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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906572/culex-torrentium-mosquitoes-from-germany-are-negative-for-wolbachia
#1
M Leggewie, R Krumkamp, M Badusche, A Heitmann, S Jansen, J Schmidt-Chanasit, E Tannich, S C Becker
Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) infects a wide range of arthropods, including several mosquito species. The bacterium is known to induce a plethora of phenotypes in its host, examples being the reproductive phenotype cytoplasmic incompatibility or resistance against infection with arboviruses. The latter is especially relevant when assessing the vector competence of mosquito species for emerging arboviruses. Thus, knowledge of Wolbachia infection status is important for the assessment of vector competence...
September 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892179/behavioural-and-electrophysiological-responses-of%C3%A2-triatoma-dimidiata-nymphs-to-conspecific-faecal-volatiles
#2
Z Galvez-Marroquin, L Cruz-López, E A Malo, J M Ramsey, J C Rojas
The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3-5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10-15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts...
September 11, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887895/impact-of-climate-change-on-vector-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-chagas-1909-in-north-america
#3
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857300/ecological-and-physiological-thermal-niches-to-understand-distribution-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in%C3%A2-latin-america
#4
G J DE LA Vega, P E Schilman
In order to assess how triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), Chagas disease vectors, are distributed through Latin America, we analysed the relationship between the ecological niche and the limits of the physiological thermal niche in seven species of triatomines. We combined two methodological approaches: species distribution models, and physiological tolerances. First, we modelled the ecological niche and identified the most important abiotic factor for their distribution. Then, thermal tolerance limits were analysed by measuring maximum and minimum critical temperatures, upper lethal temperature, and 'chill-coma recovery time'...
August 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857265/revealing-potential-bridge-vectors-for-btv-and-sbv-a-study-on-culicoides-blood-feeding-preferences-in-natural-ecosystems-in-spain
#5
S Talavera, F Muñoz-Muñoz, M Verdún, N Pujol, N Pagès
Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens, such as the bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses, which cause important diseases in domestic and wild ruminants. As wild ruminants can contribute to overwintering and epizootics of both diseases, knowledge of the host-feeding behaviour of Culicoides in natural ecosystems is important to better understand their epidemiology. Blood-engorged Culicoides females trapped in natural areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species were genetically analysed to identify host species...
August 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846148/prevalence-and-distribution-of-borrelia-and-babesia-species-in-ticks-feeding-on-dogs-in-the-u-k
#6
S Abdullah, C Helps, S Tasker, H Newbury, R Wall
Ticks were collected during March-July 2015 from dogs by veterinarians throughout the U.K. and used to estimate current prevalences and distributions of pathogens. DNA was extracted from 4750 ticks and subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis to identify Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) and Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) species. Of 4737 ticks [predominantly Ixodes ricinus Linneaus (Ixodida: Ixodidae)], B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 94 (2.0%). Four Borrelia genospecies were identified: Borrelia garinii (41...
August 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846145/development-of-a-genetic-sexing-strain-of-anopheles-arabiensis-for-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#7
L C Dandalo, G Munhenga, M L Kaiser, L L Koekemoer
An efficient sexing system is important for the release of sterile males for any control programme using the sterile insect technique. This study describes the development and characterization of a new genetic sexing strain from South Africa (GMK), needed for the planned implementation of such a programme in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province. The base colony used was a locally modified laboratory strain of Anopheles arabiensis containing a sex-linked gene conferring dieldrin resistance to male mosquitoes. Female A...
August 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842922/surveillance-of-biting-midges-culicoides-spp-in-northern-ireland-influence-of-seasonality-surrounding-habitat-and-livestock-housing
#8
S Jess, G M Thompson, S Clawson, I W N Forsythe, I Rea, A W Gordon, A K Murchie
Biting midges, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are important vectors of viral pathogens. Following the outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 in Europe between 2006 and 2009, many Culicoides surveillance programmes were initiated to identify vector-active periods, in accordance with European Commission regulation 2007/1266/EC. This study utilized surveillance data from 4 years of continuous light-trapping at 14 sites in Northern Ireland. The number of captured Culicoides varied from none during the vector-free period (December-April) to more than 36 000 per night during peak activity in the summer...
