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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Mariel Jais, Naji Younes, Stacey Chapman, Susan Cu-Uvin, Mimi Ghosh
PROBLEM: HIV infections are increasing in older adult populations. Although it is known that the HIV/AIDS epidemics affect women disproportionately, little is known regarding immune responses in reproductive tract of postmenopausal women, specifically regarding endogenous proteases that modulate inflammation, tissue remodeling and wound healing. METHOD OF STUDY: Levels and bioactivity of endogenous proteases Cathepsin B, D, G, and Neutrophil Elastase were measured in cervical vaginal lavage collected from 20 HIV-negative pre- and postmenopausal women...
November 30, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Syamalima Dube, Dipak K Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jordan Glaser, Bernard Poiesz
A known HIV-1 positive intravenous drug user was found to be HTLV-II DNA positive by PCR but seronegative in a screening ELISA assay. He was consistently DNA positive but took two years to fully seroconvert. Sequencing of the HTLV-II strain in his cultured T-lymphocytes indicated that it is a prototypical type A strain with no major differences in the LTR DNA sequence, nor major amino acid differences in the Gag, Env, Tax and Rex proteins. However, a mutation in its pol gene created a stop codon at amino acid 543 of the Pol protein, a region which encodes for the RNase function...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Maria Luisa Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Megan R Brown, Suresh Pallikkuth, Kristopher Arheart, Octavio Martinez, Margaret Roach, Raina Fichorova, Deborah L Jones, Savita Pahwa, Margaret A Fischl
High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and STI acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the US, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV+ and 27 high-risk HIV-) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVL)...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Steven J Reynolds, Victor Ssempijja, Ronald Galiwango, Anthony Ndyanabo, Gertrude Nakigozi, Fred Lyagoba, Jamirah Nazziwa, Andrew Redd, Susanna L Lamers, Ron Gray, Maria Wawer, David Serwadda, Thomas C Quinn
We investigated the rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among HIV-1 seroconverters identified from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) survey, a population-based cohort in Rakai District, Uganda. Participants aged 15-49 are interviewed at study visits approximately every 12-18 months and provided a serological sample. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been provided free of charge since 2004. RCCS participants with documented negative HIV-1 serology between January 2011 and August 2012 and confirmed seroconversion between November 2012 and October 2013 were included in this analysis...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Caixiao Jiang, Shujun Liu, Shuxia Liu, Zhanzhan Li, Peng Chen, Lizhang Chen
The Interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene polymorphism influences the pathogenesis and evolution of HIV-1 disease. Many studies in this regard have evaluated the association between this polymorphism and HIV-1 susceptibility, yet, the exact relationship between them remains ambiguous and contradictory. A systematic literature search was conducted and the found case-control studies assessing the association between IL-10-1082G/A, -592C/A, -819C/T gene polymorphism and HIV-1 susceptibility were analyzed. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by a fixed effect model...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Andres Benchetrit, Guadalupe Andreani, Maria Mercedes Avila, Diana Rossi, Ana Maria De Rissio, Mercedes Weissenbacher, Liliana Martinez Peralta, Guillermina Dolcini
The coinfection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and HIV is a relevant clinical event. The goal of this study was to establish the frequency of coinfection in populations at risk for HIV-1 in Argentina. A total of 280 HIV positive serum samples from HIV seroprevalence studies in HIV at-risk groups were tested for T.cruzi infection. Of those samples, 8 were positive for T. cruzi (coinfection rate: 2.9%); 6 of them came from HIV positive injecting drug users (IDUs) (rate: 7.8%). In view of these results, all HIV infected patients in endemic countries should undergo T...
