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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353014/neuroprotective-effect-of-morin-on-lead-acetate-induced-apoptosis-by-preventing-cytochrome-c-translocation-via-regulation-of-bax-bcl-2-ratio
#1
Sumathi Thangarajan, Aishwarya Vedagiri, Shanmathy Somasundaram, Rathika Sakthimanogaran, Mahalakshmi Murugesan
Lead (Pb) intoxication is a prevalent type of environmental toxicity as well as minimal amount of lead exposure is liable for neurobehavioral or perhaps intelligence defects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of morin in protecting the lead acetate (PbAc)-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. PbAc intoxication resulted in motor deficit, memory impairment and oxidative stress Further, PbAc administration alters Bax/Bcl-2 expression thereby increases cytochrome c release from the mitochondria...
January 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343446/s-adenosyl-methionine-prevents-asd-like-behaviors-triggered-by-early-postnatal-valproic-acid-exposure-in-very-young-mice
#2
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Matanel Tfilin, Zivanit Ergaz, Joseph Yanai, Moshe Szyf, Gadi Turgeman
INTRODUCTION: A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. METHODS: ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight...
January 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330026/sound-shock-response-in-larval-zebrafish-a-convenient-and-high-throughput-assessment-of-auditory-function
#3
Xiuyun Liu, Jia Lin, Yinglan Zhang, Ning Guo, Qiang Li
Given that hearing ability can be challenged in diverse ways, it is necessary to develop an easily conducted, high-throughput method for assessing potential auditory risks. Measuring the acoustic startle response (ASR) has become a critical behavioral method in hearing research using zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this study, changes in the activity of zebrafish larvae (10 days post fertilization (dpf)) due to exposure to a sudden easily-generated broad-band noise were automatically and objectively recorded and analyzed without building sophisticated equipments...
January 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309833/development-and-behavior-alterations-in-zebrafish-embryonically-exposed-to-valproic-acid-vpa-animal-model-of-autism
#4
Jiangfei Chen, Linjie Tian, Lei Lei, Fei Hou, Courtney Roper, Xiaoqing Ge, Yuxin Zhao, Robert L Tanguay, Changjiang Huang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has complex neurodevelopmental impairments and origins that are linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, there is an urgency to establish animal models with ASD-like characteristics to understand the underlying mechanisms of ASD. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to cause ASD-like symptoms in humans, rats, and recently zebrafish. The present study investigated the use of VPA exposure to create an ASD model in zebrafish that was verified through observation of ASD-like phenotypes in brain development and behavioral changes in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307795/the-impact-of-prenatal-insults-on-the-human-placental-epigenome-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Flors Cirera, Fátima Crispi, Elisenda Eixarch, Lourdes Fañanás
The placenta is the first human organ to reach full development during pregnancy. It serves as a barrier but also as an interchange surface. Epigenetic changes observed in placental tissue may reflect intrauterine insults while also pointing to physiological pathways altered under exposure to such environmental threats. By means of a systematic search of the literature, 39 papers assessing human placental epigenetic signatures in association with either (i) psychosocial stress, (ii) maternal psychopathology, (iii) maternal smoking during pregnancy, and (iv) exposure to environmental pollutants, were identified...
