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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Wenjun Zhang, Junfang Chen, Xiao Hong Pan, Jiafeng Zhang, Zhihong Guo, Yan Luo, Jiezhe Yang, Yan Xia, Lin He, Yun Xu, Ke Xu, Xiaobei Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among young people (18 to 25 years old) in Hangzhou. METHODS: Plasma samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between 2009 and 2013 from Hangzhou of Zhejiang province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of pol gene regions were amplified using a nested PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. RESULTS: Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/circulating recombinant forms (CRF) distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (68...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yihong Hu, Zhenzhou Wan, Yan-Heng Zhou, Davey M Smith, Yong-Tang Zheng, Chiyu Zhang
The on-going generation of HIV-1 inter-subtype recombination has led to new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) in Asia. Here, we evaluated whether previously reported URFs were actually CRFs. All available complete or near full-length HIV-1 URFs sequences from Asia were retrieved from the HIV Los Alamos National Laboratory Sequence database, and phylogenetic, transmission cluster and bootscan analyses were performed using MEGA 6.0, Cluster Picker 1.2.1, and SimPlot3.5.1...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari M Kitahata, Katherine K Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the US. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, in order to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Fujiko Mitsumoto-Kaseida, Masayuki Murata, Kazuya Ura, Koji Takayama, Satoshi Hiramine, Motohiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo
CD64 is an Fc-gamma-receptor type 1. The expression level of neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) is a known bacterial infection marker, and it also increases in viral infections. We examined the absolute nCD64 before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine its role as an infection and inflammation marker of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this prospective observational study, ninety-four HIV infected patients were enrolled and classified into ART (n=62), ART naive (n=24), and acute/early phase groups (n=8)...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, Rachel Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of two months in 2015. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and to close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Miroslawa Bilska, Haili Tang, David C Montefiori
Env-pseudotyped viruses are valuable reagents for studies of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. It is often assumed that all particles in the pseudovirus preparations are capable of only a single round of infection, making them a safe alternative to work with live HIV-1. Here we show that some Env-pseudotyped virus preparations give rise to low levels of replication-competent virus (RCV). These levels did not compromise results in the TZM-bl neutralization assay; however, their presence highlights a need to adhere to the same level of biosafety when working with Env-pseuodtyped viruses that is required for work with replication competent HIV-1...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Penh Sun Ly, Lam Van Nguyen, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Viet Chau Do, Nia Kurniati, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Azar Kariminia, Annette Sohn
<b>Background.</b> We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. <b>Methods.</b> Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in 6 Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and >1 of the following: 1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, 2) switch of >1 additional drug, or 3) a preceding HIV viral load (VL) ≥1,000 copies/mL...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Julie Yamaguchi, Catherine A Brennan, Elodie Alessandri, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Gavin Cloherty, Michael G Berg
HIV-2 exhibits a natural history of infection distinct from HIV-1. Primarily found in West Africa and in only 10-20% of HIV infections in this region, patients with HIV-2 typically exhibit a slower progression to AIDS, lower viral loads, and decreased rates of transmission. Here we used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the sequence and phylogenetic classification of 9 HIV-2 genomes. We identified a patient with a series of mutations in an invariant cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-restricted gag epitope required for retroviral structure and replication, and implicated in long-term non-progression to AIDS...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shanshan Xu, Lanlan Dong, Yingying Shi, Liujun Chen, Peipei Yuan, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a complex and unique retrovirus with the longest genomes among retroviruses used as vectors for gene therapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as key regulators that involved in diverse biological processes during viral infection. However, the role of lncRNAs in HFV infection remains unknown. In this study, we utilized next-generation sequencing to first characterize lncRNAs in 293T cells after HFV infection, evaluating length distribution, exon number distribution, volcano picture and lncRNA class distribution...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Florin Tuluc, Sergei Spitsin, Nancy B Tustin, Jennifer B Murray, Richard Tustin, Laura A Schankel, Andrew Wiznia, Sharon Nachman, Steven D Douglas
We investigated the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on immune recovery, particularly on the percentages of PD-1-positive cells within the major leukocyte subsets. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma samples collected longitudinally from a subset of 13 children and adolescents (between 9.7 and 18.2 years old) who were enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1066 were used for this study. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of raltegravir-containing cART regimen on the distribution of leukocyte populations, on the expression of PD-1 on T cell subpopulations, and on the expression of well-established markers of T cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) on CD8 T cells...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yanping Li, Jing Miao, Zhijiang Miao, Yindi Song, Min Wen, Ya Zhang, Shimin Guo, Yuan Zhao, Yue Feng, Xueshan Xia
