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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Zhenming Kang, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Shunyuan Li, Rushuang Chen
Dexmedetomidine is a local anesthetic adjuvant that exerts neuroprotective effects in addition to its sedative and analgesic properties. However, it is not clear whether dexmedetomidine causes any neurotoxicity in neonates. We injected dexmedetomidine alone or in combination with ropivacaine to induce brachial plexus block in rats of different age, corresponding to human neonate, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. We then examined pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated caspase 3 to determine the neurotoxicity effects...
July 11, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jennifer A Willford, Dil Singhabahu, Athula Herat, Gale A Richardson
Prenatal drug exposure, including cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, is associated with deficits in behavioral regulation and attention. Using fMRI, the objective of this study was to characterize the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and the underlying neural substrates associated with behavioral outcomes of attention. Forty-seven young adults were recruited for this study from the ongoing Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD) Project, a longitudinal study of the effects of PCE on growth, behavior, and cognitive function...
June 25, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Afzaal N Mohammed, Navatha Alugubelly, Barbara L Kaplan, Russell L Carr
The gestational and adolescent periods are critically important for brain development and exposure to Δ9‑tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) during these periods results in long term behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in laboratory animals. However, recent reports indicate a dramatic rise in oral Δ9-THC exposure in young children but the effects of this exposure scenario have not been adequately investigated. Using a model designed to mimic childhood exposure, male and female rat pups were orally exposed to either corn oil or 10 mg/kg Δ9-THC daily from postnatal days 10-16...
June 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Samantha Mahabir, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish has been successfully employed to model and study the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure. Short exposure to low alcohol concentrations during embryonic development has been shown to significantly disrupt social behavior as well as the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish. However, analysis of potential effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on other amino acid neurotransmitter systems has not been performed. Here we analyzed neurochemicals obtained from adult AB and TU strain zebrafish that were immersed in 0...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, David Reiss, Emily S Miller, Jessica A Jakubowski, Eileen K Graham, Shannon M Shisler, Meaghan McCallum, Marilyn A Huestis, Jody M Ganiban, Daniel S Shaw, Leslie D Leve, Rina D Eiden, Laura R Stroud, Jenae M Neiderhiser
BACKGROUND: Methodologic challenges related to the concomitant use (co-use) of substances and changes in policy and potency of marijuana contribute to ongoing uncertainty about risks to fetal neurodevelopment associated with prenatal marijuana use. In this study, we examined two biomarkers of fetal neurodevelopmental risk-birth weight and length of gestation-associated with prenatal marijuana use, independent of tobacco (TOB), alcohol (ALC), other drug use (OTH), and socioeconomic risk (SES), in a pooled sample (N = 1191) derived from 3 recent developmental cohorts (2003-2015) with state-of-the-art substance use measures...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Emmanuel A Oga, Erica N Peters, Katrina Mark
Use of Cannabis and use of tobacco overlap, and co-use of Cannabis and tobacco has increased over the past decade among adults. The current study aims to document the prevalence and correlates of co-use of Cannabis and tobacco cigarettes among adult pregnant women utilizing secondary data from a larger study that compared and validated screeners for illicit and prescription drug use during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 500; 71% African American; 65% never married, average age of 28 years) were recruited from two urban University obstetric clinics between January and December 2017...
June 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Kara Montgomery, Caleb Corona, Rebekah Frye, Reid Barnett, Andrew Bailey, Vanessa A Fitsanakis
Mancozeb (MZ), an organic-metal fungicide used predominantly on vegetables and fruits, has been linked to neurodegeneration and behavioral disruptions in a variety of organisms, including humans. Both γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine neurons appear to be more vulnerable to MZ exposure than other neuronal populations. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that MZ may be differentially transported into these cells through their presynaptic neurotransmitter transporters. To test this, we pretreated Caenorhabditis elegans with transporter antagonists followed by exposure to various concentrations of MZ...
May 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Shubham Nema, Yogesh Bhargava
Cypermethrin is one of the top five pesticides used globally. Although the effect of cypermethrin on the embryonic stages of zebrafish is well characterized, its toxic effect on the behaviour of adult zebrafish is largely unknown. Here we used videogram and automated tracking approach to quantitatively assess behavioural toxicity induced by the short exposure of cypermethrin to adult zebrafish. We observed that cypermethrin at 25 ppb level induced behavioural toxicity in adult zebrafish. Motor activity of the treated group was significantly retarded which affected their overall exploratory behaviour including their visit to the central arena of the open-field test...
May 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Mousa Alghazwi, Scott Smid, Wei Zhang
South Australia is a biodiversity hotspot of marine sponges and macroalgae. This study aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective activity of extracts from these two marine sources by reducing the toxicity of human amyloid beta Aβ1-42 in a cell model assay using PC-12 cells. A total of 92 extracts (43, 13, 16, and 20 extracts from sponge of 8 orders and 17 families, green algae of 3 orders and 4 families, brown algae of 6 orders and 8 families, and red algae of 5 orders and 10 families, respectively) were initially screened at three different concentrations (0...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Linda L Chao, Yu Zhang
In early March 1991, shortly after the end of the Gulf War (GW), a munitions dump was destroyed at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Later, in 1996, the dump was found to have contained the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin. We previously reported evidence of smaller hippocampal volumes in GW veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume compared to unexposed GW veterans. To investigate whether these macroscopic hippocampal volume changes are accompanied by microstructural alterations in the hippocampus, the current study acquired diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), T1-, and T2-weighted images from 170 GW veterans (mean age: 53 ± 7 years), 81 of whom had predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume according to Department of Defense (DOD) plume modeling...
