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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782912/in-vitro-protective-activity-of-south-australian-marine-sponge-and-macroalgae-extracts-against-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc-12-cells
#1
Mousa Alghazwi, Scott Smid, Wei Zhang
South Australia is a biodiversity hotspot of marine sponges and macroalgae. This study aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective activity of extracts from these two marine sources by reducing the toxicity of human amyloid beta Aβ1-42 in a cell model assay using PC-12 cells. A total of 92 extracts (43, 13, 16, and 20 extracts from sponge of 8 orders and 17 families, green algae of 3 orders and 4 families, brown algae of 6 orders and 8 families, and red algae of 5 orders and 10 families, respectively) were initially screened at three different concentrations (0...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733897/effects-of-low-level-sarin-and-cyclosarin-exposure-on-hippocampal-microstructure-in-gulf-war-veterans
#2
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727701/prenatal-exposure-to-tobacco-and-cannabis-effects-on-autonomic-and-emotion-regulation
#3
Rina D Eiden, Pamela Schuetze, Shannon Shisler, Marilyn A Huestis
Tobacco and cannabis are often used together in pregnancy and both have effects on children's regulatory system. Yet, little is known about the impact of co-use on the development of emotion regulation at the developmentally salient age of 2 years. One pathway linking co-exposure to tobacco and cannabis to toddler regulation may be via poor autonomic regulation in infancy. In addition, substance using mothers may be more dysregulated themselves, which may have direct effects on toddler regulation, but may also affect parenting, particularly maternal sensitivity during mother-child interactions...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715503/repeated-toluene-exposure-increases-the-excitability-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-rats
#4
Monserrat Armenta-Resendiz, Silvia L Cruz, Emilio J Galván
Despite serious health effects, volatile industrial products containing toluene are deliberately inhaled for their psychoactive actions, mainly among adolescents and young adults. Chronic toluene inhalation induces multiple alterations at the cellular and behavioral level; however, modifications of neuronal networks associated with the reward system after repeated toluene exposure are not thoroughly characterized. Here we used whole-cell recordings to determine the effects of repeated exposure to toluene (1000, 4000 or 8000 ppm for 30 min, twice a day, for ten days) on the neurophysiological properties of prelimbic layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in adolescent male Wistar rats...
April 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704628/42nd-annual-meeting-of-the-developmental-neurotoxicology-society-held-in-conjunction-with-the-58th-annual-meeting-of-the-teratology-society-hilton-clearwater-beach-resort-clearwater-beach-fl-june-23-27-2018
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679636/neuroanatomical-characteristics-of-youths-with-prenatal-opioid-and-poly-drug-exposure
#6
Egil Nygaard, Kari Slinning, Vibeke Moe, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Anders Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Neuroanatomical and cognitive differences have been documented during childhood between children with prenatal opioid- and poly-drug exposure and controls in small samples. We investigated whether these differences persisted in larger samples of youth at older ages. Quantitative MRI and cognitive data were compared between 38 youths in the risk group and 44 youths in the non-exposed group (aged 17 to 22 years) who had been followed prospectively since birth. Most drug-exposed youths (84%) moved to permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age...
