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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398775/lack-of-support-for-socially-connected-hiv-1-transmission-among-young-adult-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#1
Kayo Fujimoto, Lyndon M Coghill, Christopher A Weier, Lu-Yu Hwang, Ju Yeong Kim, John A Schneider, Michael L Metzker, Jeremy M Brown
We explore the phylogenetic relationships among HIV sequences sampled from young adult black men who have sex with men (YAB-MSM), who are connected through peer referral/social ties and who attend common venues. Using 196 viral sequences sampled from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 individuals, our preliminary phylogenetic results indicate that these socially connected YAB-MSM are infected with distantly related viruses and provide no evidence for viral transmission between network members. Our results suggest that HIV-prevention strategies that target young adult MSM should extend beyond their network members and local community...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322582/man%C3%AE-1-2man-binding-anti-hiv-lectins-enhance-the-exposure-of-v2i-and-v3-crown-neutralization-epitopes-on-the-v1-v2-and-v3-hypervariable-loops-of-hiv-1-envelope
#2
Muzafar Jan, Chitra Upadhyay, Aman Sharma, Catarina E Hioe, Sunil K Arora
This study aimed to explore the contribution of high-mannose glycans in the masking of conserved V3 crown (GPG) and V2i epitopes on the hypervariable loops of most exposed distal surface of HIV-1 Env. Using lectins specific to Manα1-2Man residue containing Man6-9GlcNAc2 glycans extensively decorating HIV-1 Env, we found that Manα1-2Man-binding lectins enhance the exposure of these partially and transiently exposed epitopes and consequentially increase the neutralization strength of antibodies against these epitopes...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322572/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-predicts-negative-alterations-in-whole-body-insulin-sensitivity-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#3
Kamonkiat Wirunsawanya, Loni Belyea, Cecilia Shikuma, Richard M Watanabe, Lindsay Kohorn, Bruce Shiramizu, Brooks I Mitchell, Scott A Souza, Sheila M Keating, Philip J Norris, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Dominic Chow
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), a key negative regulator of fibrinolysis, has been investigated to be one of the potential mechanisms of the development of impaired insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Because chronically stable HIV-infected individuals frequently develop abnormal glucose metabolism, including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, we postulated that PAI-1 could be one of the multifactorial pathogenic roles in the development of impaired insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance among chronic HIV-infected individuals...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hepatitis-b-virus-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Ngugi, Raphael Wekesa Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (11) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in 6 patients...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260391/endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-and-renal-dysfunction-in-hiv-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Alexandre Braga Libório, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) increased HIV patients' life expectancy, however, favored the development of kidney and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) damage and its association with renal function in HIV patients receiving cART. This is a cross-sectional study with HIV-infected patients with no renal and cardiovascular disease, recruited in public health centers in Brazil. Clinical and laboratory parameters of HIV patients were compared according to cART use and with a healthy control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403627/resolution-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-induced-fanconi-syndrome-with-switch-to-tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-in-a-hiv-1-and-hepatitis-b-co-infected-patient
#6
Maile Karris
Fanconi syndrome is a rare adverse effect of tenfovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (1). Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is a novel pro-drug with less nephrotoxicity. We report resolution of Fanconi syndrome in a HIV and hepatitis B co-infected patient switched from TDF to TAF.
