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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Ilaria Izzo, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Barbara Saccani, Erika Chiari, Salvatore Casari, Emanuele Focà, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Maria Antonia Forleo, Andrea Bonito, Raffaele Badolato, Laura Dotta, Francesco Castelli
With the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected children has reached young adulthood. A retrospective study was conducted on perinatally HIV-infected young adults after transition to adult care in Brescia (Northern Italy). Twenty-four patients were transferred to Infectious Disease outpatient Clinic from Pediatric Clinic between 2004 and 2016. Median age at transition was 18 years. 37.5% were male, and 75% were Italian. Median CD4(+) T-cell count was 534 cell/μL, and 9/24 presented detectable HIV-RNA at the time of transition...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yan Wang, Mukta Nag, Joanne L Tuohy, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling viremia during AIDS lentiviral infections. However, for most HIV-infected individuals, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibit loss of polyfunctionality, including loss of IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS lentiviral persistence, our laboratory has demonstrated that FIV-activated Treg cells target CD8(+) T cells, leading to a reduction in IL2 and IFNγ production. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Treg cells induce expression of the repressive transcription factor, Foxp3, in CD8(+) T cells...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ingrid Karlsson, Marie Borggren, Sanne Skov Jensen, Leo Heyndrickx, Guillaume Stewart-Jones, Gabriella Scarlatti, Anders Fomsgaard
The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient antibody response, rabbits were immunized with selected antigens using different prime-boost strategies. We immunized 35 different groups of rabbits with Env antigens from clinical HIV-1 subtypes A and B, including immunization with DNA alone, protein alone, and DNA prime with protein boost...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Corrilynn O Hileman, Grace A McComsey
Smoking is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease risk and is highly prevalent in the HIV population. In the Stopping Atherosclerosis and Treating Unhealthy Bone with Rosuvastatin in HIV trial (SATURN-HIV), a 96-week, randomized placebo-controlled study testing the effect of rosuvastatin on subclinical vascular disease and immune activation in HIV-infected adults, rosuvastatin improved immune activation and arrested common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA IMT) progression. In this exploratory analysis, ANOVA was used to test for effect modification by smoking...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Arianna Zanolini, Jenala Chipungu, Michael J Vinikoor, Samuel Bosomprah, Mazuba Mafwenko, Charles B Holmes, Harsha Thirumurthy
We assessed attitudes and preferences toward HIV self-testing (HIVST) among Zambian adolescents and adults. We conducted a population-based survey of individuals aged 16-49 years old in Lusaka Province, Zambia. HIVST was shown to participants through a short video on oral fluid-based self-testing. In addition to demographics, HIV risk perceptions, and HIV testing history, we assessed participants' acceptability and concerns regarding HIVST. Using a discrete choice experiment, we investigated preferences for the location of self-test pickup, availability of counseling, and cost...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sten H Vermund, Erica L Hamilton, Sam Griffith, Larissa Jennings, Typhanye V Dyer, Kenneth H Mayer, Darrell P Wheeler
Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12-18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Olga Toussova, Andrei Kozlov, Sergei Verevochkin, Kathryn Lancaster, Alla Shaboltas, Alexey Masharsky, Elena Dukhovlinova, William C Miller, Irving Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: To detect acute HIV infections (AHI) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 100 seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12 month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ronald S Veazey, Binhua Ling
Historically, Indian rhesus macaques (iRMs) have been preferred for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment studies, yet their supply is limited. Chinese rhesus macaques (cRMs) are currently more available, yet little is known regarding the relative susceptibility of this subspecies to vaginal transmission of SIV or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). In this study, we compared the susceptibility of 40 cRMs and 21 iRMs with a single vaginal challenge with SHIVsf162P...
November 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jamaluddin Md Saha, Hongbing Liu, Pei-Wen Hu, Bryan C Nikolai, Hulin Wu, Hongyu Miao, Andrew P Rice
The latent HIV-1 reservoir of memory CD4+ T cells that persists during combination antiviral therapy prevents a cure of infection. Insight into mechanisms of latency and viral reactivation are essential for the rationale design of strategies to reduce the latent reservoir. In this study, we quantified the levels of over 2,600 proteins in the CCL19 primary CD4+ T cell model of HIV-1 latency. We profiled proteins under conditions that promote latent infection and after cells were treated with PMA + ionomycin which is known to efficiently induce reactivation of latent HIV-1...
October 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
David Nolan, Rebecca R Rose, Patricia Rodriguez, Marco Salemi, Elyse J Singer, Susanna Lamers, Michael McGrath
Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not eradicate HIV, which persists for years and can re-establish replication if treatment is stopped. The current challenge is identifying those tissues harboring virus through cART. Here, we used HIV env-nef single genome sequencing (SGS) and HIV gag digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) to survey 50 tissues from five subjects on cART with no detectable plasma viral load at death. The spleen most consistently contained multiple proviral and expressed sequences (4/5 participants)...
