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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

J Nziza, J C Tumushime, M Cranfield, A E Ntwari, D Modrý, A Mudakikwa, K Gilardi, J Šlapeta
Fleas (Siphonaptera) are ubiquitous blood-sucking parasites that transmit a range of vector-borne pathogens. The present study examined rodents (n = 29) and domestic dogs (n = 7) living in the vicinity of the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, for fleas, identified flea species from these hosts, and detected Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) DNA. The most frequently encountered flea on rodents was Xenopsylla brasiliensis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). In addition, Ctenophthalmus (Ethioctenophthalmus) calceatus cabirus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were determined using morphology and sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes (cox1 and cox2, respectively)...
November 3, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
R Barrera, M Amador, V Acevedo, M Beltran, J L Muñoz
In Puerto Rico, the first records of the transmission of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses were confirmed in May 2014 and December 2015, respectively. Transmission of CHIKV peaked in September 2014, whereas that of ZIKV peaked in August 2016. The emergence of these mosquito-transmitted arboviruses in the context of a lack of human population immunity allowed observations of whether the outbreaks were associated with Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) densities and weather. Mosquito density was monitored weekly in four communities using sentinel autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) during 2016 in order to provide data to be compared with the findings of a previous study carried out during the 2014 CHIKV epidemic...
September 17, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P E Berrozpe, D Lamattina, M S Santini, A V Araujo, S E Torrusio, O D Salomón
The spatiotemporal population dynamics of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) were evaluated in a city in Argentina in which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Over 14 sampling sessions, 5244 specimens of five species of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) were captured, of which 2458 (46.87%) specimens were L. longipalpis. Generalized linear models were constructed to evaluate the associations between L. longipalpis abundance and explanatory variables derived from satellite images...
September 9, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Eastwood, A A Cunningham, L D Kramer, S J Goodman
Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the U.S.A., was first detected on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the 1980s. However, little is known of its ecology, distribution or capacity for arbovirus transmission in the Galápagos. We characterize details of lifecycle (including gonotrophic period), temporal abundance, spatial distribution, vector competence and host-feeding behaviour. Culex quinquefasciatus was detected on five islands of the Galápagos during 2006-2011...
August 31, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L K Eneh, U Fillinger, A K Borg Karlson, G Kuttuva Rajarao, J Lindh
A better understanding of the oviposition behaviour of malaria vectors might facilitate the development of new vector control tools. However, the factors that guide the aquatic habitat selection of gravid females are poorly understood. The present study explored the relative attractiveness of similar artificial ponds (0.8 m2 ) aged at varying lengths prior to opening in such a way that wild Anopheles arabiensis could choose between ponds that were freshly set up, or were aged 4 or 17 days old, to lay eggs...
August 31, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N Pugliese, E Circella, M Marino, C De Virgilio, G Cocciolo, P Lozito, M A Cafiero, A Camarda
Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae, De Geer, 1778) is an ectoparasite of poultry, suspected to play a role as a vector of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Gallinarum. Despite an association between them being reported, the actual dynamics in field remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm the interactions among mites, pathogen and chickens. The study was carried out in an industrial poultry farm infested by D. gallinae, during an outbreak of fowl typhoid. The presence of S...
August 30, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Klobučar, I Lipovac, N Žagar, S Mitrović-Hamzić, V Tešić, T Vilibić-Čavlek, E Merdić
Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) has recently established across North America and Central Europe. A 3-year survey was conducted in northwestern Croatian regions from 2013 to 2015 using mosquito ovitraps at possible points of entry and house yards, occasionally complemented by larval collections from cemetery vases. In the first year, the survey investigated the county bordering Slovenia, where the first detection of Ae. j. japonicus had taken place on 28 August 2013. During the next 2 years, Ae...
August 25, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L G Brito, F S Barbieri, R B Rocha, A P L Santos, R R Silva, E S Ribeiro, F Guerrero, L Foil, M C S Oliveira
Pesticides are used worldwide to control arthropod parasites in cattle herds. The indiscriminate and/or inappropriate use of pesticides without veterinary guidance is a reality in several countries of South America. Improper pesticide use increases the chances of contamination of food and the environment with chemical pesticides and their metabolites. Reduction of these contamination events is an increasing challenge for those involved in livestock production. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most economically important parasites affecting cattle herds around the world...
