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Transfusion Medicine Reviews

Annemarie E Fogerty
Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic issue encountered by obstetricians and hematologists, detected in about 10% of all pregnancies. In the vast majority of cases, the thrombocytopenia will be attributed to gestational thrombocytopenia (GT), where the thrombocytopenia is mild, does not necessitate active management, and does not introduce maternal or fetal bleeding risk. Although GT is common, the specific mechanism responsible for it is not known with certainty, and therefore, differentiating it from other causes of thrombocytopenia can be challenging...
August 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Sunny Dzik
Although James Blundell is rightly acknowledged as the father of modern transfusion therapy, a review of the events surrounding the initial human-to-human transfusions in the first decades of the 19th century reveals substantial contributions by Blundell's collaborators. Bundell's uncle John Haighton provided substantial support for animal experimentation in the growing field of physiology studies. John Leacock of Barbados provided the essential original experiments that focused the path of investigation on within-species transfusions...
August 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Barbara A Konkle, Annemarie E Fogerty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Lucy Neave, Marie Scully
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, resulting in microvascular thrombosis and end-organ damage. In pregnancy, this may be the result of pregnancy-related TMAs such as preeclampsia; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets; or pregnancy-associated TMAs, specifically thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) or complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (CM HUS). TTP and CM HUS are rare disorders, and their diagnosis may be missed, no less because features at presentation may be misdiagnosed as a pregnancy-related TMA, such as hypertension, proteinuria, fetal growth restriction, or in utero fetal death...
August 18, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Tik Nga Tong, Selena Cen, Donald R Branch
Serologic testing using the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) is known to be insufficient to determine the clinical significance or insignificance of a given antibody to red blood cells (RBC), particularly in cases of antibodies to high-prevalence antigens, such as anti-Ge or anti-Yta . An in vitro functional cellular assay, the monocyte monolayer assay (MMA), has been studied for more than 40 years for its potential use to differentiate between clinically significant and insignificant RBC antibodies. The MMA has recently been used to select donor blood for transfusion into patients having a serologically incompatible crossmatch, without any obvious sequalae...
August 8, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Ross M Fasano, Erin K Meyer, Jane Branscomb, Mia S White, Robert W Gibson, James R Eckman
Red blood cells (RBC) transfusion is critical in managing acute and chronic complications in sickle cell disease (SCD); however, it is complicated by RBC alloimmunization, iron overload, transfusion reactions and infection. Several reports documented an increased incidence of alloantibodies in transfused individuals with SCD, especially for Rh and Kell antigens. As a result, the National Institutes of Health Expert Panel and British Society for Haematology guidelines recommend primary matching for C/c, E/e and K antigens in addition to ABO/RhD for RBC transfusions...
July 26, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Jennifer Webb, Meghan Delaney
Alloimmunization to red blood cell (RBC) antigens represents a challenge for physicians caring for women of child bearing potential. Exposure to non-self RBC antigens may occur during transfusion or pregnancy leading to the development of antibodies. If a subsequent fetus bears that antigen, maternal antibodies may attack the fetal red blood cells causing red cell destruction and clinically significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). In the most severe cases, HDFN may result in intrauterine fetal demise due to high output cardiac failure, effusions and ascites, known as "hydrops fetalis"...
July 19, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Phillip Staibano, Iris Perelman, Julia Lombardi, Alexandra Davis, Alan Tinmouth, Marc Carrier, Ciara Stevenson, Elianna Saidenberg
Anemia is a frequently diagnosed condition that may be a symptom of or complication of many illnesses affecting patients of all demographics. Anemia can lead to both worsened clinical outcomes and reduced quality of life. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are methodological tools used to capture the impact of disease on patient well-being. Use of PROMs in medical research is becoming more common as it is increasingly recognized that disease outcomes of interest to researchers and clinicians are not always consistent with patients' greatest concerns related to their diseases...
July 12, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Bethany Samuelson Bannow, Barbara A Konkle
Inherited bleeding disorders increase the risk of bleeding in the obstetric patient. Randomized controlled trials to compare prophylactic or therapeutic interventions are rare, and guidance documents rely heavily on expert opinion. Here we report the results of a systematic review of the literature for the treatment and prevention of peripartum bleeding in women with an inherited bleeding disorder. The highest-quality evidence is for the use of tranexamic acid in postpartum hemorrhage, which has been shown to decrease bleeding-related mortality in women without bleeding disorders...
July 12, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Robert A DeSimone, Wendy K Leung, Joseph Schwartz
The increasing incidence of placenta accreta has paralleled the rise in its greatest risk factor: cesarean delivery. In placenta accreta, the abnormal invasion of the chorionic villi into the myometrium prevents separation of the placenta at delivery, and the myometrium is unable to contract to prevent hemorrhage. Spontaneous uterine rupture and hemoperitoneum may also occur in the setting of placenta percreta. The average blood loss during a delivery complicated by placenta accreta is 2 to 5 L, compared to less than 0...
October 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Kerry L O'Brien, Scott A Shainker, Evelyn L Lockhart
Obstetric hemorrhage is one of the leading, as well as one of the most treatable, causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. As obstetric hemorrhage often occurs in patients without risk factors, there is virtually unanimous agreement from obstetric professional societies to establish obstetric hemorrhage protocols in anticipation of these emergencies. These protocols involve multidisciplinary teams in which the transfusion service plays an essential and vital role. This manuscript will examine the epidemiology of obstetric hemorrhage, risk factors that may be present, and recommendations for these protocols, with a focus on massive transfusion protocols, laboratory testing, cell salvage and use of pharmacologic adjuvant therapy including tranexamic acid and factor concentrates...
