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Research in Developmental Disabilities

Carrie J Ballantyne, María Núñez, Kallia Manoussaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been discrepancies reported in visuo-spatial construction ability in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and those with a comorbid diagnosis of FXS and ASD (AFXS). This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the visuo-spatial processing styles in these heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Navon-type tasks were used to assess visuo-spatial construction ability across 5 groups of children: typically developing, FXS, AFXS, ASD children who scored low-moderate (HFA) and ASD children that scored severe (LFA) on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...
September 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jon Torres-Unda, Vanesa Polo, Iratxe Dunabeitia, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, María García-Gil, Ana Rodriguez-Larrad, Jon Irazusta
Loss of functioning and age-related health problems tend to appear earlier in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) than in their non-disabled peers. The Feldenkrais method (FM) is a movement-based form of learning that enhances body balance and physical functioning. We carried out an intervention based on Awareness Through Movement, a form of the FM. Thirty-two middle-aged (48.94±6.01years old) adults with ID who were in supported employment were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG)...
September 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Genevieve Young-Southward, Sally-Ann Cooper, Christopher Philo
BACKGROUND: Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
C Purcell, A R Romijn
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 29% of pedestrians killed or seriously injured on the roads in Great Britain were under 15 years of age. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a chronic disorder affecting the acquisition and execution of motor skills, may be more vulnerable at the roadside than typically developing (TD) children. Current methods used to teach road safety are typically knowledge-based and do not necessarily improve behaviour in real traffic situations. Virtual reality road crossing tasks may be a viable alternative...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Andrew Maine, Adele Dickson, Maria Truesdale, Michael Brown
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the successful experiences and positive perceptions of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) self-managing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This study sought to address this gap using Bandura's (1977) 'Four Sources of Self-Efficacy' as a framework of enquiry. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults with ID. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis RESULTS: Nine sub-themes were identified following analysis of the data: 1) Mastery through knowledge; 2) Mastery through tools and strategies; 3) Mastery through autonomy; 4) Influence of social setting; 5) Positive social comparisons; 6) Positive and negative self-statements; 7) Feedback from caregivers; 8) Adjustment experiences; 9) Symptom awareness...
September 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Laura Crane, Emma Sumner, Elisabeth L Hill
BACKGROUND: Although characterised by motor impairments, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) also show high rates of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, low self-esteem). Such findings have led to calls for the screening of mental health problems in this group. AIMS: To investigate patterns and profiles of emotional and behavioural problems in children with and without DCD, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Teachers and parents completed SDQs for 30 children with DCD (7-10 years)...
September 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tai-Ling Liu, Nai-Wen Guo, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study investigated the relationship of bullying victimization and perpetration with the levels of intelligence, attention, and executive function in children who had received a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The experiences of bullying involvement in 105 children with ADHD were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Their scores for four intelligence indexes on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th Edition-Chinese version were determined...
September 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Janice E Kilburn, Cheri J Shapiro, James W Hardin
In the field of early intervention, only a few studies of parenting interventions include both participant and facilitator behaviors. Fidelity and supervision (facilitator characteristics) and dosage and satisfaction (participant characteristics) were tested on the outcome of improved parenting style in a sample of 36 parents of young children with disabilities. Results indicated that the facilitator behavior of fidelity was significantly and negatively related to the program outcome of parenting style; no effect was found for the facilitator behavior of supervision...
September 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Armando Quetzalcóatl Angulo-Chavira, Octavio García, Natalia Arias-Trejo
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by attentional problems. Little is known about the neural correlates of attention problems in DS due to difficulties in evaluation. Pupil dilation, associated with an increase in cognitive load and locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system activity in humans, is a neurophysiological measurement that may help to characterize such problems. The aim of this research was to investigate the link between a phasic pupil dilation response and target detection in people with DS, as compared with a control group with typical development (TD) matched by mental age...
September 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Wenche Andersen Helland, Turid Helland
BACKGROUND: Language problems may negatively affect children's behaviour and have detrimental effects on the development of peer-relations. AIMS: We investigated and compared emotional and behavioural profiles in children with SLI and in children with ASD aged 6-15 years and explored to what extent pragmatic language problems contributed to the emotional and behavioural needs (EBN) in these clinical groups. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The ASD group consisted of 23 children (19 boys; 4 girls) and the SLI group consisted of 20 children (18 boys; 2 girls)...
September 4, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mark Murphy, Jan Burns, Elizabeth Kilbey
BACKGROUND: Research shows that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience difficulties developing friendships, and that loneliness is a significant factor contributing to higher incidence of anxiety and depression within this population. AIMS: This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of relationships as described by adolescents with ASD, and, from these descriptions, to explore what can be inferred about the development of successful interpersonal relationships for these individuals...
