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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509569/hiv-1-crf07_bc-with-a-seven-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-gag-p6-region-dominates-in-hiv-1-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#1
Yue Wu, Haiying Wang, Xuqi Ren, Zhengwei Wan, Guifang Hu, Shixing Tang
We examined sequence variation in the HIV-1 gag p6 region from 27 individuals infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC. An additional 269 gag p6 sequences of CRF07_BC from the Los Alamos National Laboratory database were also analyzed. A unique deletion of seven amino acid (aa) (p6Δ7) (aa 30-36, PIDKELY, in the HXB2 genome) was observed to exist exclusively in CRF07_BC. Indeed, 54.1% (160/296) of the CRF07_BC sequences contained the p6Δ7 mutation. The prevalence of the p6Δ7 mutation was 37.2% (29/78) and 92.3% (48/52) in CRF07_BC-infected intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-hiv-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#2
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed yet persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons, and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503929/rare-control-of-sivmac239-infection-in-a-vaccinated-rhesus-macaque
#3
Mauricio de Aguiar Martins, Damien C Tully, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Kim Weisgrau, David J Bean, Rujuta Gadgil, Martin J Gutman, Aline Domingues, Helen Skye Maxwell, Diogo Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Michael Cruz, Noemia S Lima, Myrna Bonaldo, John Altman, Eva Rakasz, Saverio Capuano, Keith Reimann, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Ronald Desrosiers, Todd Allen, David Watkins
Effector memory T-cell (T<sub>EM</sub>) responses display potent antiviral properties and have been linked to stringent control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Since recurrent antigen stimulation drives the differentiation of CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cells toward the T<sub>EM</sub> phenotype, here we incorporated a persistent herpesviral vector into a heterologous prime/boost/boost vaccine approach in order to maximize the induction of T<sub>EM</sub> responses...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497977/effect-of-amino-acid-substitutions-within-the-v3-region-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-on-interaction-with-ccr5-coreceptor
#4
Sayamon Hongjaisee, Martine Braibant, Francis Barin, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Wasna Sirirungsi, Tanawan Samleerat
Specific amino acids within the V3 loop of HIV-1 CRF01_AE envelope glycoprotein that are involved in the interaction with CCR5/CXCR4 coreceptors, are not well characterized. We generated V3 mutants using PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis of HIV-1 CRF01_AE R5-env plasmids at specific positions. Mutant viruses were produced by env-pseudotyped virus assay, tested for coreceptor usage using U373.R5 and U373.X4 cells, and viral entry was assessed with luciferase activity measurement. All viruses, harboring either single or double mutations, used the CCR5 coreceptor...
May 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486838/brain-microglial-cells-are-highly-susceptible-to-hiv-1-infection-and-spread
#5
Jennifer J Cenker, Ryan D Stultz, David McDonald
Macrophages are a target of HIV-1 infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many SIVs but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain...
May 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474534/evolution-of-hiv-1-surveillance-drug-resistance-mutations-over-ten-years-in-new-south-wales-australia
#6
Angie Pinto, Alex Carrera, Hanan Salem, Kiran Thapa, Ansari Shaik, Kathy Petoumenos, Philip Cunningham, Roger Garsia, Dominic Dwyer, David A Cooper, Anthony D Kelleher
New South Wales (NSW) has the greatest burden of HIV in Australia, with 2012 and 2013 recording the highest rates of new diagnoses in twenty years. Concurrently, there has been significant changes in antiretorviral treatments and testing paradigms. We compiled a statewide resistance database to characterize changes in HIV-1 resistance mutations over time. Genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing (GART) was performed on request at three reference laboratories using commercial and in house methods. 7629 HIV-1 polymerase sequences obtained from GART from 2004-2013 were retrospectively collated, reformatted, de-identified and analysed using Stanford HIVdb program 7...
May 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467726/hiv-patient-systemic-mitochondrial-respiration-improves-with-exercise
#7
Morgan Kocher, Mindy McDermott, Rachel Lindsey, Cecilia Shikuma, Mariana Gerschenson, Dominic Chow, Lindsay Kohorn, Ronald K Hetzler, Iris Kimura
INTRODUCTION: In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardio-metabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12 week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) who successfully completed a 12 week aerobic exercise program...
