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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#1
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
March 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hbv-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#2
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Raphael W Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
HBV/HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations among drug experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (13) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in six (6) patients...
March 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314381/dysregulation-of-alveolar-macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-nadph-oxidases-and-tgf%C3%AE-sub-1-sub-in-otherwise-healthy-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
Samantha M Yeligar, Janine M Ward, Frank L Harris, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Sushma K Cribbs
<u>Rationale:</u> Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ<sub>1</sub>) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction...
March 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314374/hiv-1-consensus-envelope-induced-broadly-binding-antibodies
#4
R Ryan Meyerhoff, Richard M Scearce, Damon F Ogburn, Brad Lockwood, Joy Pickeral, Masa Kuraoka, Kara Anasti, Joshua Eudailey, Amanda Eaton, Melissa Cooper, Kevin Wiehe, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, S Munir Alam, Hua-Xin Liao, Bette Korber, Feng Gao, Barton F Haynes
Antibodies that cross-react with multiple HIV-1 envelopes (Envs) are useful reagents for characterizing Env proteins and for soluble Env capture and purification assays. We previously reported ten murine monoclonal antibodies induced by group M consensus Env, CON-6 immunization. Each demonstrated broad cross-reactivity to recombinant Envs. Here we characterized the Env epitopes to which they bind. Seven mapped to linear epitopes in gp120, five at the Env N-terminus and two at the Env C-terminus. One antibody, 13D7, bound at the gp120 N-terminus (aa 30-42), reacted with HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, and when expressed in a human IgG1 backbone, mediated ADCC...
March 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298145/genotypic-characterization-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-derived-from-antiretroviral-drug-treated-individuals-residing-in-earthquake-affected-areas-in-nepal
#5
Bharat Singh Negi, Tomohiro Kotaki, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Anup Bastola, Minato Nakazawa, Masanori Kameoka
Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal, and has not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag and 21 env genes were sequenced...
March 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298138/four-close-related-hiv-1-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-recombinant-forms-identified-in-east-china
#6
Fan Li, Yuxueyun Li, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
Five near full-length genome of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132 and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms ,which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events...
March 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296471/the-safety-of-multiple-flexible-sigmoidoscopies-with-mucosal-biopsies-in-healthy-clinical-trial-participants
#7
Wai Kan Chiu, Rhonda M Brand, Danielle Camp, Stacey Edick, Carol Mitchell, Sherri Karas, Amanda Zehmisch, Ken Ho, Randall E Brand, Janet Harrison, Steven Abo, Ross D Cranston, Ian McGowan
During Phase 1 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies, participants may undergo multiple sigmoidoscopies, with a collection of 10-20 biopsies during each procedure. This article characterizes the safety of flexible sigmoidoscopies in clinical trial participants. We determined the number of flexible sigmoidoscopies and rectal biopsies that participants underwent and analyzed the frequency, duration, and severity of flexible sigmoidoscopy-related adverse events (AEs). During the study period, 278 participants underwent 1,004 flexible sigmoidoscopies with the collection of 15,930 rectal biopsies...
March 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288515/measures-of-physical-and-mental-independence-among-hiv-positive-individuals-impact-of-substance-use-disorder
#8
Bianca Christensen, Zijian Qin, Desiree A Byrd, Fang Yu, Susan Morgello, Benjamin B Gelman, David J Moore, Igor Grant, Elyse J Singer, Howard Fox, Lorena Baccaglini
INTRODUCTION: With the transition of HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease following the introduction of antiretroviral medications, there has been an increased focus on long-term neurocognitive and other functional outcomes of HIV patients. Thus, we assessed factors, particularly history of a substance use disorder, associated with time-to-loss of measures of physical or mental independence among HIV positive individuals. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC)...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287833/identification-of-a-novel-hiv-type-1-crf01_ae-b-c-recombinant-isolate-in-sichuan-china
#9
Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Weisi Xu, Fan Li, Shu Liang, Yi Feng, Fujie Zhang, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
We report in this study a novel HIV-1 unique recombinant virus (XC2014EU01) isolated from an HIV-positive man who infected through heterosexual sex in Sichuan, China. The near full-length genome analyses showed that XC2014EU01 harbored one subtype B segment in pol region and two subtype C segments in gag-pol region in a CRF01_AE backbone. The unique mosaic structure was distinctly different from the other CRF01_AE/B'/C recombinant forms reported. Phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that the subtype B region originated from a Thailand subtype B' lineage, the subtype C regions were from an India C lineage, and the backbone was from CRF01_AE...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287825/quantification-of-residual-germinal-center-activity-and-hiv-1-dna-and-rna-levels-using-fine-needle-biopsies-of-lymph-nodes-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
William J Hey-Nguyen, Yin Xu, Chester F Pearson, Michelle Bailey, Kazuo Suzuki, Robyn Tantau, Solange Obeid, Brad Milner, Andrew Field, Andrew Carr, Mark Bloch, David A Cooper, Anthony D Kelleher, John J Zaunders, Kersten K Koelsch
HIV-1 reservoirs are most often studied in peripheral blood (PB), but not all lymphocytes recirculate, particularly T follicular helper (Tfh) CD4(+) T cells, as well as germinal center (GC) B cells, in lymph nodes (LNs). Ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies (FNBs) from inguinal LNs and PB samples were obtained from 10 healthy controls (HCs) and 21 HIV-1-infected subjects [11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive and 10 on ART]. Tfh cells and GC B cells were enumerated by flow cytometry. HIV-1 DNA and cell-associated (CA) RNA levels in LNs and PB were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193090/estimating-false-recent-classification-for-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-and-bed-capture-enzyme-immunoassay-in-vietnam-implications-for-hiv-1-incidence-estimates
#11
Neha S Shah, Yen T Duong, Linh-Vi Le, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Bharat S Parekh, Hoang Thi Thanh Ha, Quang Duy Pham, Cao Thi Thu Cuc, Trudy Dobbs, Tran Hong Tram, Truong Thi Xuan Lien, Nick Wagar, Chunfu Yang, Amy Martin, Mitchell Wolfe, Nguyen Tran Hien, Andrea A Kim
Laboratory tests that can distinguish recent from long-term HIV infection are used to estimate HIV incidence in a population, but can potentially misclassify a proportion of long-term HIV infections as recent. Correct application of an assay requires determination of the proportion false recents (PFRs) as part of the assay characterization and for calculating HIV incidence in a local population using a HIV incidence assay. From April 2009 to December 2010, blood specimens were collected from HIV-infected individuals attending nine outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam (four from northern and five from southern Vietnam)...
