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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P Lobbia, J Calcagno, G Mougabure-Cueto
Pyrethroid resistance has been detected in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from different areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Genes conferring resistance can have a pleiotropic effect with epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. This research studied excretion/defecation patterns in deltamethrin-resistant T. infestans in order to elucidate its biological performance, adaptive consequences and role in the transmission of Chagas' disease. One deltamethrin-susceptible strain and two deltamethrin-resistant strains were used...
February 12, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Wagner, V Guidi, P R Torgerson, A Mathis, F Schaffner
Pathogens of medical or veterinary significance that are transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are (re-)emerging in Europe [e.g. West Nile virus (WNV), Dirofilaria nematodes]. Little is known about the spatiotemporal abundances of mosquito species in Switzerland. Therefore, mosquito population dynamics were investigated, focusing on areas of risk for sylvatic or synanthropic transmission, such as natural sites and suburban sites on either side of the Alpine crest. Repeated collections were made using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps, juvenile sampling and ovitrapping...
February 9, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Camarda, N Pugliese, A Bevilacqua, E Circella, L Gradoni, D George, O Sparagano, A Giangaspero
Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) is the most harmful ectoparasite of laying hens, represents an occupational hazard for poultry workers, and a growing threat to medical science per se. There is increasing demand for alternative products, including plant-derived acaricides, with which to control the mite. The present study investigated the efficacy of neem oil against D. gallinae on a heavily infested commercial laying hen farm. A novel formulation of 20% neem oil, diluted from a 2400-p.p...
February 8, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T N J J Nepomichene, F N Raharimalala, S F Andriamandimby, J-P Ravalohery, A-B Failloux, J-M Heraud, S Boyer
Culex antennatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis were found to be infected with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) during an epidemic that occurred in 2008 and 2009 in Madagascar. To understand the roles played by Cx. antennatus and An. coustani in virus maintenance and transmission, RVFV vector competence was assessed in each species. Mosquito body parts and saliva of mosquitoes that fed on RVFV-infected blood were tested for RVFV using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays...
January 31, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D Lamattina, J M Venzal, S A Costa, J P Arrabal, S Flores, P E Berrozpe, D González-Acuña, A A Guglielmone, S Nava
An ecological analysis of a tick (Ixodida: Ixodidae) community across a landscape gradient presenting differential anthropogenic disturbance in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina was performed. Ticks were collected from vegetation and hosts between September 2014 and August 2016. A total of 12 697 free-living ticks and 3347 specimens from hosts were collected, including 317 ticks infesting humans. The values obtained show considerable species diversity in the forest environment accompanied by low equitability...
January 25, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C-A Chivers, H Rose Vineer, R Wall
Outbreaks of ovine psoroptic mange in the U.K. have increased 100-fold since its deregulation in 1992, with the highest prevalence in Wales, a region of high sheep density. A cross-sectional, retrospective, questionnaire-based survey of 7500 members of the association of Welsh lamb and beef farmers [Welsh Lamb and Beef Producers Ltd (WLBP)] was used to investigate the prevalence and distribution of sheep scab in this region in 2015. The survey was completed by 14.0% (n = 972) of potential respondents. Scab outbreaks were reported on 15...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Calzetta, E Perugini, G Seixas, C A Sousa, W M Guelbeogo, N Sagnon, A Della Torre, J Pinto, M Pombi, E Mancini
Sensitive techniques for the detection of Plasmodium (Aconoidasida: Plasmodiidae) sporozoites in field-collected malaria vectors are essential for the correct assessment of risk for malaria transmission. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol targeting Plasmodium mtDNA proved to be much more sensitive in detecting sporozoites in mosquitoes than the widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeting Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP-ELISA). However, because of the relatively high costs associated with equipment and reagents, RT-PCRs are mostly used to assess the outcomes of experimental infections in the frame of research experiments, rather than in routine monitoring of mosquito infection in the field...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L Lempereur, C Sohier, F Smeets, F Maréchal, D Berkvens, M Madder, F Francis, B Losson
The dispersion potential of mechanical vectors is an important factor in the dissemination of pathogens. A mark-release-recapture experiment was implemented using two groups (unfed and partially fed) of the Tabanidae (Diptera) (Haematopota spp.) and biting Muscidae (Diptera) (Stomoxys calcitrans) most frequently collected in Belgium in order to evaluate their dispersion potential. In total, 2104 specimens of Haematopota spp. were collected directly from horses and 5396 S. calcitrans were collected in a cattle farm using hand-nets...
January 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T Lilja, K Troell, H Kirik, A Lindström
The floodwater mosquito Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Culicidae) is common in several areas of Sweden and is predicted to become more abundant in the wake of expected changes in precipitation and temperature caused by climate change. As well as being a nuisance, Ae. vexans can act as a vector of over 30 viruses. In the event of an outbreak of disease caused by a vector-borne virus, knowledge of the distribution, population structure and intermixing of populations from different locations will help direct resources to target locations to prevent spread of the pathogen...