May 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462628/frequent-use-of-khat-an-amphetamine-like-substance-association-with-loss-to-follow-up-and-adherence-among-patients-new-to-hiv-care-in-ethiopia
#8
Alan Lifson, Sale Workneh, Tibebe Shenie, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Zenebe Melaku, Lemlem Bezabih, Hiwot Tekle Waktola, Behailu Dagne, Rose Hilk, Ken C Winters, Lucy Slater
Khat, a plant native to East Africa, has amphetamine-like psychoactive constituents, and is a potential risk factor for HIV infection. Chronic use can cause cognitive impairment and other mental disorders, raising concerns about effects on retention and adherence with HIV care. During 2013-14, 322 Ethiopian patients newly enrolled at HIV clinics in Dire Dawa and Harar were surveyed about khat use and prospectively followed for one year; 9% died, 18% transferred care to other clinics, and 22% were lost to follow-up (LTFU) (no clinic visit for >3 months)...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462622/trends-in-hiv-continuum-of-care-outcomes-over-10-years-of-follow-up-at-a-large-hiv-primary-medical-home-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#9
Michael K Ghiam, Peter Rebeiro, Megan Turner, William B Rogers, Sally Bebawy, Stephen P Raffanti, Anna Kristine Person, April C Pettit
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of retention in care (RIC) and viral suppression (VS) in the southeastern United States (US), a region disproportionately affected by HIV-infection, are lacking. METHODS: HIV-infected adults with ≥1 medical visit at the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (Nashville, Tennessee) from 2004-2013 were included. RIC was ≥2 (a) laboratory dates [CD4+ counts or HIV-1 viral loads (VL)] or (b) provider encounters and/or laboratory dates in the year of interest, ≥90 days apart...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462582/detection-of-hiv-in-urine-of-hiv-infected-patients-without-antiviral-therapies
#10
Yong-Chao Qiao, Qing Xu, Jing-Chen Wei, Wei Ling, Yan-Hong Pan, Hai-Lu Zhao
Five patients were urine positive for HIV-1 RNA (Table 1). High concentration of HIV-1 RNA in fresh urine samples was found in three patients (871,000/150,500/100,200 copies) whereas low concentration was detected in two (472.2/214.4 copies). Viral load was 224,477164,223 [meanSD] copies in fresh urine samples and 11,5606,695 in paired blood samples (p=0.147). There was no statistically significant correlation of urine HIV-1 load with blood HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ cell count or kidney function. Among the three patients who had high concentration of urine HIV-1 RNA, two were dead within one month of enrollment before initiation of an antiretroviral treatment...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443724/genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-gene-vif-among-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-brazilians
#11
Fabiola Villanova, Marta Barreiros, Luiz Mario Janini, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz, Elcio Leal
HIV-1 has the Vif protein, which binds to human antiviral proteins APOBEC3 to form complexes to be degraded by cellular proteolysis. To further explore HIV-1 diversity at the population level, we analyzed blood samples from 317 treatment-naïve patients in Brazil. Here, we explored the correlations of Vif polymorphisms with clinical parameters of the patients and found that mutation K22H is associated with low CD4+ cell counts and higher viral loads. Phylogenetic analysis of the vif gene indicated that subtype B was predominant in ∼77% (243/317) of the patients, followed by HIV-1 F ∼18% (56/317) and subtype C ∼4% (12/317); five samples were BF recombinants (∼1% of patients), and one was an AG recombinant...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443684/genetic-variants-of-hiv-type-1-in-msm-in-russia
#12
Elena Kazennova, Vita Laga, Konstantin Gromov, Natalya Lebedeva, Eugenia Zhukova, Alexander Pronin, Liliya Grezina, Nataliya Dement'eva, Andrey Shemshura, Marina Bobkova
The MSM population infected with HIV is poorly studied in Russia due to stigma and discrimination. In the first years of the HIV epidemic, the only HIV genetic variant that circulated among MSM was subtype B, usually acquired abroad. Meanwhile, the massive epidemic of HIV in Russia was caused by a highly homogenic subtype A variant, AFSU (A6), and spread mainly among drug users. In this study, 155 HIV pol sequences from MSM collected during the period of 2006-2016 were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis found that 19...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443678/outcomes-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-among-undocumented-immigrants-in-clinical-care
#13
Jonathan Ross, Uriel R Felsen, Chinazo O Cunningham, Viraj V Patel, David B Hanna
HIV-infected undocumented immigrants face unique barriers to care yet little is known about their clinical outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults in clinical care from 2006-2014 at a large academic medical center in a setting where medical insurance is available to HIV-infected undocumented immigrants. Undocumented status was assessed based on Social Security number and insurance status and verified through medical chart review. Using Poisson regression models, we compared undocumented and documented patients with respect to retention in care (≥ 2 HIV-related lab tests ≥ 90 days apart), antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription (≥ 3 active antiretroviral agents prescribed in a year) and viral suppression (HIV RNA <200 copies/ml for the last measured viral load) for each year in care...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443672/heightened-hiv-antibody-responses-in-postpartum-women-as-exemplified-by-recent-infection-assays-implications-for-incidence-estimates
