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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Yme van der Velden, Julien Villaudy, Esther Siteur-van Rijnstra, Cynthia van der Linden, Esmay Franklin, Kees Weijer, Edith Schermer, Monique Vink, Ben Berkhout, Rogier W Sanders, Marit Van Gils
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) such as PGDM1400 show promise as prophylactic and therapeutic agents against HIV-1. Human immune system (HIS) mice were passively immunized with different doses of PGDM1400 and challenged 24 hours later with a high dose of HIV-1JRCSF. We found that PGDM1400 provided protection against HIV-1 challenge in a concentration dependent manner and that the protective concentration in blood was approximately 75-fold higher than the in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)...
July 13, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jia Sun, Biao Zhu, Yi Feng, Yirui Xie, Ying Huang, Weidong Ou, Zhehua Zhou, Kang Li, Zhangwen Ge, Hui Xing, Yiming Shao
The prevalence of HIV type 1 among men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasing in China. We report here a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) detected from a male patient infected HIV-1 by homosexual behavior in Zhejiang province of eastern China. The near full-length genome (NFLG) analyses showed that the unique HIV-1 recombinant isolate (16ZJ305) has two recombinant breakpoints observed in the env and tat/rev gene regions. To date, several novel CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC recombinant forms have been identified, which may imply an active transmission network of HIV-1 infection among MSM...
July 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sho Sugawara, David Thomas, Ashwin Balagopal
HIV-1 remains a chronic viral infection of global health importance. Although HIV-1 replication can be controlled by antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is no cure due to persistence of a long-lived latent reservoir. In addition, people living with HIV-1 who are taking ART still bear signatures of persistent immune activation that include continued type 1 interferon signaling. Paradoxically, type 1 interferon exerts a limited role on the control of chronic HIV-1. Indeed, recent reports from humanized mice suggest that type 1 interferon may partly maintain the latent reservoir...
July 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xinli Lu, Suliang Chen, Hongru Zhao, Yan Li, Yingying Wang, Yuqi Zhang, Kaoqi Lian, Cuiying Zhao, Ze Cui
HIV primary drug resistance (PDR) has influenced the long-term therapeutic effects of antiretroviral drugs. However, for the overall PDR prevalence in China, no report was found in published articles. In our study, an extensive cross-sectional investigation based on all newly diagnosed treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals was conducted. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 PDR among newly diagnosed treatment-naive HIV-1 individuals was 8.3% (60/720), obviously beyond the warning line (5.0%) set by WHO. The prevalence of PDR to PIs, NRTIs and NNRTIs was 4...
July 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Adrienne E Swanstrom, Robert J Gorelick, Guoxin Wu, Bonnie Howell, Anitha Vijayagopalan, Rebecca Shoemaker, Kelli Oswald, Siddhartha A Datta, Brandon F Keele, Gregory Q Del Prete, Elena Chertova, Julian W Bess, Jeffrey D Lifson
Although effective for suppressing viral replication, combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) does not represent definitive therapy for HIV infection due to persistence of replication-competent viral reservoirs. The advent of effective cART regimens for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates (NHP) has enabled the development of relevant models for studying viral reservoirs and intervention strategies targeting them. Viral reservoir measurements are crucial for such studies but are problematic...
July 10, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
HIV infection progressively destroys CD4+ mononuclear cells, leading to profound cellular immune deficiency that manifests as life-threatening opportunistic infections and malignancies (i.e., AIDS). Gut microbiota plays key roles in the modulation of host metabolism and gene expression, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and mediation of inflammatory and immunity. Hence, the normal intestinal microbiota plays a major role in the maintenance of health and disease prevention. In fact, a large number of studies have shown that the alteration of the gut microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic diseases, anorexia nervosa, autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis, cancer, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases...
July 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Luis M Agosto, Andrew J Henderson
Latent infection of CD4+ T cells is the main barrier to eradicating HIV-1 infection from infected patients. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of latent infection are directly linked to the transcriptional program of the different CD4+ T cell subsets targeted by the virus. In this review, we provide an overview of how T cell activation, T cell differentiation into functional subsets, and the mode of initial viral infection influence HIV proviral transcription and entry into latency...