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193089/smartube-a-new-approach-to-detect-acute-hiv-infection-based-on-an-old-in-vitro-induced-antibody-production-technique
#12
Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269998/htlv-infection-in-hcv-antibody-positive-patients-in-spain
#13
Ana Treviño, Antonio Aguilera, Manuel A Rodríguez-Iglesias, Araceli Hernandez, Rafael Benito, Lourdes Roc, José Manuel Ramos, Raúl Ortíz de Lejarazu, Eva Poveda, Carmen Rodríguez, Jorge Del Romero, Enrique Calderon, Juan García, Silvia Requena, Vincent Soriano, Carmen de Mendoza
Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography...
March 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260391/endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-and-renal-dysfunction-in-hiv-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Geraldo Da Silva Junior, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Alexandre Liborio, Elizabeth Daher
BACKGROUND: Widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) increase HIV patients' life expectancy, however favored the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial glycocalyx damage and its association with renal function in HIV patients receiving cART. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with HIV-infected patients with no renal and cardiovascular disease, recruited in public health centers in Brazil...
March 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177261/stability-of-5p12-rantes-a-candidate-rectal-microbicide-in-human-rectal-lavage
#15
Fabrice Cerini, Robin Offord, Ian McGowan, Oliver Hartley
In the absence of an effective vaccine, strategies to prevent HIV transmission are urgently needed. Condomless receptive anal intercourse represents a major route of transmission, and efforts are being made to develop strategies, in which potent anti-HIV drugs are formulated for topical application to the rectum before sex. 5P12-RANTES is a promising candidate for such a purpose. It is an analog of the human chemokine RANTES/CCL5, which potently blocks CCR5, the principal coreceptor used by HIV to enter and infect target cells...
March 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135809/hiv-positive-individuals-on-antiretroviral-therapy-and-with-viral-load-suppressed-in-12-infectious-diseases-clinics-in-italy-successes-and-disparities-in-the-hiv-continuum-of-care
#16
Mariangela Raimondo, Laura Camoni, Barbara Suligoi, Patrizio Pezzotti
The HIV care continuum is a tool that describes the quality of HIV care for people living with HIV and assesses the extent to which the goal of viral suppression has been achieved. In 2014, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics associated with three steps of the HIV continuum of care in Italy [i.e., most recent diagnoses, people diagnosed and in care who are on therapy, and people with viral load (VL) suppressed among those on therapy]. Among the 10,262 individuals diagnosed and linked to care, 9,810 (95...
March 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094553/burden-of-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-among-inmates-in-a-prison-state-system-in-mexico
#17
Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan L Mosqueda-Gomez, Alejando Macias-Hernandez, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Chris Beyrer
We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons who agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors were collected by using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV infection was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0...
March 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253024/differences-in-cumulative-exposure-and-adherence-to-tenofovir-in-the-voice-iprex-ole-and-prep-demo-studies-as-determined-via-hair-concentrations
#18
Catherine A Koss, Peter Bacchetti, Sharon L Hillier, Edward Livant, Howard Horng, Nyaradzo Mgodi, Brenda G Mirembe, Kailazarid Gomez Feliciano, Stephanie Horn, Albert Y Liu, David V Glidden, Robert M Grant, Leslie Z Benet, Alexander Louie, Ariane van der Straten, Z Mike Chirenje, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Monica Gandhi
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) prevented HIV acquisition among men and women in several trials and is broadly recommended. In the VOICE and FEM-PrEP trials, however, TDF/FTC-based PrEP did not prevent HIV acquisition among women in eastern and southern Africa. Tenofovir was detected in plasma, reflecting exposure and adherence in recent days, in fewer than one-third of participants. Drug concentrations in hair, which represent cumulative exposure and adherence over weeks to months, have never previously been examined among women on PrEP...
March 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121161/regulatory-t-cell-effect-on-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-human-herpesvirus-8-infection-and-development-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#19
Lauren M Lepone, Giovanna Rappocciolo, Paolo A Piazza, Diana M Campbell, Frank J Jenkins, Charles R Rinaldo
We assessed CD8(+) T cell reactivity to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) and the role of CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in HHV-8- and HIV-coinfected participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who did or did not develop KS. There were similarly low CD8(+) T cell interferon-γ responses to MHC class I-restricted epitopes of HHV-8 lytic and latent proteins over 5.7 years before KS in participants who developed KS compared to those who did not. T cell reactivity to HHV-8 antigens was low relative to responses to a combination of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and influenza A virus (CEF) peptide epitopes, and dominant HIV peptide epitopes...
March 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#20
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
March 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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