January 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305197/corrigendum-to-neonatal-inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-prevents-ketamine-induced-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments-neurotoxicol-teratol-60-2017-82-86
#6
LETTER
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305196/periconceptional-folate-deficiency-leads-to-autism-like-traits-in-wistar-rat-offspring
#7
Stéphanie Degroote, Darel Hunting, Larissa Takser
BACKGROUND: Folates in their role as key one carbon donors, are essential for two major pathways: the synthesis of DNA and RNA precursors and DNA methylation. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies indicates a possible association between nutritional and functional deficiency in folates and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no available behavioral animal studies on periconceptional one‑carbon donor deficiency during gestation and the autistic phenotype...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305195/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-alcohol-and-adversity-induced-developmental-origins-of-neurobehavioral-functioning
#8
REVIEW
K E Boschen, S M Keller, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
The long-term effects of developmental alcohol and stress exposure are well documented in both humans and non-human animal models. Damage to the brain and attendant life-long impairments in cognition and increased risk for psychiatric disorders are debilitating consequences of developmental exposure to alcohol and/or psychosocial stress. Here we discuss evidence for a role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these consequences. While we highlight some of the common ways in which stress or alcohol impact the epigenome, we point out that little is understood of the epigenome's response to experiencing both stress and alcohol exposure, though stress is a contributing factor as to why women drink during pregnancy...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292231/abstinence-following-toluene-exposure-increases-anxiety-like-behavior-in-mice
#9
Scott E Bowen, John H Hannigan, Cameron J Davidson, Sean P Callan
The intentional misuse of volatile solvents like toluene is a persistent public health concern. Limited clinical data suggest that chronic inhalant abusers may experience signs of withdrawal, including anxiety. Behavioral withdrawal from toluene has not been examined in a preclinical model. In the current study, young adult male Swiss Webster mice were exposed to either 5000-ppm toluene vapor or air (0ppm) for 30min or 24h. Mice were tested in a battery of four behavioral tasks reflective of anxiety either immediately (0h), 24h, or 72h after the toluene exposure...
December 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247702/developmental-dynamics-of-the-epigenome-a-longitudinal-study-of-three-toddlers
#10
Oxana Yu Naumova, Mary Dozier, Pavel V Dobrynin, Kirill Grigorev, Allison Wallin, Ida Jeltova, Maria Lee, Adam Raefski, Elena L Grigorenko
Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in development, at the embryonic stages and later during the lifespan. Some epigenetic marks are highly conserved throughout the lifespan whereas others are closely associated with specific age periods and/or particular environmental factors. Little is known about the dynamics of epigenetic regulation during childhood, especially during the period of rapid early development. Our study was aimed to determine whether the developmental program at the early stages of human development is accompanied by significant changes in the systems of genome regulation, specifically, by genome-wide changes in DNA methylation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247701/adaptation-or-pathology-the-role-of-prenatal-stressor-type-and-intensity-in-the-developmental-programing-of-adult-phenotype
#11
REVIEW
Sophie St-Cyr, Patrick O McGowan
The mother is the major interface between the offspring and its prenatal environment. Prenatal toxins and stress-inducing physical agents are important factors programming the developmental trajectory of mammals that likely involve epigenetic modifications. However, prenatal stressors commonly-used in the laboratory (e.g. prenatal restraint stress and prenatal chronic variable stress) are typically administered at high intensities. These exposures typically lead to pathological phenotypes supporting the development origin of health and disease hypothesis...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225007/high-sensitivity-quantitative-analysis-reveals-the-non-linear-relationship-between-the-dose-and-deposition-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system-following-its-subchronic-exposure
#12
Tomoyuki Masuda, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tomohiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Shibata, Akira Tamaoka
In the year 2003, the residents of Kamisu, Japan, were exposed to pentavalent organic arsenic diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA[V]) via their normal drinking water. Following the exposure, they developed cerebellar and brainstem symptoms. Although the relatively high dose of DPAA(V) is assumed to have caused their symptoms, the relationship between the exposed dose of DPAA(V) and the level of their deposition in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we examined the deposition of DPAA(V) and its pentavalent metabolites in the CNS tissues of Crl:CD(SD) rats following the administration of DPAA(V) for 28days...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225006/mechanistic-studies-on-ketamine-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#13
