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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Kevin K Caldwell, Alexander Hafez, Elizabeth Solomon, Matthew Cunningham, Andrea M Allan
Our previous studies suggest that prenatal arsenic exposure (50ppb) modifies epigenetic control of the programming of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling system in the developing mouse brain. These deficits may lead to long-lasting consequences, including deficits in learning and memory, increased depressive-like behaviors, and an altered set-point of GR feedback throughout life. To understand the arsenic-induced changes within the GR system, we assessed the impact of in utero arsenic exposure on the levels of the GR and growth arrest-specific-5 (Gas5), a noncoding RNA, across a key gestational period for GR programming (gestational days, GD 14-18) in mice...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Jotele Fontana Agostini Berteli, Andrei da Silveira Langoni, André Arigony Souto, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan, Diogo Onofre Souza
Ethanol alters the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and its intoxication reveals adenosine as responsible to modify several responses including signal transduction. Zebrafish has been recently investigated for knowledge the prolonged effect of ethanol on behavioral and biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and membrane adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish brain. Animals were exposed to 0.5% ethanol for 7, 14, and 28days...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Holly Richendrfer, Robbert Creton
Antidepressants are used by a substantial number of women in their childbearing years. Treatment may continue during pregnancy, since untreated depression poses a risk to the mother and child. However, many antidepressants readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the fetus or may be ingested by the newborn via breastmilk. Little is known about the effects of antidepressants on brain development and subsequent behavior in young children. In the current study, we used zebrafish as a model system to examine the neurodevelopmental effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants, sertraline, duloxetine and bupropion...
October 31, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Fengji Geng, Betty Jo Salmeron, Thomas J Ross, Maureen M Black, Tracy Riggins
The objective of the current study was to examine what stage of memory (encoding or retrieval) may be compromised in adolescents with a history of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) and how the effects of PDE on memory ability are substantiated at the neural level. To achieve this goal, we examined memory performance and associated brain activations in adolescents with and without a history of PDE via event-related fMRI during encoding and retrieval. Consistent with previous studies, we found that PDE subjects remembered fewer items than community comparison subjects...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Marilyn Fortin, Gina Muckle, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Richard E Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed by women are two important indicators of the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. Some studies have compared the validity of maternal alcohol report obtained during and after pregnancy. However, to date none have examined alcohol use in a Native Canadian population, such as the Inuit. Effective measurement methods are necessary to better understand why children from some communities seem at increased risk of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders...
October 24, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jinyoung Lee, Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
Developmental lead (Pb) exposure is linked to neurological health issues. Results from non-human primate and rodent studies suggest detrimental effects of an early life Pb exposure, showing transcriptional disturbances and pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease in the adult animal brain. To elucidate the impacts of an embryonic Pb exposure on the adult brain, transcriptomic analysis was completed on the brain of zebrafish aged 12months exposed to a control treatment or to an embryonic 100μg/L Pb exposure by sex...
October 23, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Fleur L Warton, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher M R Warton, Christopher D Molteno, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Lilla Zöllei, Pia Wintermark, Joseph L Jacobson, Andre van der Kouwe, Sandra W Jacobson
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine is associated with a range of neuropsychological, behavioural and cognitive deficits. A small number of imaging studies suggests that these may be mediated by neurostructural changes, including reduced volumes of specific brain regions. This study investigated potential volumetric changes in the brains of neonates with prenatal methamphetamine exposure. To our knowledge no previous studies have examined methamphetamine effects on regional brain volumes at this age...
October 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Carlos Javier Baier, Cristina Eugenia Gallegos, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Alejandra Minetti
Inhalation or intranasal (IN) administration of neurotoxicants could constitute a route of toxin delivery to the brain. Pesticides have been proposed as the main environmental factor associated with the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In Argentina, the area used for glyphosate (Gly)-resistant crops are sprayed annually with ~200 million liters of Gly-based herbicides (Gly-BHs). Gly residues are often found in the environment, and considering the frequency and amount of its applications, it is probable that the inhalation of Gly-BHs occurs...
October 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Cassie J Gould, Jenna L Wiegand, Victoria P Connaughton
Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognized as critical modulators of neural development, including sensory system development. Using the zebrafish model, we tested the effect of transient developmental exposure to a known anti-estrogenic EDC on adult visually-guided behavior. In particular, we exposed zebrafish aged 24-hour post-fertilization (hpf), 72 hpf, or 7-days post-fertilization (dpf) to the aromatase inhibitor 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) for 24h. After this time, the fish were removed from treatment, placed into control conditions, and reared until adulthood (3-4months) when visually-guided optomotor responses (OMR) were assessed...
October 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ronan Maguire, Martin Kunc, Pavel Hyrsl, Kevin Kavanagh
The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6...
October 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Mary Ellen Lynch, Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have focused on the transition to adulthood in adults with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In this study, we examine the occurrence of problem behavior at this transition, including mental health problems, substance use, and difficulties with the legal system. The sample is prospective and provides an opportunity to examine effects of a wide range of prenatal exposure. Adults with PAE were expected to show more problem behavior; the impact of level of exposure was examined as well...
October 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Bita Behforooz, Joan Newman, Mia V Gallo, Lawrence M Schell
The present study examines the relationship between current body burden of persistent PCBs and attention and impulsivity in 140 Akwesasne Mohawk young adults aged 17 to 21 whose environment has been contaminated by industrial effluent. Attention and impulsivity were measured by errors of omission, errors of commission, and patterns of reaction time responses on the Conners Continuous Performance Test. The PCB measure was the sum of those persistent PCB congeners detected in 50% of the participants. After adjusting for multiple covariates, regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between PCB levels and omission scores, but only for males...
September 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Yoon Chan Rah, Myung Hoon Yoo, June Choi, Saemi Park, Hae-Chul Park, Kyoung Ho Oh, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon-Young Kwon
The aim of the present study was to evaluate hair cell damage and associated developmental toxicity caused by gestational caffeine exposure. We exposed embryos to various caffeine concentrations (25μM, 125μM, 250μM, and 500μM) and evaluated developmental toxicity of the embryos at 72 and 120h and hair cell damage at 120h after fertilization. The average number of total hair cells within four neuromasts exposed to various concentrations of caffeine was compared with that of the control group. To seek the underlying mechanisms, TUNEL and DASPEI assay were carried out to evaluate hair cell apoptosis and mitochondrial damage, respectively...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Kendra L Poston, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during fetal development may be associated with deficits in attention and impulse control. However, studies examining postnatal PBDE exposures and inattention and impulsivity have been inconsistent. Using data from 214 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort with enrollment from 2003 to 2006 in the Greater Cincinnati Area, we investigated the relationship of both prenatal and postnatal PBDE exposures with attention and impulse control...
November 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Vincent P Markowski, Patrick Miller-Rhodes, Randy Cheung, Calla Goeke, Vincent Pecoraro, Gideon Cohen, Deena J Small
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is an applied brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in electronic equipment. After decades of use, decaBDE and other members of its polybrominated diphenyl ether class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Although it has been banned in Europe and voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market, it is still used in Asian countries. Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure targets brain development and produces behavioral impairments...
September 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Supida Monaikul, Paul Eubig, Stan Floresco, Susan Schantz
Converging evidence from studies with animal models and humans suggests that early developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to deficits in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. These processes are mediated to a large extent by the prefrontal cortex, thus we examined the effects of PCB exposure during adolescence-a period of robust prefrontal cortical development-on both processes. Specifically, we used operant set-shifting and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) tasks to assess cognitive flexibility and response inhibition, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Saurabh S Kokane, Kerui Gong, Jianhui Jin, Qing Lin
Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis...
August 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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