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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

Y A Derua, S C Kahindi, F W Mosha, E J Kweka, H E Atieli, G Zhou, M-C Lee, A K Githeko, G Yan
The microbial larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) are well known for their efficacy and safety in mosquito control. In order to assess their potential value in future mosquito control strategies in western Kenya, the current study tested the susceptibility of five populations of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), collected from five diverse ecological sites in this area, to Bti and Bs under laboratory conditions...
January 9, 2019: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G Arias-Robledo, J R Stevens, R Wall
Calliphorid blowflies perform an essential ecosystem service in the consumption, recycling and dispersion of carrion nutrients and are considered amongst the most important functional groups in an ecosystem. Some species are of economic importance as facultative agents of livestock myiasis. The interspecific ecological differences that facilitate coexistence within the blowfly community are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to quantify differences in habitat use by calliphorid species. Thirty traps were distributed among three habitats at two sites in southwest England for collections made during March-August 2016...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S A Zanzani, E Pintore, E Olivieri, N Columbano, A Scanu, V Melosu, E Sanna Passino, G Careddu, A L Gazzonis, M T Manfredi, G Garippa
The Sardinian coloured donkey Equus asinus (Perissodactyla: Equidae) and its albino colour morph represent the wildlife species most typical of the island of Asinara. This Mediterranean island represents a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases; however, knowledge of the tick fauna on Asinara is scarce. A total of 106 Sardinian donkeys were inspected for tick infestation from June to November 2015. All ticks found were collected, classified by stage and sex, and identified to species level. The level of infestation of each donkey was determined; both the overall tick infestation and infestations of each detected species were classified on a scale of 1-3 to give an infestation score (IS)...
December 19, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S S Sahu, T Sonia, S Dash, K Gunasekaran, P Jambulingam
Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been reported in different districts of Odisha state (east central India) since 1992. During 2016, a major outbreak of JE and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) occurred in the Malkangiri district of Odisha, causing 103 deaths in children, of which 37 were caused by JE and 66 by AES. Information on insecticide resistance in JE vectors is important for the selection of appropriate insecticides for use in vector control. The present study was designed to determine the resistance status of three important vectors of JE, Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex bitaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion and deltamethrin in three districts of Odisha state affected by JE...
December 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Zurita, R Djeghar, R Callejón, C Cutillas, P Parola, M Laroche
Flea identification is a significant issue because some species are considered as important vectors of several human pathogens that have emerged or re-emerged recently, such as Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) and Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been evaluated in recent years for the identification of multicellular organisms, including arthropods. A preliminary study corroborated the usefulness of this technique for the rapid identification of fleas, creating a preliminary database containing the spectra of five species of flea...
December 5, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
H-Y Tzeng, H-H Wu, L-J Ting, N-T Chang, Y-C Chou, W-C Tu
In current sampling approaches, there exists a divergence between the surveillance of arthropod-borne and that of non-arthropod-borne viruses. It is commonly held that the collection of vector specimens applies only to arbovirus surveillance and that the surveillance of non-arboviruses must rely on traditional methods that involve the sampling of blood, faeces or saliva, or other examinations. The vector-based approach is a sampling method that has the ability to survey both arboviruses and non-arboviruses by distinguishing engorged vector specimens from entire vector samples...
November 28, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Ogrzewalska, C Machado, T Rozental, D Forneas, L E Cunha, E R S de Lemos
Knowledge about ticks (Acari) and screening of ticks parasitizing various hosts are necessary to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate tick infestations on snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes) arriving at the serpentarium at the Institute Vital Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Some of the identified ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), Borrelia (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Coxiella (Legionellales: Coxiellaceae), Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae), Ehrlichia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Apicomplexa protozoa of the genera Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) and Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae)...
November 28, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Andreani, P Sacchetti, A Belcari
Hippoboscidae flies parasitize various animal species. Knowledge about these insects remains sparse, although they are known to cause stress and damage to their hosts, and can also accidentally infest humans, causing different sanitary risks. Research conducted in Tuscany assessing the biology and distribution of Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), the most common ectoparasite of ungulates in Italy, revealed the presence of Lipoptena fortisetosa Maa, 1965 in Italy for the first time. This study includes a morphological comparative description of L...
November 26, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E C Heym, H Kampen, M Schäfer, D Walther
Because they provide a high density and diversity of vertebrate species, small water pools and shaded environments, zoological gardens offer ideal living conditions for numerous mosquito species. Depending on their host preferences and vector competencies, these species may be able to transmit pathogens between native and non-adapted exotic blood host species, thereby causing morbidity and mortality among valuable zoo animals. To determine the extent to which native mosquito species feed on captive and wild animals, as well as on humans, in two German zoological gardens, mosquitoes were collected over two seasons by trapping and aspirating...
November 25, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Desquesnes, S Onju, P Chalermwong, S Jittapalapong, R Masmeatathip
Tabanids, stomoxyine flies, hippoboscids and tsetse flies are the most well-known brachyceran biting flies of livestock. Only a few other higher Diptera have developed the unique mouthparts required for blood feeding. These neglected blood feeders can also have direct effects on hosts through blood loss, and are likely to contribute to the transmission of pathogens. Musca crassirostris (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most abundant of the muscid flies with this haematophagous lifestyle; it is widespread in the Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Oriental regions...
