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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Cynthia L Gay, Mark A DeBenedette, Irina Y Tcherepanova, Alicia Gamble, Whitney E Lewis, Anna B Cope, JoAnn D Kuruc, Kara S McGee, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin, Nancie M Archin, Charles B Hicks, Joseph J Eron, Charles A Nicolette, David M Margolis
AGS-004 consists of matured autologous dendritic cells co-electroporated with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding autologous HIV antigens. In an open-label, single arm sub-study of AGS-004-003, AGS-004 was administered monthly to suppressed participants who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection. HIV-1 specific T cell responses were measured by multicolor flow cytometry after 3-4 doses. The frequency of resting CD4(+) T-cell infection (RCI) was measured by quantitative viral outgrowth assay...
June 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sadia Samer, Gislene Namiyama, Telma Oshiro, Muhammad Shoaib Arif, Wanessa Cardoso da Silva, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Luiz Mario Janini, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Morgan Kocher, Mindy McDermott, Rachel Lindsey, Cecilia M Shikuma, Mariana Gerschenson, Dominic C Chow, Lindsay B Kohorn, Ronald K Hetzler, Iris F Kimura
In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardiometabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however, its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12-week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy who successfully completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program...
June 20, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
K K Vidyavijayan, Brahmaiah Anangi, Brindha Banu, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Sameer Hassan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Codon usage has been identified as one of the most important factors that influence gene expression. The frequencies with which the different codons are used vary significantly between different organisms and also between the genes within the same organism. HIV has a remarkable nucleotide composition with an above average percentage of "A" nucleotides resulting in a codon usage pattern different from that of the human host. In this study, we compared the codon usage pattern of HIV-1 genes among different groups of HIV disease progressors to understand the influence of differential codon usage pattern on the pathogenic manifestation in the host...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam D Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed, yet, persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Narayaniah Cheedarla, K K Vidyavijayan, Hemalatha Babu, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV-infected infants (<2 years)...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sayamon Hongjaisee, Martine Braibant, Francis Barin, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Wasna Sirirungsi, Tanawan Samleerat
Specific amino acids within the V3 loop of HIV-1 CRF01_AE envelope glycoprotein that are involved in the interaction with CCR5/CXCR4 coreceptors, are not well characterized. We generated V3 mutants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based site-directed mutagenesis of HIV-1 CRF01_AE R5-env plasmids at specific positions. Mutant viruses were produced by env-pseudotyped virus assay, tested for coreceptor usage using U373.R5 and U373.X4 cells, and viral entry was assessed with luciferase activity measurement...
June 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Hamza Arshad Dar, Areeba Mubashir, Manal Adil, Aiman Farzeen, Hasaan Naseer, Gohar Ayub, Sajid Mansoor, Aneela Javed
Human Immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans, where the immune system totally succumbs to the virus. Large proportion of the AIDS infected belong to developing countries and AIDS prevalence is intensified by severe poverty, malnutrition and famine; fatal illnesses with a scorn shortage of medical amenities complemented with the lack of education and development. Current Pakistani health system setting is in a dire need of improvement. Low literacy rates, high birth rates and associated maternal mortality plus a lack of clean drinking water and appropriate sanitation system have a serious impact on general living conditions contributing to a relatively short life-span...
June 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Leandro Fagundes Tarosso, Vinicius Adriano Vieira, Mariana M Sauer, Helena I Tomiyama, Jorge E Kalil, Esper Kallas
Although the breadth of the HIV-1-specific cellular immune response and its impact on the control of viral replication have already been addressed, reported data have proven controversial. We hypothesize that the nature of targeted epitopes, rather than the simple breadth or magnitude of responses, correlates with disease outcome. Here, we explore the occurrence of patterns of Gag p24 recognition among untreated HIV-1-infected patients by identifying the epitopes that compose such patterns and how they distinctly associate with disease progression...
