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Neurotoxicology and Teratology

Gholamreza Naseri, Alireza Fazel, Mohammad Jafar Golalipour, Hossein Haghir, Hamid Sadeghian, Majid Mojarrad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Shokouh Shahrokhi Sabzevar, Farimah Beheshti, Ahmad Ghorbani
In recent years, abuse of synthetic cathinones, in particular, mephedrone, has increased among young adults worldwide. The study aim is to investigate the effects of mephedrone exposure during the gestational period on mice offspring outcomes, focusing on hippocampal neurotoxicity. The pregnant mice received mephedrone (50 mg/kg, sc) on a regular schedule (once daily on all days, from day 5 to 18 of gestation) or repeated schedule (thrice daily on day 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, and 18 of gestation) to simulate regular or recreational use of mephedrone, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, James L Burns, Caron A C Clark, Kimberly A Espy, Lauren S Wakschlag
BACKGROUND: While the majority of pregnant smokers do not respond to intervention, little is known about how a subset of pregnant smokers known as spontaneous quitters achieve sustained biologically-confirmed abstinence through delivery in the absence of intervention. We explore a developmental framework to address this question by viewing spontaneous quitting as an adaptive parenting behavior, facilitated by abilities necessary for sensitive parenting, or responsiveness. Utilizing existing data, we examined responsiveness from parenting assessments in women who exhibited a variety of smoking patterns during pregnancy, including spontaneous quitting...
February 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad Nasehi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 μg Hg/kg) in four i...
February 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Hannah E Lapp, Sarah Ahmed, Celia L Moore, Richard G Hunter
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test...
February 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Valerie S Knopik, Kristine Marceau, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Emily Rolan
The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse conditions and exposures may influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as its future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal substance use during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. For example, previous epidemiological studies have associated prenatal substance exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders (e...
February 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Payel Kundu, Steven Neese, Suren Bandara, Supida Monaikul, William G Helferich, Daniel R Doerge, Ikhlas A Khan, Susan Schantz
Age-related declines in cognitive function can impair working memory, reduce speed of processing, and alter attentional resources. In particular, menopausal women may show an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline as well as an increased vulnerability to brain diseases as estrogens may play a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role in the brain. To treat menopausal symptoms, many women turn to botanical estrogens that are promoted as a safe and natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy...
February 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Eivind Sirnes, Silja T Griffiths, Stein Magnus Aukland, Geir Egil Eide, Irene B Elgen, Hilde Gundersen
BACKGROUND: Opioid induced cerebral changes may contribute to neuropsychological difficulties, like attention problems, frequently reported in prenatally opioid-exposed children. Reduced regional brain volumes have been shown after prenatal opioid exposure, but no study to date has explored the possible impact of prenatal opioids on brain activation patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based sample of prenatally opioid-exposed school-aged children (n = 11) and unexposed controls (n = 12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a combined working memory-selective attention task...
February 1, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Snehasis Biswas, Naay Balodia, Jayesh Bellare
Zebrafish behavioral model is a powerful tool for neuroscience research. Behavioral changes in the zebrafish are studied by administering drugs. With the aid of automated and open-source MATLAB program, high-accuracy tracking of zebrafish can be achieved, and the important behavioral parameters can be calculated. Although mercury is accepted as a potent neurotoxin, used as a key element for preparing certain Ayurvedic medicines. In this work, mercury-based inorganic compounds, including HgCl2, HgS, and Ayurvedic medicines (Rasasindura and Kajjali) were administrated in zebrafish, and the effects on various behavioral parameters and cortisol levels were studied...
January 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
C S Martinez, D A Feas, M Siri, D E Igartúa, N S Chiaramoni, SdV Alonso, M J Prieto
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Since AEDs are administered in women in childbearing age, it is critical to study if drugs are capable of inducing developmental toxicity. Along the bibliography available, there is no research comparing teratogenicity and anticonvulsant effect within the same study. In the present study, we evaluated the teratogenic and anticonvulsant effects of six different AEDs: carbamazepine, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproic acid...
January 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Sumathi Thangarajan, Aishwarya Vedagiri, Shanmathy Somasundaram, Rathika Sakthimanogaran, Mahalakshmi Murugesan
Lead (Pb) intoxication is a prevalent type of environmental toxicity as well as minimal amount of lead exposure is liable for neurobehavioral or perhaps intelligence defects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of morin in protecting the lead acetate (PbAc)-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. PbAc intoxication resulted in motor deficit, memory impairment and oxidative stress Further, PbAc administration alters Bax/Bcl-2 expression thereby increases cytochrome c release from the mitochondria...
