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Research in Developmental Disabilities

Emily Mason-Apps, Vesna Stojanovik, Carmel Houston-Price, Sue Buckley
PURPOSE: Children with Down syndrome (DS) typically have marked delays in language development relative to their general cognitive development, with particular difficulties in expressive compared to receptive language. Although early social communication skills, including gestures and joint attention, have been shown to be related to later language outcomes in DS, knowledge is limited as to whether these factors exclusively predict outcomes, or whether other factors (e.g. perceptual and non-verbal skills) are involved...
January 9, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Hiroyuki Ogata, Hiroshi Ihara, Masao Gito, Masayuki Sayama, Nobuyuki Murakami, Tadayuki Ayabe, Yuji Oto, Toshiro Nagai, Kazutaka Shimoda
This study aims to explore the differences of age as well as genotype in regards to the severity of behavioral symptoms in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with emphasis on the comparison between youngadults and adults.The Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version (ABC-J), and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) were administered to 46 PWS patients, including 33 young adults (ages 18-28) and 13 adults(ages 30-45). To examine the differences between young adults and adults, Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted...
January 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Melissa N Savage, Teresa Taber-Doughty, Matthew T Brodhead, Emily C Bouck
BACKGROUND/AIMS/METHODS: While there are many benefits to regular engagement in physical activity, individuals with autism spectrum disorder often do not engage in healthy levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to compare praise delivered through multiple means on increasing engagement in physical activity for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. A single-case alternating treatment design was used to compare two conditions for delivering praise statements, in-person and through technology, for three young adults with autism spectrum disorder and accompanying intellectual disability...
December 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Laleh Jamshidi, Mieke Heyvaert, Lies Declercq, Belén Fernández-Castilla, John M Ferron, Mariola Moeyaert, S Natasha Beretvas, Patrick Onghena, Wim Van den Noortgate
BACKGROUND: Methodological rigor is a fundamental factor in the validity and credibility of the results of a meta-analysis. AIM: Following an increasing interest in single-case experimental design (SCED) meta-analyses, the current study investigates the methodological quality of SCED meta-analyses. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We assessed the methodological quality of 178 SCED meta-analyses published between 1985 and 2015 through the modified Revised-Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) checklist...
December 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Seang-Hwane Joo, John M Ferron, S Natasha Beretvas, Mariola Moeyaert, Wim Van den Noortgate
BACKGROUND: When developmental disabilities researchers use multiple-baseline designs they are encouraged to delay the start of an intervention until the baseline stabilizes or until preceding cases have responded to intervention. Using ongoing visual analyses to guide the timing of the start of the intervention can help to resolve potential ambiguities in the graphical display; however, these forms of response-guided experimentation have been criticized as a potential source of bias in treatment effect estimation and inference...
December 27, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Dwight W Irvin, Paul Ingram, Jonathan Huffman, Rose Mason, Howard Wills
BACKGROUND: Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. AIMS: We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools...
December 26, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Sau Kuan Cheong, Cathryne P Lang, Leanne M Johnston
Self-concept is an individual's perception of him/herself. Research into the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) has been sparse due to the lack of a population-specific self-concept instrument. Using the new myTREEHOUSE Self-Concept Assessment, this study investigated the self-concept of children with CP in relation to age, gender, motor, communication and cognitive function. Children with CP aged 8-12 years (n = 50; 29 males; mean 10 years 2 months; GMFCS-E&R I = 36, II = 8, III = 5, IV = 1) completed myTREEHOUSE and a standardised intelligence measure...
December 22, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Timothy T T Yam, Shirley S M Fong
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have a higher body fat and greater gait variability. Little research has investigated the gait muscle activity and lean mass measures in children with DCD. AIMS: To compare the leg muscle activation patterns of the gait cycle and leg lean mass between children with and without DCD. METHODS: Fifty-one children were in the DCD group (38 males and 13 females; 7...
December 21, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
J E Reynolds, J Billington, S Kerrigan, J Williams, C Elliott, A M Winsor, L Codd, M Bynevelt, M K Licari
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) may lead to deficits in imitation and the internal representation of movement, potentially contributing to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). AIMS: Using fMRI, this study examined brain activation patterns in children with and without DCD on a finger adduction/abduction task during four MNS activation states: observation; motor imagery; execution; and imitation...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Jing Zhao, Menglian Liu, Hanlong Liu, Chen Huang
With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
I H Zaal-Schuller, D L Willems, F V P M Ewals, J B van Goudoever, M A de Vos
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions (EoLDs) are very difficult to make. How parents and physicians incorporate quality of life (QoL) considerations into their end-of-life decision making (EoLDM) for children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) remains unknown. AIMS: To determine which elements contribute to QoL according to parents and physicians, how QoL is incorporated into EoLDM and how parents and physicians discuss QoL considerations in the Netherlands...