November 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sarah K Wendel, Andrew F Longosz, Susan H Eshleman, Joel Blankson, Richard Moore, Jeanne Kerully, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker
We analyzed the impact of HIV viral load on the performance of a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity assay). Three groups of samples were tested: (1) 18 individuals (30 samples) previously identified as elite suppressors; (2) 18 individuals (72 samples) who were continually suppressed on antiretroviral treatment (ART) with one sample before and 2-6 samples (one/year) after ART initiation; and (3) 20 individuals (179 samples) on ART who had evidence of viral breakthrough (>400 copies/ml) with subsequent viral suppression...
November 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Maria Fernanda M Barral, Arielly K P Sousa, André F Santos, Celina M Abreu, Amilcar Tanuri, Marcelo A Soares
Mutations in the connection and RNase H C-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) domains of HIV-1 have been shown to impact drug resistance to RT inhibitors. However, their impact in the context of non-B subtypes has been poorly assessed. This study aimed to characterize resistance-related mutations in the C-terminal portions of RT in treatment-failing patients from southern Brazil, a region with endemic HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C). Viral RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed from 280 infected subjects, and genomic regions were analyzed by PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
November 22, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shanmugam Saravanan, Bagavathi Kausalya, Selvamurthi Gomathi, Sathasivam Sivamalar, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Ambrose Pradeep, Solomon S Sunil, Sarvode N Mothi, Davey M Smith, Rami Kantor
We have analyzed reverse transcriptase (RT) region of HIV-1 pol gene from 97 HIV-infected children who were identified as failing first-line therapy that included a first generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nevirapine and Efavirenz) for at least 6 months. We found that 54% and 65% of the children had genotypically predicted resistance to second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors drugs Etravirine and Rilpivirine, respectively. These cross-resistance mutations may compromise future NNRTI based regimens, especially in resource-limited settings...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elizabeth Fink, Katherine Fuller, Brian Agan, Edward A Berger, Andrew Saphire, Gerald V Quinnan, John H Elder
The purpose of this study was to assess humoral antibody responses as a function of disease progression (DP) in a well-defined HIV(+) cohort. We quantified antibodies to HIV-1 gp120, Gag, and CD4 receptor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from a cohort of 97 HIV(+) subjects at defined stages of DP. We also measured antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a function of the clinical status of the patients. We purified antibodies to CD4 and gp120 and assessed them for specificity, ability to block gp120 binding to target cells, ability to block virus infection, and ability to facilitate ADCC...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, R Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of 2 months in 2015. To reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing, with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
November 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Long Zhang, Adrienne Tin, Todd T Brown, Joseph B Margolick, Mallory D Witt, Frank J Palella, Lawrence A Kingsley, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Lisa P Jacobson, Alison G Abraham
We evaluated associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) levels in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men at risk for infection in the United States. Stored samples collected between 1999 and 2008 were tested for vitamin D metabolites between 2014 and 2015. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum concentration of 25[OH]D <20 ng/ml. Multivariate models were used to assess associations of various demographic and clinical factors with vitamin D status...
November 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shilei Ding, Myriam M Verly, Amy Princiotto, Bruno Melillo, Tony Moody, Todd Bradley, David Easterhoff, Michele Roger, Beatrice H Hahn, Navid Madani, Amos B Smith Iii, Barton F Haynes, Joseph G Sodroski, Andres Finzi
Recent studies have linked antibody Fc-mediated effector functions with control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. Interestingly, the presence of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in RV144 vaccine trial participants correlated inversely with HIV-1 acquisition risk. These antibodies were recently found to recognize epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein exposed upon Env-CD4 binding. Accordingly, small molecule CD4-mimetics (CD4mc) that induce Env to sample the CD4-bound conformation were shown to sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals...
