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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229684/qualitative-consumer-research-on-acceptance-of-long-acting-prep-products-among-msm-and-medical-practitioners-in-the-united-states
#1
Bobby J Calder, Robert J Schieffer, Ewa Bryndza Tfaily, Richard T D'Aquila, George Greene, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Patrick Franklin Kiser, Thomas J Hope
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the adherence to pill-taking required for efficacy has sparked interest in developing new antiretroviral (ARV) delivery systems that decrease such demands. Long-acting formulations, such as injections and implants, represent promising options that require less frequent adherence. It is important, however, that development of these new modalities be driven by understanding of the value seen in them by target users to maximize their uptake...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229676/an-insertion-of-seven-amino-acids-in-the-envelope-cytoplasmic-tail-of-hiv-2-selected-during-disease-progression-enhances-viral-replication
#2
François Emile Dufrasne, Mara Lucchetti, Géraldine Dessilly, Jean P Ruelle, Anandi Martin, Benoit Kabamba-Mukadi
The cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein (Env) includes amino acid (aa) sequences similar to lentiviral lytic peptides (LLP) described in other lentiviruses. Within the putative LLP-2 region, we previously observed insertions of 3 or 7 aa in sequences deduced from plasma viral RNA of symptomatic HIV-2 infected individuals. Based on these observations, we reproduced the insertions in a molecular clone to assess their impact on replicative fitness and cell death in vitro. Using a molecular clone of the HIV-2ROD reference strain, site-directed mutagenesis experiments allowed the generation of plasmids with the insertion L791TAI or L791QRALTAI in the Env protein...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229669/genetic-diversity-and-drug-resistance-of-hiv-1-circulating-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#3
Shuhei Ueda, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Nasronudin Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka
Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi, is a unique region in Indonesia because of its religion. We collected peripheral blood samples from 63 individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The amplification of viral genomic fragments, viral subtyping, detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs), and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Viral subtyping revealed that the most prevalent HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtype/circulating recombinant form (CRF) was CRF01_AE (84...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229668/near-full-length-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-hiv-1-second-generation-recombinant-form-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-detected-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-tianjin-china
#4
Ping Ma, Zhangwen Ge, Yi Feng, Weidong Ou, Jia Sun, Kang Li, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
In recent years, men who have sex with men (MSM) has been the most affected population with fastest growing HIV prevalence in China. In our study, a novel CRF01_AE/07_BC HIV-1 recombinant form (TJIH0069), with four unique breakpoints in the pol, vpr, and nef gene regions, was identified among MSM in Tianjin City in north China. The CRF01_AE regions (the regions I, III, V) of the recombinant are all clustered together with a previously described sequence (HQ215555), which was exclusively circulating among MSM in Shijiazhuang city of Hebei Province in north China...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229666/monocyte-and-alveolar-macrophage-skewing-is-associated-with-the-development-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pah-in-a-primate-model-of-hiv-infection
#5
Finja Schweitzer, Rebecca Tarantelli, Emily Rayens, Heather Kling, Joshua T Mattila, Karen A Norris
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of monocytes, alveolar and tissue-resident macrophage populations and the development pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a non-human primate model of HIV infection. DESIGN: A prospective study of simian immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SIV-PAH) Methods: Rhesus macaques (n=21) were infected with SIV. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were analyzed for monocyte and macrophage phenotypes and inflammatory mediators...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229664/characterization-of-a-new-hiv-1-crf01_ae-b-recombinant-virus-form-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shanghai-china
#6
Weidong Ou, Kang Li, Yi Feng, Qiao Huang, Zhangwen Ge, Jia Sun, Zhehua Zhou, Yanling Liang, Hui Xing, Hao Liang, Yiming Shao
To date, there was 16 types of CRF01_AE/B circulation recombinant forms are identification, and most of them are distributed in Asian countries such as China, Malaysia and Singapore. Previous HIV molecular epidemiological surveys showed that CRF01_AE (27.6%) and B (9.6%) subtypes are one of the most prevalent strains in mainland China. At the same times, the HIV-1 virus spreads faster in the MSM population than in other transmission routes. In Shanghai district, approximately 66.0% of new report case were infected through homosexual transmission...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229663/tax-mrna-carrying-exosomes-from-htlv-1-infected-cells-can-induce-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-vitro
#7
Katia Kaori Otaguiri, Daiane Fernanda Dos Santos, Svetoslav Nanev Slavov, Lívia Depieri, Patrícia Viana Bonini Palma, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Juliano Coelho Da Silveira, Simone Kashima
BACKGROUND: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The development of HAM/TSP, a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, is correlated to complex interaction between the host immune response and the infecting virus. Tax expression plays important role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis by activating various cellular genes, including the cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229661/integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-resistance-mutations-in-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treatment-experienced-hiv-patients-in-south-korea
#8
Wooyong Jeong, In Young Jung, Heun Choi, Jung Ho Kim, Hye Seong, Jin Young Ahn, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi
Updated guidelines for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-negative patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recommend integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens. HIV patients are tested for resistance to antiretrovirals, and the reported prevalence of transmitted INSTI resistance remains rare worldwide. However, no data related to INSTI resistance in Korean HIV patients have been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of INSTI resistance-related mutations in South Korea...
