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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511916/pre-treatment-with-amitriptyline-causes-epigenetic-up-regulation-of-neuroprotection-associated-genes-and-has-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-mouse-neuronal-cells
#1
Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran, An Nghia Nguyen, Kyoko Takabe, Zentaro Yamagata, Kunio Miyake
Antidepressants, such as imipramine and fluoxetine, are known to alter gene expression patterns by inducing changes in the epigenetic status of neuronal cells. There is also some evidence for the anti-apoptotic effect of various groups of antidepressants; however, this effect is complicated and cell-type dependent. Antidepressants of the tricyclic group, in particular amitriptyline, have been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. We examined whether amitriptyline exerts an anti-apoptotic effect via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#2
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465083/cocaine-sensitization-in-adult-long-evans-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#3
Mellessa M Miller, Jenna L N Sprowles, Jason N Voeller, Abby E Meyer, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely affect the nervous system and more specifically the dopamine system. Developmental PCB exposure in rats has been shown to produce alterations in dopaminergic signaling that persist into adulthood. The reinforcing properties of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this project used a behavioral sensitization paradigm to evaluate whether perinatal PCB exposure altered sensitization to the psychostimulant cocaine...
April 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456551/41st-anniversary-annual-meeting-of-the-developmental-neurotoxicology-society-held-in-conjunction-with-the-57th-annual-meeting-of-the-teratology-society-grand-hyatt-hotel-denver-co-june-24-28-2017
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438663/acute-effects-of-amitriptyline-on-adult-zebrafish-potential-relevance-to-antidepressant-drug-screening-and-modeling-human-toxidromes
#5
Konstantin A Demin, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Darya M Meshalkina, Evgeniya V Efimova, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
The need to develop novel antidepressants is an emerging problem in biomedicine. An aquatic vertebrate species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) may serve as a useful in-vivo screen for CNS drugs, and displays high sensitivity to a wide range of antidepressants. Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant which acts primarily as a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Here, we characterize drug-induced behavioral and neurochemical responses in adult zebrafish following their acute exposure to amitriptyline...
April 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435095/application-of-advanced-preclinical-models-and-methods-in-anesthetic-neurotoxicity-research
#6
REVIEW
Cheng Wang, Xuan Zhang, Fang Liu
Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the potential of anesthetics to disturb the long-term function of the central nervous system (CNS). The field of anesthesia-related toxicology, therefore, has engaged multiple scientific disciplines and utilized a variety of pre-clinical research models in an attempt to identify the basic characteristics of the anesthetic agents that may produce acute and/or chronic adverse effects on the CNS. This review discusses how the application of advanced research approaches and models, such as the nonhuman primate, neural stem cell-derived organotypic slice cultures and/or organs-on-chips systems, can serve as translational models of infantile anesthetic exposure...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433669/environmental-enrichment-reverses-memory-impairment-induced-by-toluene-in-mice
#7
Sergio Montes, Rocío Del Carmen Solís-Guillen, David García-Jácome, Nayeli Páez-Martínez
Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363668/methylphenidate-alleviates-manganese-induced-impulsivity-but-not-distractibility
#8
Stephane A Beaudin, Barbara J Strupp, Walter Uribe, Lauren Ysais, Myla Strawderman, Donald R Smith
Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344103/evaluation-of-geranylgeranylacetone-against-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-by-auditory-brainstem-response-heat-shock-proteins-and-oxidative-levels-in-guinea-pigs
#9
Wu-Chia Lo, Chen-Tu Wu, Hillary Chiao Lee, Yi-Ho Young, Yih-Leong Chang, Po-Wen Cheng
This study aims to assess whether geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) could reduce ototoxicity induced by cisplatin through upregulation of not only heat shock protein(HSP)-70, but also HSP-27 and HSP-40, and to study if GGA would reduce cisplatin-induced increase in oxidative stress. 48 guinea pigs were used in this study and treated with the following regimen: 0.5% CMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) control for 7days, GGA (600mg/kg/d) for 7days, a combination of GGA (600mg/kg) for 7days and then one dose of 10mg/kg cisplatin (GGA+Cis), and a combination of CMC for 7days and then 10mg/kg cisplatin (cisplatin group)...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288948/memory-and-depressive-effect-on-male-and-female-swiss-mice-exposed-to-tannery-effluent
#10
Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Although tannery industries generate substantial profits to the countries they are located in, they work with one of the most environmentally harmful human activities. Tannery effluents (TE) are highly toxic; thus, their improper release into water bodies may cause severe problems to individuals depending on this water. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the effects of oral exposure to TE on the anxiety-, memory deficit- and depression-predictive behaviors in male and female Swiss adult mice...
March 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286177/screening-for-novel-central-nervous-system-biomarkers-in-veterans-with-gulf-war-illness
#11
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Lisa A Conboy, Efi Kokkotou, Eric Jacobson, Eman M Elmasry, Passent Elkafrawy, Megan Neely, Cameron R 'Dale' Bass, Kimberly Sullivan
Gulf War illness (GWI) is primarily diagnosed by symptom report; objective biomarkers are needed that distinguish those with GWI. Prior chemical exposures during deployment have been associated in epidemiologic studies with altered central nervous system functioning in veterans with GWI. Previous studies from our group have demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies to essential neuronal and glial proteins in patients with brain injury and autoantibodies have been identified as candidate objective markers that may distinguish GWI...