August 26, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833269/indoor-and-outdoor-winter-activity-of-culicoides-biting-midges-vectors-of-bluetongue-virus-in-italy
#9
A Magliano, P Scaramozzino, S Ravagnan, F Montarsi, G DA Rold, G Cincinelli, A Moni, P Silvestri, A Carvelli, C DE Liberato
Indoor and outdoor winter activity of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in central Italy was investigated in order to evaluate whether indoor activity might account for the overwintering of bluetongue virus, as has been hypothesized by some authors. Weekly Culicoides collections were performed at three farms over three consecutive winter seasons. At each farm, two black-light traps were operated simultaneously, indoors and outdoors. Culicoides were identified using both morphological and molecular means...
August 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833391/identification-of-stable-fly-attractant-compounds-in-vinasse-a-byproduct-of-sugarcane-ethanol-distillation
#10
N S Jelvez Serra, H F Goulart, M F Triana, S Dos Santos Tavares, C I M Almeida, J G DA Costa, A E G Santana, J J Zhu
The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields...
August 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833280/acaricidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-syzygium-aromaticum-hydrolate-and-eugenol-formulated-or-free-on-larvae-and-engorged-females-of-rhipicephalus-microplus
#11
F M Ferreira, C C Delmonte, T L P Novato, C M O Monteiro, E Daemon, F M P Vilela, M P H Amaral
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the most important ectoparasite in cattle-breeding areas and is responsible for severe economic losses. Synthetic acaricides have been used to control this parasite. However, the need for safer products has stimulated the search for new acaricides, such as those to be obtained from medicinal plants. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has many biological properties and shows great potential for use in veterinary applications...
August 18, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815634/effect-of-trapping-methods-on-the-estimation-of-alpha-diversity-of-a-phlebotomine-sandfly-assemblage-in-southern-mexico
#12
J J Rodríguez-Rojas, E A Rebollar-Téllez
The aims of the study were to (a) investigate the effect of trapping methods on alpha diversity; and (b) enhance the knowledge of the sandfly assemblage in the state of Quintana Roo. Field work was undertaken in a tropical forest of southern Mexico from August 2013 to July 2014. Sampling was conducted monthly during three consecutive nights. For each trapping night, 12 different types of trap were operated from 18.00 to 24.00 hours in four transects. Measures of alpha community diversity were based on the quantification of the number of species (Chao 2, Jackknife 2, Clench's equation, Margalef's index) and the community structure, as well as the dominance (Simpson and Berger-Parker indexes) and evenness (Shannon's entropy index, true diversity of the Jost and Pielou index)...
August 17, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815682/molecular-evidence-for-trans-stadial-transmission-of-anaplasma-platys-by-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-under-field-conditions
#13
M Aktas, S Ozubek
This study investigated the transmission of Anaplasma platys by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Engorged nymphs (n = 404) removed from A. platys-infected dogs were incubated at 28 °C until moulting. Unfed adults were obtained and divided into 48 pools. Unfed ticks collected from the grounds of the dog shelter, comprising 1800 larvae (n = 18 pools), 3100 nymphs (n = 62 pools) and 85 adults (n = 10 pools, including three male and seven female pools) were sorted into 90 pools. All pools were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the 16S rRNA gene of A...
August 16, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799248/molecular-detection-of-wolbachia-pipientis-in-natural-populations-of-sandfly-vectors-of-leishmania-infantum-in-endemic-areas-first-detection-in-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#14
N O DA Rocha, S M Lambert, A G Dias-Lima, F S Julião, B M P S Souza
A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to screen sandflies for infection with Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont found in many arthropods and filarial hosts. Positive results were obtained in five of 200 field-collected sandflies and were confirmed by sequencing. All sandflies were Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) captured in a region endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This is the first study to identify Wolbachia infection in this Lutzomyia species, which is the main vector of leishmaniasis in the study area...