July 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Robin Nance, Heidi Crane, Corey Ritchings, Lisa C Rosenblatt, Matthew Budoff, Susan R Heckbert, Daniel Drozd, William C Matthews, Elvin Geng, Peter W Hunt, Matthew J Feinstein, Richard Moore, Priscilla Hseu, Joseph J Eron, Greer A Burkholder, Benigno Rodriguez, Michael J Mugavero, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Joseph Ac Delaney
BACKGROUND: The Universal Myocardial infarction (MI) definition divides MIs into different types. Type 1 MIs (T1MI) result spontaneously from atherosclerotic plaque instability. Type 2 MIs (T2MI) are due to secondary causes of myocardial oxygen demand/supply mismatch such as occurs with sepsis. T2MI are much more common among those with HIV than in the general population. T1MI and T2MI have different mechanisms, risk factors and potential treatments suggesting that they should be distinguished to achieve a better scientific understanding of MIs in HIV...
July 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jeffrey O Zhou, Therese Ton, Julia W Morriss, Diep Nguyen, Daniela Fera
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a rapidly evolving pathogen and causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. There are ~30-35 million people infected with HIV around the world, and ~25 million have died since the first reported cases in 1981. Additionally, each year 2-3 million people become newly infected and more than one million die of AIDS. An HIV-1 vaccine would help halt an AIDS pandemic, and efforts to develop a vaccine have focused on targeting the HIV-1 envelope, Env, found on the surface of the virus...
July 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rachel H Safeek, Katherine S Hall, Felipe Lobelo, Carlos Del Rio, Audrey L Khoury, Tammy Wong, Miriam C Morey, Mehri S McKellar
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), resulting in greater incidence of aging-related diseases and disability. Physical activity (PA) is recommended for healthy aging, but little is known about PA in older PLWHA. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess PA levels in older PLWHA and the associations with physical function. Twenty-one PLWHA, ≥ 50 years old, on ART with undetectable HIV-1 viral loads, wore an accelerometer to assess PA, including number of steps, activity intensity, and energy expenditure over 7 days...
July 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Vanessa Martinez Manfio, Karen Ingrid Tasca, Mariana Gatto, Vitor Loureiro da Silva, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Lenice do Rosário Souza
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is characterized by impairment of various epithelial protective mechanisms, factors that contribute to intestinal barrier damages and result in microbial translocation, leading to increased immune activation and inflammation. However, microbial translocation and inflammatory status in HIV infection has been poorly investigated during pregnancy, period that the women are susceptible to bacterial infections. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate microbial translocation and the inflammatory status in HIV-infected pregnant women...
July 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Olivia Mueller, Doris Moore, Joseph Giovannucci, Andrea Etter, Emily Peterson, Aaron Mudge, Yingguang Liu
Scattered among human and animal genomes are a class of repetitive genetic elements called endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are generally considered remnants of ancient viral infections. However, ERV elements are known to perform essential beneficial functions for the host, especially in reproduction and in embryogenesis. Since some human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) contain putative steroid hormone-response elements, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the expression of HERVs is affected by sex hormones...
July 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jerlisa Ann C Arizala, Mayumi Takahashi, John C Burnett, Dominique L Ouellet, Haitang Li, John J Rossi
Combination antiretroviral therapy fails in complete suppression of HIV-1 due to drug resistance and persistent latency. Novel therapeutic intervention requires knowledge of intracellular pathways responsible for viral replication, specifically those untargeted by antiretroviral drugs. An understudied phenomenon is the nucleolar localization of Rev phosphoprotein, which completes nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced/partially spliced HIV mRNA through multimerization with intronic cis-acting targets-the Rev-response element (RRE)...
July 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jonathan L Chang, Sulggi Lee, Alexander C Tsai, Nicholas Musinguzi, Conrad Muzoora, Bosco M Bwana, Yap Boum, Jessica Haberer, Peter W Hunt, Jeff Martin, David R Bangsberg, Deanna L Kroetz, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2B6 have been shown to predict variation in plasma efavirenz concentrations, but associations between these SNPs and efavirenz-mediated depression and viral suppression are less well described. METHODS: We evaluated three SNPs in CYP2B6 (rs3745274, rs28399499, and rs4803419) in Ugandan persons living with HIV. To define exposure, we used previously published pharmacokinetic modelling data to categorize participants as normal, intermediate, and poor efavirenz metabolizers...