November 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Leslie Massad, Charlesnika Evans, Raymond Kang, Anna Hotton, Ruth Greenblatt, Howard Minkoff, Kerry Murphy, Christine Colie, Kathleen M Weber
BACKGROUND: Correlates of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are poorly understood, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: In a cohort study, HIV seropositive and comparison seronegative women were assessed every six months 1994-2015. BV was considered present when three of four Amsel criteria were met. Behavioral characteristics were assessed using structured interviews. Multivariable logistic regression used Generalized Estimating Equation models to determine factors associated with BV...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nicola Richardson-Harman, Robert Parody, Peter A Anton, Ian McGowan, Gustavo Doncel, Andrea Ries Thurman, Carolina Herrera, Kattayoun Kordy, Julie Fox, Karen Tanner, Glenn Swartz, Charlene S Dezzutti
The ex vivo challenge assay is being increasingly used as an efficacy endpoint during early human clinical trials of HIV prevention treatments. There is no standard methodology for the ex vivo challenge assay although the use of different data collection methods and analytical parameters may impact results and reduce the comparability of findings between trials. In this analysis we describe the impact of data imputation methods, kit type, testing schedule and tissue type on variability, statistical power and ex vivo HIV growth kinetics...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Erik Billngs, Eric E Sanders-Buell, Meera L Bose, Gustavo H Kijak, Andrea Bradfield, Jacqueline Crossler, Miguel Arroyo, Leonard Maboko, Oliver Hoffmann, Steffen Geis, Deborah L Birx, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Merlin Robb, Michael Hoelscher, Sodsai Tovanabutra
In preparation for vaccine trials, HIV-1 genetic diversity was surveyed between 2002 and 2006 through the Cohort Development (CODE) study in the form of a retrospective and prospective observational study in and around the town of Mbeya in Tanzania's Southwest Highlands. This study describes the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains obtained from 97 out of 106 incident HIV-1 infections identified in three subpopulations of participants (one rural, two urban) from the Mbeya area. Near full-genome or half-genome sequencing showed a subtype distribution of 40% C, 17% A1, 1% D, and 42% inter-subtype recombinants...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ivailo Alexiev, Marina Alexandrova, Elica Golkocheva-Markova, Pavel Teoharov, Anna Gancheva, Asq Kostadinova, Reneta Dimitrova, Ivaylo Elenkov, Tatjana Chervenjakova, Mariana Stoycheva, Daniela Nikolova, Tonka Varleva, Maria Nikolova
In a representative nationwide study, we have determined the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infections among HIV positive patients diagnosed during the period 2010 - 2014 in Bulgaria. In spite of a relatively low rate of new HIV diagnoses, the rates of hepatitis B and C co-infections among these patients fell within the upper range reported in Europe. HBsAg and HCV antibodies (Ab) were found in 10.4% and 25.6% of the tested individuals, respectively. Importantly, high rates of active hepatitis infections were confirmed by detection of HBV DNA in 51...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xiaowei Zhang, Zining Zhang, Sijia He, Yajing Fu, Yanhong Chen, Nan Yi, Yongjun Jiang, Wenqing Geng, Hong Shang
Forkhead box O (FOXO)1, FOXO3, interferon regulatory factor (IRF)4, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xIAP), and E74-like factor (ELF)4 have been described as important regulators of T-cell functions and differentiation. However, whether these molecules are associated with HIV-1 disease progression is still unknown. In this study, we showed that the levels of FOXO3, IRF4, and xIAP mRNA in rapid progressors (RPs) were significantly higher than in HIV-negative healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, FOXO3 expression was positively correlated with HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T-cell activation...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rentian Cai, Li Liu, Bin Luo, Jiangrong Wang, Jiayin Shen, Yinzhong Shen, Renfang Zhang, Jun Chen, Hongzhou Lu
Both Caspase 1- and Caspase 3-induced cell death were reported to be the causes of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-infection. We measured by flow cytometry the expression of key proteins associated with pyroptosis (Caspase 1), apoptosis (Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Caspase 9), and immune activation in peripheral T cells. The percentages of CD4+ T cells that expressed Caspase 1 and Caspase 3 were significantly higher in untreated HIV-1 patients as compared with healthy control [Caspase 1: 19.40% vs. 4.65%, p = 0.006; Caspase 3: 12...
November 10, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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