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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429824/application-of-an-embryonated-chicken-egg-model-to-assess-the-vector-competence-of-australian-culicoides-midges-for-bluetongue-viruses
#1
M R VAN DER Saag, M P Ward, P D Kirkland
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of Australian Culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of BTV. A total of 7393 Culicoides brevitarsis were reared from bovine dung, and 3364 Culicoides were induced to feed from ECEs infected with different strains of BTV...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429373/dietary-shifts-have-consequences-for-the-repertoire-of-allergens-produced-by-the-european-house-dust-mite
#2
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, S Rombauts, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
Products manufactured from mass-cultured house dust mites, currently commercialized for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy, are heterogeneous in terms of allergen composition and thus present concerns to regulatory authorities. The most abundant species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), produces 19 allergenic proteins. Many of these are putatively involved in mite digestive physiology and metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mite-rearing media on allergen production...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426182/usefulness-and-accuracy-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-as-a-supplementary-tool-to-identify-mosquito-vector-species-and-to-invest-in-development-of-international-database
#3
F N Raharimalala, T M Andrianinarivomanana, A Rakotondrasoa, J M Collard, S Boyer
Arthropod-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The identification of vector species relies mainly on morphological features and/or molecular biology tools. The first method requires specific technical skills and may result in misidentifications, and the second method is time-consuming and expensive. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness and accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a supplementary tool with which to identify mosquito vector species and to invest in the creation of an international database...
April 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421653/permethrin-and-malathion-ld90-values-for-culex-quinquefasciatus-vary-with-topical-application-site
#4
R L Aldridge, P E Kaufman, J R Bloomquist, S A Gezan, K J Linthicum
Prior research in multiple insect species has demonstrated that insecticide-induced mortality varies according to the body region exposed on the insect. This variation has been demonstrated in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), but has not been quantified using dose-response curves. Applications of technical permethrin or malathion to one of three body regions on Cx. quinquefasciatus resulted in dose-response curves that were not equivalent to one another. The generated LD90 values and curves for each body region were compared with previously reported LD values for analogous sites in several mosquito species, specifically the mesothorax...
April 19, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419493/distribution-of-the-tick-dermacentor-reticulatus-in-the-united-kingdom
#5
J M Medlock, K M Hansford, A G C Vaux, B Cull, S Abdullah, M E Pietzsch, R Wall, N Johnson, L P Phipps
The recent implication of Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in the transmission of canine babesiosis in the U.K. has highlighted the lack of accurate published data on its distribution in this country. This paper aims to collate and appraise historical data for D. reticulatus, to supplement such data with more recent surveillance data and to report on field sampling conducted during 2009-2016. These updated data facilitate better understanding of the current distribution of this tick in the U.K., which will better inform disease risk assessments...
April 17, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407282/vector-competence-and-innate-immune-responses-to-dengue-virus-infection-in-selected-laboratory-and-field-collected-stegomyia-aegypti-%C3%A2-aedes-aegypti
#6
I M Serrato, P A Caicedo, Y Orobio, C Lowenberger, C B Ocampo
Control of dengue virus (DenV) transmission, primarily based on strategies to reduce populations of the principle vector Stegomya aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae), is difficult to sustain over time. Other potential strategies aim to manipulate characteristics such as vector competence (VC), the innate capacity of the vector to transmit the virus. Previous studies have identified genetic factors, including differential expression of apoptosis-related genes, associated with the refractory and susceptible phenotypes in selected strains of S...
April 13, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402593/a-new-method-for-the-production-of-sterile-colonies-of-lucilia-sericata
#7
N E Gasz, M L Harvey
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) refers to the use of blowfly larvae to clean or debride an infected wound. Most commonly, larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are used, and are sterilized prior to use to ensure no further bacterial infections are introduced during treatment. Current methods sterilize eggs from laboratory-reared blowfly colonies, after which sterile early second instar maggots can be provided to hospitals for use in treatment. Maggots not required for treatment are used for colony regeneration, in which sterility is not maintained...
April 12, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369993/description-of-pintomyia-salomoni-sp-n-a-new-phlebotomine-species-from-northwest-argentina
#8
A D Fuenzalida, M G Quintana
A new species of phlebotomine sandfly is described and illustrated using male and female specimens collected in the provinces of Jujuy and Tucumán, Argentina. Both male and female morphological characters allow the inclusion of the new species within the Pintomyia genus, Pifanomyia subgenus, serrana series (Diptera: Psychodidae). The species was denominated as Pintomyia salomoni n. sp., and is closely related to Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) torresi and Pintomyia (Piffanomyia) boliviana.
March 31, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370147/morphology-and-dna-barcoding-reveal-three-species-in-one-description-of-culicoides-cryptipulicaris-sp-nov-and-culicoides-quasipulicaris-sp-nov-in-the-subgenus-culicoides
#9
S Talavera, F Muñoz-Muñoz, M Verdún, N Pagès
Species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are well known for their importance in the field of medical and veterinary entomology. Culicoides spp. transmit a wide variety of pathogens, primarily viruses that affect animals and humans. In Europe, the most economically important disease transmitted by Culicoides is bluetongue (BT). Culicoides spp. have been recently involved as primary vectors for Schmallenberg disease. The taxonomy within the subgenus Culicoides has been historically difficult and reorganizations have been proposed regularly...
