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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

P Halada, K Hlavackova, J Risueño, E Berriatua, P Volf, V Dvorak
Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911) are blood-feeding insects that transmit human pathogens including Leishmania (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites, causative agents of the leishmaniases. To elucidate Leishmania transmission cycles, conclusive identification of vector species is essential. Molecular approaches including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein profiling have recently emerged to complement morphological identification...
May 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N Macleod, M J R Hall, A H Wardhana
The Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an important agent of traumatic myiasis and, as such, a major human and animal health problem. In the implementation of OWSF control operations, it is important to determine the geographical origins of such disease-causing species in order to establish whether they derive from endemic or invading populations. Gross morphological and molecular studies have demonstrated the existence of two distinct lineages of this species, one African and the other Asian...
April 15, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Fernanda López-Berrizbeitia, Juliana Sanchez, Rubén M Barquez, M Mónica Díaz
Two new species of flea of the genus Plocopsylla, subgenus Plocopsylla, (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) collected from sigmodontine rodents in northwestern Argentina are described and a key to identification of species of the genus Plocopsylla, subgenus Plocopsylla, in Argentina is presented. Plocopsylla (P.) inti is cited for the first time in Argentina, extending its distribution ∼ 970 km further south than previously documented. New locality data and flea-host associations are recorded. The contributions of this study are relevant because they increase knowledge of the diversity of flea fauna in northwestern Argentina bordering a plague endemic area and will be useful in the implementation of plague control management plans in the future...
April 2, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J N Izdebska, L Rolbiecki
Demodecosis canina is one of the most important dog parasitoses, but its aetiology is still not well known. There are currently two known species of demodecid mite specific to the domestic dog Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Canidae). These are Demodex canis Leydig, 1859 (Acariformes: Demodecidae) and Demodex injai Desch & Hillier, 2003. There have also been many reports of the so-called 'short form', considered to be a separate species functioning under the name Demodex cornei nomen nudum, for which, however, no formal valid description has been documented...
March 30, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E M Abdelfattah, G Vezzoli, G Buczkowski, M M Makagon
The northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae), is the primary blood-feeding ectoparasite found on poultry in the U.S.A. Three experiments were conducted in vitro to test the acaricidal properties of cade, garlic, lavender, lemongrass, pine and thyme essential oils against NFM, and to evaluate whether these effects are altered by adjusting oil application rates and application modality (direct vs. vapour contact). Applied at the rate of 0.21 mg/cm2 , the essential oils of cade, thyme, lemongrass and garlic resulted in higher NFM mortality at 24 h post-application than lavender and pine oils, and the untreated and ethanol-treated controls...
March 2, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J D Charlwood, E Kessy, K Yohannes, N Protopopoff, M Rowland, C LeClair
The relative efficacy of a mechanical (Prokopack) collection method vs. manual aspiration in the collection of resting mosquitoes was evaluated in northern Tanzania before and after an intervention using indoor residual spraying and longlasting insecticide-treated nets. In smoke-free houses mosquitoes were collected from the roof and walls, but in smoky houses mosquitoes were found predominantly on the walls. Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) constituted 97.7% of the 312 An. gambiae complex specimens identified before but only 19...
February 26, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Wagner, A Mathis, A C Schönenberger, S Becker, J Schmidt-Chanasit, C Silaghi, E Veronesi
Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald) is an invasive mosquito species in Central Europe, where it has colonized several areas. In this study, field-collected specimens of Ae. japonicus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) from Zürich (Switzerland) were orally exposed to two strains (NY99 and FIN) of the avian zoonotic pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). Dissemination and transmission of the viruses after incubation for 12-15 days under a fluctuating Central European midsummer temperature regime (24 ± 7 °C) was investigated by detection of viral RNA in homogenates of pools of both head/thorax and saliva by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E J Kweka, E A Mausa, N Venter, Y A Derua, E E Kimaro, M Coetzee
A hydrolysis probe analysis (TaqMan assay) was used to study clade types in Anopheles funestus sensu stricto Giles, a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, with specimens collected from Muheza in Tanga, northeastern Tanzania. A total of 186 An. funestus specimens were analysed, revealing that 176 (94.6%) were of clade I and 10 (5.4%) of clade II. These findings extend the distribution of clade type II from southern Mozambique and northern Zambia to northeastern Tanzania. The technique used can also be of great value in assessing the role and contribution of these clade types in malaria transmission and insecticide resistance frequencies for An...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Leggewie, R Krumkamp, M Badusche, A Heitmann, S Jansen, J Schmidt-Chanasit, E Tannich, S C Becker
Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) infects a wide range of arthropods, including several mosquito species. The bacterium is known to induce a plethora of phenotypes in its host, examples being the reproductive phenotype cytoplasmic incompatibility or resistance against infection with arboviruses. The latter is especially relevant when assessing the vector competence of mosquito species for emerging arboviruses. Thus, knowledge of Wolbachia infection status is important for the assessment of vector competence...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Z Galvez-Marroquin, L Cruz-López, E A Malo, J M Ramsey, J C Rojas
