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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Jessica L Michal, Saira Rab, Manish Patel, Alison Kyle, Lesley Miller, Kirk A Easley, Aley Kalapila
Background Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), an antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiretroviral for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may be co-administered in patients co-infected with these viruses. A drug interaction between LDV and TDF could increase TDF-associated nephrotoxicity rates; however, there is minimal clinical evidence describing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates in this population. Setting This study was conducted at a Ryan White-funded facility in Atlanta, Georgia, that cares for over 5,000 patients with AIDS...
May 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Joanne Stekler, Kenneth Tapia, Janine Maenza, Claire E Stevens, George Ure, Joshua O'Neal, Aric Lane, James I Mullins, Robert Coombs, Sarah E Holte, Ann Cornwall Collier
INTRODUCTION: There has been increasing recognition of the importance of diagnosing individuals during the earliest stages of HIV infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from individuals referred to a primary HIV infection research program were screened using the IgG-sensitive Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System, IgG/IgM-sensitive GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O antibody EIA, or Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay and confirmed by the Bio-Rad Multispot and Western Blot...
May 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elena Dukhovlinova, Alexey Masharsky, Aleksandra Vasileva, Alessandro Porrello, Shuntai Zhou, Olga Toussova, Sergei Verevochkin, Ekaterina Akulova, Dmitrij Frishman, David Montefiori, Celia Labranche, Irving Hoffman, William Miller, Myron S Cohen, Andrei Kozlov, Ronald Swanstrom
Understanding features of the HIV-1 transmission process have the potential to inform biological interventions for prevention. We have examined the transmitted virus in a cohort of people who inject drugs and who are at risk of HIV-1 infection through blood contamination when injecting in a group. This study focused on seven newly infected participants in St. Petersburg, Russia, who were in acute or early infection. We used end-point dilution PCR to amplify single viral genomes to assess the complexity of the transmitted virus...
May 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Akarin Hiransuthikul, Rapeeporn Wongkanya, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Deondara Trachunthong, Thanthip Sungsing, Tippawan Pankam, Praphan Phanuphak, Nittaya Phanuphak
HIV-1 infection is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces. Information on concordance in drug resistance profile between blood plasma and anogenital compartments in resource-limited settings is limited. We aimed to determine discordances in genotypic drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs) between blood plasma and semen or rectal secretions among newly diagnosed, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, HIV-1-infected Thai men who have sex with men (MSM). Blood plasma, semen, and rectal secretions of HIV-1-infected Thai MSM enrolled from the Test and Treat cohort were tested for genotypic mutations in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes...
May 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Silvia Ratto-Kim, Alexandra Schuetz, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, John Barber, Nicholas Hutchings, Sukalaya Lerdlum, James L K Fletcher, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Weerawan Chuenarom, Somporn Tipsuk, Mantana Pothisri, Tanate Jadwattanakul, Supunnee Jirajariyavej, Chayada Sajjaweerawan, Siriwat Akapirat, Thep Chalermchai, Duanghathai Suttichom, Boot Keawboon, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Putthachard Karnsomlap, David Clifford, Robert H Paul, Mark de Souza, Jerome H Kim, Jintinant Anaworanich, Victor Valcour
HIV-associated cognitive disorder (HAND) remains a challenge despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), and has been linked to monocyte/macrophage (M/M) migration to the brain. Due to the potential impact of T cell effector mechanisms in eliminating activated/HIV-infected M/M, T cell activation may play a role in the development of HAND. We sought to investigate the relationship between cognition and both CD8+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR+/CD38+) and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses at the time of HIV diagnosis and 12 months post initiation of ART...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Panying Wang, Jielan Li, Xiangyu Wang, Guang-Yao Wu, Deepa Thapa
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents survive longer with the use of readily found combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), however, they still have the risk of developing cognitive deficits. The paper aims to explore the brain functional changes in asymptomatic PHIV+ adolescents with cART based on the resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI was performed on 20 PHIV+ adolescents and 28 PHIV- controls to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain regions by calculating the Kendall harmonious coefficient(KCC)...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Thabo Diphoko, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Ishmael Kasvosve, Sikhulile Moyo, Harriet Okatch, Rosemary Musonda, Mark A Wainberg, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, M Essex