June 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Desheng Kong, Yan Wang, Chen Wang, Shujia Liang, Yi Feng, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
Currently, more and more kinds of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) were identified in China. A novel second-generation CCR5-tropic HIV-1 recombinant virus (GX2016EU09) was identified here, which was isolated from a HIV-1 infected man who had sex with men (MSM) in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of near full-length genome (NFLG) showed that the novel HIV-1 recombinant GX2016EU09 clustered with CRF01_AE reference sequences, but set up a distinct branch. Recombinant analysis showed that the NFLG of GX2016EU09 composed of CRF01_AE (as the backbone) and CRF07_BC, with 9 recombination break points observed in the gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, vpu, env and nef regions...
June 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xue Li, Mingqiang Hao, Yinxiao Hao, Jingrong Ye, Ruolei Xin, Hongyan Lu
In China, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC are the most circulating strains of HIV-1, more and more second-generation recombinant forms have been isolated around the two strains. The same situation happened in Beijing recent years. In our finding, we have isolated a new second-generation recombinant form of HIV-1 from one male patient who infected by homosexual behavior. Polygenetic analysis revealed that the sequence includes five CRF01-AE fragments and four CRF07_BC fragments. CRF01_AE as this recombinant's skeleton and four CRF07_BC fragments inserted into it...
June 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ivo Novita SahBandar, Genesis Samonte, Elizabeth Telan, Nalyn Siripong, Mahdi Belcaid, David Schanzenbach, Susan Leano, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Toshio Hattori, Cecilia Shikuma, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu
OBJECTIVE: A sharp increase in the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) has been documented in the Philippines. In response, the government has instituted antiretroviral therapy (ART) nationwide through HIV treatment hubs. However, no data presently exists on the status of ART drug-resistant-associated mutations (DRMs). In this study, we aim to analyze DRM profiles in the Philippines and provide comprehensive data on DRMs to guide treatment decisions and prevent viral failures. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 119 volunteers tested positive for HIV from over 8,000 participants screened for HIV across the nation through 2013 Integrated HIV Behavioral and Serologic Surveillance (IHBSS) program...
June 1, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Min Zhang, Dijing Jia, Hanping Li, Tao Gui, Lei Jia, Xiaolin Wang, Tianyi Li, Yongjian Liu, Zuoyi Bao, Siyang Liu, Daomin Zhuang, Jingyun Li, Lin Li
CRF07_BC was originally formed in Yunnan province of China in 1980s and spread quickly in IDUs. In recent years, it has been introduced into MSMs and become most dominant strain in China. In this study, we fulfilled comprehensively phylodynamic analysis on CRF07_BC epidemic in China. All CRF07_BC sequences identified in China were retrieved from database. More sequences obtained in our laboratory were added to make the dataset to be more representative. ML tree was constructed by using PhyML3.0. MCC tree and effective population size were predicted by using Markov Chains Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method with Beast software...
June 1, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karine Dube, David Evans, Lynda Dee, Laurie Sylla, Jeff Taylor, Asheley Skinner, Bryan J Weiner, Sandra B Greene, Stuart Rennie, Joseph D Tucker
Strategies to control HIV in the absence of ART are needed to cure HIV. However, such strategies will require analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) to determine their efficacy. We investigated how U.S. stakeholders involved in HIV cure research perceive ATIs. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews with three groups of stakeholders: 12 people living with HIV (PLWHIV), 11 clinician-researchers, and 13 policy-makers/bioethicists. Qualitative data revealed several themes. First, there was little consensus on when ATIs would be ethically warranted...
May 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yingying Ding, Haijiang Lin, Xing Liu, Yucheng Zhang, Frank Wong, Yan Sun, Vincent Marconi, Na He
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a growing problem in HIV-infected population. The global association between nadir CD4 count and hypertension in the HIV-infected population is well documented. However, the effect of nadir CD4 on hypertension due to different body mass index (BMI) has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 345 HIV-infected participants aged ≥ 40 years were recruited, and frequency matched on age, sex, and education with HIV-uninfected adults (N = 345)...