The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3-5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10-15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G J DE LA Vega, P E Schilman
In order to assess how triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), Chagas disease vectors, are distributed through Latin America, we analysed the relationship between the ecological niche and the limits of the physiological thermal niche in seven species of triatomines. We combined two methodological approaches: species distribution models, and physiological tolerances. First, we modelled the ecological niche and identified the most important abiotic factor for their distribution. Then, thermal tolerance limits were analysed by measuring maximum and minimum critical temperatures, upper lethal temperature, and 'chill-coma recovery time'...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Talavera, F Muñoz-Muñoz, M Verdún, N Pujol, N Pagès
Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens, such as the bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses, which cause important diseases in domestic and wild ruminants. As wild ruminants can contribute to overwintering and epizootics of both diseases, knowledge of the host-feeding behaviour of Culicoides in natural ecosystems is important to better understand their epidemiology. Blood-engorged Culicoides females trapped in natural areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species were genetically analysed to identify host species...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Abdullah, C Helps, S Tasker, H Newbury, R Wall
Ticks were collected during March-July 2015 from dogs by veterinarians throughout the U.K. and used to estimate current prevalences and distributions of pathogens. DNA was extracted from 4750 ticks and subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis to identify Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) and Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) species. Of 4737 ticks [predominantly Ixodes ricinus Linneaus (Ixodida: Ixodidae)], B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 94 (2.0%). Four Borrelia genospecies were identified: Borrelia garinii (41...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L C Dandalo, G Munhenga, M L Kaiser, L L Koekemoer
An efficient sexing system is important for the release of sterile males for any control programme using the sterile insect technique. This study describes the development and characterization of a new genetic sexing strain from South Africa (GMK), needed for the planned implementation of such a programme in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province. The base colony used was a locally modified laboratory strain of Anopheles arabiensis containing a sex-linked gene conferring dieldrin resistance to male mosquitoes. Female A...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Jess, G M Thompson, S Clawson, I W N Forsythe, I Rea, A W Gordon, A K Murchie
Biting midges, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are important vectors of viral pathogens. Following the outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 in Europe between 2006 and 2009, many Culicoides surveillance programmes were initiated to identify vector-active periods, in accordance with European Commission regulation 2007/1266/EC. This study utilized surveillance data from 4 years of continuous light-trapping at 14 sites in Northern Ireland. The number of captured Culicoides varied from none during the vector-free period (December-April) to more than 36 000 per night during peak activity in the summer...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
F M Ferreira, C C Delmonte, T L P Novato, C M O Monteiro, E Daemon, F M P Vilela, M P H Amaral
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the most important ectoparasite in cattle-breeding areas and is responsible for severe economic losses. Synthetic acaricides have been used to control this parasite. However, the need for safer products has stimulated the search for new acaricides, such as those to be obtained from medicinal plants. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has many biological properties and shows great potential for use in veterinary applications...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Magliano, P Scaramozzino, S Ravagnan, F Montarsi, G DA Rold, G Cincinelli, A Moni, P Silvestri, A Carvelli, C DE Liberato
Indoor and outdoor winter activity of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in central Italy was investigated in order to evaluate whether indoor activity might account for the overwintering of bluetongue virus, as has been hypothesized by some authors. Weekly Culicoides collections were performed at three farms over three consecutive winter seasons. At each farm, two black-light traps were operated simultaneously, indoors and outdoors. Culicoides were identified using both morphological and molecular means...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Aktas, S Ozubek
This study investigated the transmission of Anaplasma platys by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Engorged nymphs (n = 404) removed from A. platys-infected dogs were incubated at 28 °C until moulting. Unfed adults were obtained and divided into 48 pools. Unfed ticks collected from the grounds of the dog shelter, comprising 1800 larvae (n = 18 pools), 3100 nymphs (n = 62 pools) and 85 adults (n = 10 pools, including three male and seven female pools) were sorted into 90 pools. All pools were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the 16S rRNA gene of A...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N O DA Rocha, S M Lambert, A G Dias-Lima, F S Julião, B M P S Souza
A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to screen sandflies for infection with Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont found in many arthropods and filarial hosts. Positive results were obtained in five of 200 field-collected sandflies and were confirmed by sequencing. All sandflies were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) captured in a region endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This is the first study to identify Wolbachia infection in this Lutzomyia species, which is the main vector of leishmaniasis in the study area...
March 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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