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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Emi E Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Tahmina Sultana, Zhuan Jin, Kyotaro Nohata, Masato Shibata, Miho Hosoi, Kazushi Motomura, Tatsuo Shioda, Somchai Sangkitporn, Ruangchai Loket, Siriphan Saeng-Aroon
TRIM5α and MxB are known as restriction factors that inhibit the early step of intracellular HIV-1 replication cycle. Both factors are believed to interact with the incoming virus core to suppress HIV-1 infection. The extreme diversity of HIV-1 is thought to be a consequence of its propensity to mutate to escape immune responses and host restriction factors. We recently determined the capsid sequences for 144 HIV-1 CRF01_AE viruses obtained in Thailand from 2005 to 2011. In the present study, we further analyzed the amino acid variations among the capsid sequences of 204 HIV-1 CRF01_AE obtained in Thailand and China, including 84 of the aforementioned 144 viruses, to detect mutations permitting escape from restriction by host factors...
January 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Kate Buchacz, Carl Armon, E Tedaldi, Frank J Palella, Richard M Novak, Douglas Ward, Rachel Hart, Marcus Durham, John Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing the rates of virologic suppression (VS) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is essential to limiting HIV morbidity and sexual transmission of HIV in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data for MSM of non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black) or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) at nine U.S. HIV clinics. VS (HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL) was measured closest to January 1, 2015...
January 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bianca Bruzzone, Paola Canepa, Gaetano De Rosa, Sabrina Delucis, Beatrice D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo Icardi, Maurizio Setti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nicole Pescatore, Rebecca Pollak, Coleen Kraft, Jennifer Mulle, Colleen Kelley
Rectal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM). We previously demonstrated a distinct rectal mucosal immune environment in MSM engaging in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) compared to men who do not engage in anal intercourse including enrichment of the microbiota for the Prevotella family as compared to Bacteroides. Here, we expand upon these previous findings to determine differences by anatomic site of collection (anal vs. rectal mucosa) and examine associations of the predominant taxa with other genera...
January 7, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yunda Huang, Lily Zhang, Darren Jolliffe, Brittany Sanchez, Grete Stjernholm, Øyvind Jelmert, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt
Therapeutic vaccination has the potential to contribute to functional HIV cure strategies. However, to show functional HIV cure, study participants must be taken off combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The availability of suitable biomarkers that can predict viral load (VL) or CD4 count outcomes following therapeutic HIV vaccination would reduce the risks associated with cART interruption in such studies. This report sought to determine baseline and post-vaccination biomarker predictors of vaccine effect on VL and CD4 counts following cART interruption in a double-blind, randomized phase 2 study of the peptide-based therapeutic HIV vaccine, Vacc-4x (n=93) vs...
January 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Oliver Ringel, Karsten Müller, Joachim Koch, Boris Brill, Timo Wolf, Christoph Stephan, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Ursula Dietrich
The analysis of patient derived HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and their target epitopes in the viral envelope (Env) protein provides important basic information for vaccine design. In this study we optimized an epitope, EC26-2A4, that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies from an elite controller (EC26) and localizes in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) from the gp41 transmembrane protein. Due to its overlap with the epitope of the first generation broadly neutralizing monoclonal Ab (mAb) 2F5 associated with autoreactivity, we first defined the minimal core epitope reacting with antibodies from EC26 plasma, but not with mAb 2F5...
December 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jonathan E Volk, Dong Phuong Nguyen, C Bradley Hare, Julia L Marcus
Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently only recommend daily dosing of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an on-demand PrEP dosing strategy that includes doses before and after sexual activity has been shown to reduce risk for HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men. In this letter, we report a case of HIV infection and drug resistance in a patient using PrEP outside of regular clinical care, adopting a sporadic, suboptimal dosing strategy with pills he obtained from his sexual partners...
December 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Rahul P Bakshi, Jennifer C Breakey, Madhuri Manohar, Bhavna Jois, Edward J Fuchs, Mark A Marzinke
Antiretroviral drug concentrations at sites of HIV exposure are important drivers that influence the development HIV pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis strategies and regimens. We assessed the effect of collection method - in the presence or absence of tissue culture media - on tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in colonic biopsies. We find significant baseline inter-biopsy variation in TFV (38% CV) and TFV-DP (33% CV) concentrations. Incubation in media leads to a fluid absorption-driven 2-fold increase in tissue weight with a concomitant 75% decrease in weight-adjusted tissue TFV concentrations over 120 min...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Paula Cerejo, Quirina Santos-Costa, Marta Calado, Maria Espírito-Santo, Ricardo Parreira, J Miguel Azevedo Pereira
The main goal of this work was to identify molecular signatures in envelope surface glycoprotein that may be correlated with coreceptor usage by different HIV-2 strains. From inspection of aligned HIV-2 sequences we verified that V1/V2 region showed the highest degree of amino acid sequence heterogeneity including polymorphisms in N-linked glycosylation sites, sequence and length. Furthermore, we did not find any correlation between the net charge and specific amino acids positions in V3 region with any particular coreceptor-usage pattern...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ivailo Alexiev, Alessandra Lo Presti, Reneta Dimitrova, Brian Thomas Foley, Anna Gancheva, Asya Kostadinova, Lora Nikolova, Silvia Angeletti, Eleonora Cella, Ivaylo Elenkov, Mariana Stoycheva, Daniela Nikolova, Tsetsa Doychinova, Liliya Pekova, Massimo Ciccozzi
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was originally introduced in Bulgaria through heterosexual transmission (HET) and later transferred to other vulnerable groups along with numerous more recent introductions from outside Bulgaria. To define the diversity, origins and dynamics of the HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in HET population in Bulgaria we applied phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses using polymerase (pol) sequences from HET individuals to infer the spatiotemporal evolutionary history of the HIV-1 epidemic in this population in Bulgaria...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jing Miao, Jieyu Ran, Yindi Song, Yang Liu, Li Gao, Zhijiang Miao, Chunyue Zhang, Yue Feng, Xueshan Xia
Currently, complex HIV-1 recombination among the B', C, and CRF01_AE genotypes have frequently arisen in Yunnan, China. A novel HIV-1 complex circulating recombinant form (CRF) consisting of B', C, and CRF01_AE (CRF96_cpx) was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unlinked individuals. Two strains of them were isolated from the injecting drug users in this study, the remaining one strain (JL. RL01) obtained from a previous report in Jilin province. Phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length genome (NFLG) revealed that CRF96_cpx formed a distinct monophyletic cluster supported by a high bootstrap value of 100%, distantly related to all known HIV-1 subtypes/CRFs...
