Read by QxMD icon Read

Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Thomas Roach, Wolfgang Stöggl, Theresa Baur, Ilse Kranner
Photosynthetic organisms suffering from light stress have to cope with an increased formation of reactive short-chain aldehydes. Singlet oxygen generated from highly-charged reaction centres can peroxidise the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich thylakoid membranes they are embedded in. Lipid peroxides decay to release α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that are reactive electrophile species (RES). Acrolein is one of the most abundant and reactive RES produced in chloroplasts. Here, in the model chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a clear concentration-dependent "distress" induced by acrolein intoxication was observed in conjunction with depletion of the glutathione pool...
March 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hailong Li, Zhongyuan Tang, Peng Chu, Yanlin Song, Ying Yang, Bin Sun, Mengyue Niu, Eskandar Qaed, Abdullah Shopit, Guozhu Han, Xiaodong Ma, Jinyong Peng, Min Hu, Zeyao Tang
Methylglyoxal (MGO), an active metabolite of glucose, is observed in high levels in the tissues and blood of diabetic patients. Phosphocreatine (PCr), a high-energy phosphate compound, exhibits a range of pharmacological actions but little is well known of its neuroprotective action. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the possible mechanisms of PCr. Diabetes is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, leading not only to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and but also to central nervous system (CNS) damage...
March 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yan Wang, Oliver Berkowitz, Jennifer Selinski, Yue Xu, Andreas Hartmann, James Whelan
In the last decade plant mitochondria have emerged as a target, sensor and initiator of signalling cascades to a variety of stress and adverse growth conditions. A combination of various 'omic profiling approaches combined with forward and reverse genetic studies have defined how mitochondria respond to stress and the signalling pathways and regulators of these responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent pathways, specific metabolites, complex I dysfunction, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway have been proposed to date...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hua Rong, Yini Liang, Yingcai Niu
Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has emerged as a master regulator for the endogenous antioxidant response, and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target against AD. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that rosmarinic acid (RosA) attenuates amyloid-β (Aβ)-evoked oxidative stress through activating Nrf2-inducible cellular antioxidant defense system. Here, we reported that RosA attenuated Aβ-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO)...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fang Dai, Cui-Hong Yuan, Yuan Ji, Yu-Ting Du, Xia-Zhen Bao, Ling-Xi Wu, Xiao-Ling Jin, Bo Zhou
Altered redox status including higher levels of copper in cancer cells than in normal cells inspired many researchers to develop copper ionophores targeting this status. We have recently found that flavon-3-ol (3-HF) works as a potent Cu(II) ionophore by virtue of its keto-enol moiety. To further emphasize the significance of this moiety for developing Cu(II) ionophores, we herein designed a β-diketo analog of piperlongumine, PL-I, characterized by the presence of high proportion of the keto-enol form in dimethylsulfoxide and chloroform, and identified its keto-enol structure by NMR and theoretical calculations...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Annie R Knight, Emma Taylor, Roman Lukaszewski, Karina Tveen Jensen, Helen E Jones, Jane E Carré, Michail N Isupov, Jennifer A Littlechild, Stephen J Bailey, Emily Brewer, Timothy J McDonald, Andrew R Pitt, Corinne M Spickett, Paul G Winyard
The generation of 3-nitrotyrosine, within proteins, is a post-translational modification resulting from oxidative or nitrative stress. It has been suggested that this modification could be used as a biomarker for inflammatory diseases. Despite the superiority of mass spectrometry-based determinations of nitrotyrosine, in a high-throughput clinical setting the measurement of nitrotyrosine by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is likely to be more cost-effective. ELISAs offer an alternative means to detect nitrotyrosine, but many commercially available ELISAs are insufficiently sensitive to detect nitrotyrosine in healthy human serum...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lu Sun, Zheng-Guo Cui, Shahbaz Ahmad Zakki, Qian-Wen Feng, Meng-Ling Li, Hidekuni Inadera
Hyperthermia is one therapeutic tool for damaging and killing cancer cells, with minimal injury to normal tissues. However, its cytotoxic effects alone are insufficient for quantitative cancer cell death. To overcome this limitation, several studies have explored non-toxic enhancers for hyperthermia-induced cell death. Capsaicin may be applicable as a therapeutic tool against various types of cancer. In the present study, we employed nonivamide, a less-pungent capsaicin analogue, to investigate its possible enhancing effects on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis; moreover, we analyzed its molecular mechanism...
