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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#1
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911831/prenatal-and-postnatal-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-pbde-exposure-and-measures-of-inattention-and-impulsivity-in-children
#2
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Kendra L Poston, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during fetal development may be associated with deficits in attention and impulse control. However, studies examining postnatal PBDE exposures and inattention and impulsivity have been inconsistent. Using data from 214 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort with enrollment from 2003 to 2006 in the Greater Cincinnati Area, we investigated the relationship of both prenatal and postnatal PBDE exposures with attention and impulse control...
September 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882586/pcbs-and-measures-of-attention-and-impulsivity-on-a-continuous-performance-task-of-young-adults
#3
Bita Behforooz, Joan Newman, Mia V Gallo, Lawrence M Schell
The present study examines the relationship between current body burden of persistent PCBs and attention and impulsivity in 140 Akwesasne Mohawk young adults aged 17 to 21 whose environment has been contaminated by industrial effluent. Attention and impulsivity were measured by errors of omission, errors of commission, and patterns of reaction time responses on the Conners Continuous Performance Test. The PCB measure was the sum of those persistent PCB congeners detected in 50% of the participants. After adjusting for multiple covariates, regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between PCB levels and omission scores, but only for males...
September 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847616/in-vivo-assessment-of-hair-cell-damage-and-developmental-toxicity-caused-by-gestational-caffeine-exposure-using-zebrafish-danio-rerio-models
#4
Yoon Chan Rah, Myung Hoon Yoo, June Choi, Saemi Park, Hae-Chul Park, Kyoung Ho Oh, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon-Young Kwon
The aim of the present study was to evaluate hair cell damage and associated developmental toxicity caused by gestational caffeine exposure. We exposed embryos to various caffeine concentrations (25μM, 125μM, 250μM, and 500μM) and evaluated developmental toxicity of the embryos at 72 and 120h and hair cell damage at 120h after fertilization. The average number of total hair cells within four neuromasts exposed to various concentrations of caffeine was compared with that of the control group. To seek the underlying mechanisms, TUNEL and DASPEI assay were carried out to evaluate hair cell apoptosis and mitochondrial damage, respectively...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822742/strategy-set-shifting-and-response-inhibition-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-an-environmental-polychlorinated-biphenyl-mixture-during-adolescence
#5
Supida Monaikul, Paul Eubig, Stan Floresco, Susan Schantz
Converging evidence from studies with animal models and humans suggests that early developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to deficits in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. These processes are mediated to a large extent by the prefrontal cortex, thus we examined the effects of PCB exposure during adolescence-a period of robust prefrontal cortical development-on both processes. Specifically, we used operant set-shifting and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) tasks to assess cognitive flexibility and response inhibition, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#6
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782587/prolonged-ketamine-exposure-induces-increased-activity-of-the-glun2b-containing-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-neonatal-rats
#7
Saurabh S Kokane, Kerui Gong, Jianhui Jin, Qing Lin
Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis...
August 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778836/association-between-alcohol-induced-oxidative-stress-and-membrane-properties-in-synaptosomes-a-protective-role-of-vitamin-e
#8
Vaddi Damodara Reddy, Pannuru Padmavathi, Saradamma Bulle, Ananda Vardhan Hebbani, Shakeela Begum Marthadu, N Ch Venugopalacharyulu, Paramahamsa Maturu, N C Varadacharyulu
Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption leads to various neurological diseases. Synaptosomes are ideal organelles to study the functional properties of the brain in alcoholism. This study focuses on the association between oxidative stress and synaptosomal membrane properties in alcohol treated rats. Sixty day old male albino rats were treated with 20% alcohol at 5g/kg body weight/ day for sixty days. Alcohol administration significantly increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls with decreased catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in synaptosomes...
August 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757311/impacts-of-maternal-diet-and-exercise-on-offspring-behavior-and-body-weights
#9
Virginia C Moser, Katherine L McDaniel, Emily A Woolard, Pamela M Phillips, Jason N Franklin, Christopher J Gordon
Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity can negatively impact aspects of metabolism and neurodevelopment in the offspring. Not known, however, is whether maternal exercise can alter these adverse outcomes. In this study, Long-Evans female rats were provided a high fat (60%; HFD) or control diet (CD) 44days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Running wheels were available to half of each diet group during the gestational period only, resulting in four conditions: CD diet with (CDRW) or without (sedentary; CDSED) exercise, and HFD with (HFRW) or without (HFSED) exercise...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757310/recommendations-for-harmonization-of-data-collection-and-analysis-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-endpoints-in-regulatory-guideline-studies-proceedings-of-workshops-presented-at-society-of-toxicology-and-joint-teratology-society-and-neurobehavioral-teratology
#10
REVIEW
Abby A Li, Larry P Sheets, Kathleen Raffaele, Virginia Moser, Angela Hofstra, Alan Hoberman, Susan L Makris, Robert Garman, Brad Bolon, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Roland Auer, Edmund Lau, Thomas Vidmar, Wayne J Bowers
The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764964/motor-deficits-impaired-response-inhibition-and-blunted-response-to-methylphenidate-following-neonatal-exposure-to-decabromodiphenyl-ether
#11
Vincent P Markowski, Patrick Miller-Rhodes, Randy Cheung, Calla Goeke, Vincent Pecoraro, Gideon Cohen, Deena J Small
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is an applied brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in electronic equipment. After decades of use, decaBDE and other members of its polybrominated diphenyl ether class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Although it has been banned in Europe and voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market, it is still used in Asian countries. Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure targets brain development and produces behavioral impairments...
