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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109771/assessment-of-learning-memory-and-attention-in-developmental-neurotoxicology-regulatory-testing-commentary-on-essentiality-of-cognitive-assessment-for-protecting-child-health
#1
Charles V Vorhees
This commentary is in response to the remarks of Drs. Christina Sobin, Mari Golub, and David Herr on the Special Issue of this Journal entitled "Assessment of Learning, Memory, and Attention in Developmental Neurotoxicology Regulatory Testing." I endorse the views expressed by Drs. Sobin, Golub, and Herr and add some discussion on a recent Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicology Guideline (OECD 446), in which testing for higher cognitive function (learning and memory) has been eliminated...
January 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089843/early-chronic-low-level-pb-exposure-alters-global-exploratory-behaviors-but-does-not-impair-spatial-and-object-memory-retrieval-in-an-object-in-place-task-in-pre-adolescent-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Christina Sobin, Mayra Gisel Flores-Montoya, Juan Manuel Alvarez
The mechanisms by which early chronic low-level lead (Pb) exposure disrupts the developing brain are not yet understood. Rodent models have provided promising results however behavioral tests sensitive to effects at lowest levels of exposure during development are needed. Preadolescent animals (N=52) exposed to low and higher levels of Pb via lactation from birth to PND 28 completed the Object-in-Place Task of visual spatial and visual object memory retrieval (at PND 28). Generalized linear mixed models were used, controlling for sex and litter as a random effect...
January 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065636/neuroprotection-and-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain-an-update-on-the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-xenon
#3
Azeem Alam, Ka Chun Suen, Zac Hana, Robert D Sanders, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
Growing and consistent preclinical evidence, combined with early clinical epidemiological observations, suggest potentially neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic agents in the developing brain. This has prompted the FDA to issue a safety warning for all sedatives and anesthetics approved for use in children under three years of age. Recent studies have identified dexmedetomidine, the potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, and xenon, the noble gas, as effective anesthetic adjuvants that are both less neurotoxic to the developing brain, and also possess neuroprotective properties in neonatal and other settings of acute ongoing neurologic injury...
January 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043908/cognitive-neuroscience-and-developmental-neurotoxicity-testing
#4
LETTER
Mari S Golub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039052/a-holistic-approach-to-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-its-implications-for-future-mechanistic-studies
#5
Christine N Zanghi, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development...
December 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979759/correspondence-assessment-of-learning-memory-and-attention-in-developmental-neurotoxicology
#6
LETTER
C Sobin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939643/commentary-on-topic-should-all-tests-of-cognitive-function-learning-memory-attention-be-eliminated-from-the-required-protocols-for-developmental-neurotoxicity-testing
#7
LETTER
David W Herr
The attached manuscript by Dr. Herr is a Commentary on Topic: Should All Tests of Cognitive Function - Learning, Memory, Attention - be Eliminated From the Required Protocols for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing?
December 8, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#8
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Syahida Ahmad, Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#9
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#10
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance in USA. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#11
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876652/isoflurane-exposure-leads-to-apoptosis-of-neurons-and-oligodendrocytes-in-20-and-40-day-old-rhesus-macaques
#12
Katie J Schenning, Kevin K Noguchi, Lauren Drew Martin, Francesca M Manzella, Omar H Cabrera, Gregory A Dissen, Ansgar M Brambrink
Previously we reported that a 5-hour exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane triggers robust neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In an attempt to further describe the window of vulnerability to anesthetic neurotoxicity, we exposed P20 and P40 rhesus macaques to 5h of isoflurane anesthesia or no exposure (control animals). Brains were collected 3h later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze neuronal and glial apoptosis. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis distributed throughout cortex and white matter, respectively...
