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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

Neha S Shah, Yen T Duong, Linh-Vi Le, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Bharat Parekh, Hoang Thi Thanh Ha, Quang Duy Pham, Cao Thi Thu Cuc, Trudy Dobbs, Tran Hong Tram, Truong Tx Lien, Nick Wagar, Chunfu Yang, Amy Martin, Mitchell I Wolfe, Hien Tran Nguyen, Andrea A Kim
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tests that can distinguish recent from long-term HIV infection are used to estimate HIV incidence in a population but can potentially misclassify a proportion of long-term HIV infections as recent. Correct application of an assay requires determination of the proportion false recents (PFR) as part of the assay characterization and for calculating HIV incidence in a local population using a HIV incidence assay. METHODS: From April 2009 to December 2010, blood specimens were collected from HIV-infected individuals attending 9 outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam (4 from northern and 5 from southern Vietnam)...
February 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
This letter comments a recent manuscript published by Feldblum et al. in AIDS RES Hum Retrovir 2016; 32:1067-1071 concerning the use of the SMARTube to detect the acute HIV infection before seroconversion. Reading this manuscript the author remembered the experience performed at more than 25 years ago, when in Brazil she standardized an alternative technique named as "in-vitro induced antibody production" (IVIAP) for diagnosing the HIV infection in adults and in children with >3 months of age; using the same concept of the SMARTube; that is, enhance the synthesis of specific antibodies from HIV-primed B cells, using the innovative technology called "Stimmunology"...
February 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jianjun Wu, Hongxiong Guo, Jing Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Aideaierli Ayoupu, Yuelan Shen, Lifeng Miao, Jihai Tang, Yanhua Lei, Bin Su
CRF07_BC is one of the most prevalent HIV-1 strains in China, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has ever been considered to be a second epidemic center after Yunnan Province in previous studies. Here we use HIV-1 pol gene sequences identified from Hetian Prefecture located in Xinjiang Autonomous Region to reconstruct the epidemic history of HIV CRF07_BC strain circulating in this region. We found that CRF07_BC is the predominant HIV-1 form in Hetian Prefecture, and the estimated tMRCA analysis shows that there is no enough evidence supporting Xinjiang Autonomous Region as a second epidemic center of spreading HIV-1...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Yufan Xu, Xiaorong Peng, Tiansheng Xie, Xiangyun Lu, Nanping Wu
The prevalence of HIV-1 is increasing rapidly among the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Here, we report a novel HIV type 1 recombinant form consisting of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC detected in a male patient through homosexual behavior. A phylogenic analysis revealed that this unique recombinant form (URF) exhibits a complex genomic structure with three CRF07_BC regions inserted into the CRF01_AE backbone. Recently, several second-generation recombinant forms (e.g., CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC) have been identified among MSM in China...
February 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Fabrice Cerini, Robin E Offord, Ian McGowan, Oliver Hartley
In the absence of an effective vaccine, strategies to prevent HIV transmission are urgently needed. Condomless receptive anal intercourse represents a major route of transmission, and efforts are being made to develop strategies in which potent anti-HIV drugs are formulated for topical application to the rectum prior to sex. 5P12-RANTES is a promising candidate for such a purpose. It is an analogue of the human chemokine RANTES/CCL5, which potently blocks CCR5, the principal coreceptor used by HIV to enter and infect target cells...
