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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Monique Hennink, Bonnie Kaiser, Vincent Marconi
Retaining HIV patients in clinical care is a critical component of the HIV care continuum, impacting not only patients' virologic suppression but their overall health and wellbeing. Understanding reasons for patient drop out is therefore important to improve HIV outcomes and reduce transmission. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews with patients who dropped out of HIV care (n=16) from the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, to explore their reasons for drop out and how they negotiate barriers to return to care...
February 28, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Estelle Autissier, Haiying Li, Paul Goepfert, R Keith Reeves
Apoptotic membrane microparticles (MMP) derive from dying cells of multiple cell origins, are highly immunostimulatory, and are indicative of global immune activation and cell death in a variety of diseases. In this study we developed a flow cytometric bead assay to quantify annexin-V+ apoptotic (MMP) in plasma from humans and rhesus macaques. With a combination of flow cytometry and pan-fluorescent beads, MMP were enumerated in plasma specimens by adding a constant ratio of beads to initial fluid volumes and then calculating MMP/ml based on MMP-to-bead ratios...
February 27, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Laura Houghtaling, Raoul Moh, Mariama Abdou Chekaraou, Delphine Gabillard, Xavier Anglaret, Serge Paul Eholié, Fabien Zoulim, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, Anders Boyd
Immunorecovery could be attenuated in HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection versus HIV mono-infection during antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet whether it also occurs in individuals from Sub-Saharan Africa without severe co-morbidities is unknown. In this study, 808 HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire initiating continuous ART were included. Six-month CD4+ count trajectories and the proportion reaching CD4+ T-cell counts >350/mm3, HIV-RNA <300 copies/mL, still alive and not lost to follow-up within 18 months ("optimal immunorecovery") were compared between co-infected groups...
February 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Barbara Giannini, Niccolò Riccardi, Giovanni Cenderello, Antonio Di Biagio, Chiara Dentone, Mauro Giacomini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Dominique Figueroa, Erin Madeen, Joseph Tillotson, Paul Richardson, Leslie Cottle, Marybeth McCauley, Raphael Landovitz, Adriana Andrade, Craig W Hendrix, Kenneth H Mayer, T J Wilkin, Roy Gulick, Namandjé N Bumpus
Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (FTC) are used in combination for HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a prodrug that undergoes diester hydrolysis to TFV. FTC and TFV are nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors that upon phosphorylation to nucleotide triphosphate analogs competitively inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase. We previously demonstrated that adenylate kinase 2, pyruvate kinase, muscle and pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cell phosphorylate TFV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Evangelia-Georgia Kostaki, Timokratis Karamitros, Marina Bobkova, Martha Oikonomopoulou, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Federico Garcia, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
BACKGROUND: Eastern European countries including Russia, Ukraine and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries have experienced an HIV epidemic spreading mostly among people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to investigate the origin and the dispersal patterns of HIV-1 CRF02_AG in Russia and other FSU countries. METHODS: We studied 136 CRF02_AG sequences originating from Russia, and FSU countries along with a globally sampled dataset of 3,580 CRF02_AG sequences...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
James Demarest, Mark Underwood, Marty St Clair, David Dorey, Dannae Brown, Andrew Zolopa
Dolutegravir demonstrated superior virologic efficacy compared with raltegravir in treatment-experienced, integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-naive patients with HIV-1 who harbored resistance to ≥2 classes of antiretroviral drugs. Significantly fewer dolutegravir-treated patients demonstrated virologic failure with treatment emergent resistance than raltegravir-treated patients through 48 weeks. Resistance analyses informed the design of investigator-selected background therapy (ISBT) that included at least 1 fully active agent...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mengyan Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Wenhui Chang
Many new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 have been found in men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years, in China. In this study, a unique HIV-1 recombinant genome (SN153) was characterized from an HIV-positive male infected through homosexual behavior in Shaanxi, China. The mosaic pattern had a complex intersubtype recombinant structure with six breakpoints, with three subtype C segments inserted into subtype B backbone. And three similar breakpoints with CRF07_BC were observed in the pol gene...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alexi Groppi, Macha Nikolski, Herve J Fleury
We have estimated the prevalence of the different viral subtypes between January 2012 and December 2016 in HIV-1-infected patients of the Aquitaine region (south-west part of France) who had a routine HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) centralized at the Bordeaux University Hospital. GRT was performed on viral RNA (1784 samples) before treatment initiation or at failure whereas proviral DNA was used as template (1420 samples) in the event of a treatment switch in patients with viral load below 50 copies/mL...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mary A Rodgers, Ana S Vallari, Julie Yamaguchi, Vera Holzmayer, Barbara Harris, Coumba Toure-Kane, Souleymane Mboup, Samar Badreddine, Carole McArthur, Nicaise Ndembi, Dora Mbanya, Lazare Kaptue, Gavin Cloherty
Periodic evaluation of the impact of viral diversity on diagnostic tests is critical to ensure current technologies are keeping pace with viral evolution. To determine whether HIV diversity impacts the ARCHITECT HIV Combo Ag/Ab (HIV Combo) or RealTime HIV-1 (RT) assays, a set of N = 199 HIV clinical specimens from Cameroon, Senegal, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand were sequenced and tested in both assays. The panel included historical groups N and P specimens and a newly identified group N specimen. These and specimens classified as H, U (unclassified)/URF (unique recombinant form), CRF (circulating recombinant form) 01, 02, 06, 09, 11, 13, 18, 22, 37, and 43 were detected by both the RT assay (1...