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Timothy R Brown
December 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Angela Amedee, Bonnie Phillips, Kara Jensen, Spencer Robichaux, Nedra Lacour, Mark Burke, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris
Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them via breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified viral RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 hours after oral SIVmac251 exposure. SIV DNA was detected as early as 48 hours, whereas SIV RNA was typically detected at later time points (72-96 hours)...
December 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mary A Rodgers, Ana S Vallari, Julie Yamaguchi, Vera Holzmayer, Barbara Harris, Coumba Toure-Kane, Souleymane M'Boup, Samar Badreddine, Carole McArthur, Nicaise Ndembi, Dora Ngum Mbanya, Lazare Kaptué, Gavin Cloherty
Periodic evaluation of the impact of viral diversity on diagnostic tests is critical to ensure current technologies are keeping pace with viral evolution. To determine whether HIV diversity impacts the ARCHITECT HIV Combo Ag/Ab (HIV Combo) or RealTime HIV-1 (RT) assays, a set of N=199 HIV clinical specimens from Cameroon, Senegal, Saudi Arabia, and Thailand were sequenced and tested in both assays. The panel included historical Group N and P specimens and a newly identified Group N specimen. These and specimens classified as H, U/URF, CRF01, 02, 06, 09, 11, 13, 18, 22, 37, and 43 were detected by both the RT assay (1...
December 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Daniele C Cary, B Matija Peterlin
The study of natural products in biomedical research is not a modern conceit. Many of the most successful medical therapeutics are derived from natural products, including those studied in the field of HIV/AIDS. Biomedical research has a rich history of discovery based on screens of medicinal herbs and traditional medicine practices. Compounds derived from natural products which repress HIV and those that activate latent HIV have been reported. It is important to remember the tradition in medical research to derive therapies based on these natural products and to overcome the negative perception of natural products as as an "alternative medicine"...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Joseph D Tucker, Alice Zhang, Yang Zhao
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Desheng Kong, Yan Wang, Chen Wang, Shujia Liang, Yi Feng, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are three major HIV-1 subtypes circulating in China. Here we detected a novel CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2014EU23), which was isolated from an HIV-1-infected man who had sex with men (MSM) in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome (NFLG) showed that GX2014EU23 was consisted of at least 7 segments, including two B, two CRF01_AE and three CRF07_BC segments. Recombinant breakpoints of GX2014EU23 were observed in the gag, pol, rev and env regions...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sophie Seang, Theodoros Kelesidis, Diana Huynh, Sangeun Park, Ardis Moe, Judith Currier, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) repair damaged vascular endothelium and low circulating EPC levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). CD34+/KDR+ EPCs are commonly reported in literature and CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ EPCs are rare in circulation but highly specific for endothelial lineage. HIV-infected (HIV+) adults have chronic inflammation and increased CVD risk, but the relationship between CVD, vascular inflammation and EPCs in HIV remains unclear. METHODS: In a pilot study, EPCs were measured in 57 HIV+ men (≧50 years old, HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on ART) by real-time flow cytometry using cellular immaturity (CD34 and/or CD133) and endothelial commitment (KDR) markers...
December 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Vladimir Novitsky, Melanie Prague, Sikhulile Moyo, Tendani Gaolathe, Mompati Mmalane, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, Unoda Chakalisa, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, Nealia Khan, Kathleen M Powis, Erik Widenfelt, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Scott L Dryden-Peterson, Molly Pretorius Holme, Victor De Gruttola, Pam Bachanas, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, M Essex
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 RNA level is strongly associated with HIV transmission risk. We sought to determine whether HIV-1 RNA level was associated with prior knowledge of HIV status among treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals in Botswana, a country with high rates of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. This information may be helpful in targeting HIV diagnosis and treatment efforts in similar high-HIV-prevalence settings. DESIGN: Population-based survey. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals were identified during a household survey performed in 30 communities across Botswana...
December 7, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Laurie Novick Sylla, David Evans, Jeff Taylor, Adam Lloyd Gilbertson, David Palm, Judith D Auerbach, Karine Dube
Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. HIV cure studies will require active participation by people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Their desires and perceptions will be important to effectively recruit study participants and for uptake of any future strategy that demonstrates safety and efficacy...
December 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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