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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Jiafeng Zhang, Ning Wang, Lin He, Xiaohong Pan, Xiaobei Ding
The alarming spread of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a national concern in China. Estimating men's sexual HIV infectiousness from blood plasma viral load (BPVL) depends on the association between BPVL and semimal plasma viral load (SPVL). However, previous studies were controversial and few concentrated on MSM. Twenty antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive MSM and 54 MSM under ART were recruited between July and September 2015 in the city of Hangzhou, China. Blood and semen were collected in pairs at the same visit for each individual...
November 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mohan Kumar Haleyur Giri Setty, Aditya Kurdekar, Prerna Mahtani, Jikun Liu, Indira Hewlett
BACKGROUND: Accurate and early detection of diverse HIV-1 subtypes using currently available assays has been a major challenge. We report development of a sensitive Time Resolved Fluorescence (TRF) Europium Nanoparticle Immuno Assay (ENIA) for cross subtype detection of p24 antigen using broadly cross reactive antibodies. METHODS: Several antibodies were tested for optimal reactivity with antigens of diverse HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs. We tested HIV strains using this assay for sensitivity and quantification ability at the pico-gram (pg)/ml level...
November 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sharoda Dasgupta, Anne Marie France, Mary-Grace Brandt, Jennifer Reuer, Tianchi Zhang, Nivedha Panneer, Angela L Hernandez, Alexandra M Oster
OBJECTIVES: HIV nucleotide sequence data can identify clusters of persons with genetically similar strains suggesting transmission. We simulated the effect of lowered data completeness, defined by the percent of persons with diagnosed HIV with a reported sequence, on transmission patterns and detection of growing HIV transmission clusters. METHODS: We analyzed HIV surveillance data for persons with HIV diagnosed during 2008-2014 who resided in Michigan or Washington...
November 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Megan A O'Connor, Paul V Munson, Hillary Tunggal, Nika Hajari, Thomas B Lewis, Debra Bratt, Cassie Moats, Jeremy Smedley, Kenneth Bagley, James I Mullins, Deborah Fuller
Depletion of gut T helper 17 (Th17) cells during HIV infection leads to decreased mucosal integrity and increased disease progression. Conversely T regulatory (Treg) cells may inhibit antiviral responses or immune activation. In HIV elite controllers, a balanced Th17/Treg ratio is maintained in the blood, suggesting a role for these responses in controlling inflammation and viral replication. HIV-infected individuals exhibit a range in responsiveness to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Given the link between the Th17/Treg ratio and HIV disease, we reasoned these responses may play a role in cART responsiveness...
November 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Philip M Grant, Xiuhong Li, Lisa P Jacobson, Frank J Palella, Lawrence A Kingsley, Joseph B Margolick, Adrian S Dobs, Jordan E Lake, Keri N Althoff, Todd T Brown
HIV-infected men have increased rates of osteoporosis and fracture compared to HIV-uninfected men. Testosterone use among HIV-infected men is common. In HIV-uninfected men, testosterone increases bone mineral density (BMD), but its effects have not been evaluated in HIV-infected men. In a substudy of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), the Bone Strength Substudy (BOSS) enrolled 202 HIV-infected and 201 HIV-uninfected men aged between 50 and 69 years. Study participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) and detailed assessment of osteoporosis risk factors...
November 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Weidong Ou, Kang Li, Yi Feng, Qiao Huang, Zhangwen Ge, Jia Sun, Zhehua Zhou, Yanling Liang, Hui Xing, Hao Liang, Yiming Shao
To date, there are 16 types of CRF01_AE/B circulating recombinant forms identified, and most of them are distributed in Asian countries such as China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Previous HIV molecular epidemiological surveys showed that CRF01_AE (27.6%) and B (9.6%) subtypes are predominant strains in mainland of China. At the same time, the HIV-1 virus spreads faster in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population than in other risk groups. In Shanghai district, ∼66.0% of newly reported cases were infected through homosexual transmission...
November 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Katia Kaori Otaguiri, Daiane Fernanda Dos Santos, Svetoslav Nanev Slavov, Lívia Vieira Depieri, Patricia Vianna Bonini Palma, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Juliano Coelho da Silveira, Simone Kashima
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The development of HAM/TSP, a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, is correlated to complex interaction between the host immune response and the infecting virus. Tax expression plays an important role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis by activating various cellular genes, including the cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)...
