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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Adrienne E Swanstrom, Alison Jacques, Gregory Del Prete, Paul Bieniasz, Theodora Hatziioannou, Robert J Gorelick, Jeffrey Lifson
Persistence of replication competent viral reservoirs during infection remains a barrier to HIV cure, despite the ability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to effectively suppress viral replication. Simian-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (stHIV) is a minimally chimeric HIV-1 that is comprised of 94% HIV-1 sequence, contains HIV-1 drug and immunologic targets, and is capable of replicating to high levels and causing authentic HIV-like pathogenesis leading to clinical AIDS in pigtail macaques. Suppression of stHIV replication by cART provides a model for study of viral reservoirs and HIV-specific intervention strategies targeting them...
January 11, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ravinder Bhukar, Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Deepti Suri, Jitendra Shandilya, Amit Rawat, Biman Saikia, Surjit Singh
BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte subsets of long term non progressor HIV infected children is a less studied aspect of HIV infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of different lymphocyte subsets was done in HIV infected children ≥ 8 years of age. Subjects were divided in two groups (Group 1 (LTNP), treatment naive with CD4 ≥ 500 cells/µl (n=20), Group 2, (nLTNP) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4 count ≤ 500 on at least one occasion (n=21). Group 3 comprised of age, sex matched healthy controls (n=20)...
January 11, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ashley Myerski, Aaron Siegel, Jarret Engstrom, Ian McGowan, Rhonda M Brand
<i>Ex vivo</i> explant models are used to characterize in vitro efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agents. Tissue is challenged with virus in culture and HIV-1 p24 levels are quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on supernatants collected throughout a 14-21-day incubation. Due to the narrow dynamic range of HIV-1 p24 kits, we evaluated whether droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) provides an alternative method to quantify HIV-1 replication in supernatant samples. We used samples from the MWRI-01 study, which evaluated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine using the explant model (McGowan I et al...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Serges Tchatchouang, Ariane Nzouankeu, Valerie Donkeng, Sara Eyangoh, Laure Ngando, Veronique Penlap, Marie-Christine Fonkoua, Eric Walter Pefura Yone, Richard Njouom
Tuberculosis (TB) and pneumocystosis are opportunistic diseases associated with HIV/AIDS infection. In Cameroon, although TB HIV-associated diseases are known, limited one are available for pneumocystosis and bacteria. The study was done from January 2017 to January 2018 in Yaounde on HIV-positive and -negative subjects with respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The clinical samples were subjected to bacterial culture and multiplex RT-PCR targeting 10 bacteria and Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP). Specimens from suspected TB patients were subjected to microscopy, culture and/or GeneXpert analysis...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mimi Ghosh, Mariel Jais, Josie Delisle, Naji Younes, Ifeyinwa Benyeogor, Roshni Biswas, Hani Mohamed, Jason Daniels, Cuiwei Wang, Mary Young, Seble Kassaye
A rise in new HIV diagnoses among older adults is characterized by poor prognosis and reduced survival times. Although heterosexual transmission remains the main route of infection in women, little is known regarding immune functions in the genital tract of postmenopausal women, especially those who are HIV-positive. Further, effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the genital tract immune system is unclear. Using the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, we obtained cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL) samples from premenopausal and postmenopausal HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, some of whom were on HRT...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Priyanka Namdev, Denzelle Lee Lyngdoh, Hamid Yousf Dar, Shivendra K Chaurasiya, Rupesh Srivastava, Timir Tripathi, Rajaneesh Anupam
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) and other neuroinflammatory diseases. The pX region of HTLV-1 genome encodes an accessory protein p30 that is required for viral persistence and spread in the host. p30 regulates viral gene expression at the transcription level by competing with Tax for p300 binding and at post transcriptional level by nuclear retention of tax/rex mRNA. In addition, p30 modulates the host cellular environment by binding to various host proteins such as ATM, REGγ, PRMT5, etc...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bongane Steven Ngutshane, Anna Sparaco, Elizabeth Sarah Mayne
HIV infection was previously considered an exclusion criterion for renal dialysis and transplant. Recent research has prompted policy changes allowing for transplantation in this subgroup of patients. Theoretical risks with transplantation include the immune dysregulation associated with post-transplantation immunosuppression and immune activation with possible organ rejection. Assessments for eligibility to renal transplantation rely on a point system, which allocates points based on patient's age, previous transplants, and time on the waiting list as well as panel reactive antibodies (PRAs) amongst other parameters...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jian Xiao, Lifeng Zhang, Yuan Dong, Xian Liu, Lishan Peng, Yang Yang, Ying Wang
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We hypothesized that PD-1expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) would be functional and their expression levels may associate with activation status of CD4+ T, CD8+ T cells and the disease progression of HIV-1 infected patients. In order to prove it, we dynamically examined PD-1 expression levels by Tregs in peripheral blood of HIV-1 infected individuals not receiving anti-retro viral therapy. METHODS: Eighty-one HIV-1 infected individuals not undergoing anti-retroviral therapy and twenty-two HIV-1-seronegative donors were enrolled in our study...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Brett Williams, Kathleen M Weber, George Chlipala, Charlesnika Evans, Ralph Morack, Audrey French
It remains unclear whether differences in gut microbiota noted between HIV infected and uninfected individuals are driven by HIV or sexual behavior. We evaluated rectal swab microbiota of HIV-infected and uninfected women with similar demographic, neighborhood and diet characteristics enrolled in the Chicago Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). DNA was amplified for sequencing of fragments of bacterial small subunit (SSU or 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. HIV infected and uninfected women did not differ by Shannon diversity index (p=0...
