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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165138/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-s-l-from-the-western-iberian-peninsula
#1
C Almeida, R Simões, M J Coimbra-Dores, F Rosa, D Dias
Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (1806) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is considered to be the most widely distributed tick and to have a vast range of habitats and hosts, including livestock, pets and wildlife. In addition to morphological differences, recent investigations using approaches based on molecular genetic markers have revealed the existence of different R. sanguineus lineages in different geographic regions. In this study, 475 ticks collected from dogs in the western Iberian peninsula were studied both morphologically and genetically, using 12S and 16S rDNA and COI gene markers in order to clarify the controversy over the systematic status of R...
February 6, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150885/blood-feeding-of-ornithodoros-turicata-larvae-using-an-artificial-membrane-system
#2
H J Kim, S Filatov, J E Lopez, A A Pérez DE León, P D Teel
An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata (Ixodida: Argasidae) larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and moulting to the first nymphal instar were evaluated. A total of 55.6% of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two experimental groups fed to repletion and 98.0% of all fed larvae moulted. Mortality rates of first instar nymphs differed significantly depending on the sorting tools used to handle engorged larvae (χ(2)  = 35...
February 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150865/shifts-in-the-ecological-niche-of-lutzomyia-peruensis-under-climate-change-scenarios-in-peru
#3
D A Moo-Llanes, W Arque-Chunga, O Carmona-Castro, C Yañez-Arenas, H H Yañez-Trujillano, L Cheverría-Pacheco, C M Baak-Baak, A G Cáceres
The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Based on these data, ecological niche models were constructed to predict spatial distributions using three algorithms [Support vector machine (SVM), the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)]...
February 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145576/differences-in-competitive-ability-for-the-occupancy-of-shelters-in-triatomines
#4
C A Zacharias, S A Minoli, G Manrique
Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) are nocturnal blood-sucking insects. During daylight hours they remain in an akinetic state inside their shelters, whereas at dusk they become active and move outside. When they are outside their shelters during the photophase, triatomines are vulnerable to diurnal predators and the period just before dawn is critical to their survival. This work analyses the existence of competitive interactions involved in the occupancy of shelters by triatomines. Behavioural assays were performed in which nymphs of different stages, nutritional status or species were released in an experimental arena containing a space-limited artificial shelter...
February 1, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117913/quality-control-of-a-medicinal-larval-lucilia-sericata-debridement-device-based-on-released-gelatinase-activity
#5
S F Pickles, D I Pritchard
Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae are manufactured worldwide for the treatment of chronic wounds. Published research has confirmed that the primary clinical effect of the product, debridement (the degradation of non-viable wound tissue), is accomplished by a range of enzymes released by larvae during feeding. The quality assessment of larval activity is currently achieved during production using meat-based assays, which monitor insect growth and/or the reduction in substrate mass. To support this, the present authors developed a complementary radial diffusion enzymatic assay to produce a visual and measureable indication of the activity of larval alimentary products (LAP) collected under standardized conditions, against a gelatin substrate...
January 24, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117911/sperm-dimorphism-in-the-triatoma-brasiliensis-species-complex-and-its-applications
#6
A F Baffa, D C P Camara, J R Santos-Mallet, E R Dasilva, J Costa, S P C Freitas
Morphological and structural features of the sperm of the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) species complex were examined in this first study investigating the sperm of Heteroptera and the genus Triatoma. Males were dissected and their seminal vesicles removed. For measurement, seminal vesicles were squashed on glass slides, spread, fixed and observed under a photomicroscope. The images were analysed and measures of sperm were made. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test to detect differentiation among taxa...
January 24, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106921/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-impregnated-curtains-in-experimental-hen-houses-as-a-phlebotomine-control-tool-in-northeast-argentina
#7
M Manteca Acosta, M S Santini, A A Pérez, O D Salomón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated curtains against the entry of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) flies into experimental slatted hen houses in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Three treatments in experimental dwellings containing three chickens each were applied using, respectively, an impregnated curtain (IC), a non-impregnated curtain (NIC) and no curtain (NC). A control site without chickens (WC) was included. The study used permethrin at 0...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106262/phlebotomine-sandfly-ecology-on-the-indian-subcontinent-does-village-vegetation-play-a-role-in-sandfly-distribution-in-bihar-india
#8
D M Poché, R M Poché, S Mukherjee, G A Franckowiak, L N Briley, D J Somers, R B Garlapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Recently, in Bihar, India, considerable sandfly numbers have been recorded outdoors in village vegetation, which suggests that IRS may control only a portion of the population...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106260/first-report-of-stegomyia-aegypti-%C3%A2-aedes-aegypti-in-mexico-city-mexico
#9
P Kuri-Morales, F Correa-Morales, C González-Acosta, G Sánchez-Tejeda, E Dávalos-Becerril, M Fernanda Juárez-Franco, A Díaz-Quiñonez, H Huerta-Jimenéz, M D Mejía-Guevara, M Moreno-García, J F González-Roldán
Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a species of mosquito that is currently widespread in Mexico. Historically, the mosquito has been distributed across most tropical and subtropical areas lower than 1700 m a.s.l. Currently, populations that are found at higher altitudes in regions with cold and dry climates suggest that these conditions do not limit the colonization and population growth of S. aegypti. During a survey of mosquitoes in September 2015, larvae of S. aegypti mosquitoes were found in two different localities in Mexico City, which is located at about 2250 m a...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976815/high-relative-abundance-of-the-stable-fly-stomoxys-calcitrans-is-associated-with-lumpy-skin-disease-outbreaks-in-israeli-dairy-farms
#10
E Kahana-Sutin, E Klement, I Lensky, Y Gottlieb
The vector of lumpy skin disease (LSD), a viral disease affecting Bovidae, is currently unknown. To evaluate the possible vector of LSD virus (LSDV) under field conditions, a yearlong trapping of dipterans was conducted in dairy farms that had been affected by LSD, 1-2 years previously. This was done in order to calculate monthly relative abundances of each dipteran in each farm throughout the year. The relative abundances of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in the months parallel to the outbreaks (December and April) were significantly higher than those of other dipterans...