March 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David Z Silberstein, Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Hnin Hnin Aung, Ching-Hsien Chen, Carroll E Cross, Karen A McDonald
Proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been implicated in playing key roles in host tissue injury at sites of inflammatory processes dominated by macrophage activations and/or neutrophil infiltrations. Imbalances between proteases/antiproteases and ROS/antioxidants are recognized to contribute to amplification of inflammatory-based host tissue injury. This has been especially well-documented in such respiratory tract diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
March 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Xin Li, James A Imlay
Escherichia coli is a model organism that has been exploited to reveal key details of hydrogen peroxide stress: the biomolecules that H2 O2 most rapidly damages and the defensive tactics that organisms use to fend it off. Much less clear is the amount of exogenous H2 O2 that is sufficient to injure the bacterium and/or to trigger its stress response. To fill this gap, we need to study the behavior of cells when they are exposed to defined amounts of H2 O2 on an hours-long time scale. Such experiments are difficult because bacteria rapidly consume H2 O2 that is added to test cultures...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marietta Zita Poles, Nikolett Bódi, Mária Bagyánszki, Éva Fekete, András Tamás Mészáros, Gabriella Varga, Szilárd Szűcs, Anna Nászai, Liliána Kiss, Andrey V Kozlov, Mihály Boros, József Kaszaki
Our aim was to characterize the main components of the nitrosative response with quantitative changes of the nitrergic myenteric neurons in adjacent intestinal segments after transient superior mesenteric artery occlusion. We also tested the hypothesis that exogenous methane may modulate the evolution of nitroxidation by influencing xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity. The microcirculatory consequences of a 50min ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion were investigated in anesthetized rats (n=124) inhaling normoxic air with or without 2...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Deepti Singh, Shwetha Narayanamoorthy, Sunita Gamre, Ananda Guha Majumdar, Manish Goswami, Umesh Gami, Susan Cherian, Mahesh Subramanian
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and there is an urgent need to augment the arsenal against pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of different drug resistant bacteria is threatening human lives to be pushed towards the pre-antibiotic era. Botanical sources remain a vital source of diverse organic molecules that possess antibacterial property as well as augment existing antibacterial molecules. Piper betle, a climber, is widely used in south and south-east Asia whose leaves and nuts are consumed regularly...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kerstin Nowotny, José Pedro Castro, Martín Hugo, Sabine Braune, Daniela Weber, Marc Pignitter, Veronika Somoza, Julia Bornhorst, Tanja Schwerdtle, Tilman Grune
Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl, interacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs include a variety of compounds which were shown to have damaging potential and to accumulate in the course of different conditions such as diabetes mellitus and aging. After confirming collagen as a main target for MG modifications in vivo within the extracellular matrix, we show here that MG-collagen disrupts fibroblast redox homeostasis and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
María Del Mar Sáez Freire, Adrián Blanco Gómez, Sonia Castillo Lluva, Aurora Gómez Vecino, Julie Milena Galvis Jiménez, Carmen Martín Seisdedos, María Isidoro García, Lourdes Hontecillas Prieto, María Begoña García-Cenador, Francisco Javier García Criado, María Carmen Patino Alonso, Purificación Galindo Villardón, Jian-Hua Mao, Carlos Prieto, Andrés Castellanos Martín, Lars Kaderali, Jesús Pérez Losada
The incidence of breast cancer increases with age until menopause, and breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women. The existence of epidemiological links between breast cancer and aging indicates that both processes share some common mechanisms of development. Oxidative stress is associated with both cancer susceptibility and aging. Here we observed that ERBB2-positive breast cancer, which developed in genetically heterogeneous ERBB2-positive transgenic mice generated by a backcross, is more aggressive in chronologically younger than in older mice (differentiated by the median survival of the cohort that was 79 weeks), similar to what occurs in humans...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mia C Burleigh, Luke Liddle, Chris Monaghan, David J Muggeridge, Nicholas Sculthorpe, John P Butcher, Fiona L Henriquez, Jason D Allen, Chris Easton
Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we measured the abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity of 25 healthy humans using 16S rRNA sequencing and observed, for 3.5hours, the physiological responses to dietary nitrate ingestion via measurement of blood pressure, and salivary and plasma NO metabolites...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Markus H Hoffmann, Helen Griffiths
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are created in cells during oxidative phosphorylation by the respiratory chain in the mitochondria or by the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes. The first discovered and most studied of these complexes, NOX2, mediates the oxidative burst in phagocytes. ROS generated by NOX2 are dreadful weapons: while being essential to kill ingested pathogens they can also cause degenerative changes on tissue if production and release are not balanced by sufficient detoxification. In the last fifteen years evidence has been accumulating that ROS are also integral signalling molecules and are important for regulating autoimmunity and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Min-Ho Oak, Cyril Auger, Eugenia Belcastro, Sin-Hee Park, Hyunho Lee, Valérie B Schini-Kerth
Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular intake of polyphenol-rich diets such as red wine and tea, are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich products has been attributable, at least in part, to their direct action on the endothelial function. Indeed, polyphenols from tea, grapes, cacao, berries, and plants have been shown to activate endothelial cells to increase the formation of potent vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and to delay endothelial ageing...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Maria Eugenia Sabatino, Ezequiel Grondona, Liliana D V Sosa, Bethania Mongi Bragato, Lucia Carreño, Virginia Juarez, Rodrigo A da Silva, Aline Remor, Lucila de Bortoli, Roberta de Paula Martins, Pablo A Pérez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Silvina Gutiérrez, Alicia I Torres, Alexandra Latini, Ana L De Paul
The cellular transformation of normal functional cells to neoplastic ones implies alterations in the cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function in order to provide the bioenergetics and growth requirements for tumour growth progression. Currently, the mitochondrial physiology and dynamic shift during pituitary tumour development are not well understood. Pituitary tumors present endocrine neoplastic benign growth which, in previous reports, we had shown that in addition to increased proliferation, these tumours were also characterized by cellular senescence signs with no indication of apoptosis...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Zachary T Bitzer, Reema Goel, Samantha M Reilly, Ryan J Elias, Alexey Silakov, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, John P Richie
BACKGROUND: Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Soumya Luthra, Uma Chandran, Brenda Diergaarde, Michael Becich, Adrian V Lee, Carola A Neumann
Increased reactive species (RS; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) are a byproduct of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, and critical in cancer development, including breast tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of RS-related genes in breast cancer, expression levels of the most common annotated genes involved in regulating cellular RS levels and proteins that are substrates of RS in specific subtypes of breast cancer 9 were evaluated using public data bases. Based on the premise that increased RS promote tumor formation, and breast cancer subtypes vary in aggressiveness, we hypothesized that specific RS gene expression signatures are associated with breast cancer aggressiveness and patient survival...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"