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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918646/depletion-of-gut-resident-ccr5-cells-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#1
David Patrick Merriam, Connie Chen, Gema Mendez-Lagares, Kenneth Rogers, Anthony Michaels, Jiangli Yan, Paul Casaz, Keith Reimann, Francois Villenger, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Here we investigate the efficacy of two novel cytotoxic treatments for targeting and eliminating CCR5+ cells in young rhesus macaques...
September 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817947/mortality-and-health-service-use-following-acute-myocardial-infarction-among-persons-with-hiv-a-population-based-study
#2
Caroline Jeon, Cindy Lau, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Sean B Rourke, Tony Antoniou
People with HIV have higher rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-negative individuals. We compared mortality risk and health service use following AMI among people with and without HIV between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2015. We conducted a population-based study using Ontario's administrative databases. Our primary outcomes were risk of inpatient death and death at 30 days following hospital discharge. In secondary analyses, we compared use of revascularization procedures within 90 days of AMI, as well as readmission or emergency department visits for heart disease and cardiology follow-up within 90 days of discharge...
September 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903577/a-2-4-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-v5-region-of-hiv-1-env-gp120-confers-viral-resistance-to-the-broadly-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-vrc01
#3
Shingo Tachibana, Maho Sasaki, Takako Tanaka, Mari Inoue, Youdiil Ophinni, Tomohiro Kotaki, Masanori Kameoka
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. We previously reported that 3 amino acid residues at positions 185, 186, and 197 of gp120 played an important role in the VRC01 resistance of CRF01_AE Env (AE-Env) clones isolated from HIV-infected Thai individuals...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899162/high-levels-of-viral-suppression-among-east-african-hiv-infected-women-and-men-in-serodiscordant-partnerships-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-with-high-cd4-counts-and-during-pregnancy
#4
Andrew Mujugira, Jared Baeten, Lara Kidoguchi, Jessica Haberer, Connie Celum, Deborah Donnell, Kenneth Ngure, Elizabeth Bukusi, Nelly Mugo, Stephen Asiimwe, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Elly Katabira, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: People who are asymptomatic and feel healthy, including pregnant women, may be less motivated to initiate ART or achieve high adherence. We assessed whether ART initiation, and viral suppression 6, 12 and 24-months after ART initiation, were lower in HIV-infected members of serodiscordant couples who initiated during pregnancy or with higher CD4 counts. METHODS: We used data from the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label study of the delivery of integrated PrEP and ART (at any CD4 count) for HIV prevention among high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899105/a-summary-of-the-second-annual-hiv-microbiome-workshop
#5
Brett Williams, Mimi Ghosh, Charles A B Boucher, Frederic Bushman, Stacy Carrington-Lawrence, Ronald G Collman, Satya Dandekar, Que Dang, Angela Malaspina, Roger Paredes, Cara Wilson, Piotr Nowak, Nichole Klatt, Laurel Lagenaur, Alan Landay
Commensal organisms appear to play significant roles in normal homeostasis as well as in the pathogensis of HIV infection in a number of different organ systems. On November 17th and 18th 2016, leading researchers from around the world met to discuss their insights on advances in our understanding of HIV and the microbiome at the NIH in Bethesda.
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899104/therapeutic-vaccine-against-hiv-viral-variability-ctl-epitopes-and-genetics-of-patients
#6
Herve J Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viro-immunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs towards this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their HLA alleles...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#7
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891318/-what-would-an-hiv-cure-mean-to-you-qualitative-analysis-from-a-crowdsourcing-contest-in-guangzhou-china
#8
Alice Zhang, Xin Pan, Feng Wu, Yang Zhao, Fengyu Hu, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Joseph D Tucker
Much HIV cure social science research has focused on high-income countries. Local key population perspectives, especially from people living with HIV (PLHIV), are needed in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). We organized an open contest soliciting responses from key populations, including PLHIV, about what a cure would mean in their lives. Tailored in-person events and social media were used to engage PLHIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and local residents. We received 471 contributions over four months...
September 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793783/characterization-of-a-novel-hiv-1-second-generation-recombinant-form-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-beijing-china
#9
Chen Wang, Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Ruolei Xin, Weisi Xu, Yi Feng, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
Cocirculation of multiple subtypes in the same population contributes significantly to the emergence of recombinant viruses. BJ2015EU19, a novel CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, second-generation recombinant virus, was isolated from a man who has sex with men in Beijing, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome showed that BJ2015EU19 consisted of seven fragments from CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. There were six recombinant breakpoints in the pol, vpu, env, and nef genes of BJ2015EU19, which were different from the other circulating recombinant forms and unique recombinant forms (URFs)...
September 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793781/second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-it-is-time-to-mind-the-gaps
#10
Richard A Murphy, Richard Court, Gary Maartens, Henry Sunpath
The delay between first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and initiation of second-line ART in resource-limited settings can be prolonged. Increasing evidence links delayed antiretroviral switch with increased risk for opportunistic infection (OI) and death, particularly in patients with advanced HIV at the time of first-line failure. As access to viral load (VL) monitoring widens beyond a few countries, mechanisms are needed to optimize the use of routine virologic monitoring and assure that first-line regimen failure results in prompt second-line switch...