April 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665402/n-acetylcysteine-inhibits-mancozeb-induced-impairments-to-the-normal-development-of-zebrafish-embryos
#7
Dennis Guilherme Costa-Silva, Luana Paganotto Leandro, Pratícia Brum Vieira, Nelson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Andressa Rubim Lopes, Lucia Emanueli Schimith, Mauro Eugênio Medina Nunes, Renata Siqueira de Mello, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Adriano Alves de Paula, Andrés Delgado Cañedo, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Thais Posser, Jeferson Luis Franco
Mancozeb (MZ), a manganese/zinc-containing ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBCD) fungicide has been claimed to present low acute toxicity and short environmental persistence, however, its effects on embryogenesis in non-target organisms is unclear. Here, we used zebrafish embryos (5 hpf) to assess the potential embryotoxic effects induced by MZ (up to 72 hpf) as well as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process by pre-treatment with a classical antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC). Markers of reactive oxygen species production (ROS), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured along with genotoxicity (comet assay), cell death (Acridine Orange) and behavioral parameters (spontaneous movement, touch stimulation and swimming response), in order to determine potential mechanisms of embryotoxicity...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635013/glyphosate-based-herbicide-exposure-affects-gut-microbiota-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-mice
#8
Yassine Aitbali, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Najoua Elhidar, Ahmed Nafis, Nabila Soraa, Mohamed Bennis
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the profound relationship between gut microbiota (GM) alterations and behavioral changes. Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) have been shown to induce behavioral impairments, and it is possible that they mediate the effects through an altered GM. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of GBH on GM and its subsequent effects on the neurobehavioral functions in mice following acute, subchronic and chronic exposure to 250 or 500 mg/kg/day. The effect of these acute and repeated treatments was assessed at the behavioral level using the open field, the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and splash tests...
April 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631003/developmental-manganese-lead-and-barren-cage-exposure-have-adverse-long-term-neurocognitive-behavioral-and-monoamine-effects-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Jenna L N Sprowles, Robyn Amos-Kroohs, Amanda A Braun, Chiho Sugimoto, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Developmental stress, including low socioeconomic status (SES), can induce dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and result in long-term changes in stress reactivity. Children in lower SES households experience more stress and are more likely to be exposed to environmental neurotoxins such as lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) than children in higher SES households. Co-exposure to stress, Pb, and Mn during early development may increase the risk of central nervous system dysfunction compared with unexposed children...
April 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597003/prenatal-and-postnatal-cigarette-and-cannabis-exposure-effects-on-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-in-early-childhood
#10
Danielle S Molnar, Douglas A Granger, Shannon Shisler, Rina D Eiden
AIMS: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays a critical role in immune functioning by preventing pathogens from adhering to epithelial mucosa. Most infectious agents enter the body via mucosal surfaces, thus SIgA serves in the defense against respiratory, intestinal, and urinogenitary infections, as well as periodontal disease and caries. This study examined the possibility that pre- and postnatal exposure to cigarette and cannabis is associated with individual differences in Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in early childhood...
March 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580927/acrylamide-applied-during-pregnancy-causes-the-neurotoxic-effect-by-lowering-bdnf-levels-in-the-fetal-brain
#11
Mehmet Erman Erdemli, M Arif Aladag, Eyup Altinoz, Sezin Demirtas, Yusuf Turkoz, Birgül Yigitcan, Harika Gozukara Bag
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible mechanism of neurotoxic effect of acrylamide (AA) applied during pregnancy on fetal brain development and to show the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on AA toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups were formed with 9 pregnant rats each as control (C), acrylamide (AA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), acrylamide plus N-acetylcysteine (AA plus NAC) groups. Caesarian section was implemented on the 20th day of pregnancy...
March 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577981/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-mediates-secretion-of-il-1%C3%AE-through-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-pathway-in-astrocytes
#12
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Pingping Sun, Jiashan Luo, Yiming Liu, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative compound that has been widely used in various fields of life and industrial productions, because of its special chemical and physical properties. Numerous studies have indicated significant neurotoxic effect of PFOS, especially on neurons and microglia. However, the influence of PFOS on astrocyte physiology remains unclear. In this study, we showed that PFOS triggered reactive astrocytosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. The low-doses of PFOS increased the cell number and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known hallmark of reactive astrocytes, in C6 astrocyte cells...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559250/developmental-exposure-to-an-organophosphate-flame-retardant-alters-later-behavioral-responses-to-dopamine-antagonism-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Anthony N Oliveri, Erica Ortiz, Edward D Levin
Human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is widespread, including pregnant women and young children with whom developmental neurotoxic risk is a concern. Given similarities of OPFRs to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, research into the possible neurotoxic impacts of developmental OPFR exposure has been growing. Building upon research implicating exposure to OP pesticides in dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction, we exposed developing zebrafish to the OPFR tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), during the first 5 days following fertilization...