September 19, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073841/near-full-length-genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-hiv-type-1-recombinant-form-crf01_ae-b-identified-from-anhui-china
#9
Kang Li, Weidong Ou, Yi Feng, Jia Sun, Zhangwen Ge, Hui Xing, Hao Liang, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 recombinant forms contribute substantially to its genetic evolution. This study reports a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant form (AH150299) composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B, isolated from an HIV-positive female subject infected through heterosexual contact in Anhui province of eastern China. The analyses of the near full-length genome sequence showed that one subtype B segment was inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone, with two recombinant breakpoints observed in the vif/vpr and env/nef gene regions...
September 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117324/near-full-length-genomic-characterization-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-b-recombinant-strains-identified-in-hebei-china
#10
Qiao Huang, Weidong Ou, Yi Feng, Fan Li, Kang Li, Jia Sun, Zhangwen Ge, Hui Xing, Hao Liang, Yiming Shao
This study reports a novel HIV-1 recombinant form of CRF01_AE/B that was isolated from a 22-year-old male individual (HE150308) residing in Hebei province, China. The near full-length genome (NFLG) phylogenetic tree showed that the strain was clustered with CRF01_AE reference sequences and placed at the peripheral position within the branch of CRF01_AE strains. The bootscaning and similarity plot analysis revealed that the NFLG of this novel recombinant was composed of eight interlaced segments, including four CRF01_AE and four subtype B segments separated by seven breakpoints observed in the gag, pol, and nef regions of HIV-1 genome...
September 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073840/hiv-1-mediated-suppression-of-ifn-%C3%AE-production-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-irf-7-translocation-and-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#11
Ashwini S Dhamanage, Madhuri R Thakar, Ramesh S Paranjape
Interferon-α (IFN-α) plays a vital role in combating viral infections especially in the early control after infection. However, the HIV infection has shown substantial level of suppression of IFN-α secretion during initial phase of infection. The reasons behind this impairment are still obscure. As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the major producers of this cytokine, the mechanisms of HIV-1-mediated suppression of IFN-α production by pDCs using the primary pDCs were explored. The nuclear translocation of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-7, a transcription factor for IFN-α genes, is essential for the initiation of IFN-α production in pDCs...
September 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215268/a-window-into-the-hiv-epidemic-from-a-south-african-emergency-department
#12
Bhakti Hansoti, David Stead, Anna Eisenberg, Nomzamo Mvandaba, George Mwinnyaa, Eshan U Patel, Andy Parrish, Steven James Reynolds, Andrew D Redd, Reinaldo Fernandez, Richard Rothman, Oliver Laeyendecker, Thomas C Quinn
OBJECTIVE(S): To describe the HIV care continuum in Emergency Department (ED) patients in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, identity-unlinked serosurvey was conducted between September and November of 2016 at the Frere Hospital Emergency Department in East London, South Africa. METHODS: Discarded/excess samples from all patients who had blood drawn during the study period for routine care were tested for HIV, HBV, and HCV infection; HIV viral load; and presence of antiretroviral drugs...
September 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215267/dried-blood-spots-stored-at-room-temperature-should-not-be-used-for-hiv-incidence-testing
#13
Anna L Eisenberg, Eshan U Patel, Zoe Packman, Reinaldo Fernandez, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Erica L Hamilton, Catherine MacPhail, James P Hughes, Audrey Pettifor, Esper Kallas, Michael Busch, Gary Murphy, Thomas C Quinn, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
BACKGROUND: The Limiting Antigen avidity (LAg) assay is a serologic assay used for cross-sectional HIV incidence testing. We compared results obtained with the LAg assay using dried blood spot (DBS) samples stored at room temperature (18-25<sup>ο</sup>C) or stored frozen at -80<sup>ο</sup>C with results obtained from matched plasma samples. METHODS: Matched DBS and plasma samples (306 paired samples) were collected in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 trial in South Africa (2012 to 2014)...
September 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215266/external-quality-assessment-scheme-for-hiv-1-drug-resistance-genotyping-in-thailand
#14
Siriphan Saeng-Aroon, Nonglak Saipradit, Ruangchai Loket, Nattapong Klamkhai, Ratrawee Boonmuang, Pavita Kaewprommal, Korrakot Prommajan, Naokazu Takeda, Somnuek Sungkanuparphb, Tatsuo Shioda, Somchai Sangkitporn, Kazushi Motomura
The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) can be compromised by the emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug-resistant strains. HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) genotyping testing thus plays an important role in the selection of optimal treatment regimens for HIV-infected individuals. Given the complexities of the testing procedures and the variety of approaches used, there is considerable potential for results to vary between laboratories. In Thailand, the national External Quality Assessment (EQA) scheme assesses the DR genotype testing performance of laboratories...