#14
John Hargrove, Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean Humphrey, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Michele Owen, Silvina Masciotra, Bharat Parekh, Yen T Duong, Trudy Dobbs, Peter Kilmarx, Elizabeth Gonese
BACKGROUND: Laboratory assays that identify recent HIV infections are important for assessing impacts of interventions aimed at reducing HIV incidence. Kinetics of HIV humoral responses can vary with inherent assay properties, and between HIV subtypes, populations and physiological states. They are important in determining mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) for antibody-based assays for detecting recent HIV infections. METHODS: We determined MDRIs for BED-CEIA, LAg and BRAI assays for 101 seroconverting postpartum women, recruited in Harare in 1997- 2000 during the Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies (ZVITAMBO) Trial, comparing them against published MDRIs estimated from seroconverting cases in the general population...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335609/early-and-delayed-antiretroviral-therapy-results-in-comparable-reductions-in-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-marker-expression
#15
Rachel Lena Rutishauser, Wendy Hartogensis, Christian Deo Deguit, Melissa Krone, Rebecca Hoh, Frederick M Hecht, Christopher D Pilcher, Peter Bacchetti, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Joseph M McCune
In untreated HIV infection, CD8(+) T cell exhaustion (i.e., decreased proliferative and effector capacity) is associated with high levels of expression of coinhibitory receptors, including PD-1, T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT), CD160, and 2B4. This is evident for both HIV-specific and non-HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection decreases but may not completely normalize the expression of such "exhaustion markers." Compared to initiation of ART later in the course of disease, initiation soon after infection reduces some parameters of chronic inflammation and adaptive immune dysfunction...
April 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325060/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-in-northeastern-brazil-high-prevalence-of-non-b-subtypes
#16
Edson Delatorre, Jose Carlos Couto-Fernandez, Gonzalo Bello
The Northeastern Brazilian region has experienced a constant increase in the number of newly reported AIDS cases over the last decade, but the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains currently disseminated in this region remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 140 patients followed at outpatient clinics from four Northeastern Brazilian states (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, and Piauí) between 2014 and 2015. Subtype B was the most prevalent HIV-1 clade (72%) detected in the Northeastern region, followed by subtypes F1 (6%), C (5%), and D (1%)...
April 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325065/low-rates-of-transmitted-drug-resistances-among-treatment-naive-hiv-1-infected-students-in-beijing-china
#17
Mingqiang Hao, Juan Wang, Ruolei Xin, Xue Li, Yinxiao Hao, Jing Chen, Jingrong Ye, Yu Wang, Xiong He, Chun Huang, Hongyan Lu
Beijing has seen a rising epidemic of HIV among students. However, little information was known about the molecular epidemiologic data among HIV-infected students. In this study, the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in pol sequences derived from 237 HIV-infected students were analyzed. TDR mutations were found in five men who have sex with men (MSM) population among students. The overall prevalence of TDR in students was 2.1%, comprising 1.3% of protease inhibitors and 0.8% of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
April 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314381/dysregulation-of-alveolar-macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-nadph-oxidases-and-tgf%C3%AE-1-in-otherwise-healthy-hiv-infected-individuals
#18
Samantha M Yeligar, Janine M Ward, Frank L Harris, Lou Ann S Brown, David M Guidot, Sushma K Cribbs
Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction...
April 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298138/four-closely-related-hiv-1-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-recombinant-forms-identified-in-east-china
#19
Fan Li, Yuxueyun Li, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events...
April 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398775/lack-of-support-for-socially-connected-hiv-1-transmission-among-young-adult-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
Kayo Fujimoto, Lyndon M Coghill, Christopher A Weier, Lu-Yu Hwang, Ju Yeong Kim, John A Schneider, Michael L Metzker, Jeremy M Brown
We explore the phylogenetic relationships among HIV sequences sampled from young adult black men who have sex with men (YAB-MSM), who are connected through peer referral/social ties and who attend common venues. Using 196 viral sequences sampled from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 individuals, our preliminary phylogenetic results indicate that these socially connected YAB-MSM are infected with distantly related viruses and provide no evidence for viral transmission between network members. Our results suggest that HIV-prevention strategies that target young adult MSM should extend beyond their network members and local community...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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