November 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871903/review-of-preclinical-studies-on-pediatric-general-anesthesia-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#13
Jennifer L Walters, Merle G Paule
Thousands of infants and children undergo complicated surgical procedures that require prolonged periods of anesthesia and/or sedation each year. A growing body of preclinical research suggests pediatric anesthetics are harmful to the developing brain; yet, the extent to which these effects generalize to the clinical setting remains unclear. As there will be a continuing need for surgical and other interventions requiring sedation and/or anesthesia during the neonatal period, it seems clear that research efforts should focus on determining the extent to which general anesthetics can affect the developing brain as well as determining strategies for preventing or ameliorating the adverse effects associated with exposure to such agents...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856360/sensitivity-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-increases-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-shank3-%C3%A2-c-mutant-mouse-model
#14
Changsheng Li, Michele Schaefer, Christy Gray, Ya Yang, Orion Furmanski, Sufang Liu, Paul Worley, C David Mintz, Feng Tao, Roger A Johns
Autism is a heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The abnormal behaviors of these patients can make their anesthetic and perioperative management difficult. Evidence in the literature suggests that some patients with autism or specific autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit altered responses to pain and to anesthesia or sedation. A genetic mouse model of one particular ASD, Phelan McDermid Syndrome, has been developed that has a Shank3 haplotype truncation (Shank3(+/Δc))...
November 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856359/anesthetic-neurotoxicity-apoptosis-and-autophagic-cell-death-mediated-by-calcium-dysregulation
#15
Meirong Yang, Huafeng Wei
A number of findings suggested that general anesthetics induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various animal models. Although clinical evidence regarding the correlation between anesthetic exposures at young age and subsequent cognitive impairments remains unclear, repeated or consistent exposures to general anesthetics may be a potential harmful risk in developing human brains. The mechanisms underlying the anesthetic neurotoxicity have received extensive attention recently. We will attempt a brief review to summarize current understanding on the role of both apoptosis and autophagic cell death mediated by calcium dysregulation in anesthetic neurotoxicity...
November 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826117/neonatal-inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-prevents-ketamine-induced-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments
#16
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
Prolonged ketamine exposure in neonates at anesthetic doses is known to cause long-term impairments of learning and memory. A current theoretical mechanism explains this phenomenon as being neuro-excitotoxicity mediated by compensatory upregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which then initiates widespread neuroapoptosis. Additionally, the excitatory behavior of GABAergic synaptic transmission mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs), occurring during the early neuronal development period, is proposed as contributing to the susceptibility of neonatal neurons to ketamine-induced injury...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989695/the-genetics-of-isoflurane-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#17
Hyo-Seok Na, Nicole L Brockway, Katherine R Gentry, Elyce Opheim, Margaret M Sedensky, Philip G Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Neurotoxicity induced by early developmental exposure to volatile anesthetics is a characteristic of organisms across a wide range of species, extending from the nematode C. elegans to mammals. Prevention of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity (AIN) will rely upon an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. However, no forward genetic screens have been undertaken to identify the critical pathways affected in AIN.By characterizing such pathways, we may identify mechanisms to eliminate isoflurane induced AIN in mammals...
October 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989694/developmental-cannabinoid-exposure-new-perspectives-on-outcomes-and-mechanisms
#18
EDITORIAL
Sonya K Sobrian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989697/developmental-benzo-a-pyrene-b-a-p-exposure-impacts-larval-behavior-and-impairs-adult-learning-in-zebrafish
#19
Andrea L Knecht, Lisa Truong, Michael T Simonich, Robert L Tanguay
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced from incomplete combustion of organic materials or fossil fuels, and are present in crude oil and coal; therefore, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in urban air, dust, soil, and water. It is widely recognized that PAHs pose risks to human health, especially for the developing fetus and infant where PAH exposures have been linked to in-utero mortality, cardiovascular effects, and lower intelligence. Using the zebrafish model, we evaluated the developmental toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989696/methyl-mercury-exposure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-the-seychelles-child-development-study-main-cohort-at-age-22-and-24years
#20
Edwin van Wijngaarden, Sally W Thurston, Gary J Myers, Donald Harrington, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, J J Strain, Gene E Watson, Grazyna Zareba, Tanzy Love, Juliette Henderson, Conrad F Shamlaye, Philip W Davidson
BACKGROUND: All fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant at adequate dosage. There is still substantial scientific uncertainty about the consequences, if any, of mothers consuming fish with naturally-acquired levels of MeHg contamination. In 1989-1990, we recruited the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study to assess the potential developmental effects of prenatal MeHg exposure. We report here on associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes obtained at 22 and 24years of age...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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