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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

T T C Minuzzi-Souza, L R Silva, L Hagström, M Hecht, N Nitz, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
The identification of bloodmeal sources in triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is important in understanding vector-host associations and in measuring the risk for Chagas' disease transmission. The bloodmeal sources of triatomines infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) caught in houses in central Brazil (Goiás State and the Federal District) were investigated during 2012-2014. Mitochondrial cytochrome b amplicons were used to identify bloodmeals through high-resolution melting and DNA sequencing...
July 12, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K H Toe, P Müller, A Badolo, A Traore, N Sagnon, R K Dabiré, H Ranson
Malaria control is dependent on the use of longlasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) containing pyrethroids. A new generation of LLINs containing both pyrethroids and the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) has been developed in response to increasing pyrethroid resistance in African malaria vectors, but questions remain about the performance of these nets in areas where levels of pyrethroid resistance are very high. This study was conducted in two settings in southwest Burkina Faso, Vallée du Kou 5 and Tengrela, where Anopheles gambiae s...
July 11, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
I B Machado, K Bitencourth, K M Cardoso, S V Oliveira, M Santalucia, S F F Marques, M Amorim, G S GazÊTa
The Brazilian state of Goiás, untouched by spotted fever (SF) until 2012, has subsequently reported cases of the disease in several regions. This study aimed to survey the diversity of potential vectors and rickettsia in areas of Goiás under environmental surveillance or case investigation for SF. Collected specimens were assayed with molecular biology technology using DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of fragments of the genes gltA, ompA, ompB and sca4 to detect rickettsia in ticks and fleas. Amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit II and 16S rRNA was performed to assist tick identification...
July 3, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Sanz-Aguilar, R Rosselló, M Bengoa, M Ruiz-Pérez, M González-Calleja, C Barceló, D Borrás, C Paredes-Esquivel, M A Miranda, G Tavecchia
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), is a highly invasive species and a vector of several viruses of serious concern to public health. Investigating the habitat selection of this species at small to medium scales is essential to the planning of effective prevention and control campaigns. The present group considered detailed data for this species' presence/absence collected at 228 sites on Mallorca Island (Spain) in autumn 2015, 3 years after the first detection of the species on the island...
July 3, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G J Venter, S N B Boikanyo, C J De Beer
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a range of orbiviruses that cause important veterinary diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness. The effective monitoring of Culicoides species diversity and abundance, both at livestock and near potential wildlife hosts, is essential for risk management. The Onderstepoort 220-V ultraviolet (UV) light trap is extensively used for this purpose. Reducing its power requirements by fitting low-energy light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can lead to greater flexibility in monitoring...
June 28, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J A Amadi, G O Ong'amo, D O Olago, S O Oriaso, I K Nyamongo, B B A Estambale
Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes...
June 21, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
W Mongkol, W Nguitragool, J Sattabongkot, A Kubera
Malaria parasites are transmitted through blood feeding by female Anopheline mosquitoes. Unveiling the blood-feeding process will improve understanding of vector biology. Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the primary malaria vectors in the Greater Mekong Subregion, the epicentre of malaria drug resistance. In this study, differential gene expression between sugar- and blood-fed An. dirus was investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 589 transcripts were found to be upregulated and 703 transcripts downregulated as a result of blood feeding...
June 8, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Taucare-Ríos, W Nentwig, G Bizama, R O Bustamante
The Mediterranean recluse spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Sicariidae) is a cosmopolitan spider that has been introduced in many parts of the world. Its bite can be dangerous to humans. However, the potential distribution of this alien species, which is able to spread fairly quickly with human aid, is completely unknown. Using a combination of global and regional niche models, it is possible to analyse the spread of this species in relation to environmental conditions. This analysis found that the successful spreading of this species varies according to the region invaded...
June 8, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L S Lobo, J R Girotti, S J Mijailovsky, É K K Fernandes, C Luz, N Pedrini
Physically disturbed Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) adults, as well as adults of other Chagas' disease vectors, secrete a mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with alarm and possible sexual and defence functions. The aim of the present research was to test whether infection with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) has an effect on VOC secretion in disturbed T. infestans and on the expression of two genes (Ti-brnq and Ti-bckdc) potentially involved in VOC biosynthesis...
June 2, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Kim, S Trocke, C Sim
Understanding the processes of reproductive behaviour in mosquitoes is crucial for improving mating competitiveness and mating specificity for sterile insect release programmes. The Culex pipiens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Culicidae) forms pipiens and molestus (Forskål), two biotypes of the Cx. pipiens complex, are vectors for West Nile virus, St Louis encephalitis virus and lymphatic filariases. Hybridization of these biotypes is known to occur in nature, although form pipiens mates above ground in large spaces (eurygamy) and form molestus preferentially mates in small spaces (stenogamy) such as sewage tunnels...