January 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A G de la Filia, S Andrewes, J M Clark, L Ross
Insect reproduction is extremely variable, but the implications of alternative genetic systems are often overlooked in studies on the evolution of insecticide resistance. Both ecotypes of Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), the human head and body lice, are human ectoparasites, the control of which is challenged by the recent spread of resistance alleles. The present study conclusively establishes for the first time that both head and body lice reproduce through paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual genetic system in which males transmit only their maternally derived chromosomes...
December 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S E El-Kholy, I M El-Husseiny, W S Meshrif, A Abou El-Azm, M L Salem
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health burden in several countries. Although transmission through blood is the most likely potential route of HCV infection, other sources warrant exploration. This study was designed to examine the possibility that the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) might serve as a vector of HCV. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in female Cx. pipiens that were fed on blood taken from HCV patients and tested for the presence of HCV RNAs using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique...
December 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D A Yee, R Dejesus-Crespo, F F Hunter, F Bai
The epidemic of Zika in the Western hemisphere has led to intense investigations of all species important in the transmission of Zika virus (ZikV), including putative mosquito vectors. Although evidence points to Stegomyia (= Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes as the primary vectors in nature among humans, there remains the possibility that other common mosquito species may be implicated in the rapid spread of the virus. Herein, field-caught Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during June 2016 in different neighbourhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico were examined for the presence of natural infection with ZikV...
December 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E A Szelag, J R Rosa, M G Quintana, O D Salomon
Migonemyia migonei is the predominant species in the dry ecoregion and Nyssomyia neivai in the humid region, although co-dominance in humid highly modified areas could be observed. Vector abundance seems to be modulated by environmental anthropization, as the abundance and predominance of Ny. neiviai and Mg. migonei increased in highly modified areas. In Humid Chaco, the risk of human-vector contact would be present throughout the year, being particularly high in spring/summer, and in Dry Chaco, the risk would be restricted to temperate and humid months...
December 5, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C Barceló, M A Miranda
This research contributes to knowledge of the basic bionomic parameters of vector and non-vector Culicoides species. Field-collected gravid C. imicola and Obsoletus complex showed the longest lifespans in laboratory conditions. Culicoides paolae and C. circumscriptus seemed to be the most suitable species for laboratory rearing in view of their high oviposition rates, short lifecycles, long adult lifespans and female-biased sex ratios.
December 4, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Fletcher, D Baines
Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks are of economic and pathogenic importance across Europe. Within the uplands of the U.K., management to reduce ticks is undertaken to benefit red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica (Galliformes: Phasianidae). Management strategies focus on the acaricide treatment of domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), but the effectiveness of this is less certain in the presence of wild hosts, particularly red deer Cervus elaphus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and mountain hare Lepus timidus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)...
November 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Vazeille, J-S Dehecq, A-B Failloux
La Réunion Island has been the scene of unusually large epidemics of dengue and chikungunya viruses with Aedes albopictus as the sole vector. After experimental oral infection, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion Island can disseminate both dengue and chikungunya viruses but not the Asian genotype of Zika virus, suggesting a strong midgut barrier to dissemination. Autochthonous transmission of the Asian genotype of Zika virus is improbable on La Réunion Island.
November 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M S Santini, M S Fernández, R Cavia, O D Salomón
The aim of this work was to study the distribution of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psycodidade) abundance in time and space in an area in northeastern Argentina with vector transmission of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. For this, 51 households were selected using a 'worst scenario' criterion where one light trap was set during two consecutive nights in peridomiciles in the transitions between the four seasons, and the environment was surveyed simultaneously. The relationships of phlebotomine assemblage structure and the most abundant species with seasonality and environmental variables were evaluated using a canonical correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed models, respectively...
November 27, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P A Kuri-Morales, F Correa-Morales, C González-Acosta, M Moreno-Garcia, R Santos-Luna, S Román-Pérez, F Salazar-Penagos, M Lombera-González, G Sánchez-Tejeda, J F González-Roldán
In Mexico, mosquito vector-borne diseases are of public health concern as a result of their impact on human morbidity and mortality. The use of insecticides against adult mosquitoes is one of the most common ways of controlling mosquito population densities. However, the use of these compounds has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. The aim of this study was to estimate susceptibility to six pyrethroids, two carbamates and two organophosphates in Mexican populations of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes...
November 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L F Parizi, A Ali, L Tirloni, D P Oldiges, G A Sabadin, M L Coutinho, A Seixas, C Logullo, C Termignoni, I da Silva Vaz
Peptidase inhibitors regulate a wide range of physiological processes involved in the interaction between hematophagous parasites and their hosts, including tissue remodeling, the immune response and blood coagulation. In tick physiology, peptidase inhibitors have a crucial role in adaptation to improve parasitism mechanisms, facilitating blood feeding by interfering with defense-related host peptidases. Recently, a larger number of studies on this topic led to the description of several new tick inhibitors displaying interesting novel features, for example a role in pathogen transmission to the host...
November 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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