August 20, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J M Medlock, K M Hansford, A G C Vaux, B Cull, M E Pietzsch, E L Gillingham, N Johnson, L P Phipps
The red sheep tick, Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae), has been reported as present in the U.K. for more than a century; however, very little has been written about its distribution. In recent years, numbers of detections of this tick species reported to the Public Health England (PHE) Tick Surveillance Scheme have increased. This rise in the number of records may be attributable to increased tick surveillance activities or to the increased distribution of this species of tick in parts of England. This paper reviews published reports of H...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J A Martínez-Ibarra, Y Grant-Guillén, B Nogueda-Torres, M E Villagrán-Herrera, J A de Diego-Cabrera, R Bustos-Saldaña
Chagas disease is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Latin America, including Mexico. Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a Mexican triatomine vector that is commonly associated with hens and rabbits. The biological parameters of two cohorts fed on hens (H) and on rabbits (R) were evaluated. The median lifecycles of the two cohorts were 198 days (H) and 180 days (R). Moreover, mortality was around 30% in both cohorts. Time lapse for beginning of feeding was 0...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Brustolin, C Santamaria, S Napp, M Verdún, R Rivas, N Pujol, S Talavera, N Busquets
Dengue virus (DENV) has re-emerged in Europe driven by the geographic expansion of the mosquito species Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and the introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers. In the present study, the vector competence (VC) of Ae. albopictus collected in Catalonia (northeast Spain) was evaluated for two different DENV strains, DENV-1 and DENV-2, the serotypes responsible for all outbreaks of dengue that have occurred in Europe. Mosquitoes were reared under environmental conditions mimicking the mean temperature and humidity recorded in July on the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Sanchez, M Lareschi, J Salazar-Bravo, S L Gardner
The flea genus Neotyphloceras Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) includes five species and two subspecies distributed from Venezuela to southern Chile and Argentina. Only Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan has been registered in Bolivia. The present study examines species of Neotyphloceras collected in Bolivian localities in the Departments of La Paz, Cochabamba and Tarija, and describes the morphology of the modified abdominal segments in males and females of Neotyphloceras rosenbergi Rothschild on the basis of type material and specimens collected from Tarija...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E L Estallo, F Sangermano, M Grech, F Ludueña-Almeida, M Frías-Cespedes, M Ainete, W Almirón, T Livdahl
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is an urban mosquito involved in the transmission of numerous viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In Argentina, Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue virus and has been involved in several outbreaks in regions ranging from northern to central Argentina since 2009. In order to evaluate areas of potential vector-borne disease transmission in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, the present study aimed to identify the environmental, socioeconomic and demographic factors driving the distribution of Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Wiggins, B Eastmond, B W Alto
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus present in Central and South America that causes arthralgia and febrile illness. Domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of MAYV that may allow for transmission to humans in urban settings. The present paper assesses susceptibility to infection, disseminated infection and transmission potential in Florida Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for MAYV. Oral infection was significantly higher in Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T T C Minuzzi-Souza, L R Silva, L Hagström, M Hecht, N Nitz, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
The identification of bloodmeal sources in triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is important in understanding vector-host associations and in measuring the risk for Chagas' disease transmission. The bloodmeal sources of triatomines infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) caught in houses in central Brazil (Goiás State and the Federal District) were investigated during 2012-2014. Mitochondrial cytochrome b amplicons were used to identify bloodmeals through high-resolution melting and DNA sequencing...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K H Toe, P Müller, A Badolo, A Traore, N Sagnon, R K Dabiré, H Ranson
Malaria control is dependent on the use of longlasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) containing pyrethroids. A new generation of LLINs containing both pyrethroids and the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) has been developed in response to increasing pyrethroid resistance in African malaria vectors, but questions remain about the performance of these nets in areas where levels of pyrethroid resistance are very high. This study was conducted in two settings in southwest Burkina Faso, Vallée du Kou 5 and Tengrela, where Anopheles gambiae s...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
I B Machado, K Bitencourth, K M Cardoso, S V Oliveira, M Santalucia, S F F Marques, M Amorim, G S GazêTa
The Brazilian state of Goiás, untouched by spotted fever (SF) until 2012, has subsequently reported cases of the disease in several regions. This study aimed to survey the diversity of potential vectors and rickettsia in areas of Goiás under environmental surveillance or case investigation for SF. Collected specimens were assayed with molecular biology technology using DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of fragments of the genes gltA, ompA, ompB and sca4 to detect rickettsia in ticks and fleas. Amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit II and 16S rRNA was performed to assist tick identification...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Sanz-Aguilar, R Rosselló, M Bengoa, M Ruiz-Pérez, M González-Calleja, C Barceló, D Borrás, C Paredes-Esquivel, M A Miranda, G Tavecchia
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), is a highly invasive species and a vector of several viruses of serious concern to public health. Investigating the habitat selection of this species at small to medium scales is essential to the planning of effective prevention and control campaigns. The present group considered detailed data for this species' presence/absence collected at 228 sites on Mallorca Island (Spain) in autumn 2015, 3 years after the first detection of the species on the island...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G J Venter, S N B Boikanyo, C J De Beer
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a range of orbiviruses that cause important veterinary diseases such as bluetongue and African horse sickness. The effective monitoring of Culicoides species diversity and abundance, both at livestock and near potential wildlife hosts, is essential for risk management. The Onderstepoort 220-V ultraviolet (UV) light trap is extensively used for this purpose. Reducing its power requirements by fitting low-energy light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can lead to greater flexibility in monitoring...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J A Amadi, G O Ong'amo, D O Olago, S O Oriaso, I K Nyamongo, B B A Estambale
Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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