September 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465083/cocaine-sensitization-in-adult-long-evans-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#12
Mellessa M Miller, Jenna L N Sprowles, Jason N Voeller, Abby E Meyer, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely affect the nervous system and more specifically the dopamine system. Developmental PCB exposure in rats has been shown to produce alterations in dopaminergic signaling that persist into adulthood. The reinforcing properties of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this project used a behavioral sensitization paradigm to evaluate whether perinatal PCB exposure altered sensitization to the psychostimulant cocaine...
July 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603072/differential-expression-of-glutamate-transporters-in-cerebral-cortex-of-paraoxon-treated-rats
#13
Zohreh Zare, Mohsen Tehrani, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Moslem Mohammadi
Glutamatergic system is involved in pathological effects of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. We aimed to determine in vivo effects of paraoxon, the bioactive metabolite of parathion, on the expression of glutamate transporters as well as Bax and Bcl2 in rat cerebral cortex. Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of one of three doses of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7, or 1mg/kg) or corn oil as vehicle (1ml/kg). After 4 or 18h, cerebral cortices were dissected out and used for quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579518/cognitive-impairment-in-agricultural-workers-and-nearby-residents-exposed-to-pesticides-in-the-coquimbo-region-of-chile
#14
Sebastián A Corral, Valeria de Angel, Natalia Salas, Liliana Zúñiga-Venegas, Pablo A Gaspar, Floria Pancetti
Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i...
June 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511916/pre-treatment-with-amitriptyline-causes-epigenetic-up-regulation-of-neuroprotection-associated-genes-and-has-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-mouse-neuronal-cells
#15
Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran, An Nghia Nguyen, Kyoko Takabe, Zentaro Yamagata, Kunio Miyake
Antidepressants, such as imipramine and fluoxetine, are known to alter gene expression patterns by inducing changes in the epigenetic status of neuronal cells. There is also some evidence for the anti-apoptotic effect of various groups of antidepressants; however, this effect is complicated and cell-type dependent. Antidepressants of the tricyclic group, in particular amitriptyline, have been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. We examined whether amitriptyline exerts an anti-apoptotic effect via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#16
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435095/application-of-advanced-preclinical-models-and-methods-in-anesthetic-neurotoxicity-research
#17
REVIEW
Cheng Wang, Xuan Zhang, Fang Liu
Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the potential of anesthetics to disturb the long-term function of the central nervous system (CNS). The field of anesthesia-related toxicology, therefore, has engaged multiple scientific disciplines and utilized a variety of pre-clinical research models in an attempt to identify the basic characteristics of the anesthetic agents that may produce acute and/or chronic adverse effects on the CNS. This review discusses how the application of advanced research approaches and models, such as the nonhuman primate, neural stem cell-derived organotypic slice cultures and/or organs-on-chips systems, can serve as translational models of infantile anesthetic exposure...
May 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288948/memory-and-depressive-effect-on-male-and-female-swiss-mice-exposed-to-tannery-effluent
#18
Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Although tannery industries generate substantial profits to the countries they are located in, they work with one of the most environmentally harmful human activities. Tannery effluents (TE) are highly toxic; thus, their improper release into water bodies may cause severe problems to individuals depending on this water. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the effects of oral exposure to TE on the anxiety-, memory deficit- and depression-predictive behaviors in male and female Swiss adult mice...
May 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242457/prenatal-tobacco-exposure-maternal-postnatal-nicotine-dependence-and-adolescent-risk-for-nicotine-dependence-birth-cohort-study
#19
Natacha M De Genna, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
AIMS: The goals of this study are to determine if there is (a) a threshold effect for prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) on adolescent risk for nicotine dependence, and (b) an additive effect of PTE and maternal postnatal nicotine dependence on adolescent risk for nicotine dependence. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited in their 4th or 5th gestational month and asked about cigarette use during the first trimester. Mothers reported on third trimester cigarette use at delivery...
May 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223149/long-term-behavioral-change-as-a-result-of-acute-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-evidence-for-a-role-for-sonic-hedgehog-but-not-retinoic-acid-signaling
#20
Derek F Burton, Chengjin Zhang, Oswald Boa-Amponsem, Shanta Mackinnon, Gregory J Cole
BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to ethanol is recognized to produce long-term neurobehavioral impairment in multiple animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure...
May 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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