May 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Rina D Eiden, Pamela Schuetze, Shannon Shisler, Marilyn A Huestis
Tobacco and cannabis are often used together in pregnancy and both have effects on children's regulatory system. Yet, little is known about the impact of co-use on the development of emotion regulation at the developmentally salient age of 2 years. One pathway linking co-exposure to tobacco and cannabis to toddler regulation may be via poor autonomic regulation in infancy. In addition, substance using mothers may be more dysregulated themselves, which may have direct effects on toddler regulation, but may also affect parenting, particularly maternal sensitivity during mother-child interactions...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Monserrat Armenta-Resendiz, Silvia L Cruz, Emilio J Galván
Despite serious health effects, volatile industrial products containing toluene are deliberately inhaled for their psychoactive actions, mainly among adolescents and young adults. Chronic toluene inhalation induces multiple alterations at the cellular and behavioral level; however, modifications of neuronal networks associated with the reward system after repeated toluene exposure are not thoroughly characterized. Here we used whole-cell recordings to determine the effects of repeated exposure to toluene (1000, 4000 or 8000 ppm for 30 min, twice a day, for ten days) on the neurophysiological properties of prelimbic layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in adolescent male Wistar rats...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Yassine Aitbali, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Najoua Elhidar, Ahmed Nafis, Nabila Soraa, Mohamed Bennis
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the profound relationship between gut microbiota (GM) alterations and behavioral changes. Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) have been shown to induce behavioral impairments, and it is possible that they mediate the effects through an altered GM. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of GBH on GM and its subsequent effects on the neurobehavioral functions in mice following acute, subchronic and chronic exposure to 250 or 500 mg/kg/day. The effect of these acute and repeated treatments was assessed at the behavioral level using the open field, the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and splash tests...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jenna L N Sprowles, Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Amanda A Braun, Chiho Sugimoto, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Developmental stress, including low socioeconomic status (SES), can induce dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and result in long-term changes in stress reactivity. Children in lower SES households experience more stress and are more likely to be exposed to environmental neurotoxins such as lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) than children in higher SES households. Co-exposure to stress, Pb, and Mn during early development may increase the risk of central nervous system dysfunction compared with unexposed children...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Danielle S Molnar, Douglas A Granger, Shannon Shisler, Rina D Eiden
AIMS: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays a critical role in immune functioning by preventing pathogens from adhering to epithelial mucosa. Most infectious agents enter the body via mucosal surfaces, thus SIgA serves in the defense against respiratory, intestinal, and urinogenitary infections, as well as periodontal disease and caries. This study examined the possibility that pre- and postnatal exposure to cigarette and cannabis is associated with individual differences in Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in early childhood...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Mehmet Erman Erdemli, M Arif Aladag, Eyup Altinoz, Sezin Demirtas, Yusuf Turkoz, Birgül Yigitcan, Harika Gozukara Bag
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible mechanism of neurotoxic effect of acrylamide (AA) applied during pregnancy on fetal brain development and to show the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on AA toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups were formed with 9 pregnant rats each as control (C), acrylamide (AA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), acrylamide plus N-acetylcysteine (AA plus NAC) groups. Caesarian section was implemented on the 20th day of pregnancy...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Pingping Sun, Jiashan Luo, Yiming Liu, Shengyang Jiang, Lingli Sun
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative compound that has been widely used in various fields of life and industrial productions, because of its special chemical and physical properties. Numerous studies have indicated significant neurotoxic effect of PFOS, especially on neurons and microglia. However, the influence of PFOS on astrocyte physiology remains unclear. In this study, we showed that PFOS triggered reactive astrocytosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. The low-doses of PFOS increased the cell number and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known hallmark of reactive astrocytes, in C6 astrocyte cells...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Anthony N Oliveri, Erica Ortiz, Edward D Levin
Human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is widespread, including pregnant women and young children with whom developmental neurotoxic risk is a concern. Given similarities of OPFRs to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, research into the possible neurotoxic impacts of developmental OPFR exposure has been growing. Building upon research implicating exposure to OP pesticides in dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction, we exposed developing zebrafish to the OPFR tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), during the first 5 days following fertilization...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, James L Burns, Caron A C Clark, Kimberly A Espy, Lauren S Wakschlag
BACKGROUND: While the majority of pregnant smokers do not respond to intervention, little is known about how a subset of pregnant smokers known as spontaneous quitters achieve sustained biologically-confirmed abstinence through delivery in the absence of intervention. We explore a developmental framework to address this question by viewing spontaneous quitting as an adaptive parenting behavior, facilitated by abilities necessary for sensitive parenting, or responsiveness. Utilizing existing data, we examined responsiveness from parenting assessments in women who exhibited a variety of smoking patterns during pregnancy, including spontaneous quitting...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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