October 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Hendrik B Feys, Britt Van Aelst, Veerle Compernolle
Pathogen inactivation (PI) for platelet concentrates (PC) is a fairly recent development in transfusion medicine that is intended to decrease infectious disease transmission from the donor to the receiving patient. Effective inactivation of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic parasites adds a layer of safety, protecting the blood supply against customary and emerging pathogens. Three PI methods have been described for platelets. These are based on photochemical damage of nucleic acids which prevents replication of most infectious pathogens and contaminating donor leukocytes...
June 27, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Bryon Jackson, Ross Fasano, John Roback
The role of prophylactic transfusion therapy for the treatment of sickle cell disease during pregnancy is unclear. An analysis of the existing literature shows a limited number of publications that address this issue and specifically compare clinical outcomes in this population based on a treatment strategy of prophylactic transfusion versus transfusion only for clinical indications (on-demand transfusion). The existing studies show a wide variation in study design and outcomes measured. The results of this analysis suggest that there are insufficient data to support a clinically significant difference in morbidity and mortality outcomes based on transfusion strategy...
June 18, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Katerina Pavenski, Simon Stanworth, Mark Fung, Erica M Wood, Joanne Pink, Michael F Murphy, Heather Hume, Susan Nahirniak, Kathryn E Webert, Susano Tanael, Denise Landry, Nadine Shehata
Many transfusion guidelines are available, but little appraisal of their quality has been undertaken. The quality of guidelines may potentially influence adoption. Our aim was to determine the quality of evidence-based transfusion guidelines (EBG) for red cells and plasma, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, and assess duplication and consistency of recommendations. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for EBG from 2005 to June 3, 2016. Citations were reviewed for inclusion in duplicate...
June 1, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Kazuhiko Ikeda, Hitoshi Ohto, Yoshiki Okuyama, Minami Yamada-Fujiwara, Heiwa Kanamori, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Kazuo Muroi, Takehiko Mori, Kinuyo Kasama, Tohru Iseki, Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue, Nobuharu Fujii, Takashi Ashida, Kazuaki Kameda, Junya Kanda, Asao Hirose, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nagai, Keiji Minakawa, Ryuji Tanosaki
Adverse events (AEs) associated with blood transfusions, including component-specific red cell, platelet, and plasma products, have been extensively surveyed. In contrast, surveillance of AEs associated with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) products in HSC transplantation (HSCT) has been less rigorous, even though HSC products include a diversity of immature and mature hematopoietic cells, substantial plasma, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the case of cryopreserved HSC products. HSC infusion-related AEs have been attributed to DMSO toxicity, but AEs associated with the infusion of noncryopreserved HSC products are not uncommon...
June 1, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Alan T Nurden
Patients with the inherited bleeding disorder Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) possess platelets that lack αIIbβ3 integrin and fail to aggregate, and have moderate to severe mucocutaneous bleeding. Many become refractory to platelet transfusions due to the formation of isoantibodies to αIIbβ3 with the rapid elimination of donor platelets and/or a block of function. Epitope characterization has shown isoantibodies to be polyclonal and to recognize different epitopes on the integrin with β3 a major site and αvβ3 on endothelial and vascular cells a newly recognized target...
May 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Monica Suet Ying Ng, John-Paul Tung, John Francis Fraser
Platelet concentrate (PC) transfusions are a lifesaving adjunct to control and prevent bleeding in cancer, hematologic, surgical, and trauma patients. Platelet concentrate availability and safety are limited by the development of platelet storage lesions (PSLs) and risk of bacterial contamination. Platelet storage lesions are a series of biochemical, structural, and functional changes that occur from blood collection to transfusion. Understanding of PSLs is key for devising interventions that prolong PC shelf life to improve PC access and wastage...
April 17, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Ewa Jaskiewicz, Thierry Peyrard, Radoslaw Kaczmarek, Agata Zerka, Marlena Jodlowska, Marcin Czerwinski
Antigens of the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), minor sialoglycoproteins of human erythrocytes. GPC and GPD help maintain erythrocyte shape of and contributes to the stability of its membrane. There are six high-prevalence Gerbich antigens: Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL (GE10), GEAT (GE11), GETI (GE12) and five low-prevalence Gerbich antigens: Wb (GE5), Lsa (GE6), Ana (GE7), Dha (GE8), GEIS (GE9). Some Gerbich antigens (Ge4, Wb, Dha , GEAT) are expressed only on GPC, two (Ge2, Ana ) are expressed only on GPD, while others (Ge3, Lsa , GEIS, GEPL, GETI) are expressed on both GPC and GPD...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Zoe K McQuilten, Craig J French, Alistair Nichol, Alisa Higgins, David J Cooper
Longer storage duration of red blood cell (RBC) units prior to transfusion has been associated with worse outcomes in observational studies. We performed a systematic review, including recently published randomized trials, to determine if storage age of RBCs is associated with mortality, morbidity or adverse events in patients. Searches were performed up to 21st July 2017 in Medline (OvidSP), 20 July in EMBASE (OvidSP) and June 2017 in Cochrane Library. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing transfusion of fresher or freshest available with older or standard issue RBCs...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Ariela L Marshall, Rajiv K Pruthi, Justin D Kreuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
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