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Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501094/the-management-of-esophagogastric-cancers-enters-a-new-era
#1
EDITORIAL
Manish A Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501093/future-directions-in-improving-outcomes-for-patients-with-gastric-and-esophageal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Manish A Shah
"This issue of Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America provides an update to the current understanding of the physiology of gastric and esophageal cancers and the state-of-the-art management of disease. Over the past 10 years, we have witnessed dramatic changes in both our understanding of the disease and its management. We have 2 new biological agents approved to treat advanced disease, with several more prospects under development. In this article, the author looks to the future, attempting to answer the question of which advancements will play the biggest role in improving patient outcomes in this still-devastating disease...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501092/emerging-novel-therapeutic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-gastroesophageal-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#3
REVIEW
Gayathri Anandappa, Ian Chau
With further understanding of the biology of gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, strides are being made to find effective treatments through novel trial designs. This article focuses on the ongoing trials of drugs targeting specific hallmarks of gastric and gastroesophageal cancers, including oncogene addiction proliferative pathways (fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 amplified tumors), stem cell inhibition, apoptotic induction through claudin inhibitors, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501091/update-on-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-targeted-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Steven B Maron, Daniel V T Catenacci
Gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) remains a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although the incidence of distal gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) is declining in the United States, proximal esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJ) incidence is rising. GC and EGJ, together, are treated uniformly in the metastatic setting as GEC. Overall survival in the metastatic setting remains poor, with few molecular targeted approaches having been successfully incorporated into routine care to date-only first-line anti-HER2 therapy for ERBB2 amplification and second-line anti-VEGFR2 therapy...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501090/antiangiogenic-therapy-in-gastroesophageal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Zhaohui Jin, Harry H Yoon
Antiangiogenesis therapy is one of only 2 biologically targeted approaches shown to improve overall survival over standard of care in advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Therapeutic targeting of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 improves overall survival in patients with previously treated advanced gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma. No antiangiogenesis therapy has demonstrated an overall survival benefit in patients with chemo-naïve or resectable esophagogastric cancer or in patients whose tumors arise from the esophagus...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501089/the-evolving-role-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Adrian G Murphy, Ronan J Kelly
The connection between inflammation and malignancy has long been recognized in gastric and esophageal cancers. Given the considerable success of immune checkpoint inhibitors in other tumor types, for example, lung cancer and melanoma, much attention is being paid to furthering their role in gastric and esophageal cancers. The Cancer Genome Atlas has provided further details of the molecular heterogeneity of these tumors, which may help predict responsiveness to immune checkpoint inhibitors. This article discusses the rationale for investigating these agents in gastroesophageal cancer and summarizes the relevant clinical trial data and ongoing studies...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501088/management-of-metastatic-gastric-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Radka Obermannová, Florian Lordick
Metastatic gastric cancer is an incurable disease. Systemic chemotherapy prolongs survival, improves symptom control, and helps maintain a better quality of life of patients with metastatic gastric cancer. HER2 testing of the primary tumor and/or the metastases is warranted before initiation of first-line treatment. This review article outlines the indication and clinical data of medical treatment of advanced gastric cancer and highlights aspects of quality of life.
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501087/the-role-of-radiotherapy-in-localized-esophageal-and-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
John Ng, Percy Lee
Multimodality management has become a core treatment principle for locally advanced esophageal, gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), and gastric cancer. Radiotherapy serves an important role for optimizing patient outcomes. This article reviews the evolving role of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancer, summarizing the results of recent clinical trials leading to contemporary accepted treatment approaches. A major theme is the evidence supporting the role of radiotherapy in combined modality management, particularly the trend toward its delivery in the neoadjuvant setting...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501086/management-of-locally-advanced-gastroesophageal-cancer-still-a-multidisciplinary-global-challenge
#9
REVIEW
Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Sylvie Lorenzen
The outcome of patients with locally advanced, resectable gastric cancer, or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction is poor. In clinical trials, multimodality therapy, such as perioperative chemotherapy, preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation, or adjuvant chemotherapy led to significant increments in survival. Therefore, experts agree that patients with stage II or III disease should be offered a multidisciplinary treatment approach. However, patients are treated somewhat differently in the different regions of the world and survival rates remain far from being satisfactory...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501085/staging-in-esophageal-and-gastric-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Hayes, Elizabeth Smyth, Angela Riddell, William Allum
Gastric and esophageal tumors have a poor prognosis; approximately 15% of patients are alive at 10 years following diagnosis. Surgical resection plus adjunctive chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is curative in approximately 50% of patients with operable disease, but is also associated with significant morbidity. Therefore, accurate preoperative staging is required to spare patients unnecessary toxicity and futile surgery. This review evaluates the sensitivity and specificities of the modalities used to stage patients with gastroesophageal cancer...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501084/barrett-esophagus-and-intramucosal-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Shanmugarajah Rajendra, Prateek Sharma