July 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rowena Johnston, Marcella Flores
On January 15, 2018 the world lost Dr. Mathilde Krim, a woman who changed the life of every person who has ever worked in HIV research. Variously remembered as a humanitarian, a socialite, a philanthropist, and a political activist, Dr. Krim was first and foremost a scientist. We highlight her pioneering research in fetal sex determination, as well as her activism during the unfolding AIDS epidemic, which culminated in the cofounding of amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. Finally, we provide an analysis of the award named in honor of her inspirational leadership, the Mathilde Krim Fellowships in Basic Biomedical Research, which aims to catapult the careers of exceptional, early-stage researchers in the HIV/AIDS field...
July 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Will Dampier, Neil T Sullivan, Joshua Mell, Vanessa Pirrone, Garth Ehrlich, Cheng-Han Chung, Alexander G Allen, Matthew DeSimone, Wen Zhong, Katherine Kercher, Shendra Passic, Jean Williams, Zsofia Szep, Kamel Khalili, Jeffrey Jacobson, Michael R Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl
The CRISPR-associated Cas9 system has been used to excise the HIV-1 proviral genome from latently infected cells, potentially offering a cure for HIV-infected patients. Recent studies have shown that most published HIV-1 guide RNAs (gRNAs) do not account for the diverse viral quasispecies within or among patients, which continue to diversify with time even in long-term antiretroviral therapy-suppressed patients. Given this observation, proviral genomes were deep sequenced from 23 HIV-1-infected patients in the Drexel Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort at two different visits...
July 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Asha R Kallianpur, Mariana Gerschenson, Todd Hulgan, Harpreet Kaur, David Clifford, David Haas, Deborah G Murdock, Justin C McArthur, David C Samuels, David Simpson
Some HIV-associated complications involve mitochondrial dysfunction and may be less common in individuals with iron-loading <i>HFE </i>(hemochromatosis gene) variants. We evaluated <i>HFE </i>845A and 187G alleles in relation to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 85 individuals with HIV infection on uninterrupted antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 15 or more consecutive weeks. Carriers of <i>HFE </i>gene variants (N=24) had significantly higher mtDNA levels than non-carriers (N=61), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and type of ART [adjusted β-coefficient 297, <i>p</i>-value<0...
July 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sallie Permar, Ofer Levy, Tobias R Kollman, Anjali Singh, Kristina De Paris
Limited success of current HIV-1 vaccines warrants new approaches. We discuss feasibility and potential benefits of early life HIV-1 immunization followed by vaccine boosts during childhood that may enable maturation of vaccine-induced broad anti-HIV-1 immunity over several years. By initiating this immunization approach in the very young, well before sexual debut, such a strategy may dramatically reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection.
July 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Eleonora Cella, Brian Foley, Elisabetta Riva, Vittoria Scolamacchia, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Serena Vita, Marco Iannetta, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Silvia Angeletti, Massimo Ciccozzi
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection prevalence is increasing in some European countries. The increasing migratory flow from countries where HIV-2 is endemic has facilitated the spread of the virus into Europe and other regions. We describe a case of HIV-2 infection in a migrant individual in the Asylum Seeker Centre (ASC) in Italy. The patient's virus was sequenced, and found to be a typical HIV-2 genotype A virus. Bayesian evolutionary analysis revealed that the HIV-2 sequence from migrant dated back to 1986 in a subcluster including sequences from Guinea Bissau...
June 28, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Uroosa Tariq, Azra Parveen, Furqana Akhtar, Faisal Mahmood, Syed Ali, Syed Hani Abidi
In Pakistan, HIV has recently converted from outbreak to concentrated epidemic and has also bridged into the low-risk population. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan is mainly derived by subtype A. Here we present first case and genetic analysis of a circulating recombinant form 56_cpx in Pakistani HIV-infected patient. Genetic analysis of the sequence indicated that Pakistani 56_cpx sequence had more drug resistance mutation than other 56_cpx sequences available in the database.
June 27, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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