January 8, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ryan J Sangiovanni, Bernadette Jakeman, Mona Nasiri, Lindsey Ruth, Sheran Mahatme, Nimish Patel
People living with HIV (PLWH) are at an increased risk of contraindicated drug-drug interactions (XDDIs), which may result in deleterious outcomes. Study objectives were to: 1) compare the frequency of hospitalizations between patients with and without XDDIs and 2) determine if XDDIs are independently associated with hospitalizations in PLWH. A retrospective cohort study was performed among PLWH receiving care at the Upstate New York Veterans' Healthcare Administration or University of New Mexico Truman Health Services from 2000-2013...
January 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Robert Westley Oda, Melissa Agsalda-Garcia, Nicholas Loi, Natalie Kamada, Cris Milne, Jeffrey Killeen, So Yung Choi, Eunjung Lim, Tayro Acosta-Maeda, Anupam Misra, Bruce Shiramizu
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for pre-cancerous anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). Anal cytology and digital rectal examination are performed as screening tools but extensive training and appropriate instruments are required to follow-up on an abnormal anal cytology. Thus novel approaches to SIL evaluation could improve better healthcare follow up by efficient and timely diagnosis to offer treatment options. Recently, Raman-enhanced spectroscopy (RESpect) has emerged as a potential new tool for early identification of SIL...
January 5, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Alexander T H Cocker, Louise Greathead, Anna A Herasimtschuk, Sundhiya Mandalia, Peter Kelleher, Nesrina Imami
MAIT cell populations are reduced in frequency in HIV-1+ patients, and this disruption is associated with systemic immune activation. Reconstitution of MAIT frequency may benefit HIV-1 infected individuals, however only recently has in vivo work been endeavoured. Treatment with IL-2, GM-CSF and rhGH immunotherapy combined with an HIV-1 vaccine in the context of ART has shown to reconstitute CD4 T-cell population numbers and function. In this study cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 HIV-1+ patients who were undergoing a combination of HIV-1 vaccine and/or IL-2, GM-CSF and rhGH immunotherapy in conjunction with ART were analysed to assess the potential of this treatment to promote MAIT cell proliferation...
January 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Giulia Calenda, Guillermo Villegas, Alexandra Reis, Lily Millen, Patrick James Barnable, Lisa Mamkina, Narender Kumar, Kevin Roberts, Tamara Kalir, Elena Martinelli, Rhoda Sperling, Natalia Teleshova
Factors underlying HIV acquisition in women remain incompletely understood. This study evaluated ex vivo mucosal HIV-1BaL infection (ectocervix, endocervix), T cell frequencies and phenotype (ectocervix, endocervix, peripheral blood) and HIV-1BaL-induced tissue immune responses (ectocervix) in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle using samples obtained from women undergoing hysterectomies. Tissue infectivity (number of productively infected explants) and infection level following 500 and/or 50 TCID50 HIV-1BaL challenge were similar in the proliferative and secretory phases...
January 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Morgane Bomsel, Lucia Lopalco, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Gabriel Siracusano, Yonatan Ganor
HIV-1 mucosal transmission in genital epithelia occurs through infection of Langerhans cells and subsequent transinfection of CD4+ T cells. We previously reported that the vasodilator neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), secreted upon activation of sensory peripheral neurons that innervate all mucosal epithelia, significantly inhibits transinfection. To investigate the association between CGRP and HIV-1 during infection, we evaluated circulating CGRP levels in HIV-1-infected patients. Plasma was obtained from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-naive or cART-treated patients with primary/acute (PHI) or chronic (CHI) HIV-1 infection, as well as from individuals who naturally control HIV-1 infection, namely exposed seronegatives (ESNs), elite controllers (ECs), and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs)...