August 11, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782121/rift-valley-fever-virus-and-european-mosquitoes-vector-competence-of-culex-pipiens-and-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus
#15
M Brustolin, S Talavera, A Nuñez, C Santamaría, R Rivas, N Pujol, M Valle, M Verdún, A Brun, N Pagès, N Busquets
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Rift Valley fever affects a large number of species, including human, and has severe impact on public health and the economy, especially in African countries. The present study examined the vector competence of three different European mosquito species, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758) form molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex pipiens hybrid form and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae)...
August 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771771/studies-on-the-behaviour-and-control-of-phlebotomine-sandflies-using-experimental-houses
#16
O D Kirstein, R Faiman, A Knigin, H Gueta, A Stone, A Warburg
Programmes for the control of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of leishmaniases, mainly target adults because larval breeding sites are generally unknown or inaccessible. To determine how blood-questing sandfly females enter homes and to develop means for their control, an experimental house (EH) was constructed in a village endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Initially, carbon dioxide (CO2 )-baited suction traps were installed inside the EH to attract and capture sandflies. For other experiments, the windows of the EH were fitted with CO2 -baited window entrance traps (WETs) that allow each window to be considered as a separate unit...
August 3, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766724/a-methodology-based-on-insecticide-impregnated-filter-paper-for-monitoring-resistance-to-deltamethrin-in-triatoma-infestans-field-populations
#17
C Remón, P Lobbia, E Zerba, G Mougabure-Cueto
The domiciliary presence of Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) after control interventions was reported in recent years. Toxicological studies showed high levels of resistance to pyrethroids suggesting resistance as one of the main causes of deficient control. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol to test resistance to deltamethrin in T. infestans collected from the field by discriminate concentration. To evaluate field insects, the effect of age (early vs. later) and nutritional state (starved vs...
August 2, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752684/amblyomma-sculptum-genetic-diversity-and-rickettsias-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-biome
#18
K Bitencourth, M Amorim, S V DE Oliveira, R L Caetano, C M Voloch, G S Gazêta
Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888 is the most important tick vector in Brazil, transmitting the bioagent of the most severe form of spotted fever (SF) in part of the Cerrado (in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo). In another part of the Cerrado (Central-West region of Brazil), a milder form of SF has been recorded. However, neither the rickettsia nor the vector involved have been characterized. The aim of the current study was to analyse genetic variation and the presence of rickettsia in A...
July 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752627/vector-competence-of-northern-and-southern-european-culex-pipiens-pipiens-mosquitoes-for-west-nile-virus-across-a-gradient-of-temperatures
#19
C B F Vogels, G P Göertz, G P Pijlman, C J M Koenraadt
In Europe, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have been limited to southern and central European countries. However, competent mosquito vectors and susceptible bird hosts are present in northern Europe. Differences in temperature and vector competence of mosquito populations may explain the absence of WNV outbreaks in northern Europe. The aim of the present study was to directly compare vector competence of northern and southern European Culex pipiens (Cx. p.) pipiens mosquitoes for WNV across a gradient of temperatures...
July 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752548/insecticide-resistance-associated-mechanisms-and-fitness-aspects-in-two-brazilian-stegomyia-aegypti-%C3%A2-aedes-aegypti-populations
#20
P F Viana-Medeiros, D F Bellinato, A J Martins, D Valle
In Brazil, insecticide resistance in Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to pyrethroids and to the organophosphate (OP) temephos is disseminated. Currently, insect growth regulators (IGRs) and the OP malathion are employed against larvae and adults, respectively. Bioassays with mosquitoes from two northeast municipalities, Crato and Aracaju, revealed, in both populations, susceptibility to IGRs and malathion (RR95  ≤ 2.0), confirming the effectiveness of these compounds...
July 28, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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