November 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Kimberley Brown, Lisa Stewart, Jeannette M Whitcomb, Dongmei Yang, Richard E Nettles, Erkki Lathouwers
The emergence and transmission of antiretroviral drug resistance have been and remain a concern among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. The protease inhibitor (PI) darunavir has been approved for use in the United States for more than 10 years and has demonstrated a high barrier to resistance. Previous analyses identified significant reductions in the prevalence of samples with darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and with phenotypic resistance to darunavir and other PIs between 2006 and 2012...
October 31, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Long Zhang, Todd T Brown, Joseph B Margolick, Mallory D Witt, Frank J Palella, Lawrence A Kingsley, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Adrienne Tin, Lisa P Jacobson, Alison G Abraham
The inflammatory context of HIV infection has been posited to contribute to the higher comorbidity risk noted in HIV-infected populations. One possible pathway may involve 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], which plays a wide biologic role in many tissues. We sought to investigate whether inflammation was associated with vitamin D metabolites in a cohort of HIV-infected (HIV+) men receiving treatment and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men. Vitamin D metabolites, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2 D, were measured along with 24 inflammatory markers among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants...
October 30, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Finja Schweitzer, Rebecca Tarantelli, Emily Rayens, Heather M Kling, Joshua T Mattila, Karen A Norris
We investigated the relationship of monocytes, alveolar, and tissue-resident macrophage populations and the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a nonhuman primate model of HIV infection. A prospective study of simian immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SIV-PAH) was done. Rhesus macaques (n = 21) were infected with SIV. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were analyzed for monocyte and macrophage phenotypes and inflammatory mediators...
October 30, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Matthew E Levy, Alan E Greenberg, Manya Magnus, Naji Younes, Amanda Castel
OBJECTIVES: To explore reasons for disproportionate metabolic and cardiovascular disease burdens among older HIV-infected persons, we investigated whether associations of CD4 count and HIV viral load (VL) with non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and HDL-C differed by age. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical and laboratory data were collected between 2011-2016 for HIV-infected outpatients in the DC Cohort study. Using data for 3,912 patients aged ≥21 years with ≥1 cholesterol result and contemporaneous CD4/VL results, we created multivariable linear regression models with generalized estimating equations...
October 24, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Evandra Strazza Rodrigues, Mayra Dorigan de Macedo, Maristela Delgado Orellana, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Patrícia Viana Bonini Palma, Mariana Tomazini Pinto, Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro Malmegrim, Svetoslav Nanev Slavov, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima
Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) display immunoregulatory functions that can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immune responses. The suppressive and immunomodulatory activities of MSC occur by the action of soluble factors that are constitutively produced and released by these cells or alternatively, after MSC induction by stimuli of inflammatory microenvironments. However, up to date it is unknown the contribution of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment resulting from viral infection...
October 23, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Maxime Junior Jean, Guillaumes Fiches, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Jian Zhu
Since the implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), rates of HIV-1 mortality, morbidity and newly acquired infections have decrease drastically. In fact, HIV-1 infected individuals under effective suppressive cART are approaching normal life span and quality of life. However, long-term therapy is required because the virus established a reversible state of latency in memory CD4+ T cells. Two principle strategies, namely the "shock and kill" approach and the " block and lock" approach, are currently being investigated for the eradication of these latent reservoirs...
October 23, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Narayanaiah Cheedarla, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Babu Hemalatha, Ananghi Brahmaih, Manohar Nesakumar, Manickam Ashokkumar, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan, Kalyanaraman Vaniambadi S, Vadakkuppatu Devasenapathi Ramanathan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Several broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that can target HIV strains with large degrees of variability have recently been identified. However, efforts to induce synthesis of such bNAbs that can protect against HIV infection have not met with much success. Identification of specific epitopes encoded in the HIV-1 envelope (Env) that can direct the host to synthesize bNAbs remains a challenge. In a previous study, we identified 12 ART (antiretroviral therapy)-naïve HIV-1 infected individuals who exhibited broad cross clade neutralization (BCN) property against different clades of HIV-1...