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV) and Etravirine (ETR) are approved second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) for HIV treatment. There is a cross-resistance HIV mutation profile between first- and second-generation NNRTI drugs. We determined the prevalence of HIV-1drug-resistance mutations (DRM) to RPV and ETR in Botswana. METHODS: A total of 168 HIV-1 polymerase gene sequences from participants failing nevirapine or efavirenz-containing regimens were analysed for drug resistance mutations using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Muzafar Jan, Shallu Tomer, Sunil K Arora
This study was designated to study the effect of glycan composition on lectin-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection and transmission. We found that Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), an α(1-6)-fucosylated complex glycan-binding lectin, remarkably enhances the susceptibility of cells for HIV-1 infection and DC-SIGN-mediated capture and transmission. The role of glycan involvement was studied by using glycan-modified viruses produced in the presence of glycosidase inhibitors and mutant cell lines. The data suggests that the LCA-mediated enhancement in viral infection and trans-infection was not determined by the glycan composition of virus...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Holly Janes, Lawrence Corey, Gita Ramjee, Lindsay N Carpp, Carl Lombard, Myron S Cohen, Peter B Gilbert, Glenda E Gray
As oral tenofovir-based regimens for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are adopted as standard of care for HIV prevention, their utilization in clinical trials among women in southern Africa will require an accurate estimate of oral PrEP efficacy in this population. This information is critical for women in choosing this prevention strategy, and in public health policy making. Estimates of the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens containing tenofovir have varied widely across trials that enrolled women, with some studies reporting high efficacy and others reporting no efficacy...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lisa L Ross, Denise Shortino, Mark S Shaefer
<b>Background:</b> Pre-existing HIV drug resistance can jeopardize first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. Changes in the prevalence of drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) were analyzed from HIV-infected, ART-naïve, United States (USA) individuals seeking ART treatment from 2000-2009. <b>Methods: </b> HIV DRM data from 3,829 ART-naïve subjects were analyzed by year of sample collection using International Antiviral Society (IAS-USA) and World Health Organization (WHO) "surveillance" DRM definitions; minor IAS-USA-defined DRMs were excluded...
May 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Robert Clive Landis, Emannuel Akinola Abayomi, Brendan Bain, Edward Greene, George Janossy, Patrice Joseph, Deanna Kerrigan, J Philip McCoy, Cesar Antonio Nunez, Maurice O'Gorman, Alexander Pastoors, Bharat Parekh, Kim Quimby, Thomas C Quinn, Kevin Robertson, Rejean Thomas, Eric van Gorp, Sten H Vermund, Valerie Wilson
The CCAS EXPERT SUMMIT convened an array of international experts in Barbados on August 27-31 2017 under the theme "From Care to Cure - Shifting the HIV Paradigm". The Caribbean Cytometry & Analytical Society (CCAS) partnered with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to deliver a program that reviewed the advances in antiretroviral therapy and the public health benefits accruing from treatment as prevention. Particular emphasis was placed on re-examining stigma and discrimination through a critical appraisal of whether public health messaging and advocacy had kept pace with the advances in medicine...
May 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Zhehua Zhou, Ping Ma, Yi Feng, Weidong Ou, Jing Qian, Liying Gao, Defa Zhang, Yiming Shao, Min Wei
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is notorious for its rapid evolving since its transmissions from money to human. Currently, HIV contains multiple subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs). Here, from an HIV-positive mother and her child in Tianjin, China, we identified a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant virus (TJ20170316 and TJ20170317) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Near full-length genomes were obtained from both samples, and they shared very close sequences, except some point mutations...
May 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Chen Wang, Yan Wang, Desheng Kong, Shujia Liang, Yi Feng, Liying Ma
Continual generation of HIV-1 recombinant forms might contribute to its genetic diversity. In this study, a novel B/C/CRF01_AE recombinant virus (GX2016EU13) was identified, which was isolated from a HIV-positive man who infected through heterosexual sex in Guangxi, China. GX2016EU13 was identified as CCR5-tropic. As shown in the near full-length genome analyses, five recombinant breakpoints were found only in the pol gene of GX2016EU13, which divided the NFLG into three subtype B segments, two subtype C segments and one CRF01_AE segment...