January 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Matanel Tfilin, Zivanit Ergaz, Joseph Yanai, Moshe Szyf, Gadi Turgeman
INTRODUCTION: A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. METHODS: ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight...
January 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Xiuyun Liu, Jia Lin, Yinglan Zhang, Ning Guo, Qiang Li
Given that hearing ability can be challenged in diverse ways, it is necessary to develop an easily conducted, high-throughput method for assessing potential auditory risks. Measuring the acoustic startle response (ASR) has become a critical behavioral method in hearing research using zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this study, changes in the activity of zebrafish larvae (10 days post fertilization (dpf)) due to exposure to a sudden easily-generated broad-band noise were automatically and objectively recorded and analyzed without building sophisticated equipments...
January 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jiangfei Chen, Linjie Tian, Lei Lei, Fei Hou, Courtney Roper, Xiaoqing Ge, Yuxin Zhao, Robert L Tanguay, Changjiang Huang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has complex neurodevelopmental impairments and origins that are linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, there is an urgency to establish animal models with ASD-like characteristics to understand the underlying mechanisms of ASD. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to cause ASD-like symptoms in humans, rats, and recently zebrafish. The present study investigated the use of VPA exposure to create an ASD model in zebrafish that was verified through observation of ASD-like phenotypes in brain development and behavioral changes in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Flors Cirera, Fátima Crispi, Elisenda Eixarch, Lourdes Fañanás
The placenta is the first human organ to reach full development during pregnancy. It serves as a barrier but also as an interchange surface. Epigenetic changes observed in placental tissue may reflect intrauterine insults while also pointing to physiological pathways altered under exposure to such environmental threats. By means of a systematic search of the literature, 39 papers assessing human placental epigenetic signatures in association with either (i) psychosocial stress, (ii) maternal psychopathology, (iii) maternal smoking during pregnancy, and (iv) exposure to environmental pollutants, were identified...
January 4, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Stéphanie Degroote, Darel Hunting, Larissa Takser
BACKGROUND: Folates in their role as key one carbon donors, are essential for two major pathways: the synthesis of DNA and RNA precursors and DNA methylation. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies indicates a possible association between nutritional and functional deficiency in folates and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, there are no available behavioral animal studies on periconceptional one‑carbon donor deficiency during gestation and the autistic phenotype...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
K E Boschen, S M Keller, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
The long-term effects of developmental alcohol and stress exposure are well documented in both humans and non-human animal models. Damage to the brain and attendant life-long impairments in cognition and increased risk for psychiatric disorders are debilitating consequences of developmental exposure to alcohol and/or psychosocial stress. Here we discuss evidence for a role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these consequences. While we highlight some of the common ways in which stress or alcohol impact the epigenome, we point out that little is understood of the epigenome's response to experiencing both stress and alcohol exposure, though stress is a contributing factor as to why women drink during pregnancy...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Scott E Bowen, John H Hannigan, Cameron J Davidson, Sean P Callan
The intentional misuse of volatile solvents like toluene is a persistent public health concern. Limited clinical data suggest that chronic inhalant abusers may experience signs of withdrawal, including anxiety. Behavioral withdrawal from toluene has not been examined in a preclinical model. In the current study, young adult male Swiss Webster mice were exposed to either 5000-ppm toluene vapor or air (0ppm) for 30min or 24h. Mice were tested in a battery of four behavioral tasks reflective of anxiety either immediately (0h), 24h, or 72h after the toluene exposure...
December 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Philip J Bushnell, Gale A Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Tomoyuki Masuda, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tomohiro Nakayama, Nobuaki Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Shibata, Akira Tamaoka
In the year 2003, the residents of Kamisu, Japan, were exposed to pentavalent organic arsenic diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA[V]) via their normal drinking water. Following the exposure, they developed cerebellar and brainstem symptoms. Although the relatively high dose of DPAA(V) is assumed to have caused their symptoms, the relationship between the exposed dose of DPAA(V) and the level of their deposition in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we examined the deposition of DPAA(V) and its pentavalent metabolites in the CNS tissues of Crl:CD(SD) rats following the administration of DPAA(V) for 28days...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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