September 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882067/differentiating-immune-cell-targets-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-for-hiv-cure
#11
Shahzada Khan, Sushama Telwatte, Martin Trapecar, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently-infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes that constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4+ T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4+ T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Despite the significant contribution of gut tissue to viral replication and persistence, little is known about the cell types that support persistence of HIV in the gut; importantly, T cells in the gut have phenotypic, functional, and survival properties that are distinct from T cells in other tissues...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882056/multiscale-imaging-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-humanized-mice
#12
Collin Kieffer, Mark S Ladinsky, Pamela J Bjorkman
HIV transmission within lymphoid tissues remains incompletely characterized at the level of individual cells and virions. Here we visually describe our approach to understanding HIV-1 dissemination at different levels of volume and resolution within lymphoid tissues from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. We combined tissue clearing techniques, immunostaining, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to visualize large-volumes of intact tissue with single-cell resolution from HIV-1-infected humanized mice. In parallel, we imaged adjacent regions of tissue using electron microscopy and electron tomography to gain 3D ultrastructural information about the same tissue samples...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882052/an-optimized-and-validated-method-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-lymphocytes-from-hiv-human-gut-biopsies
#13
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Nadia Roan, Tsui-Hua Chen, Sushama Telwatte, Monika Deswal, Montha Pao, Ma Somsouk, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors most of the body's immune cells and is also a major HIV reservoir in ART-treated patients. To achieve a cure, most HIV-infected cells must be identified and eliminated. While obtaining gut biopsies is a relatively non-invasive method of sampling relevant tissue for monitoring HIV activity, immune cell isolation from these limited tissue samples has proven to be challenging. Enzymatic tissue digestion is required for maximal immune cell isolation from gut biopsies. However, these enzymatic digestions can also be detrimental for preservation of cellular surface markers that are required for accurate identification of various subsets of leukocytes...
September 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756682/vitamin-d-status-and-kidney-function-decline-in-hiv-infected-men-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#14
Adrienne Tin, Long Zhang, Michelle M Estrella, Andy Hoofnagle, Casey M Rebholz, Todd T Brown, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Lisa P Jacobson, Lawrence A Kingsley, Alison G Abraham
Vitamin D may play an important role in a range of disease processes. In the general population, lower vitamin D levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. HIV-infected populations have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Few studies have examined the link between lower vitamin D levels and kidney function decline among HIV-infected persons. We investigated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with kidney function decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white and black men under highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment in the vitamin D ancillary study of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study...
September 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854809/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-turkey-results-from-the-acthiv-ist-study-group
#15
Dilek Yildiz Sevgi, Alper Gunduz, Ozlem Altuntas Aydin, Bilgul Mete, Fatma Sargin, Hayat Kumbasar Karaosmanoğlu, Nuray Uzun, Mücahit Yemisen, İlyas Dokmetas, Fehmi Tabak
OBJECTIVES: Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for optimizing the management of HIV infection. The aim of this study is to explore ART adherence rates in Turkey. METHODS: Included in this study were a total of 263 HIV-infected patients followed-up by the ACTHIV-IST (ACTion against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group affiliated with four tertiary hospitals. The study population included patients 18 years of age or older who were on ART for over 12 months...
August 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851229/the-california-hiv-aids-research-program-history-impact-and-hiv-cure-initiative
#16
Lisa Loeb Stanga, Laura Packel, Tyler Martz, George Lemp
This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study...
August 29, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844150/evidence-for-altered-glutamine-metabolism-in-hiv-1-infected-primary-human-cd4-t-cells
#17
Andrea Hegedus, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Mariam Bibi Khan, Juliana Dias Zeidler, Andrea Da Poian, Tatiana El Bacha, Eduard Struys, Hendrik Huthoff
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid, or tricarboxylic acid (TCA), cycle. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4+ T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication...
August 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844146/a-novel-recombinant-form-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-identified-by-near-full-length-genome-in-shaanxi-china
#18
Mengyan Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Wenhui Chang
Recently multiple kinds of unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC were identified in China. In this study, we report another near full-length genome of a novel recombinant form (SN121) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC from an HIV-1 infected male through heterosexual behavior in Shaanxi province, China. The analysis of SN121 showed that the genome composed of 7 interlaced segments, including 3 CRF07_BC and 4 CRF01_AE segments with CRF01_AE as the backbone. Six breakpoints were observed in the pol and env gene regions, which are different from the previously identified CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant forms in China...
August 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810810/reduced-expression-of-siglec-7-nkg2a-and-cd57-on-terminally-differentiated-cd56-cd16-nk-cell-subset-is-associated-with-nk-cell-dysfunction-in-chronic-hiv-1-clade-c-infection
#19
Michael Zulu, Kewreshini Naidoo, Zenele Mncube, Manjeetha Jaggernath, Philip Jr Goulder, Thumbi Ndung'u, Marcus Altfeld, Christina Fanesa Thobakgale
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 viremia has been shown to induce several phenotypic and functional abnormalities in natural killer (NK) cells. To assess immune defects associated with HIV viremia, we examined NK cell function, differentiation status and phenotypic alterations based on expression of inhibitory and activating receptors on NK cells in HIV-1 subtype C chronically infected participants from Durban, South Africa. METHODS: NK cell phenotypic profiles were characterized by assessing Siglec-7, NKG2A and NKG2C markers on frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from viremic, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-1 chronically infected participants (n=23), HIV-1 chronically infected participants who have been on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 12 months (n=23) compared to healthy donors (n=23)...
August 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712312/near-full-length-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-hiv-1-second-generation-recombinant-form-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-detected-among-blood-donors-in-north-china
#20
Wei He, Xiaoxu Han, Minghui An, Yanqiu Hai, Le Chang, Chao Liu, Lunan Wang, Hong Shang
In this study, a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC HIV-1 recombinant form, with five breakpoints in the pol, vpr, env, and nef gene regions, was identified from a voluntary blood donor in North China. Our study showed that this HIV-1 recombinant form might be a second-generation recombinant form from two predominant strains in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population, with the CRF07_BC fragments belonging to a CRF07_BC lineage specific to Chinese MSM and the CRF01_AE fragments belonging to the CRF01_AE lineage 5 common among MSM in northern China...
August 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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