments, which in turn affect (social) behaviors. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the stereotypes and implicit attitudes held by a sample of Luxemburgish adults toward students with learning difficulties and challenging behavior...
February 24, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Lotte Ramerman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Gerda de Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Many people with intellectual disabilities use long-term antipsychotics for challenging behaviour and experience side-effects from these drugs, which may affect Health-related Quality of Life (HQoL). AIMS: This study aimed to investigate HQoL in people with intellectual disabilities who use long-term antipsychotics and to investigate its associations with challenging behaviour and physical symptoms often associated with antipsychotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used baseline data of two studies of long-term used antipsychotics...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Arianna Bello, Daniela Onofrio, Lorena Remi, Cristina Caselli
This study analyzed the communicative, linguistic and symbolic skills in Italian Late Talking (LT) toddlers. Thirty-five participants were identified through a language-screening program at 29 months by using the Italian version of MB-CDI W&S Short Form. Cognitive, communicative and linguistic skills were evaluated 5 later, with indirect and direct tools. The MB-CDI WS Short Form revealed, in LT children, weakness in gesture production, decontextualized comprehension, verbal imitation, symbolic play, and phonological accuracy...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Priscila Caçola, Michael Killian
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One of the major concerns for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are the mental and physical consequences of the condition, especially as they relate to quality of life factors. Here, we examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with DCD, determined the association between two standardized parent reports, and compared HRQOL of our sample with DCD with the normative sample of each assessment for typically developing (TD) children and a sample of children with chronic health conditions...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Marja Cantell, Suzanne Houwen, Marina Schoemaker
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is important, but variability in motor development in preschool children affects the validity of instruments to reliably detect children at risk of DCD. AIMS: To investigate the age-related validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ-NL). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Two hundred and sixty 3- to 5-year old children were recruited in the Netherlands...
February 21, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Leslie Neely, Elaina Garcia, Brooke Bankston, Andrew Green
BACKGROUND: Functional communication training (FCT) is considered an evidence-based practice for treating problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities (e.g. autism, intellectual disabilities, down syndrome, etc.). However, there is little known on how to sustain behavioral change following FCT interventions. This systematic and quality review synthesizes the current literature base evaluating the maintenance and generalization of behavioral effects following FCT. METHOD: A systematic review identified 37 studies that met the pre-set inclusion criteria...
February 19, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kevin Ka Shing Chan, Chun Bun Lam, Naska Chung Wa Law, Ryan Yat Ming Cheung
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but limited research has investigated why parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and increased risks of mental health problems. We responded to this gap in the literature by examining the associations between child autistic symptoms and parental affective symptoms, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. Guided by a family process theory, we hypothesized that child autistic symptoms would be positively associated with parental depressive and anxiety symptoms, and that these associations would be mediated by parents' concerns about their children's characteristics (future-related worry), parental roles (parenting stress), marital relationships (marital conflicts), and family conditions (family economic pressure)...
February 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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