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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094566/hcv-continuum-of-care-in-the-interferon-and-direct-acting-agent-eras-among-hiv-co-infected-patients
#1
Jeffrey Landon Roberson, Virginia L Kan
None for Letter to the Editor.
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094565/the-decline-in-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-heavily-antiretroviral-experienced-patients-is-associated-with-optimized-prescriptions-in-a-treatment-roll-out-program-in-mexico
#2
Juan J Calva, Silvana Larrea, Marco A Tapia-Maltos, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Carolina Lara, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Héctor Rivera, Juan P Ramírez
A decrease in the rate of acquired antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistance (ADR) over time has been documented in high-income settings, but data on the determinants of this phenomenon are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that in heavily ARV-experienced patients in the Mexican ARV therapy (ART) roll-out program, the drop in ADR would be associated with changes in ARV drug usage. Genotypic resistance tests obtained from 974 HIV-infected patients with virologic failure and at least 2 previously failed ARV regimens from throughout the country were analyzed for the presence of nRTI, NNRTI and PI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs)...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094553/burden-of-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-among-inmates-in-a-prison-state-system-in-mexico
#3
Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Luis Mosqueda-Gómez, Alejandro Macías-Hernández, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Chris Beyrer
We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons agreeing to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection was 0.6% (95%CI=0.2-1.1), 0.7% (95%CI=0.4-1.0), 0.4 (95%CI=0.04-0.74) and 4.8 (95%CI=3...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092168/associations-between-at-risk-alcohol-use-substance-use-and-smoking-with-lipohypertrophy-and-lipoatrophy-among-patients-living-with-hiv
#4
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088884/dual-raltegravir-etravirine-combination-as-maintenance-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#5
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Roberto Manfredi, Marco Borderi, Nicolò Rossi, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)- and protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimens may be useful in selected HIV-infected patients with resistance or intolerance to these drug classes. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study of patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy containing two NRTIs plus one ritonavir-boosted PI who switched to a dual regimen containing raltegravir plus etravirine. Patients were required not to have prior virological failure to raltegravir and to have efficacy of etravirine showed through the genotypic resistance assay in case of prior non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) virological failure...
January 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084796/beyond-viral-neutralization
#6
George K Lewis, Marzena Pazgier, David Evans, Guido Ferrari, Stylianos Bournazos, Matthew S Parsons, Nicole F Bernard, Andrés Finzi
It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection...
January 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075174/analysis-of-sivmac-envelope-specific-antibodies-selected-via-phage-display
#7
Sergio Ita, Mayara Rovariz Agostinho, Katherine Sullivan, Seung Yub Han, Rana Akleh, Welkin Johnson, Ismael Ben Farouck Fofana
We have constructed a single chain Fv (scFv) phage display library from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque that developed unusually high-titer neutralizing antibody responses against tier-3, neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. The library was screened using trimeric (gp140) and monomeric (gp120) forms of the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. We also cloned variable-heavy and variable-light (VH-VL) antibody fragments from 7 previously described rhesus macaque B-cell lines (BLCL) that produce SIV gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075146/five-near-full-length-hepatitis-c-virus-sequences-were-isolated-from-hiv-coinfected-idus-of-china
#8
Fan Li, Yi Feng, Na Ni, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
HIV and HCV share transmission routes including contaminated blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and needle-sharing in injection drug users (IDUs). We obtained five near full-length genome sequences (NFLGs) of HCV isolated from five HIV-1 coinfected IDUs in Sichuan and Xinjiang province, China. By conducting reconstruction of neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree, our results revealed that the five isolates are different genotypes (1b, 3a, 6a and 6n). The amino acid substitutions(170I) in XJN0021 related to resistant to protease inhibitors (Grazoprevir) were also identified...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875908/the-impact-of-viral-suppression-and-viral-breakthrough-on-limited-antigen-avidity-assay-results-in-individuals-with-clade-b-hiv-infection
#9
Sarah K Wendel, Andrew F Longosz, Susan H Eshleman, Joel N Blankson, Richard D Moore, Jeanne C Keruly, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker
We analyzed the impact of HIV viral load on the performance of a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity assay) and determined if this assay could be used to identify viral breakthrough. Three groups of samples were tested: (1) 18 individuals (30 samples) previously identified as elite suppressors; (2) 18 individuals (72 samples) who were continually suppressed on antiretroviral treatment (ART) with 1 sample before and 2-6 samples (one/year) after ART initiation; and (3) 20 individuals (179 samples) on ART who had evidence of viral breakthrough (>400 copies/ml) with subsequent viral suppression...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819156/development-of-a-qualitative-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-test-to-identify-patients-failing-first-line-therapy-to-non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor
#10
Sergio L Machado, Gabriel S Gonçalves, Dawn Dudley, David O'Connor, Helena Keiko Toma, José Carlos Couto Fernandes, Amilcar Tanuri
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can be compromised by selection of drug resistance strains, which can be promoted by lack of adherence during therapy and drug tolerance, and some of these drug-resistant strains can persist for years as minority populations. The K103N drug resistance mutation is selected by the use of non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, including nevirapine or efavirenz (EFV), used in low-income countries. Here we describe the use of a less expensive qualitative point mutation polymerase chain reaction (PMqPCRK103N) targeting K103N mutation...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#11
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been characterized by high genetic multiplicity, suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing(SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence(IDU.CON). All the T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC, and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
January 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068781/complex-subtype-diversity-of-hiv-1-among-drug-users-in-major-kenyan-cities
#12
Kamini Gounder, Micah Oyaro, Nagavelli Padayachi, Thando Mbali Zulu, Tulio de Oliveira, John Wylie, Thumbi Ndung'u
Drug users are increasingly recognized as a key population driving HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine HIV-1 subtypes circulating in this population group and explore possible geographic differences, we analyzed HIV-1 sequences among drug users from Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu in Kenya. We sequenced gag and env from 55 drug users. Subtype analysis from 220 gag clonal sequences from 54/55 participants (median=4/participant) showed that 44.4% were A, 16.7% were C, 3.7% were D and 35.2% were intersubtype recombinants...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067535/long-term-survival-of-aids-patients-treated-with-only-traditional-chinese-medicine
#13
Yifei Wang, Fujun Jin, Qiaoli Wang, Zucai Suo
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016 while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051324/progress-towards-achieving-the-unaids-90-90-90-goals-in-hiv-care-from-diagnosis-to-durable-viral-suppression-in-the-country-of-georgia
#14
Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Otar Chokoshvili, Akaki Abutidze, Natia Dvali, Carlos Del Rio, Tengiz Tsertsvadze
Successful engagement in HIV care is required to reach UNAIDS targets of 90-90-90. We analyzed routine programmatic data to quantify losses along the HIV care continuum in the country of Georgia. Analysis was limited to diagnosed persons and did not include estimated number of HIV infected persons. Cascade of HIV care continuum was constructed for adult (age≥18 years) HIV-infected persons newly diagnosed in Georgia in 2008-2012. Data was extracted from the national AIDS Health Information System as of June 30, 2014...