November 21, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Risueño, T Spitzová, L J Bernal, C Muñoz, M C López, M C Thomas, J J Infante, P Volf, E Berriatua
A 2-year longitudinal study of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) sandfly saliva was performed in 32 Beagle dogs treated preventively with an imidacloprid-permethrin topical insecticide in an endemic area in Spain. Dogs were grouped into three sandfly exposure groups according to the time of inclusion in the study. Assays analysed immunoglobulin G (IgG) against salivary gland homogenates (SGH) of both species and recombinant P...
November 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A Ibañez-Justicia, P M Poortvliet, C J M Koenraadt
In several reported cases of the entry of invasive mosquito species (IMSs) into Europe, the introduction was associated with a specific pathway of introduction or dispersal. The identification of potential pathways for the introduction of IMSs and evaluations of the importance of the different pathways are key to designing proper surveillance strategies to promptly detect and control introductions in non-infested areas. The main goals of the present study were to identify other, previously undocumented, pathways of introduction into Europe, and to identify mosquito experts' perceptions regarding control measures against IMS introductions via different documented pathways...
November 14, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Nziza, J C Tumushime, M Cranfield, A E Ntwari, D Modrý, A Mudakikwa, K Gilardi, J Šlapeta
Fleas (Siphonaptera) are ubiquitous blood-sucking parasites that transmit a range of vector-borne pathogens. The present study examined rodents (n = 29) and domestic dogs (n = 7) living in the vicinity of the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, for fleas, identified flea species from these hosts, and detected Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) DNA. The most frequently encountered flea on rodents was Xenopsylla brasiliensis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). In addition, Ctenophthalmus (Ethioctenophthalmus) calceatus cabirus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were determined using morphology and sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes (cox1 and cox2, respectively)...
November 3, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J M Medlock, K M Hansford, A G C Vaux, B Cull, M E Pietzsch, E L Gillingham, N Johnson, L P Phipps
The red sheep tick, Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae), has been reported as present in the U.K. for more than a century; however, very little has been written about its distribution. In recent years, numbers of detections of this tick species reported to the Public Health England (PHE) Tick Surveillance Scheme have increased. This rise in the number of records may be attributable to increased tick surveillance activities or to the increased distribution of this species of tick in parts of England. This paper reviews published reports of H...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J A Martínez-Ibarra, Y Grant-Guillén, B Nogueda-Torres, M E Villagrán-Herrera, J A de Diego-Cabrera, R Bustos-Saldaña
Chagas disease is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Latin America, including Mexico. Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis (Stål), 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a Mexican triatomine vector that is commonly associated with hens and rabbits. The biological parameters of two cohorts fed on hens (H) and on rabbits (R) were evaluated. The median lifecycles of the two cohorts were 198 days (H) and 180 days (R). Moreover, mortality was around 30% in both cohorts. Time lapse for beginning of feeding was 0...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Brustolin, C Santamaria, S Napp, M Verdún, R Rivas, N Pujol, S Talavera, N Busquets
Dengue virus (DENV) has re-emerged in Europe driven by the geographic expansion of the mosquito species Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and the introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers. In the present study, the vector competence (VC) of Ae. albopictus collected in Catalonia (northeast Spain) was evaluated for two different DENV strains, DENV-1 and DENV-2, the serotypes responsible for all outbreaks of dengue that have occurred in Europe. Mosquitoes were reared under environmental conditions mimicking the mean temperature and humidity recorded in July on the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
J Sanchez, M Lareschi, J Salazar-Bravo, S L Gardner
The flea genus Neotyphloceras Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) includes five species and two subspecies distributed from Venezuela to southern Chile and Argentina. Only Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan has been registered in Bolivia. The present study examines species of Neotyphloceras collected in Bolivian localities in the Departments of La Paz, Cochabamba and Tarija, and describes the morphology of the modified abdominal segments in males and females of Neotyphloceras rosenbergi Rothschild on the basis of type material and specimens collected from Tarija...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E L Estallo, F Sangermano, M Grech, F Ludueña-Almeida, M Frías-Cespedes, M Ainete, W Almirón, T Livdahl
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is an urban mosquito involved in the transmission of numerous viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In Argentina, Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue virus and has been involved in several outbreaks in regions ranging from northern to central Argentina since 2009. In order to evaluate areas of potential vector-borne disease transmission in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, the present study aimed to identify the environmental, socioeconomic and demographic factors driving the distribution of Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Wiggins, B Eastmond, B W Alto
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus present in Central and South America that causes arthralgia and febrile illness. Domestic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of MAYV that may allow for transmission to humans in urban settings. The present paper assesses susceptibility to infection, disseminated infection and transmission potential in Florida Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for MAYV. Oral infection was significantly higher in Ae...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
T T C Minuzzi-Souza, L R Silva, L Hagström, M Hecht, N Nitz, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
The identification of bloodmeal sources in triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is important in understanding vector-host associations and in measuring the risk for Chagas' disease transmission. The bloodmeal sources of triatomines infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) caught in houses in central Brazil (Goiás State and the Federal District) were investigated during 2012-2014. Mitochondrial cytochrome b amplicons were used to identify bloodmeals through high-resolution melting and DNA sequencing...
December 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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