September 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215262/anal-microbial-patterns-and-oncogenic-hpv-in-a-pilot-study-of-nigerian-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-risk-for-or-living-with-hiv
#15
Rebecca G Nowak, Soren M Bentzen, Jacques Ravel, Trevor Crowell, Wuese Dauda, Bing Ma, Hongjie Liu, William A Blattner, Stefan D Baral, Man E Charurat
INTRODUCTION: To cluster anal microbiota and define microbial patterns associated with biological, clinical, and behavioral correlates among Nigerian men who have sex with men (MSM) living with or at risk for HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional pilot study, the 15 most abundant 16S taxa in the anal microbiota of 113 MSM underwent unsupervised K-means clustering and z-score comparisons to define similarities and dissimilarities among 4 microbiota taxonomic profiles...
September 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205696/prediction-of-liver-disease-aids-and-mortality-based-on-discordant-absolute-and-relative-peripheral-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals
#16
Sandra Skrumsager Hansen, Gitte Kronborg, Thomas Benfield
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus induced liver fibrosis and splenomegaly may lead to discordance between absolute numbers and percentages of lymphocytes and subpopulations because of sequestration. We investigated lymphocyte discordance in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals and its relationship to progression to liver disease, AIDS and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort study. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) associated with liver disease, AIDS or mortality were computed by time-updated Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 11, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105915/treatment-complexities-among-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-cohort-in-the-united-states
#17
Destani J Bizune, Russell R Kempker, Michelle Kagei, Aliya Yamin, Omar Mohamed, David P Holland, Alawode Oladele, Yun F Wang, Paulina A Rebolledo, Henry M Blumberg, Susan M Ray, Marcos C Schechter
The association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) mortality has been studied extensively, but the impact of HIV on other clinically relevant aspects of TB care such as TB drug-related adverse events (AEs), hospital readmissions, and TB treatment duration is less well characterized. We describe the association of HIV infection with TB clinical complexities and outcomes in a high HIV prevalence cohort in the United States. This is a retrospective cohort study among patients treated for culture-confirmed TB between 2008 and 2015 at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 11, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047278/integrated-care-on-leaving-hospital-against-medical-advice-among-hiv-infected-people-with-substance-use-disorders
#18
Gabriel Vallecillo, Maria José Robles, Francina Fonseca, Claudio Tamarit, Xavier Durán, Alexandra García-Guix, Marta Torrens
HIV-infected people with substance use disorders (HIV-SUDs) are at increased risk of leaving hospital against medical advice (LHAMA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LHAMA in HIV-SUDs admitted to a patient-centered hospital where they receive integrated care, including healthcare, substance use treatment, and social support. Observational study was conducted at an urban acute-care university teaching hospital. Integrated care included a specialist in addiction medicine and a social worker incorporated into the medical staff...
September 11, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019612/tracking-tregs-translocation-of-cd49b-lag-3-type-1-t-regulatory-cells-to-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-of-hiv-patients
#19
Max Augustin, Carola Horn, Julian Koch, Ute Sandaradura de Silva, Martin Platten, Dirk Nierhoff, Isabelle Suarez, Seung-Hun Chon, Jan Rybniker, Clara Lehmann
The gastrointestinal mucosa [gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)] represents the largest site of chronic immune activation and HIV replication. Important cellular agents in the immunopathogenesis of an HIV infection are, in particular, CD49b/LAG-3+ type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1), which secrete large amounts of IL-10 (interleukin-10), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, the main producers of IFN-α (interferon-alpha). However, the distribution of CD49b/LAG-3+ Tr1 cells along the GALT is unknown.
September 11, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198299/expression-of-host-restriction-factors-by-memory-cd4-t-cells-differs-between-healthy-donors-and-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-effective-art
#20
Nathaniel D Bachtel, Greta A Beckerle, Talia Mota, Miguel de Mulder Rougvie, Rui Andre Raposo, R Brad Jones, Douglas F Nixon, Richard Apps
Much has been learnt from the functions of host restriction factors during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection, but far less is known about their role in HIV-1 infected individuals in which viral load is stably suppressed with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here transcriptional expression of 42 host restriction factors was determined for memory CD4+ T-cells sorted from 10 uninfected and 21 HIV-1 infected individuals, treated with suppressive ART and for which the viral reservoir was quantified. No significant associations were observed between restriction factor expression and HIV-1 reservoir size, quantified by measurement of HIV-1 Gag DNA using droplet digital PCR, and by measurement of replication-competent inducible virus using quantitative viral outgrowth assays...
September 10, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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