December 18, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Meghann Lloyd, John T Foley, Viviene A Temple
There is a critical need for high-quality population-level data related to the health of individuals with intellectual disabilities. For more than 15 years Special Olympics International has been conducting free Healthy Athletes screenings at local, national and international events. The Healthy Athletes database is the largest known international database specifically on the health of people with intellectual disabilities; however, it is relatively under-utilized by the research community. A consensus meeting with two dozen North American researchers, stakeholders, clinicians and policymakers took place in Toronto, Canada...
December 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Arlene M McGarty, Craig A Melville
BACKGROUND: There is a need increase our understanding of what factors affect physical activity participation in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and develop effective methods to overcome barriers and increase activity levels. AIM: This study aimed to systematically review parental perceptions of facilitators and barriers to physical activity for children with ID. METHODS: A systematic search of Embase, Medline, ERIC, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted (up to and including August, 2017) to identify relevant papers...
December 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yagmur Ozturk, Andrea Bizzego, Gianluca Esposito, Cesare Furlanello, Paola Venuti
Little is known about the physiological response of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to crying of children who have already received the diagnosis of ASD. This study aimed to compare cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval (IBI) and self-reported emotional states of parents of children with ASD and of parents with typically developing (TD) children while listening to crying of children with ASD (ASD cry) and of typically developing children (TD cry). Analyses revealed higher IBI in parents of children with ASD than IBI in parents of TD children while listening to both cry groups; however no differences on self-reported emotional states were observed...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Lisa M Dieleman, Sarah S W De Pauw, Bart Soenens, Elien Mabbe, Rachel Campbell, Peter Prinzie
Research in parents of youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increasingly documents associations between children's problem behaviors and symptom severity and more dysfunctional and less adaptive parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations have not been examined thoroughly. This study examines the mediating role of parental need frustration in the relation between child maladjustment (i.e., problem behavior and autism severity) and parenting behavior (i.e., controlling and autonomy-supportive parenting)...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Rashelle M Hoffman, Bradley B Corr, Wayne A Stuberg, David J Arpin, Max J Kurz
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has a high probability of resulting in lower extremity strength and walking deficits. Numerous studies have shown that gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of these children; however, the factors governing these improvements are unknown. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between change in lower extremity strength, walking speed and endurance of children with CP following gait training...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Emmanuelle Jasmin, Sylvie Tétreault, Nadine Larivière, Jacques Joly
BACKGROUND: The existing literature provides only a partial understanding of the viewpoints of elementary school-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) regarding their participation and needs. In order to plan and develop health and social services driven by a personalized approach, it is essential to further document their perceptions with those of their parents. AIMS: The aim of the study was to explore the participation and needs of school-aged children with DCD at home and in the community, as perceived by children and parents...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Cristina Jenaro, Noelia Flores, Vanessa Vega, Maribel Cruz, Ma Carmen Pérez, Víctor A Torres
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that youth with disabilities are at risk of experiencing cyberbullying. Nevertheless, the nature of this phenomenon among adults with intellectual disabilities has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the frequency and characteristics of cyberbullying and its correlates in individuals with intellectual disabilities attending training centers for adults with intellectual disabilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A convenience sample of 269 participants (54...
December 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yu-Ra Goh, Ja Young Choi, Seon Ah Kim, Jieun Park, Eun Sook Park
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between various classification systems assessing the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia and communication function and other functional profiles in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a prospective, cross-sectional, study in a university-affiliated, tertiary-care hospital. We recruited 151 children with CP (mean age 6.11 years, SD 3.42, range 3-18yr). The Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS) and the dysphagia scales of Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), Swallow Function Scales (SFS), and Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) were used...
December 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Anna L Barnett, Mellissa Prunty, Sara Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Demands for the production of legible handwriting produced in a timely manner increase as children progress through school. Despite the considerable number of children faced with handwriting difficulties, there is no quick and practical tool to assess legibility in this population. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop the Handwriting Legibility Scale (HLS) and to establish the scale's reliability and validity. METHODS: The HLS is a non-language dependent scale which assesses global legibility, based on five criteria applied to samples of 'free writing'...
December 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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