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Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Martin Bertz, Katrin Kühn, Solveigh C Koeberle, Mike F Müller, Doerte Hoelzer, Karolin Thies, Stefanie Deubel, René Thierbach, Anna P Kipp
Selenoprotein H (SELENOH) is supposed to be involved in redox regulation as well as in tumorigenesis. However, its role in healthy and transformed cells of the gastrointestinal tract remains elusive. We analysed SELENOH expression in cells depending on their selenium supply and differentiation status and found that SELENOH expression was increased in tumor tissue, in undifferentiated epithelial cells from mice and in colorectal cancer lines as compared to more differentiated ones. Knockdown studies in human colorectal cancer cells revealed that repression of SELENOH decreased cellular differentiation and increased proliferation and migration...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Alejandro Acevedo, Christian González-Billault
The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX...
January 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Simone Cuff, Ruth D Lewis, Edwin Chinje, Mohammed Jaffar, Richard Knox, Ian Weeks
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a flavoenzyme upregulated in response to oxidative stress and in some cancers. Its upregulation by compounds has been used as an indicator of their potential anti-cancer properties. In this study we have designed, produced and tested a fluorogenic coumarin conjugate which selectively releases highly fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) in the presence of NQO1. It was found that measuring 4-MU release rapidly and specifically quantitated NQO1 levels in vitro and in live cells...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yilang Ke, Dang Li, Mingming Zhao, Changjie Liu, Jia Liu, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma levels of TMAO in young adults (18-44 years old), older adults (≥65 years old), and 1-month-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 10-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistance 1 (SAMR1) models...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Young-Mi Go, Jolyn Fernandes, Xin Hu, Karan Uppal, Dean P Jones
Mitochondrial activities are linked directly or indirectly to all cellular functions in aerobic eukaryotes. Omics methods enable new approaches to study functional organization of mitochondria and their adaptive and maladaptive network responses to bioenergetic fuels, physiologic demands, environmental challenges and aging. In this review, we consider mitochondria collectively within a multicellular organism as a macroscale "mitochondriome", functioning to organize bioenergetics and metabolism as an organism utilizes environmental resources and protects against environmental threats...
January 6, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yorka Muñoz, Andrea C Paula-Lima, Marco T Núñez
The transcription factor STAT3 has a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. In this work, we treated astrocytes with oligomers of the amyloid beta peptide (AβOs), which display potent synaptotoxic activity, and studied the effects of mediators released by AβOs-treated astrocytes on the nuclear location of neuronal serine-727-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSerSTAT3). Treatment of mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures with 0.5µMAβOs induced in neurons a significant decrease of nuclear pSerSTAT3, but not of phosphotyrosine-705 STAT3, the other form of STAT3 phosphorylation...
January 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shanshan Lin, Linlin Wang, Yun Huang, Yuanyuan Wang, Caiyun Wang, Nicholas D E Greene, Aiguo Ren
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common and severe congenital malformations and result from incomplete closure of the neural tube during early development. Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested to be a risk factor for NTDs and previous studies imply that the mechanism underlying the association between PAH exposure and NTDs may involve oxidative stress and apoptosis. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a direct effect of maternal benzo[α] pyrene (BaP) exposure on the closure of the neural tube in mice, and to examine the underlying mechanisms by combining animal experiments and human subject studies...
January 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Bertrand Gakière, Alisdair R Fernie, Pierre Pétriacq
Since its discovery more than a century ago, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is recognised as a fascinating cornerstone of cellular metabolism. This ubiquitous energy cofactor plays vital roles in metabolic pathways and regulatory processes, a fact emphasised by the essentiality of a balanced NAD+ metabolism for normal plant growth and development. Research on the role of NAD in plants has been predominantly carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with emphasis on the redox properties and cellular signalling functions of the metabolite...
January 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shikha Yadav, Sanmoy Pathak, Mohsen Sarikhani, Shamik Majumdar, Semanti Ray, Bhagawat S Chandrasekar, Vasista Adiga, Nagalingam R Sundaresan, Dipankar Nandi
Sepsis, a leading cause of death in intensive care units, is primarily caused due to an exaggerated immune response. The hyperactive inflammatory response mediated by immune cells against infectious organisms and their toxins results in host cell death and tissue damage, the hallmarks of septic shock. Therefore, molecules that modulate inflammatory responses are attractive therapeutic targets for sepsis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule, which is implicated in regulating diverse immune functions. Although, the protective roles of NO in infectious diseases are well documented, its importance in sepsis is controversial...
January 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Norbert A Bauer, Enamul Hoque, Manfred Wolf, Karin Kleigrewe, Thomas Hofmann
For the first time we here present the unambiguous identification of the formyl radical (●CHO) by EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) as spin trap at ambient temperature without using any catalysator(s). The ●CHO was continuously generated by UV photolysis in closed anoxic environment from pure formaldehyde (HCHO) in aqueous solution. The isotropic hyperfine structure constants of ●CHO were determined as aN = 15.72G and aH = 21...