May 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yuxueyun Li, Yi Feng, Fan Li, Zidong Xue, Jing Hu, Hui Xing, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
We report a novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF79_0107) from three epidemiologically unlinked patients through sexual contact in Shanxi province of China. This is the first second-generation circulating recombinant form identified in China. The breakpoint analysis of recombinants showed that CRF79_0107 was composed of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, with three CRF07_BC segments inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. The emergence of CRF79_0107 increases the complexity of the HIV epidemic in China.
May 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Alan R Lifson, Sale Workneh, Tibebe Shenie, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Zenebe Melaku, Lemlem Bezabih, Hiwot Tekle Waktola, Behailu Dagne, Rose Hilk, Ken C Winters, Lucy Slater
Khat, a plant native to East Africa, has amphetamine-like psychoactive constituents, and is a potential risk factor for HIV infection. Chronic use can cause cognitive impairment and other mental disorders, raising concerns about effects on retention and adherence with HIV care. During 2013-2014, 322 Ethiopian patients newly enrolled at HIV clinics in Dire Dawa and Harar were surveyed about khat use and prospectively followed for 1 year; 9% died, 18% transferred care to other clinics, and 22% were lost to follow-up (LTFU) (no clinic visit for >3 months)...
May 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
R Ryan Meyerhoff, Richard M Scearce, Damon F Ogburn, Brad Lockwood, Joy Pickeral, Masa Kuraoka, Kara Anasti, Joshua Eudailey, Amanda Eaton, Melissa Cooper, Kevin Wiehe, David C Montefiori, Georgia Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, S Munir Alam, Hua-Xin Liao, Bette Korber, Feng Gao, Barton F Haynes
Antibodies that cross-react with multiple HIV-1 envelopes (Envs) are useful reagents for characterizing Env proteins and for soluble Env capture and purification assays. We previously reported 10 murine monoclonal antibodies induced by group M consensus Env, CON-6 immunization. Each demonstrated broad cross-reactivity to recombinant Envs. Here we characterized the Env epitopes to which they bind. Seven mapped to linear epitopes in gp120, five at the Env N-terminus, and two at the Env C-terminus. One antibody, 13D7, bound at the gp120 N-terminus (aa 30-42), reacted with HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells, and when expressed in a human IgG1 backbone, mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
May 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bongani Kaimila, Toon van der Gronde, Edwards Kasonkanji, Paula Fox, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Given scarce data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we sought to describe CD4 count and HIV RNA trends over time among patients with HIV+ lymphoproliferative disorders in Malawi. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled HIV+ individuals with pathologically confirmed lymphoproliferative disorders between 2013 and 2016. Chemotherapy was standardized with concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed CD4 count and HIV RNA at baseline and every 6 months for up to 2 years...
May 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Oliver Ratmann, Chris Wymant, Caroline Colijn, Siva Danaviah, M Essex, Simon D W Frost, Astrid Gall, Simani Gaiseitsiwe, Mary Grabowski, Ronald Gray, Stephane Guindon, Arndt von Haeseler, Pontiano Kaleebu, Michelle Kendall, Alexey Kozlov, Justen Manasa, Bui Quang Minh, Sikhulile Moyo, Vladimir Novitsky, Rebecca Nsubuga, Sureshnee Pillay, Thomas C Quinn, David Serwadda, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandros Stamatakis, Jana Trifinopoulos, Maria Wawer, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio de Oliveira, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Christophe Fraser
To characterize HIV-1 transmission dynamics in regions where the burden of HIV-1 is greatest, the 'Phylogenetics and Networks for Generalised HIV Epidemics in Africa' consortium (PANGEA-HIV) is sequencing full-genome viral isolates from across sub-Saharan Africa. We report the first 3,985 PANGEA-HIV consensus sequences from four cohort sites (Rakai Community Cohort Study, n=2,833; MRC/UVRI Uganda, n=701; Mochudi Prevention Project, n=359; Africa Health Research Institute Resistance Cohort, n=92). Next-generation sequencing success rates varied: more than 80% of the viral genome from the gag to the nef genes could be determined for all sequences from South Africa, 75% of sequences from Mochudi, 60% of sequences from MRC/UVRI Uganda, and 22% of sequences from Rakai...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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