April 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403619/insulin-like-growth-factor-is-associated-with-changes-in-body-composition-with-art-initiation
#7
Kristine M Erlandson, Suzanne P Fiorillo, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Cynthia Rivere, Jorge Sanchez, James Hakim, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Sharlaa Badal-Fasesen, Umesh Lalloo, Johnstone J Kumwenda, Thomas B Campbell, Todd Brown
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis abnormalities have been associated with body composition changes among HIV-infected persons with wasting or lipodystrophy. Little is known of GH/IGF-1 axis alterations with ART initiation or differing ART therapies. METHODS: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource- Limited Settings (PEARLS) study was a prospective, randomized clinical trial of ART initiation with emtricitabine/tenofovir + efavirenz (FTC/TDF+EFV) vs lamivudine/zidovudine + efavirenz (3TC/ZDV+EFV) in HIV-1-infected individuals from resource-diverse settings...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401776/molecular-characteristics-of-the-envelope-of-vertically-transmitted-hiv-1-strains-from-infants-with-hiv-infection
#8
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Cheedarla Narayanaiah, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Babu Hemalatha, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV infected infants (< 2 years)...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398069/comparison-of-mucosal-markers-of-hiv-susceptibility-in-healthy-premenopausal-versus-postmenopausal-women
#9
Andrea Ries Thurman, Nazita Yousefieh, Neelima Chandra, Thomas Dudley Kimble, Susana Asin, Christiane Rollenhagen, Sharon Anderson, Betsy Herold, Jamie L Freiermuth, Brian S Starkman, Pedro Mesquita, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Tina Duong Cunningham, Sharon L Hillier, Lorna Rabe, Jill L Schwartz, Gustavo Doncel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize cervicovaginal (CV) mucosal factors modulating susceptibility to HIV acquisition in healthy premenopausal (PRE) and postmenopausal (POST) women before and after treatment with estradiol. METHODS: We compared CV mucosal epithelial histology and immune cells, vaginal microbiota, antimicrobial activity of, and soluble mucosal protein concentrations in the CV fluid lavage (CVL), and p24 antigen production after ex vivo infection of ectocervical tissues with HIV-1BaL among PRE women (n = 20) in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and POST women (n = 17) at baseline and after approximately 1 month of treatment with 0...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398068/restoring-cytokine-balance-in-hiv-positive-individuals-with-low-cd4-t-cell-counts
#10
Anddre Valdivia, Judy Ly, Leslie Gonzalez, Parveen Hussain, Tommy sAING, Hicret Islamoglu, Daniel Pearce, Cesar Ochoa, Vishwanath Venketaraman
HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T cells leading to compromised immune system. In a double-blinded study, a group of HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 were given either an empty liposomal supplement or a liposomal glutathione supplement to take over a three-month period. Baseline measurements in HIV positive subjects show a significant decrease in levels of IL-12, IL-2, and IFN- γ, along with a substantial increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, TGF- and free radicals, compared to healthy individuals...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298145/genotypic-characterization-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-derived-from-antiretroviral-drug-treated-individuals-residing-in-earthquake-affected-areas-in-nepal
#11
Bharat Singh Negi, Tomohiro Kotaki, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Anup Bastola, Minato Nakazawa, Masanori Kameoka
Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal and have not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag, and 21 env genes were sequenced...
April 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288515/measures-of-physical-and-mental-independence-among-hiv-positive-individuals-impact-of-substance-use-disorder
#12
Bianca Christensen, Zijian Qin, Desiree A Byrd, Fang Yu, Susan Morgello, Benjamin B Gelman, David J Moore, Igor Grant, Elyse J Singer, Howard S Fox, Lorena Baccaglini
With the transition of HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease after the introduction of antiretroviral medications, there has been an increased focus on long-term neurocognitive and other functional outcomes of HIV patients. Thus, we assessed factors, particularly history of a substance use disorder, associated with time to loss of measures of physical or mental independence among HIV-positive individuals. Data were obtained from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the time since HIV diagnosis to loss of independence, and to identify associated risk factors...
April 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384058/analysis-of-hiv-integrase-resistance-in-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#13
Iris Chen, Yinfeng Zhang, Vanessa Cummings, Gavin A Cloherty, Matthew Connor, Geetha Beauchamp, Sam Griffith, Scott Rose, Joel Gallant, Hyman M Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Irene Kuo, Sharon Mannheimer, Hong-Van Tieu, Christopher B Hurt, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell P Wheeler, Kenneth H Mayer, Beryl A Koblin, Susan H Eshleman
Resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors was frequently detected in HIV from black men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) 061 study. In this study, integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance was analyzed in black MSM enrolled in HPTN 061 (134 infected at enrollment and 23 seroconverters) and a follow-up study, HPTN 073 (eight seroconverters). The ViroSeq HIV-1 Integrase Genotyping Kit (Abbott Molecular) was used for analysis. Major INSTI resistance mutations were not detected in any of the samples...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383997/full-genome-characterization-of-a-new-simian-immune-deficiency-virus-lineage-in-a-naturally-infected-cercopithecus-ascanius-whitesidei-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-reveals-high-genetic-diversity-among-red-tailed-monkeys-in-central-and-eastern-africa