June 1, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
X Gao, J H Xiao, B Y Liu, H B Wang
Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotomidae) are vectors of the zoonotic disease leishmaniasis. To better understand the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in order to facilitate control of leishmaniasis transmission, the present study explored the impacts of climate and landscape on local abundances of Phlebotomus chinensis in northwestern mainland China. Identification records were used to create a geodatabase for the locations at which P. chinensis had been collected in the region, and a regional-scale map was developed to show the distribution of P...
May 29, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S J Seyyed-Zadeh, F Bozorg-Omid, Z Telmadarraiy, O Terenius, A R Chavshin
Fleas are important vectors of diseases such as murine typhus, tularaemia, hymenolepiasis and plague. The presence of active foci and history of human- and flea-transmitted plague in northwest Iran prompted the present group to collect and identify fleas from human and livestock dwellings across West Azerbaijan Province. Adult fleas were collected and identified using routine taxonomic keys. Species designation was confirmed by sequencing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Of the collected specimens (n = 989), 104 were collected off-host (30 from human dwellings and 74 in light traps) and the rest were found on hosts (107 on animals and 778 by human bait)...
May 28, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Halada, K Hlavackova, J Risueño, E Berriatua, P Volf, V Dvorak
Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911) are blood-feeding insects that transmit human pathogens including Leishmania (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites, causative agents of the leishmaniases. To elucidate Leishmania transmission cycles, conclusive identification of vector species is essential. Molecular approaches including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein profiling have recently emerged to complement morphological identification...
May 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Wagner, V Guidi, P R Torgerson, A Mathis, F Schaffner
Pathogens of medical or veterinary significance that are transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are (re-)emerging in Europe [e.g. West Nile virus (WNV), Dirofilaria nematodes]. Little is known about the spatiotemporal abundances of mosquito species in Switzerland. Therefore, mosquito population dynamics were investigated, focusing on areas of risk for sylvatic or synanthropic transmission, such as natural sites and suburban sites on either side of the Alpine crest. Repeated collections were made using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps, juvenile sampling and ovitrapping...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T N J J Nepomichene, F N Raharimalala, S F Andriamandimby, J-P Ravalohery, A-B Failloux, J-M Heraud, S Boyer
Culex antennatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis were found to be infected with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) during an epidemic that occurred in 2008 and 2009 in Madagascar. To understand the roles played by Cx. antennatus and An. coustani in virus maintenance and transmission, RVFV vector competence was assessed in each species. Mosquito body parts and saliva of mosquitoes that fed on RVFV-infected blood were tested for RVFV using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C-A Chivers, H Rose Vineer, R Wall
Outbreaks of ovine psoroptic mange in the U.K. have increased 100-fold since its deregulation in 1992, with the highest prevalence in Wales, a region of high sheep density. A cross-sectional, retrospective, questionnaire-based survey of 7500 members of the association of Welsh lamb and beef farmers [Welsh Lamb and Beef Producers Ltd (WLBP)] was used to investigate the prevalence and distribution of sheep scab in this region in 2015. The survey was completed by 14.0% (n = 972) of potential respondents. Scab outbreaks were reported on 15...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A G DE LA Filia, S Andrewes, J M Clark, L Ross
Insect reproduction is extremely variable, but the implications of alternative genetic systems are often overlooked in studies on the evolution of insecticide resistance. Both ecotypes of Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), the human head and body lice, are human ectoparasites, the control of which is challenged by the recent spread of resistance alleles. The present study conclusively establishes for the first time that both head and body lice reproduce through paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual genetic system in which males transmit only their maternally derived chromosomes...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S E El-Kholy, I M El-Husseiny, W S Meshrif, A Abou El-Azm, M L Salem
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health burden in several countries. Although transmission through blood is the most likely potential route of HCV infection, other sources warrant exploration. This study was designed to examine the possibility that the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) might serve as a vector of HCV. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in female Cx. pipiens that were fed on blood taken from HCV patients and tested for the presence of HCV RNAs using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D A Yee, R Dejesus-Crespo, F F Hunter, F Bai
The epidemic of Zika in the Western hemisphere has led to intense investigations of all species important in the transmission of Zika virus (ZikV), including putative mosquito vectors. Although evidence points to Stegomyia (= Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes as the primary vectors in nature among humans, there remains the possibility that other common mosquito species may be implicated in the rapid spread of the virus. Herein, field-caught Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during June 2016 in different neighbourhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico were examined for the presence of natural infection with ZikV...
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C Barceló, M A Miranda
This research contributes to knowledge of the basic bionomic parameters of vector and non-vector Culicoides species. Field-collected gravid C. imicola and Obsoletus complex showed the longest lifespans in laboratory conditions. Culicoides paolae and C. circumscriptus seemed to be the most suitable species for laboratory rearing in view of their high oviposition rates, short lifecycles, long adult lifespans and female-biased sex ratios.
June 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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