January 4, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Andrew B Das, Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz, Andreas Königstorfer, Anthony J Kettle, Christine C Winterbourn
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyses the rate limiting step of DNA synthesis utilising a mechanism that requires a tyrosyl radical. We have previously shown that superoxide can quench protein tyrosyl radicals in vitro, either by oxidative addition, or reduction of the radical to tyrosine. Here, we observe that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking either copper-zinc SOD (SOD1) or manganese SOD (SOD2) had decreased RNR activity compared to SOD competent yeast. When superoxide production was increased by treatment with paraquat, RNR activity was further decreased, with yeast lacking SOD1 being the most sensitive...
January 3, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mohmmad-Nabi Moradi, Jamshid Karimi, Iraj Khodadadi, Iraj Amiri, Manoochehr Karami, Massoud Saidijam, Akram Vatannejad, Heidar Tavilani
Thioredoxin (Trx) system has a defensive role against the harmful effect of oxidative stress in sperm. p53 is an important regulator of apoptosis and normal process of spermatogenesis. Regulation of p53 by redox state of the cell and Thioredoxin system has been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ROS level, Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and p53 protein levels in sperm of asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic males. Semen samples from 80 donors were divided into asthenozoospermic (n=40) and normozoospermic (n=40) groups using the WHO criteria...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David J Waters, Emily C Chiang
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among men living in developed countries, making the development of safe, practical approaches to prostate cancer risk reduction a high research priority. The relationship between prostate cancer risk and selenium, an essential nutrient required for a number of metabolically important enzymes including glutathione peroxidases, has been investigated, but a satisfactory integration of results has proven elusive. Dogs, like men, naturally develop prostate cancer during aging, providing an appropriate context to study the effects of selenium supplementation on the dysregulation of homeostasis that drives cancer development within the aging prostate...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Manpreet K Sagoo, Luigi Gnudi
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Studies in experimental animal models of diabetes strongly implicate oxidant species as a major determinant in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The translation, in the clinical setting, of these concepts have been quite disappointing, and new theories have challenged the concepts that oxidative stress per se plays a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. The concept of mitochondrial hormesis has been introduced to explain this apparent disconnect...
January 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Felix Christen, Véronique Desrosiers, Bernard A Dupont-Cyr, Grant W Vandenberg, Nathalie R Le François, Jean-Claude Tardif, France Dufresne, Simon G Lamarre, Pierre U Blier
Cardiac mitochondrial metabolism provides 90% of the ATP necessary for the contractile exertion of the heart muscle. Mitochondria are therefore assumed to play a pivotal role in heart failure (HF), cardiovascular disease and ageing. Heat stress increases energy metabolism and oxygen demand in tissues throughout the body and imposes a major challenge on the heart, which is suspected of being the first organ to fail during heat stress. The underlying mechanisms inducing heart failure are still unclear. To pinpoint the processes implicated in HF during heat stress, we measured mitochondrial respiration rates and hydrogen peroxide production of isolated Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) heart mitochondria at 4 temperatures: 10°C(acclimation), 15°C, 20°C and 25°C (just over critical maximum)...
December 30, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Tomas L White, Taiga Miyajima, Shivakumar Vasanth, Duna Raoof, Yuming Chen, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Ula V Jurkunas
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a genetic and oxidative stress disorder of post-mitotic human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs), which normally exhibit hexagonal shape and form a compact monolayer compatible with normal corneal functioning and clear vision. FECD is associated with increased DNA damage, which in turn leads to HCEnC loss, resulting in the formation rosettes and aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the form of pro-fibrotic guttae. Since the mechanism of ECM deposition in FECD is currently unknown, we aimed to investigate the role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in FECD using a previously established cellular in vitro model that recapitulates the characteristic rosette formation, by employing menadione (MN)-induced oxidative stress...
December 30, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shun Kishimoto, Nobu Oshima, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Jeeva Munasinghe, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, James B Mitchell, Peter L Choyke, Murali C Krishna
Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR PIT) employs the photoabsorbing dye IR700 conjugated to antibodies specific for cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). NIR PIT has shown highly selective cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Cell necrosis is thought to be the main mode of cytotoxicity based mainly on in vitro studies. To better understand the acute effects of NIR PIT, molecular imaging studies were performed to assess its cellular and vascular effects. In addition to in vitro studies for cytotoxicity of NIR PIT, the in vivo tumoricidal effects and hemodynamic changes induced by NIR PIT were evaluated by 13C MRI using hyperpolarized [1,4-13C2] fumarate, R2* mapping from T2*-weighted MRI, and photoacoustic imaging...
December 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Preechaya Tajai, Bogdan I Fedeles, Tawit Suriyo, Panida Navasumrit, Jantamas Kanitwithayanun, John M Essigmann, Jutamaad Satayavivad
Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl, 4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride; PQ), a widely used herbicide, is toxic to mammals through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. Epidemiological data suggest that PQ is also mutagenic and carcinogenic, especially in high doses. The toxic and mutagenic properties of PQ are attributed to the ability of the molecule to redox-cycle, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress. ROS also cause oxidative DNA damage such as 8-oxoguanine (8OG), a mutagenic base that, when replicated, causes G to T transversion mutations...
December 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yuan-Yuan Qin, Mei Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Lijuan Cao, Xi-Kui Shen, Jieyu Chen, Meiling Sun, Rui Sheng, Feng Han, Zheng-Hong Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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