January 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051320/correlation-of-antibody-responses-to-a-peptide-antigen-gp120-c5-sup-501-512-sup-gp41-sup-732-744-sup-with-hiv-disease-progression
#15
Birger Sørensen, Maja A Sommerfelt, Grete Stjernholm, Peter Lawrence Smith, Mats Ökvist, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Gunnar Hoddevik, Robert R Redfield, Valentina Ustina, Øyvind Jelmert, Jerome Zeldis, Angus Dalgleish
Antibodies to the carboxyterminal constant (C5) region 5 of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have previously been associated with slow disease progression. This is one of the regions on gp120 that interact with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, anchoring it to the viral and infected cell membrane. This study analyzed humoral responses to a novel heterodimeric peptide construct comprising the C5<sup>501-512</sup> region and a compatible region on gp41<sup>732-744</sup>. Antibody prevalence to C5<sup>501-512</sup>/gp41<sup>732-744</sup> was associated with slow disease progression in a treatment naive historical longitudinal cohort from Norway (n=32; p=0...
January 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899035/delayed-seroconversion-to-htlv-ii-is-associated-with-a-stop-codon-mutation-in-the-pol-gene
#16
Syamalima Dube, Dipak K Dube, Lynn Abbott, Jordan Glaser, Bernard J Poiesz
A known HIV-1-positive intravenous drug user was found to be human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus-II (HTLV-II) DNA positive by polymerase chain reaction but seronegative in a screening ELISA. He was consistently DNA positive but took 2 years to fully seroconvert. Sequencing of the HTLV-II strain in his cultured T lymphocytes indicated that it is a prototypical type A strain with no major differences in the long terminal repeat DNA sequence, nor major amino acid differences in the Gag, Env, Tax, and Rex proteins...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897054/high-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-women-with-bv-and-engaging-in-intravaginal-douching-a-cross-sectional-study-of-participants-in-the-women-interagency-hiv-study
#17
Maria L Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Megan R Brown, Suresh Pallikkuth, Kristopher Arheart, Octavio Martinez, Margaret Roach, Raina N Fichorova, Deborah L Jones, Savita Pahwa, Margaret A Fischl
High levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract suggest mucosal vulnerability and increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. Intravaginal douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women in the United States, and both douching and BV are linked to HIV and STI acquisition. This study evaluates inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract to increase understanding of the effects of both BV and intravaginal douching to the vaginal mucosa. A cross-sectional study of participants in the Miami WIHS investigated 72 reproductive age women (45 HIV(+) and 27 high-risk HIV(-)) who completed intravaginal douching questionnaires and underwent collection of vaginal swabs and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs)...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#18
Lindsay M K Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living)...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034326/low-immune-activation-is-associated-with-higher-frequencies-of-central-memory-t-cell-subset-in-a-cohort-of-indian-long-term-non-progressors
#19
Vandana Saxena, Shubhangi Bichare, Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita S Kulkarni, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Ramesh S Paranjape, Madhuri Thakar
Persistent immune activation in HIV infection is responsible for alterations in immune system such as activation, apoptosis and reduced frequencies. Reduced immune activation is known to be associated with virus control. Limited information is available on the influence of pan-immune activation on memory responses. Hence we compared the T cell activation and memory profile in HIV infected individuals exhibiting disease control such as Long Term Non progressors and progressors. The activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly lower and the CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cell phenotypes were significantly higher in the LTNPs as compared to the progressors...
December 30, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027665/three-year-durability-of-immune-responses-induced-by-hiv-dna-and-hiv-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-and-effect-of-a-late-hiv-mva-boost-in-tanzanian-volunteers
#20
Agricola Joachim, Patricia J Munseri, Charlotta Nilsson, Muhammad Bakari, Said Aboud, Eligius F Lyamuya, Teghesti Tecleab, Valentina Liakina, Gabriella Scarlatti, Merlin Robb, Patricia Earl, Bernard Moss, Britta Wahren, Fred Mhalu, Guido Ferarri, Eric Sandström, Gunnel Biberfeld
We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization three years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100)...
December 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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