May 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jia-Ye Wang, Xiao-Hong Chen, Bing Shao, Qing-Qing Huo, Si-Yu Liu, Jin Li, Fu-Xiang Wang
This study reported a new HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF65_cpx virus isolated from a man who had sex with men (MSM) in Jilin, China. The near full-length genome of this virus was composed of fourteen mosaic gene fragments derived from CRF01_AE, subtype B' (Thai B) and subtype C, highly similar to the CRF65_cpx viruses recently identified in Yunnan and Anhui of China. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that this CRF65_cpx strain was not generated among MSM in Jilin, but originated in southern regions of China and spread to Jilin by MSM population...
May 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Qiuling Huang, Lang Chen, Mingqi Luo, Hanlin Lv, Da Luo, Tian Li, Szuyuan Huang, Linlin Xie, Yan Teng, Zhiyu Liu, Fan Luo, Hairong Xiong, Yan Zeng, Wei Hou, Yong Feng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in immune regulation during virus infection. Several studies showed that the expression of miR-146a was increased in HIV-1 infected cells, but the definitive function of miR-146a in HIV-1 infection remains obscure. The production of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) in macrophages has been reported to play an important role in HIV/AIDS associated pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of miR-146a on CCL5 regulation in HIV-1 infected macrophages. Gain and loss of function studies showed that CCL5 might be one of the miR-146a targets, as miR-146a mimic reduced, while miR-146a inhibitor increased CCL5 production in HIV-1 infected macrophages...
May 2, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Kristine M Erlandson, Amber Streifel, Alexander Novin, Kellie Hawkins, Clayton Foster, Jacob Langness, Mary Bessesen, Julian Falutz, Abeer Moanna, David Looney, Scott Johns, Joseph Nguyen, Michael Oxman, Myron Levin
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs at a higher age-specific rate in people living with HIV (PLWH) than in the general population. We implemented a quality improvement study to assess herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) usage among PLWH, assess HZV usage after additional reminders/prompts, and identify barriers to HZV among older PLWH. METHODS: HZV rates in PLWH were determined in six institutions with varying payment structures. For the intervention, Part 1, PLWH eligible for HZV at the University of Colorado were identified, and providers were notified of patient eligibility...
April 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Cindy Lau, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Sean Rourke, Tony Antoniou
Objective To compare outcomes following psychiatric hospitalization between people with and without HIV. Methods Population-based study of people with (n = 1,089) and without (n = 280,888) HIV who were hospitalized for psychiatric illness between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. Results Overall, 9 (0.8%) people with HIV died within 30 days of discharge, compared with 3710 (1.3%) HIV-negative individuals. Following multivariable adjustment, there was no difference in the risk of readmission or emergency department (ED) visits for psychiatric illness in the 90 days following discharge...
April 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Katlego Sojane, Richard T Kangethe, Christina C Chang, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Sharon Ruth Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
The genotypic properties of HIV-1 subtype C in individuals presenting with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are not well established. Employing single-genome amplification as well as bulk PCR, cloning and sequencing strategies, we evaluated the genetic properties of HIV-1 subtype C env in 16 antiretroviral therapy naïve study participants with CM. Eleven of the 16 participants had matched blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluated, with the rest having either a plasma or CSF sample evaluated. Before antiretroviral therapy initiation, matched plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-derived env sequences of all 11 participants displayed genetic intermixing between the two compartments...
April 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Pablo Lopez, Omayra De Jesus, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Nayra Rodriguez, Andrea Arias, Raphael Sanchez, Yadira Rodriguez, Vivian Tamayo-Agrait, Wilfredo Cuevas, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subtype B virus is the most prevalent subtype in Puerto Rico (PR), accounting for about 90% of infection in the island. Recently, other subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) including F (12_BF), A (01_BF), and CRF-39 BF-like have been identified. The purpose of this study is to assess the distribution of drug resistance mutations and subtypes in PR. A total of 846 nucleotide sequences from the period comprising 2013 through 2017 were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file...
April 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Maria Antonia De Francesco, Ilaria Izzo, Martina Properzi, Franco Gargiulo, Francesca Caccuri, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Francesco Castelli, Arnaldo Caruso, Emanuele Foca'
Integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance (InSTI) rates are low. However, genotypic resistance test is not routinely performed in many centres. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of InSTI related mutations in our large Cohort. We examined all integrase genotypic resistance tests performed as part of routine clinical practice at Spedali Civili General Hospital, University of Brescia from 2011 to 2016. Analysis was performed through the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. 341 patients were included...
April 10, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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