March 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263856/childhood-and-adolescent-fish-consumption-and-adult-neuropsychological-performance-an-analysis-from-the-cape-cod-health-study
#12
Lindsey J Butler, Patricia A Janulewicz, Jenny L Carwile, Roberta F White, Michael R Winter, Ann Aschengrau
OBJECTIVE: This exploratory analysis examines the relationship between childhood and adolescent fish consumption and adult neuropsychological performance. DESIGN: Data from a retrospective cohort study that assessed fish consumption from age 7 to 18years via questionnaire were analyzed. A subset of the population underwent domain-specific neuropsychological assessment. Functions evaluated included omnibus intelligence, academic achievement, language, visuospatial skills, learning and memory, attention and executive function, fine motor coordination, mood, and motivation to perform...
March 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259732/prenatal-exposure-to-anxiolytic-and-hypnotic-medication-in-relation-to-behavioral-problems-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Maja R Radojčić, Hanan El Marroun, Branislava Miljković, Bruno H C Stricker, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Henning Tiemeier
Benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related medications (BBRMs) are anxiolytics and hypnotics acting on γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)A receptors. BBRMs are assumed to have a low potential for major congenital malformations, but research on more subtle and protracted developing symptoms of these medications is lacking. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the association between BBRM use in pregnancy and long-term effects on child behavior in a large population-based cohort study. The study population consisted of 104 children prenatally exposed to BBRM, 527 children exposed to maternal prenatal anxiety or phobic anxiety symptoms (without exposure to BBRM), and 5609 control children...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039052/a-holistic-approach-to-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-its-implications-for-future-mechanistic-studies
#14
Christine N Zanghi, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989695/the-genetics-of-isoflurane-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#15
Hyo-Seok Na, Nicole L Brockway, Katherine R Gentry, Elyce Opheim, Margaret M Sedensky, Philip G Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Neurotoxicity induced by early developmental exposure to volatile anesthetics is a characteristic of organisms across a wide range of species, extending from the nematode C. elegans to mammals. Prevention of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity (AIN) will rely upon an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. However, no forward genetic screens have been undertaken to identify the critical pathways affected in AIN. By characterizing such pathways, we may identify mechanisms to eliminate isoflurane induced AIN in mammals...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876652/isoflurane-exposure-leads-to-apoptosis-of-neurons-and-oligodendrocytes-in-20-and-40-day-old-rhesus-macaques
#16
Katie J Schenning, Kevin K Noguchi, Lauren Drew Martin, Francesca M Manzella, Omar H Cabrera, Gregory A Dissen, Ansgar M Brambrink
Previously we reported that a 5-hour exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane triggers robust neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In an attempt to further describe the window of vulnerability to anesthetic neurotoxicity, we exposed P20 and P40 rhesus macaques to 5h of isoflurane anesthesia or no exposure (control animals). Brains were collected 3h later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze neuronal and glial apoptosis. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis distributed throughout cortex and white matter, respectively...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856360/sensitivity-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-increases-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-shank3-%C3%A2-c-mutant-mouse-model
#17
Changsheng Li, Michele Schaefer, Christy Gray, Ya Yang, Orion Furmanski, Sufang Liu, Paul Worley, C David Mintz, Feng Tao, Roger A Johns
Autism is a heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The abnormal behaviors of these patients can make their anesthetic and perioperative management difficult. Evidence in the literature suggests that some patients with autism or specific autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit altered responses to pain and to anesthesia or sedation. A genetic mouse model of one particular ASD, Phelan McDermid Syndrome, has been developed that has a Shank3 haplotype truncation (Shank3(+/Δc))...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856359/anesthetic-neurotoxicity-apoptosis-and-autophagic-cell-death-mediated-by-calcium-dysregulation
#18
Meirong Yang, Huafeng Wei
A number of findings suggested that general anesthetics induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various animal models. Although clinical evidence regarding the correlation between anesthetic exposures at young age and subsequent cognitive impairments remains unclear, repeated or consistent exposures to general anesthetics may be a potential harmful risk in developing human brains. The mechanisms underlying the anesthetic neurotoxicity have received extensive attention recently. We will attempt a brief review to summarize current understanding on the role of both apoptosis and autophagic cell death mediated by calcium dysregulation in anesthetic neurotoxicity...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826117/neonatal-inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-prevents-ketamine-induced-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments
#19
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
Prolonged ketamine exposure in neonates at anesthetic doses is known to cause long-term impairments of learning and memory. A current theoretical mechanism explains this phenomenon as being neuro-excitotoxicity mediated by compensatory upregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which then initiates widespread neuroapoptosis. Additionally, the excitatory behavior of GABAergic synaptic transmission mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs), occurring during the early neuronal development period, is proposed as contributing to the susceptibility of neonatal neurons to ketamine-induced injury...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751818/neurogenesis-and-developmental-anesthetic-neurotoxicity
#20
Eunchai Kang, Daniel A Berg, Orion Furmanski, William M Jackson, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Christy D Gray, C David Mintz
The mechanism by which anesthetics might act on the developing brain in order to cause long term deficits remains incompletely understood. The hippocampus has been identified as a structure that is likely to be involved, as rodent models show numerous deficits in behavioral tasks of learning that are hippocampal-dependent. The hippocampus is an unusual structure in that it is the site of large amounts of neurogenesis postnatally, particularly in the first year of life in humans, and these newly generated neurons are critical to the function of this structure...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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