January 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Megan A O'Connor, Paul V Munson, Hillary C Tunggal, Nika Hajari, Thomas B Lewis, Debra Bratt, Cassie Moats, Jeremy Smedley, Kenneth C Bagley, James I Mullins, Deborah H Fuller
Depletion of gut T helper 17 (Th17) cells during HIV infection leads to decreased mucosal integrity and increased disease progression. Conversely, T regulatory (Treg) cells may inhibit antiviral responses or immune activation. In HIV elite controllers, a balanced Th17/Treg ratio is maintained in the blood, suggesting a role for these responses in controlling inflammation and viral replication. HIV-infected individuals exhibit a range in responsiveness to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Given the link between the Th17/Treg ratio and HIV disease, we reasoned these responses may play a role in cART responsiveness...
January 2, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Julie Lajoie, Annelie Tjernlund, Kenneth Omollo, Gabriella Edfeldt, Maria Rohl, Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Juliana Cheruiyot, Makobu Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Julius Oyugi, Kristina Broliden, Keith Raymond Fowke
INTRODUCTION: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is the most common hormonal contraceptive used by women in sub-Saharan Africa, however, it has been epidemiologically associated with HIV infections. To assess if DMPA has an effect on the number and activation of HIV target cells, this study assessed the levels and phenotype of blood-and mucosal derived HIV target cells among women using DMPA. METHODS: Thirty-five HIV uninfected women from the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort from Nairobi, Kenya were enrolled in the study (15 using DMPA and 20 not using hormonal contraception)...
December 26, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Duong Tuan Pham, Dung Thi Thanh Nguyen, Tri Anh Nguyen, Chi Van Tran, Lan TThi Thuy Tran, Sushil Devare, Anh Hong Tran, Sonu Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Infection with HTLV, though asymptomatic in most cases, can lead to severe illnesses, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. HTLV can be transmitted by whole blood (WB) transfusion. The prevalence of HTLV amongst blood donor populations has not been characterized in Vietnam, though the screening has been partially implemented on voluntary basis since 2016. METHODS: To determine the Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors, a total of 14,819 healthy blood donors in Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam and 1,003 samples from HBsAg, anti-HCV, or HIV Ag/Ab reactive blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies by a Chemi-Luminescence Immuno-Assay (CLIA) using the Abbott ARCHITECT rHTLV-I/II assay...
December 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tam Dang Nguyen, James Davis, Roelle Adriene Eugenio, Yingguang Liu
Female sex hormones, the OCT4 transcription factor, and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are all involved in the development of breast cancer. However, whether there are crosstalks between these factors to promote breast cancer is still unknown. Using the T47D human breast cancer cell line, we have found that estradiol and progesterone synergistically activate HERV-K through nuclear receptors. The progesterone receptor (isoform B) binds a progesterone response element in a long terminal repeat (LTR5HS) of HERV-K...
December 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Oliver Laeyendecker, Ronald Gray, Mary Grabowski, Steven Reynolds, Anthony Ndyanabo, Joseph Ssekasanvu, Reinaldo Fernandez, Maria Wawer, David Serwadda, Thomas C Quinn
OBJECTIVE: The Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay (LAg-Avidity) with viral load >1000 copies/ml is being used to estimate population-level HIV incidence in Africa. However, this has not been validated in East Africa where HIV-1 subtypes A and D circulate. METHODS: Sera from persons seen in two surveys (2008-09 and 2012-13) limited to those who attended the previous round of the Rakai Community Cohort in Uganda were analyzed. The performance of the current LAg-Avidity protocol, with a mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) of 130 days and false recent rate (FRR) of 0% was compared to subtype-specific MDRI and FRR, adjusted to subtype distributions...
December 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Susan D F Irias, Maria K S Torres, Maria E S Avelino, Mike B Santos, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Felipe Bonfim Freitas, Vania N Azevedo, Rosimar N M Feitosa, Antonio Carlos R Vallinoto, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado
The transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains may jeopardize the success of early antiretroviral treatment among recent HIV infected patients. This study aimed to identify subtypes of HIV-1 and transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in Belém, Pará, Amazon Region of Brazil. The HIV-1 protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions of 40 antiretroviral therapy-naive people living with HIV were sequenced and viral subtypes were assigned. The CPR and GRI-HIVdb identified TDMR to the protease inhibitor and nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
December 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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