February 13, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Desheng Kong, Yan Wang, Chen Wang, Shujia Liang, Yi Feng, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are three major HIV-1 subtypes circulating in China. Here we detected a novel CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2016EU23), which was isolated from an HIV-1-infected man who had sex with men (MSM) in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome showed that GX2016EU23 consisted of at least seven segments, that is two B, two CRF01_AE, and three CRF07_BC segments. Recombinant breakpoints of GX2016EU23 were observed in the gag, pol, rev, and env regions. This is the first detection of a novel HIV-1 recombinant (B/CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) in MSM in Guangxi...
February 13, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Tatsufumi Nakamura, Katsuya Satoh, Hideki Nakamura, Naomi Fukushima, Yoshihiro Nishiura, Takafumi Furuya, Katsuhiro Ichinose
The main clinical feature of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is slowly progressive spastic paraparesis with bladder dysfunction. HAM/TSP is induced by chronic inflammation in the spinal cord, mainly the lower thoracic cord. A long-standing bystander mechanism, such as the destruction of surrounding tissues by the interaction between infiltrated Th1-like, HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T cells and HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL), is probably critical for the induction of chronic inflammation...
February 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Alfonso Zamudio-Rodríguez, Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Sierra-Madero, Jennifer Margarita Cuellar-Rodríguez, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez, Juan Luis Alcalá-Zermeno, Hélène Amieva, José Alberto Avila-Funes
INTRODUCTION: The population of aging adults living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is growing worldwide and evidence suggests that frailty occurs prematurely among them. In turn, frailty has been associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown, however, if people with both frailty and HIV-infection have higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with non-frail HIV-infected persons. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the association between the phenotype of frailty and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among adults aged 50 years or older living with HIV/AIDS...
February 1, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Edwin DeJesus, Bernard Haas, Sorana Segal-Mauer, Moti Ramgopal, Anthony Mills, Nicolas Margot, Ya-Pei Liu, Tariro Makadzange, Scott McCallister
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated superior efficacy and safety advantages in HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults switched to a regimen containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as compared with those remaining on a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) regimen through week 48. We now report longer-term data through week 96. METHODS: In this randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial ( number NCT01815736), we randomized virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) adults (2:1) to receive a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF group) or to continue one of four TDF-containing regimens (TDF group) for 96 weeks...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Richard Andrew Murphy, Timothy Hatlen, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa
Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for an estimated 25% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Accumulating animal and accumulating human evidence suggest that a higher, more fungicidal, dose of fluconazole during consolidation therapy could be more effective in controlling residual infection and may help significantly reduce post-hospitalization mortality. Although the potential for toxicity is low, the use of fluconazole at a dose of 800 mg/day during consolidation therapy requires examination in a randomized clinical trial...
January 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Emmanuel Ndashimye, Mariano Avino, Fred Kyeyune, Immaculate Nankya, Richard M Gibson, Eva Nabulime, Art F Y Poon, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Miguel E Quinones-Mateu, Eric Arts
OBJECTIVES: To screen for drug resistance and possible treatment with Dolutegravir (DTG) in treatment naïve patients and those experiencing virologic failure during first, second, and third line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Uganda. DESIGN: Samples from 417 patients in Uganda were analyzed for predicted drug resistance upon failing a first (N=158), second (N=121), or third line (all 51 involving Raltegravir [RAL]) treatment regimen. METHOD: HIV-1 pol gene was amplified and sequenced from plasma samples...
January 21, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Anar S Patel, Rachel L Geller, Neela D Goswami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Kattayoun Kordy, Julie Elliott, Karen Tanner, Elizabeth Jane Johnson, Ian McGowan, Peter A Anton
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether human whole semen (WS) and seminal plasma (SP) either previously frozen or freshly acquired altered ex vivo infectibility of human colonic explants or was associated with histology or toxicity changes which may influence mucosal HIV-1 transmission in vivo. METHODS: Pooled human semen samples were freshly obtained from study volunteers (never frozen) and from commercial sources (frozen /thawed). Endoscopically acquired rectal biopsies were evaluated for toxicity following titered ex vivo WS/SP exposure by histological grading and by MTT assay...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lucia Taramasso, Niccolò Riccardi, Filippo Del Puente, Bianca Bruzzone, Diego Ripamonti, Beatrice D'Ambrosio, Claudio Viscoli, Antonio Di Biagio
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with TDF/FTC significantly reduces the risk for HIV-1 transmission, but, to date, nobody knows if PrEP can still be useful in case of viruses harboring resistances to TDF/FTC or if alternative antiretroviral drugs might be rather proposed in selected cases. We promote the debate by describing a case of an acute infection with multiresistant HIV that occurred in a young girl who started a relationship with an HIV-infected partner who had a known multiresistant HIV.
January 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Angela M Amedee, Bonnie Phillips, Kara Jensen, Spencer Robichaux, Nedra Lacour, Mark Burke, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey D Lifson, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris
Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily, roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them through breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal, and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 h after oral SIVmac251 exposure. SIV DNA was detected as early as 48 h, whereas SIV RNA was typically detected at later time points (72-96 h)...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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