#14
Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumogo, Caroline Foncelle, Octavie Lunguya-Metila, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters, Ahidjo Ayouba
Our knowledge on simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) diversity and evolution in the different nonhuman primate species is still incomplete. In this study, we report the full genome characterization of a new SIV from a red-tailed monkey (2013DRC-I8), from the Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei subspecies, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The new full-length genome is 9,926 bp long, and the genomic structure is similar to that of other SIVs with the absence of vpx and vpu genes. The new SIVasc-13DRC-I8 strain fell within the Cercopithecus specific SIV lineage...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132517/genome-wide-analyses-reveal-gene-influence-on-hiv-disease-progression-and-hiv-1c-acquisition-in-southern-africa
#15
Wen Xie, Denis Agniel, Andrey Shevchenko, Sergey V Malov, Anton Svitin, Nikolay Cherkasov, Marianna K Baum, Adriana Campa, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Hermann Bussmann, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, Tun-Hou Lee, Tianxi Cai, Stephen J O'Brien, M Essex
Sub-Saharan Africans infected with HIV-1C make up the largest AIDS patient population in the world and exhibit large heterogeneity in disease progression before initiating antiretroviral therapy. To identify host variants associated with HIV disease progression, we performed genome-wide association studies on a total of 556 treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Botswana. We characterized the pattern of HIV disease progression using a novel functional principal component analysis, which can better capture longitudinal CD4 and viral load (VL) trajectories...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346841/rapid-and-reliable-genotyping-of-hla-b-57-01-in-four-chinese-populations-using-a-single-tube-duplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay
#16
Min Han, Xing Kang, Zhengbin Liu, Tingting Zhang, Yanwei Li, Chao Chen, Huijuan Wang
HLA-B*57:01 is strongly associated with severe adverse drug reaction induced by the anti-HIV drug abacavir (ABC) and antibiotic flucloxacillin. This study was dedicated to establishing a new method for HLA-B*57:01 genotyping and investigating the HLA-B*57:01 distribution pattern in four Chinese populations. A single-tube duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was established by combining the amplification refractory mutation system and TaqMan probe. The reliability of this assay was validated by comparing the genotyping results with those by sequence-based typing...
March 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346838/hiv-1-transmission-networks-across-south-korea
#17
Mi Young Ahn, Joel O Wertheim, Woo Joo Kim, Shin-Woo Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Hea Won Ann, Yongduk Jeon, Jin Young Ahn, Je Eun Song, Dong Hyun Oh, Yong Chan Kim, Eun Jin Kim, In Young Jung, Moo Hyun Kim, Wooyoung Jeong, Su Jin Jeong, Nam Su Ku, June Myung Kim, Davey M Smith, Jun Yong Choi
Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering...
March 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343405/htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-the-first-case-report-in-southeast-asia
#18
Sekh Thanprasertsuk, Suwapan Pleumkanitkul, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Teerada Ponpinit, Thiravat Hemachudha, Chusana Suankratay
Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection was diagnosed in a Thai patient with chronic progressive myelopathy. The phylogenetic tree of the ltr sequencing of HTLV-1 indicated the virus belongs to the Transcontinental genotype of the Cosmopolitan subtype A. This is the first case report of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in South East Asia. Awareness of HTLV-1 and related condition should be encouraged in this region and routine screening should be applied in blood donor.
March 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335609/early-and-delayed-antiretroviral-therapy-art-result-in-comparable-reductions-in-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-marker-expression
#19
Rachel Rutishauser, Wendy Hartogensis, Christian D Deguit, Melissa Krone, Rebecca Hoh, Rick Hecht, Christopher D Pilcher, Peter Bacchetti, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Joseph M McCune
In untreated HIV infection, CD8+ T cell exhaustion (i.e., decreased proliferative and effector capacity) is associated with high levels of expression of co-inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, TIGIT, CD160, and 2B4. This is evident for both HIV-specific and non-HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection decreases but may not completely normalize the expression of such "exhaustion markers." Compared to initiation of ART later in the course of disease, initiation soon after infection reduces some parameters of chronic inflammation and adaptive immune dysfunction...
March 23, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325065/low-rates-of-transmitted-drug-resistances-among-treatment-naive-hiv-1-infected-students-in-beijing-china
#20
Mingqiang Hao, Juan Wang, Ruolei Xin, Xue Li, Yinxiao Hao, Jing Chen, Jingrong Ye, Yu Wang, Xiong He, Chun Huang, Hongyan Lu
Beijing has seen a rising epidemic of HIV among students. However, little information was known about the molecular epidemiologic data among HIV-infected students. In this study, the diversity and the prevalence of TDR in pol sequences deriving from 237 HIV-infected students were analyzed. TDR mutations were found in 5 MSM among students. The overall prevalence of TDR in students was 2.1%, comprised of 1.3% to protease inhibitors and 0.8 % to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Our finding indicates a low-level prevalence of TDR mutations among students in Beijing...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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