Barrett esophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Developments in imaging and molecular markers, and endoscopic eradication therapy, are available to curb the increase of EAC. Endoscopic surveillance is recommended, despite lack of data. The cancer risk gets progressively downgraded, raising questions about the understanding of risk factors and molecular biology involved. Recent data point to at least 2 carcinogenic pathways operating in EAC. The use of p53 overexpression and high-risk human papillomavirus may represent the best chance to detect progressors...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501083/the-gastric-microbiome-and-its-influence-on-gastric-carcinogenesis-current-knowledge-and-ongoing-research
#12
REVIEW
Chao Zhang, Sarah Ellen Powell, Doron Betel, Manish A Shah
Gastric malignancies are a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. At least 2 microbial species are currently linked to carcinogenesis and the development of cancer within the human stomach. These include the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the Epstein-Barr virus. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that within the human gastrointestinal tract it is not only pathogenic microbes that impact human health but also the corresponding autochthonous microbial communities. This article reviews the gastrointestinal microbiome as it relates primarily to mechanisms of disease and carcinogenesis within the upper gastrointestinal tract...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340884/peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-the-beginning-of-the-end-of-the-beginning
#13
EDITORIAL
Eric D Jacobsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340883/novel-agents-in-the-treatment-of-relapsed-or-refractory-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Enrica Marchi, Alexander G Raufi, Owen A O'Connor
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell malignancies associated with exceptionally poor prognoses. Currently, chemotherapy remains the standard of care, but outcomes are suboptimal, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 15% to 25%. In recent years, several novel agents, including pralatrexate, romidepsin, belinostat, and brentuximab vedotin, have been approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory PTCL. In addition, numerous other therapies with different mechanisms of action and targets are currently under investigation...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340882/autologous-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-peripheral-t-nk-cell-lymphomas-a-histology-specific-review
#15
REVIEW
Tejaswini M Dhawale, Andrei R Shustov
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma and natural killer/T-cell lymphomas (PT/NKCL) make up a diverse subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas characterized by an aggressive clinical course. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the treatment of PT/NKCL remains controversial because of the absence of randomized controlled trials. The best available data suggest that certain subtypes of PT/NKCL may benefit more from the application of HSCT than other subtypes and that this benefit results from their unique clinical characteristics and underlying biology...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340881/cd30-lymphoproliferative-disorders-of-the-skin
#16
REVIEW
Maxwell B Sauder, John T O'Malley, Nicole R LeBoeuf
Primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders encompass lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL), and indeterminate cases. LyP is a benign disorder characterized by recurrent crops of red or violaceous papulonodules. Patients with LyP are at an increased risk of a secondary malignancy. pcALCL is characterized by a solitary red to violaceous nodule or tumor larger than 20 mm. LyP is benign, is limited to the skin, and self-resolves, with a 5-year survival rate of 100%; pcALCL is limited to the skin and responsive to directed therapies, with a 5-year survival rate of over 95%...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340880/mycosis-fungoides-and-sezary-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Francine M Foss, Michael Girardi
Mycosis fungoides and the Sezary syndrome (SS) are rare lymphomas of CD4(+) helper T cells. There is stagewise progression from patch/plaques to thicker tumor lesions/diffuse erythroderma. Blood involvement is a characteristic of SS. Outcomes are related to the extent of skin, blood, lymph node, and visceral organ involvement. Patients with limited patch and plaque disease are treated with skin-directed therapies. More advanced/refractory disease is treated with skin-directed therapies and oral or systemic immunomodulatory agents...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340879/uncommon-variants-of-t-cell-lymphomas
#18
REVIEW
Neha Mehta-Shah, Steven Horwitz
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas represent 10% to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and comprise more than 20 different entities. Treatment of very rare T-cell lymphomas can be challenging because there are no large or randomized studies to guide clinical decision making, and treatment paradigms are often based on small series or imperfect data. Although a strict algorithm cannot be written with certainty, through the literature that exists and clinical experience, themes and principles of approaches do emerge that when coupled with clinical judgment allow reasonable and logical decisions...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340878/t-cell-prolymphocytic-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Amit Sud, Claire Dearden
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and aggressive T-cell malignancy. T-PLL can be distinguished from other lymphoid diseases by the evaluation and integration of clinical features, morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, and molecular features. The current therapeutic approach relies on immunotherapy followed by a hematopoietic stem cell transplant in selected cases. Clinical outcomes are generally poor, although insights from genomic and molecular studies may increase our understanding of this disease, with the promise of additional effective therapeutic options...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340877/adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-a-problem-abroad-and-at-home
#20
REVIEW
Christopher Dittus, J Mark Sloan
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare T-cell disorder that is etiologically linked to chronic infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. ATLL is divided into four subtypes: acute, lymphomatous, chronic, and smoldering. The acute and lymphomatous variants are often described clinically as the aggressive types of ATLL. Treatment strategies traditionally have focused on antiviral therapy with zidovudine and interferon-alpha and combination chemotherapy. Novel therapeutic approaches include the use of monoclonal antibodies, anti-CCR4 therapy, immunomodulatory therapy, and anti-TAX vaccines...
April 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
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