March 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256734/francisella-tularensis-prevalence-and-load-in-dermacentor-reticulatus-ticks-in-an-endemic-area-in-central-europe
#10
Z Hubálek, I Rudolf
A total of 7778 host-seeking adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks were examined for the prevalence of Francisella tularensis holarctica (Thiotrichales: Francisellaceae) in a natural focus of tularaemia in the floodplain forest-meadow ecosystem along the lower reaches of the Dyje (Thaya) river in South Moravia (Czech Republic) between 1995 and 2013. Ticks were pooled (10 specimens per pool) and their homogenates inoculated subcutaneously in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free mice. Dead mice were sectioned, their spleens cultivated on thioglycollate-glucose-blood agar and impression smears from the spleen, liver and heart blood were Giemsa-stained...
March 3, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165138/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-s-l-from-the-western-iberian-peninsula
#11
C Almeida, R Simões, M J Coimbra-Dores, F Rosa, D Dias
Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (1806) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is considered to be the most widely distributed tick and to have a vast range of habitats and hosts, including livestock, pets and wildlife. In addition to morphological differences, recent investigations using approaches based on molecular genetic markers have revealed the existence of different R. sanguineus lineages in different geographic regions. In this study, 475 ticks collected from dogs in the western Iberian peninsula were studied both morphologically and genetically, using 12S and 16S rDNA and COI gene markers in order to clarify the controversy over the systematic status of R...
February 6, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150885/blood-feeding-of-ornithodoros-turicata-larvae-using-an-artificial-membrane-system
#12
H J Kim, S Filatov, J E Lopez, A A Pérez DE León, P D Teel
An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata (Ixodida: Argasidae) larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and moulting to the first nymphal instar were evaluated. A total of 55.6% of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two experimental groups fed to repletion and 98.0% of all fed larvae moulted. Mortality rates of first instar nymphs differed significantly depending on the sorting tools used to handle engorged larvae (χ(2)  = 35...
February 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150865/shifts-in-the-ecological-niche-of-lutzomyia-peruensis-under-climate-change-scenarios-in-peru
#13
D A Moo-Llanes, W Arque-Chunga, O Carmona-Castro, C Yañez-Arenas, H H Yañez-Trujillano, L Cheverría-Pacheco, C M Baak-Baak, A G Cáceres
The Peruvian Andes presents a climate suitable for many species of sandfly that are known vectors of leishmaniasis or bartonellosis, including Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae), among others. In the present study, occurrences data for Lu. peruensis were compiled from several items in the scientific literature from Peru published between 1927 and 2015. Based on these data, ecological niche models were constructed to predict spatial distributions using three algorithms [Support vector machine (SVM), the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt)]...
February 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145576/differences-in-competitive-ability-for-the-occupancy-of-shelters-in-triatomines
#14
C A Zacharias, S A Minoli, G Manrique
Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) are nocturnal blood-sucking insects. During daylight hours they remain in an akinetic state inside their shelters, whereas at dusk they become active and move outside. When they are outside their shelters during the photophase, triatomines are vulnerable to diurnal predators and the period just before dawn is critical to their survival. This work analyses the existence of competitive interactions involved in the occupancy of shelters by triatomines. Behavioural assays were performed in which nymphs of different stages, nutritional status or species were released in an experimental arena containing a space-limited artificial shelter...
February 1, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976815/high-relative-abundance-of-the-stable-fly-stomoxys-calcitrans-is-associated-with-lumpy-skin-disease-outbreaks-in-israeli-dairy-farms
#15
E Kahana-Sutin, E Klement, I Lensky, Y Gottlieb
The vector of lumpy skin disease (LSD), a viral disease affecting Bovidae, is currently unknown. To evaluate the possible vector of LSD virus (LSDV) under field conditions, a yearlong trapping of dipterans was conducted in dairy farms that had been affected by LSD, 1-2 years previously. This was done in order to calculate monthly relative abundances of each dipteran in each farm throughout the year. The relative abundances of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in the months parallel to the outbreaks (December and April) were significantly higher than those of other dipterans...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966215/behavioural-responses-of-ixodes-ricinus-nymphs-to-carbon-dioxide-and-rodent-odour
#16
G VAN Duijvendijk, G Gort, H Sprong, W Takken
Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#17
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910105/molecular-screening-of-leishmania-spp-infection-and-bloodmeals-in-sandflies-from-a-leishmaniasis-focus-in-southwestern-turkey
#18
M Karaku Ş, M Pekağ Irba Ş, S Demir, H Eren, S Töz, Y Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862092/assessment-of-the-anti-feeding-and-insecticidal-effects-of-the-combination-of-dinotefuran-permethrin-and-pyriproxyfen-vectra-%C3%A2-3d-against-triatoma-infestans-on-rats
#19
D Tahir, B Davoust, M Varloud, J-M Berenger, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
This study, based on the rat model, was designed to explore the anti-feeding and insecticidal efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen (DPP), against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), for which dogs are domestic reservoir hosts. Twenty rats were divided into two equal groups: untreated and treated. Each rat was exposed under sedation to 16 T. infestans of mixed life stages for 1 h on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-treatment...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117913/quality-control-of-a-medicinal-larval-lucilia-sericata-debridement-device-based-on-released-gelatinase-activity
#20
S F Pickles, D I Pritchard
Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae are manufactured worldwide for the treatment of chronic wounds. Published research has confirmed that the primary clinical effect of the product, debridement (the degradation of non-viable wound tissue), is accomplished by a range of enzymes released by larvae during feeding. The quality assessment of larval activity is currently achieved during production using meat-based assays, which monitor insect growth and/or the reduction in substrate mass. To support this, the present authors developed a complementary radial diffusion enzymatic assay to produce a visual and measureable indication of the activity of larval alimentary products (LAP) collected under standardized conditions, against a gelatin substrate...
January 24, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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