February 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
K Sofia Appelberg, Mark A Wallet, Jared P Taylor, Melanie N Cash, John W Sleasman, Maureen Goodenow
Macrophages play important roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis as targets for viral replication and mediators of chronic inflammation. Similar to IFNγ-priming, HIV-1 primes macrophages, resulting in hyper-responsiveness to subsequent Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and increased inflammatory cytokine production. However, the specific molecular mechanism of HIV-1-priming and whether cells must be productively infected or if uninfected bystander cells also are primed by HIV-1 remains unclear. To explore these questions, human macrophages were primed by IFNγ or infected with HIV-1 prior to activation by TLR ligands...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Birger Sørensen, Maja A Sommerfelt, Grete Stjernholm, Peter Lawrence Smith, Mats Ökvist, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Gunnar Hoddevik, Robert Redfield, Valentina Ustina, Øyvind Jelmert, Jerome Zeldis, Angus Dalgleish
Antibodies to the carboxy-terminal constant (C5) region 5 of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have previously been associated with slow disease progression. This is one of the regions on gp120 that interact with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, anchoring it to the viral and infected cell membrane. This study analyzed humoral responses to a novel heterodimeric peptide construct comprising the C5(501-512) region and a compatible region on gp41(732-744). Antibody levels to C5(501-512)/gp41(732-744) were associated with slow disease progression in a treatment naive historical longitudinal cohort from Norway (n = 32; p = ...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Shirin Elisha Kasturia, Clifford Gunthel, Cheng Zeng, Minh Ly Nguyen
The national incidence of epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) has decreased dramatically since the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy. Despite national trends, we continue to see admissions for KS. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients with HIV who were admitted with active KS between 2010 and 2013 and records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics and factors affecting survival. Data were collected from all hospital admissions until death or May 1, 2015. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests were used to test for differences in survival and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prognostic value of variables...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mariangela Raimondo, Laura Camoni, Barbara Suligoi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Study Group Carpha
The HIV care continuum is a tool that describes the quality of HIV care for people living with HIV and assess the extent to which achieve the goal of viral suppression. In 2014, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics associated with three steps of the HIV continuum of care in Italy (i.e., most recent diagnoses, people diagnosed and in care who are on therapy, and people with viral load (VL) suppressed among those on therapy). Among the 10,262 individuals diagnosed and linked to care, 9,810 (95...
January 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Chitraporn Karnasuta, Siriwat Akapirat, Sirinan Madnote, Hathairat Savadsuk, Jiraporn Puangkaew, Surawach Rittiroongrad, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, James Tartaglia, Faruk Sinangil, Donald P Francis, Merlin L Robb, Mark S de Souza, Nelson L Michael, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, Robert J O'Connell, Nicos Karasavvas
The RV144 prime-boost regimen demonstrated efficacy against HIV acquisition while VAX003 and VAX004 did not. Although these trials differed by risk groups, immunization regimens, and immunogens, antibody responses may have contributed to the differences observed in vaccine efficacy. We assessed HIV-specific IgG, both total and subclass, and IgA binding to HIV envelope (Env): gp120 proteins and Cyclic V2 (CycV2) and CycV3 peptides and gp70 V1 V2 scaffolds in these 3 HIV vaccine trials. After two protein immunizations, IgG responses to 92TH023 gp120 (contained in ALVAC-HIV vaccine) were significantly higher in RV144 but responses to other Env were higher in the VAX trials lacking ALVAC-HIV...
January 30, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Wen Xie, Denis Agniel, Andrey Shevchenko, Sergey V Malov, Anton Svitin, Nikolay Cherkasov, Marianna K Baum, Adriana Campa, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Hermann Bussmann, Joseph Makhema, Richard G Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, Tun-Hou Lee, Tianxi Cai, Stephen J O'Brien, M Essex
Sub-Saharan Africans infected with HIV-1C make up the largest AIDS-patient population in the world and exhibit large heterogeneity in disease progression before initiating antiretroviral therapy. To identify host variants associated with HIV disease progression, we performed GWAS on a total of 556treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Botswana. We characterized the pattern of HIV disease progression using a novel functional principal component analysis (fPCA) which can better capture longitudinal CD4 and viral load (VL)trajectories...
January 28, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Caitlin R Lam, Timothy H Holtz, Wanna Leelawiwat, Philip A Mock, Wannee Chonwattana, Wipas Wimonsate, Anchalee Varangrat, Warunee Thienkrua, Charles Rose, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Marcel E Curlin
HIV-1 incidence and prevalence remain high among men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender women (TGW), in Thailand. To examine the link between epidemiologic factors and HIV-1 subtype transmission among Thai MSM, we compared covariates of infection with HIV CRF01_AE and other HIV strains among participants in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS). The BMCS was an observational cohort study of Thai MSM and TGW with up to 60 months of follow-up at 4 monthly intervals. Participants underwent HIV/sexually transmitted infections testing and provided behavioral data at each visit...