March 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501649/positive-parenting-behaviors-in-women-who-spontaneously-quit-smoking-during-pregnancy-clues-to-putative-targets-for-preventive-interventions
#14
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, James L Burns, Caron A C Clark, Kimberly A Espy, Lauren S Wakschlag
BACKGROUND: While the majority of pregnant smokers do not respond to intervention, little is known about how a subset of pregnant smokers known as spontaneous quitters achieve sustained biologically-confirmed abstinence through delivery in the absence of intervention. We explore a developmental framework to address this question by viewing spontaneous quitting as an adaptive parenting behavior, facilitated by abilities necessary for sensitive parenting, or responsiveness. Utilizing existing data, we examined responsiveness from parenting assessments in women who exhibited a variety of smoking patterns during pregnancy, including spontaneous quitting...
March 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501570/exposure-to-mephedrone-during-gestation-increases-the-risk-of-stillbirth-and-induces-hippocampal-neurotoxicity-in-mice-offspring
#15
Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481853/protective-role-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-impairments-of-social-and-stereotyped-behaviors-induced-by-early-postnatal-administration-of-thimerosal-in-male-rat
#16
Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad Nasehi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 μg Hg/kg) in four i...
February 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408607/functional-mri-in-prenatally-opioid-exposed-children-during-a-working-memory-selective-attention-task
#17
Eivind Sirnes, Silja T Griffiths, Stein Magnus Aukland, Geir Egil Eide, Irene B Elgen, Hilde Gundersen
BACKGROUND: Opioid induced cerebral changes may contribute to neuropsychological difficulties, like attention problems, frequently reported in prenatally opioid-exposed children. Reduced regional brain volumes have been shown after prenatal opioid exposure, but no study to date has explored the possible impact of prenatal opioids on brain activation patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based sample of prenatally opioid-exposed school-aged children (n = 11) and unexposed controls (n = 12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a combined working memory-selective attention task...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408209/the-effects-of-the-botanical-estrogen-isoliquiritigenin-on-delayed-spatial-alternation
#18
Payel Kundu, Steven L Neese, Suren Bandara, Supida Monaikul, William G Helferich, Daniel R Doerge, Ikhlas A Khan, Susan L Schantz
Age-related declines in cognitive function can impair working memory, reduce speed of processing, and alter attentional resources. In particular, menopausal women may show an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline as well as an increased vulnerability to brain diseases as estrogens may play a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role in the brain. To treat menopausal symptoms, many women turn to botanical estrogens that are promoted as a safe and natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366690/comparative-neurotoxicity-study-of-mercury-based-inorganic-compounds-including-ayurvedic-medicines-rasasindura-and-kajjali-in-zebrafish-model
#19
Snehasis Biswas, Naay Balodia, Jayesh Bellare
Zebrafish behavioral model is a powerful tool for neuroscience research. Behavioral changes in the zebrafish are studied by administering drugs. With the aid of automated and open-source MATLAB program, high-accuracy tracking of zebrafish can be achieved, and the important behavioral parameters can be calculated. Although mercury is accepted as a potent neurotoxin, used as a key element for preparing certain Ayurvedic medicines. In this work, mercury-based inorganic compounds, including HgCl2 , HgS, and Ayurvedic medicines (Rasasindura and Kajjali) were administrated in zebrafish, and the effects on various behavioral parameters and cortisol levels were studied...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366689/in-vivo-study-of-teratogenic-and-anticonvulsant-effects-of-antiepileptics-drugs-in-zebrafish-embryo-and-larvae
#20
C S Martinez, D A Feas, M Siri, D E Igartúa, N S Chiaramoni, S Del V Alonso, M J Prieto
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Since AEDs are administered in women in childbearing age, it is critical to study if drugs are capable of inducing developmental toxicity. Along the bibliography available, there is no research comparing teratogenicity and anticonvulsant effect within the same study. In the present study, we evaluated the teratogenic and anticonvulsant effects of six different AEDs: carbamazepine, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproic acid...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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