December 15, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966215/behavioural-responses-of-ixodes-ricinus-nymphs-to-carbon-dioxide-and-rodent-odour
#11
G VAN Duijvendijk, G Gort, H Sprong, W Takken
Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer...
December 14, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935088/shifts-in-the-distribution-of-ixodid-ticks-parasitizing-cattle-in-zimbabwe
#12
M Sungirai, E N Abatih, D Z Moyo, P De Clercq, M Madder
In an attempt to update information on the ecological distribution of ixodid ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Zimbabwe, a cross-sectional survey was carried out between September 2013 and May 2015 at 322 dip tanks. A total of 15 tick species were collected, namely: Amblyomma hebraeum Koch (65.2%, n = 210/322), Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (14.9%, n = 48/322), Hyalomma rufipes Koch (62.4%, n = 201/322), Hyalomma truncatum Koch (37.9%, n = 122/322), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (60.6%, n = 195/322), Rhipicephalus compositus Neumann (0...
December 9, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#13
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910105/molecular-screening-of-leishmania-spp-infection-and-bloodmeals-in-sandflies-from-a-leishmaniasis-focus-in-southwestern-turkey
#14
M Karaku Ş, M Pekağ Irba Ş, S Demir, H Eren, S Töz, Y Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879002/a-study-of-culicoides-in-rond%C3%A3-nia-in-the-brazilian-amazon-species-composition-relative-abundance-and-potential-vectors
#15
L P C Carvalho, A M Pereira Júnior, E S Farias, J F Almeida, M S Rodrigues, F Resadore, F A C Pessoa, J F Medeiros
There is very little information available about Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the western Brazilian Amazon. However, studies of the fauna of this region are essential to knowledge of the species and potential vectors within it. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the abundance, richness and composition of Culicoides species in rural areas in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Culicoides specimens were collected in forest and pasture environments in the municipality of Porto Velho, using light traps...
November 23, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859488/first-report-of-amitraz-and-cypermethrin-resistance-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-infesting-dogs-in-mexico
#16
R I Rodriguez-Vivas, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martinez, M E Bolio-González
Engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were collected from dogs in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Fourteen tick populations were collected from dogs at seven veterinary clinics, four residential homes and three cattle farms. The larval immersion test was used in the progeny of collected adult females to test susceptibility to amitraz and cypermethrin. Dose-mortality regressions, 50% lethal concentrations (LC50 ), confidence intervals and slope were estimated by probit analysis...
November 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859424/prevalence-of-keds-on-city-dogs-in-central-poland
#17
R Sokół, R Gałęcki
The aim of this study was to identify the species of ked infesting dogs in the cities of central Poland. A total of 510 dogs were observed between June and September 2015. The presence of keds was noted in 182 (35.7%) animals. Keds were more prevalent in female (38.0%) than in male (33.2%) dogs, and were more frequently found in animals younger than 1 year (46.2%) and in long-haired dogs (36.6%). The body areas most heavily colonized by keds were the groin (35.4%) and neck (21.4%). A total of 904 keds were isolated from dogs, including Hippobosca equina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (17...
November 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862092/assessment-of-the-anti-feeding-and-insecticidal-effects-of-the-combination-of-dinotefuran-permethrin-and-pyriproxyfen-vectra-%C3%A2-3d-against-triatoma-infestans-on-rats
#18
D Tahir, B Davoust, M Varloud, J-M Berenger, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
This study, based on the rat model, was designed to explore the anti-feeding and insecticidal efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen (DPP), against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), for which dogs are domestic reservoir hosts. Twenty rats were divided into two equal groups: untreated and treated. Each rat was exposed under sedation to 16 T. infestans of mixed life stages for 1 h on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-treatment...
November 9, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804140/hypoderma-actaeon-an-emerging-myiasis-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#19
R Panadero, G Varas, G Pajares, F Markina, C López, P Díaz, A Pérez-Creo, A Prieto, P Díez-Baños, P Morrondo
Subcutaneous larvae of Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) were detected in the dorsal region in 10 roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), hunted in central Spain between January and March 2016. All larvae were found in the inner side of the hide during the skinning of the animals. The study of the morphological features of eight larvae of different stages collected from two animals allowed the identification of Hypoderma actaeon Brauer. The small size (4-5 mm) of some of the first instars suggests that the internal lifecycle of H...
November 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800630/essential-oils-enhance-the-toxicity-of-permethrin-against-aedes-aegypti-and-anopheles-gambiae
#20
A D Gross, E J Norris, M J Kimber, L C Bartholomay, J R Coats
Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality...
November 1, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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