October 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Beth Chaplin, Godwin E Imade, Chika Onwuamah, Georgina Odaibo, Rosemary Audu, Jonathan Okpokwu, David O Olaleye, Seema Meloni, Holly Rawizza, Mohammad Muazu, Adesola Z Musa, Jay Samuels, Oche Agbaji, Oliver Ezechi, Emmanuel Idigbe, Phyllis Jean Kanki
Historically, in HIV patients, the K65R mutation and thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) have been reported to rarely coexist. We retrospectively reviewed genotype data from paired samples in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Nigerian patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapies containing zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF). Samples for each patient were taken at initial confirmed virological failure ≥1000 copies/mL (S1) and then at the latest available sample with viral load ≥1000 copies/mL prior to switch to second-line (S2)...
October 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xinli Lu, Yan Li, Yingying Wang, Ning An, Cuiying Zhao, Suliang Chen
HIV-1 genetic diversity has recently been more and more complicated in Hebei province. To know about the transmission pattern of HIV-1 in Hebei, the phylogenetic analysis of non-CRF01_AE strains was performed using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method. Four clusters and two clusters were observed in the CRF07_BC and subtype B ML tree, respectively. Of these clusters, men who have sex with men (MSM) sequences were the most frequent, and no pure heterosexual cluster was found in this study. Our findings highlighted the close transmission relationship between the main HIV-1 non-CRF01_AE strains and the sexual exposure especially among MSM between neighboring provinces, such as Beijing and Liaoning, and Hebei...
October 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Brett Williams, Mimi Ghosh, Charles A B Boucher, Frederic Bushman, Stacy Carrington-Lawrence, Ronald G Collman, Satya Dandekar, Que Dang, Angela Malaspina, Roger Paredes, Cara C Wilson, Piotr Nowak, Nichole R Klatt, Laurel Lagenaur, Alan L Landay
Commensal organisms appear to play significant roles in normal homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of HIV infection in a number of different organ systems. On November 17th and 18th, 2016, leading researchers from around the world met to discuss their insights on advances in our understanding of HIV and the microbiome at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda. Dr. Elhanan Borenstein of the University of Washington gave a keynote address where he discussed new developments in systems biology which hold the promise of illuminating the pathways by which these organisms interact with human physiology...
October 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
October 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Liz Simon, Robert Siggins, Peter Winsauer, Meghan Brashear, Tekeda Ferguson, Donald Mercante, Kejing Song, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Steve Nelson, Gregory J Bagby, Angela Martin Amedee, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a frequent comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as worsening immunological and virological indicators among ¬PLWHA. Clinical studies indicate that higher viral loads increase sensitivity to alcohol in PLWHA. The factors that influence alcohol kinetics after HIV infection and initiation of ART are not well understood, limiting the information upon which interventions can be designed to ameliorate the impact of alcohol misuse on this vulnerable patient population...
October 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shingo Tachibana, Maho Sasaki, Takako Tanaka, Mari Inoue, Youdiil Ophinni, Tomohiro Kotaki, Masanori Kameoka
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. We previously reported that 3 amino acid residues at positions 185, 186, and 197 of gp120 played an important role in the VRC01 resistance of CRF01_AE Env (AE-Env) clones isolated from HIV-infected Thai individuals...
October 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Herve Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viroimmunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs toward this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) alleles...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Alice Zhang, Xin Pan, Feng Wu, Yang Zhao, Fengyu Hu, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Joseph D Tucker
Much HIV cure social science research has focused on high-income countries. Local key population perspectives, especially from people living with HIV (PLHIV), are needed in low- and middle-income countries. We organized an open contest soliciting responses from key populations, including PLHIV, about what a cure would mean in their lives. Tailored in-person events and social media were used to engage PLHIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs, and local residents. We received 471 contributions over 4 months...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Dilek Yildiz Sevgi, Alper Gunduz, Ozlem Altuntas Aydin, Bilgul Mete, Fatma Sargin, Hayat Kumbasar Karaosmanoglu, Nuray Uzun, Mucahit Yemisen, Ilyas Dokmetas, Fehmi Tabak
Maintaining optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for optimizing the management of HIV infection. The aim of this study is to explore ART adherence rates in Turkey. Included in this study were a total of 263 HIV-infected patients followed up by the ACTHIV-IST (ACTion against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group affiliated with four tertiary hospitals. The study population included patients 18 years of age or older who were on ART for over 12 months. Adherence was assessed by the medication possession ratio (MPR) calculated for each patient using data (a list of all drugs dispensed within the previous year for that patient) obtained from pharmacy medication records...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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