In recent years, multiple circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been described in Yunnan, China. Here, we identified a novel HIV-1 CRF (CRF86_BC) isolated from three heterosexuals with no obvious epidemiologic linkage in western Yunnan (Baoshan prefecture) in China. CRF86_BC had a subtype C backbone with four subtype B fragments inserted into the pol, vpr, vpu, env, and nef gene regions, respectively. Furthermore, subregion tree analysis revealed that subtype C backbone originated from an Indian C lineage and subtype B segment inserted was from a Thai B lineage...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Carmen H Logie, Uzma Ahmed, Wangari E Tharao, Mona Loutfy
African and Caribbean Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by new HIV infections. ACB women's HIV vulnerabilty is shaped by contexts of stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma compromises quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH), yet scant research has examined concomitant effects of racial discrimination and HIV-related stigma on QOL. We used data from a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH in Ontario (n=173) to test a conceptual model of pathways between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, depression, social support and QOL...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xinli Lu, Xianjiang Kang, Yongjian Liu, Yan Li, Suliang Chen, Jingyun Li, Ze Cui
Sexual exposure has been the predominant route of HIV-1 spread in Hebei Province, China. However, little information is available on HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among HIV-1 infected youths aged 16-25 years who are infected with HIV-1 and sexually active. In this study, the overall prevalence of TDR was 6.6% (10/152), a moderate level (5.0%-15.0%) according to World Health Organization Threshold Survey guidelines. However, the prevalence of TDR to protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1 infected individuals aged 15 to 39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 with immunosuppression and the use of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA)...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Eleonora Magistrelli, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVES: Statins have shown anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties in both general and HIV-infected population, but their effect on plasma D-dimer levels is controversial and it has not been investigated to date in HIV-positive patients. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of rosuvastatin on D-dimer and other serum inflammation markers among these subjects. METHODS: Prospective, cohort study of HIV-1-infected adult patients receiving a stable combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), who started a lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin (10 mg daily) and were followed up for at least 12 months...
October 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Daniel Scott-Algara, Josiane Warszawski, Jérôme Le Chenadec, Céline Didier, Thomas Montange, Jean-Paul Viard, Catherine Dollfus, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Christine Rouzioux, Stéphane Blanche, Florence Buseyne
In perinatally HIV-1-infected youths living in France, we previously reported that Gag-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation is more frequently detected in patients of black ethnicity than in those of other ethnicities. We observed that black patients had higher levels of dendritic cells (DCs) than other patients. We aimed at studying the association of DC levels with Gag-specific T cell proliferation. The ANRS-EP38-IMMIP study is an observational study of youths aged between 15 and 24 years who were perinatally infected with HIV...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Katia Falasca, Marcella Reale, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Chiara D'Angelo, Simona Coladonato, Jacopo Vecchiet
The HIV may trigger a process of neuronal loss and axonal degeneration throughout the brain, which is carried on by the immune system releasing of proinflammatory cytokines, so that chronic inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune response, glial cell dysfunction, and adverse antiretroviral therapy (ART) effect play an important role causing milder HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. All patients have been tested for neurocognitive functioning through a comprehensive, five-domain neuropsychological battery performed in the study...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rebecca Nedellec, Joshua T Herbeck, Peter W Hunt, Steven G Deeks, James I Mullins, Elizabeth D Anton, Jacqueline D Reeves, Donald E Mosier
Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is common during chronic HIV-1 infection, but is even more common in individuals who have failed antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prior studies have suggested rapid mutation and/or recombination of HIV-1 envelope (env) genes during coreceptor switching. We compared the functional and genotypic changes in env of viruses from viremic subjects who had failed ART just before and after coreceptor switching and compared those to viruses from matched subjects without coreceptor switching...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sara Tanaskovic, Patricia Price, Martyn A French, Sonia Fernandez
HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced immunodeficiency often retain low CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts despite virological control. We examined proliferative responses and upregulation of costimulatory molecules following anti-CD3 stimulation, in HIV patients with persistent CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell deficiency on ART. Aviraemic HIV patients with nadir CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts <100 cells/μl who had received ART for a median time of 7 (range 1-11) years were categorized into those achieving low (<350 cells/μL; n=13) or normal (>500 cells/μL; n=20) CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts...
October 5, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
John Henry Morris, Tran Nguyen, Abuoma Nwadike, Mackenzie L Geels, Derrick L Kamp, Bo Ram Kim, Jean D Boyer, Anding Shen
In vitro, it is difficult to infect resting CD4(+) T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), but infections readily occur in vivo. Endothelial cells (ECs) interact with resting CD4(+) T cells in vivo, and we found previously that EC stimulation leads to productive and latent HIV infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we further characterize the interactions between EC and resting T cells. We found that resting CD4(+) T cells did not require direct contact with EC for productive and/or latent infection to occur, indicating the involvement of soluble factors...
October 5, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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