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative, is an antagonist of the Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. It is a pediatric anesthetic and has been implicated in developmental neurotoxicity. Ketamine has also been shown to deplete ATP in mammalian cells. Our previous studies showed that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) prevented ketamine-induced cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Based on our finding that ALCAR's protective effect was blunted by oligomycin A, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, we further investigated the effects of ketamine and ALCAR on ATP levels, mitochondria and ATP synthase in zebrafish embryos...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221728/emulsified-isoflurane-induces-release-of-cytochrome-c-in-human-neuroblastoma-shsy-5y-cells-via-jnk-c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-signaling-pathway
#14
Zeyong Yang, Jingjing Lv, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jianwei Wang, Hao Weng, Yuanhai Li
A large number of studies have demonstrated that inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various cell and animal models. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new type of intravenous preparation of isoflurane that attracts increasing research attention as a promising clinical agent due to its both advantages as an intravenous and inhalation anesthetics medication. However, its safety and underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity largely remain unknown. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the safety of EIso and to further elucidate its mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221727/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-developmental-neurotoxicity
#15
REVIEW
M Raciti, S Ceccatelli
The constant interplay between environment (including both exogenous and endogenous factors) and epigenome (defined as the combination of chromatin, its covalent modifications and noncoding RNAs) triggers epigenetic events that, by modulating gene expression, capture information about changes in the environment. In this mini review, we will focus on the neurodevelopmental implications of exposure to adverse prenatal milieu with emphasis on mechanistic and functional aspects. Several neurotoxic insults have been shown to affect epigenetics with negative consequences on the development of the nervous system; among them are methylmercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium, as well as excess of glucocorticoids...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198963/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-and-language-development-in-toddlers-from-the-odense-child-cohort
#16
Trine Staak Olesen, Dorthe Bleses, Helle Raun Andersen, Philippe Grandjean, Hanne Frederiksen, Fabio Trecca, Niels Bilenberg, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Louise Dalsager, Inge Kjær Jensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Tina Kold Jensen
BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months...
November 30, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132937/arsenic-exposure-during-embryonic-development-alters-the-expression-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-gas5-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#17
Kevin K Caldwell, Alexander Hafez, Elizabeth Solomon, Matthew Cunningham, Andrea M Allan
Our previous studies suggest that prenatal arsenic exposure (50ppb) modifies epigenetic control of the programming of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling system in the developing mouse brain. These deficits may lead to long-lasting consequences, including deficits in learning and memory, increased depressive-like behaviors, and an altered set-point of GR feedback throughout life. To understand the arsenic-induced changes within the GR system, we assessed the impact of in utero arsenic exposure on the levels of the GR and growth arrest-specific-5 (Gas5), a noncoding RNA, across a key gestational period for GR programming (gestational days, GD 14-18) in mice...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126934/neuropsychological-functioning-in-military-pesticide-applicators-from-the-gulf-war-effects-on-information-processing-speed-attention-and-visual-memory
#18
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122710/adenosine-deaminase-activity-and-gene-expression-patterns-are-altered-after-chronic-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-brain
#19
Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Jotele Fontana Agostini Berteli, Andrei da Silveira Langoni, André Arigony Souto, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan, Diogo Onofre Souza
Ethanol alters the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and its intoxication reveals adenosine as responsible to modify several responses including signal transduction. Zebrafish has been recently investigated for knowledge the prolonged effect of ethanol on behavioral and biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and membrane adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish brain. Animals were exposed to 0.5% ethanol for 7, 14, and 28days...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101052/cluster-analysis-profiling-of-behaviors-in-zebrafish-larvae-treated-with-antidepressants-and-pesticides
#20
Holly Richendrfer, Robbert Creton
Antidepressants are used by a substantial number of women in their childbearing years. Treatment may continue during pregnancy, since untreated depression poses a risk to the mother and child. However, many antidepressants readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the fetus or may be ingested by the newborn via breastmilk. Little is known about the effects of antidepressants on brain development and subsequent behavior in young children. In the current study, we used zebrafish as a model system to examine the neurodevelopmental effects of three commonly prescribed antidepressants, sertraline, duloxetine and bupropion...
October 31, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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