August 31, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Michio Takahashi, Masaki Adachi, Nobuya Takayanagi, Sayura Yasuda, Masanori Tanaka, Ayako Osato-Kaneda, Takahito Masuda, Akio Nakai, Manabu Saito, Michito Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Although coordination difficulties are sometimes observed even in children in the general population, no empirical studies have examined the impact of these difficulties on parenting stress. AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between coordination difficulties and parenting stress in a community-based sample of preschool-aged children and their mothers. METHODS: The study included 1691 families. Mothers with 4- or 5-year-old children completed questionnaires about parenting stress and children's coordination difficulties, as well as traits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
August 30, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tim Oi Chan, Shui-Fong Lam
BACKGROUND: Raising a child with intellectual disability (ID) may be stressful for parents. Previous studies have suggested the mediating role of mindfulness in the association between child behavior problems and parental stress. AIMS: The present study examined whether this mediating role is a result of parents' self-report bias. It also explored whether mindfulness has a moderating role instead when child behavior problems are reported by teachers. METHODS: In a questionnaire survey, 271 Chinese parents of children with ID in 6 Hong Kong special schools reported their levels of stress and mindfulness, as well as their children's behavior problems...
August 29, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mª Del Mar Sanchez-Joya, Nuria Sanchez-Labraca, Mª Dolores Roldan-Tapia, Teresa Moral Rodríguez, Julio Ramos Lizana, Pablo Roman
BACKGROUND: Prematurity and its consequences are serious problems that can result in numerous neurosensory disabilities and cerebral cognitive dysfunctions. The Perinatal Risk Index (PERI) might provide a predictive measure of these problems. AIM: This study compared the cognitive development of prematurely born children at 4 and 5 years of age with age-matched peers born at term. The secondary objective was to determine whether a correlation exists between perinatal risk and performance on neuropsychological tests among premature children...
August 26, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jayne Trickett, Mary Heald, Chris Oliver
Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome, in which sleep disturbances are reported for 20-80% of individuals (Williams et al., 2006). This interview study delineated parental perceptions of sleep problems experienced by children with Angelman syndrome and the impact on parental sleep quality, health and wellbeing. The nature of desired interventions was also explored. Semi-structured interviews were completed with parents of 50 children, aged 16 months-15 years with Angelman syndrome who experienced current or historic sleep problems; predominantly night waking and settling problems...
August 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mohammed S Alghamdi, Lisa A Chiarello, Robert J Palisano, Sarah W McCoy
AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex, gross motor, manual ability, and communication functions on the frequency and enjoyment of children's participation in family and recreational activities. The secondary aim was to determine the relationships between motor and communication functions and participation. METHODS: Participants were 694 children, 1.5-12 years old, with cerebral palsy (CP) and their parents across the US and Canada...
August 23, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Katherine McKenzie, Lynn Martin, Hélène Ouellette-Kuntz
BACKGROUND: Use of administrative health data to study populations of interest is becoming more common. Identifying individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in existing databases can be challenging due to inconsistent definitions and terminologies of IDD over time and across sectors, and the inability to rely on etiologies of IDD as they are frequently unknown. AIMS: To identify diagnoses related to IDD in an administrative database and create a cohort of persons with IDD...
August 22, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Ana Gallego-Martínez, Luis J Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in fine motor coordination have been suggested to be associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, despite the negative impact of poor fine motor skills on academic achievement, researchers have paid little attention to this problem. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between ADHD dimensions and fine motor performance. METHOD: Participants were 43 children with a diagnosis of ADHD aged between 7 and 14 years (M=9...
August 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Justine Joan Sheppard, Georgia A Malandraki, Paula Pifer, Jill Cuff, Michelle Troche, Bronwyn Hemsley, Susan Balandin, Avinash Mishra, Roberta Hochman
BACKGROUND: Risk assessments are needed to identify adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) at high risk of choking and pneumonia. AIM: To describe the development and validation of the Choking Risk Assessment (CRA) and the Pneumonia Risk Assessment (PRA) for adults with IDD. METHODS: Test items were identified through literature review and focus groups. Five-year retrospective chart reviews identified a positive choking group (PCG), a negative choking group (NCG), a positive pneumonia group (PPG), and a negative pneumonia group (NPG)...
August 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kyla Collins, Kerri Staples
BACKGROUND: One in three children in North America are considered overweight or obese. Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at an increased risk for obesity than their typically developing peers. Decreased physical activity (PA) and low physical fitness may be contributing factors to this rise in obesity. AIM: Because children with IDD are at an increased risk of diseases related to inactivity, it is important to improve health-related physical fitness to complete activities of daily living and improve health...
August 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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