October 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Anna L Eisenberg, Eshan U Patel, Zoe R Packman, Reinaldo E Fernandez, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Erica L Hamilton, Catherine MacPhail, James Hughes, Audrey Pettifor, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Thomas C Quinn, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
The limiting antigen (LAg)-avidity assay is a serologic assay used for cross-sectional HIV incidence testing. We compared the results obtained with the LAg-avidity assay using dried blood spot (DBS) samples stored at room temperature (18°C-25°C) or stored frozen at -80°C with results obtained from matched plasma samples. Matched DBS and plasma samples (306 paired samples) were collected in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 trial in South Africa (2012-2014). The DBS were stored at room temperature before testing...
October 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rebecca G Nowak, Søren M Bentzen, Jacques Ravel, Trevor A Crowell, Wuese Dauda, Bing Ma, Hongjie Liu, William A Blattner, Stefan D Baral, Man E Charurat
To cluster anal microbiota and define microbial patterns associated with biological, clinical, and behavioral correlates among Nigerian men who have sex with men (MSM) living with or at risk for HIV. In this cross-sectional pilot study, the 15 most abundant 16S taxa in the anal microbiota of 113 MSM underwent unsupervised K-means clustering and z-score comparisons to define similarities and dissimilarities among 4 microbiota taxonomic profiles. Distributions of oncogenic HPV (high-risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV]), concurrent HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and other clinical and behavioral data were evaluated using Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests to determine biological signatures of cluster membership...
October 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
François E Dufrasne, Mara Lucchetti, Géraldine Dessilly, Jean Ruelle, Anandi Martin, Benoit Kabamba-Mukadi
The cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein (Env) includes amino acid (aa) sequences that are similar to lentiviral lytic peptides (LLP) described in other lentiviruses. Within the putative LLP-2 region, we previously observed insertions of 3 or 7 aa in sequences deduced from plasma viral RNA of symptomatic HIV-2-infected individuals. Based on these observations, we reproduced the insertions in a molecular clone to assess their impact on replicative fitness and cell death in vitro. Using a molecular clone of the HIV-2ROD reference strain, site-directed mutagenesis experiments allowed the generation of plasmids with the insertion L791 TAI or L791 QRALTAI in the Env protein...
October 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nathaniel D Bachtel, Greta A Beckerle, Talia M Mota, Miguel de Mulder Rougvie, Rui André Saraiva Raposo, R Brad Jones, Douglas F Nixon, Richard Apps
Much has been learnt from the functions of host restriction factors during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection, but far less is known about their role in HIV-1-infected individuals in which viral load is stably suppressed with antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study transcriptional expression of 42 host restriction factors was determined for memory CD4+ T cells sorted from 10 uninfected and 21 HIV-1-infected individuals, treated with suppressive ART and for which the viral reservoir was quantified. No significant associations were observed between restriction factor expression and HIV-1 reservoir size, quantified by measurement of HIV-1 Gag DNA using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, and by measurement of replication-competent inducible virus using quantitative viral outgrowth assays...
October 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Weinan Liu, Yi Feng, Chen Wang, Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Shuiling Qu, Shujia Liang, Liying Ma, Yao Xiao
This study reports a novel HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2016EU10) isolated from a 24-year-old man, who was infected by homosexual sex in Guangxi, China. The near full-length genome analyses showed GX2016EU10 kept the CRF07_BC parental backbone with three CRF01_AE segments inserted into gag, pol, vpu, env, and nef genes, respectively. The recombinant breakpoints were completely different from the other CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant forms reported. GX2016EU10 was CCR5-tropic through GHOST cell identification. The emergence of GX2016EU10 indicates that the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men in Guangxi is increasing in complexity, which poses a serious challenge to prevention and control...
October 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Alan D Curtis, Korey Walter, Rafiq Nabi, Kara Jensen, Aanini Dwiwedi, Justin Pollara, Guido Ferrari, Koen K A Van Rompay, Rama Amara, Pamela A Kozlowski, Kristina De Paris
The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infections in infants are acquired orally through breastfeeding. Toward development of a pediatric HIV vaccine to prevent breastmilk transmission, we tested the efficacy of a simultaneous oral and IM vaccination regimen for preventing oral SIV transmission in infant rhesus macaques. Two groups of neonatal macaques were immunized with DNA encoding simian immunodeficiency virus virus-like particles (DNA-SIV) on weeks 0 and 3, then boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara virus expressing SIV antigens (MVA-SIV) on weeks 6 and 9...
October 10, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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