January 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mariel Jais, Naji Younes, Stacey Chapman, Susan Cu-Uvin, Mimi Ghosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Veronica Bordoni, Michele Bibas, Domenico Viola, Alessandra Sacchi, Eleonora Cimini, Nicola Tumino, Rita Casetti, Alessandra Amendola, Adriana Ammassari, Chiara Agrati, Federico Martini
The impact of HIV infection on the frequency and differentiation capability of CD34+ Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (BM-HPCs) is still debated, having a possible primary role in antiretroviral-induced immunoreconstitution. We investigated the influence of HIV replication or pro-inflammatory cytokines on lymphopoietic capability of BM-HPCs from 7 viremic (VR) and 5 non-viremic (NVR) HIV infected patients. We found that BM-HPCs from VR patients were unable to differentiate in vitro toward T cells, and produced pro-inflammatory cytokines in the absence of viral replication...
January 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lauren M Lepone, Giovanna Rappocciolo, Paolo A Piazza, Diana M Campbell, Frank Jenkins, Charles Rinaldo
We assessed CD8+ T cell reactivity to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) and the role of CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in HHV-8 and HIV co-infected participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who did or did not develop Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). There were similarly low CD8+ T cell interferon γ responses to MHC class I-restricted epitopes of HHV-8 lytic and latent proteins over 5.7 years prior to KS in participants who developed KS compared to those that did not...
January 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Allison Ross Eckard, Suzanne E Judd, Joshua Ruff, Grace McComsey, Thomas Ziegler
BACKGROUND: Amino acids play critical roles in metabolism, cell function, body composition and immunity, but little data on plasma amino acid concentrations in HIV are available. We evaluated plasma amino acid concentrations and associations with CD4 counts and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected subjects with a high (≥500 cells/mm3) and low (<500 cells/mm3) current CD4+ T-cell counts were compared to one another and to a matched healthy control group...
January 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jeffrey Landon Roberson, Virginia L Kan
None for Letter to the Editor.
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Juan J Calva, Silvana Larrea, Marco A Tapia-Maltos, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Carolina Lara, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Héctor Rivera, Juan P Ramírez
A decrease in the rate of acquired antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistance (ADR) over time has been documented in high-income settings, but data on the determinants of this phenomenon are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that in heavily ARV-experienced patients in the Mexican ARV therapy (ART) roll-out program, the drop in ADR would be associated with changes in ARV drug usage. Genotypic resistance tests obtained from 974 HIV-infected patients with virologic failure and at least 2 previously failed ARV regimens from throughout the country were analyzed for the presence of nRTI, NNRTI and PI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs)...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Juan Luis Mosqueda-Gómez, Alejandro Macías-Hernández, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan Sierra-Madero, Chris Beyrer
We studied the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection and associated risk behaviors in the prison state system of Guanajuato, Mexico between September 2011 and February 2012. Blood samples were drawn from adult inmates in all State prisons agreeing to participate in this cross-sectional study. Data on risk behaviors was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV infection was 0.6% (95%CI=0.2-1.1), 0.7% (95%CI=0.4-1.0), 0.4 (95%CI=0.04-0.74) and 4.8 (95%CI=3...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Marisela Noorhasan, Daniel Drozd, Carl Grunfeld, Joe Merrill, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, James H Willig, Amanda Willig, Karen L Cropsey, Kenneth Mayer, Aaron Blashill, Matthew Mimiaga, Mary E McCaul, Heidi Hutton, Geetanjali Chander, William C Matthews, Sonia Napravnik, Joseph J Eron, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob Fredericksen, Robin Nance, Joseph Chris Delaney, Paul Crane, Michael Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi Crane
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy and illicit drug use, smoking, and at-risk alcohol use among a large diverse cohort of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in clinical care. METHODS: 7,931 PLWH at 6 sites across the US completed 21,279 clinical assessments including lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy, drug/alcohol use, physical activity level, and smoking. Lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy were measured using the FRAM body morphology instrument and associations were assessed with generalized estimating equations...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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