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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#1
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910105/molecular-screening-of-leishmania-spp-infection-and-bloodmeals-in-sandflies-from-a-leishmaniasis-focus-in-southwestern-turkey
#2
M Karaku Ş, M Pekağ Irba Ş, S Demir, H Eren, S Töz, Y Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879002/a-study-of-culicoides-in-rond%C3%A3-nia-in-the-brazilian-amazon-species-composition-relative-abundance-and-potential-vectors
#3
L P C Carvalho, A M Pereira Júnior, E S Farias, J F Almeida, M S Rodrigues, F Resadore, F A C Pessoa, J F Medeiros
There is very little information available about Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the western Brazilian Amazon. However, studies of the fauna of this region are essential to knowledge of the species and potential vectors within it. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the abundance, richness and composition of Culicoides species in rural areas in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Culicoides specimens were collected in forest and pasture environments in the municipality of Porto Velho, using light traps...
November 23, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859488/first-report-of-amitraz-and-cypermethrin-resistance-in-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato-infesting-dogs-in-mexico
#4
R I Rodriguez-Vivas, M M Ojeda-Chi, I Trinidad-Martinez, M E Bolio-González
Engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were collected from dogs in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. Fourteen tick populations were collected from dogs at seven veterinary clinics, four residential homes and three cattle farms. The larval immersion test was used in the progeny of collected adult females to test susceptibility to amitraz and cypermethrin. Dose-mortality regressions, 50% lethal concentrations (LC50 ), confidence intervals and slope were estimated by probit analysis...
November 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859424/prevalence-of-keds-on-city-dogs-in-central-poland
#5
R Sokół, R Gałęcki
The aim of this study was to identify the species of ked infesting dogs in the cities of central Poland. A total of 510 dogs were observed between June and September 2015. The presence of keds was noted in 182 (35.7%) animals. Keds were more prevalent in female (38.0%) than in male (33.2%) dogs, and were more frequently found in animals younger than 1 year (46.2%) and in long-haired dogs (36.6%). The body areas most heavily colonized by keds were the groin (35.4%) and neck (21.4%). A total of 904 keds were isolated from dogs, including Hippobosca equina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) (17...
November 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862092/assessment-of-the-anti-feeding-and-insecticidal-effects-of-the-combination-of-dinotefuran-permethrin-and-pyriproxyfen-vectra-%C3%A2-3d-against-triatoma-infestans-on-rats
#6
D Tahir, B Davoust, M Varloud, J-M Berenger, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
This study, based on the rat model, was designed to explore the anti-feeding and insecticidal efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen (DPP), against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), for which dogs are domestic reservoir hosts. Twenty rats were divided into two equal groups: untreated and treated. Each rat was exposed under sedation to 16 T. infestans of mixed life stages for 1 h on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-treatment...
November 9, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804140/hypoderma-actaeon-an-emerging-myiasis-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#7
R Panadero, G Varas, G Pajares, F Markina, C López, P Díaz, A Pérez-Creo, A Prieto, P Díez-Baños, P Morrondo
Subcutaneous larvae of Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) were detected in the dorsal region in 10 roe deer, Capreolus capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), hunted in central Spain between January and March 2016. All larvae were found in the inner side of the hide during the skinning of the animals. The study of the morphological features of eight larvae of different stages collected from two animals allowed the identification of Hypoderma actaeon Brauer. The small size (4-5 mm) of some of the first instars suggests that the internal lifecycle of H...
November 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800630/essential-oils-enhance-the-toxicity-of-permethrin-against-aedes-aegypti-and-anopheles-gambiae
#8
A D Gross, E J Norris, M J Kimber, L C Bartholomay, J R Coats
Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality...
November 1, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790728/flea-species-infesting-dogs-in-spain-updated-spatial-and-seasonal-distribution-patterns
#9
R Gálvez, A Montoya, R Checa, O Martín, V Marino, G Miró
This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11...
October 28, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781284/effects-of-four-commercial-fungal-formulations-on-mortality-and-sporulation-in-house-flies-musca-domestica-and-stable-flies-stomoxys-calcitrans
#10
E N I Weeks, E T Machtinger, S A Gezan, P E Kaufman, C J Geden
The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies...
October 26, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775162/first-record-of-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus-in-morocco-a-major-threat-to-public-health-in-north%C3%A2-africa
#11
A Bennouna, T Balenghien, H El Rhaffouli, F Schaffner, C Garros, L Gardès, Y Lhor, S Hammoumi, G Chlyeh, O Fassi Fihri
The Asian tiger mosquito Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Asian forests, is a nuisance mosquito and is responsible for the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. It has colonized parts of all continents, except Antarctica, over the past 30-40 years. However, to date, the only records of S. albopicta in North Africa refer to occasional collections in 2010 and 2014 in Algeria. In early September 2015, S...
October 24, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770452/cuticle-hydrolysis-in-four-medically-important-fly-species-by-enzymes-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-conidiobolus-coronatus
#12
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759176/acaricidal-activity-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-isolated-from-paddocks-in-the-mexican-tropics-against-two-populations-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus
#13
A Fernández-Salas, M A Alonso-Díaz, R A Alonso-Morales, R Lezama-Gutiérrez, J C Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J A Cervantes-Chávez
The acaricidal effects of 55 strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, 1883 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) isolated from paddocks of cattle farms were evaluated in two Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini 1887) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) populations, of which one was multi-resistant and one was susceptible to chemical acaricides. Percentage mortality and reproductive efficiency indices in R. microplus were evaluated by adult immersion tests at a dose of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL for each fungal strain. Some strains were selected to calculate lethal concentrations to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 99% (LC99 ) of engorged ticks...
October 19, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759165/mosquitoes-of-field-and-forest-the-scale-of-habitat-segregation-in-a-diverse-mosquito-assemblage
#14
M H Reiskind, R H Griffin, M S Janairo, K A Hopperstad
Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found...
October 19, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753118/relationships-between-altitude-triatomine-triatoma-dimidiata-immune-response-and-virulence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-the-causal-agent-of-chagas-disease
#15
J A DE Fuentes-Vicente, M Cabrera-Bravo, J N Enríquez-Vara, M I Bucio-Torres, A E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, D G Vidal-López, J A Martínez-Ibarra, P M Salazar-Schettino, A Córdoba-Aguilar
Little is known about how the virulence of a human pathogen varies in the environment it shares with its vector. This study focused on whether the virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), the causal agent of Chagas' disease, is related to altitude. Accordingly, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens were collected at three different altitudes (300, 700 and 1400 m a.s.l.) in Chiapas, Mexico. The parasite was then isolated to infect uninfected T. dimidiata from the same altitudes, as well as female CD-1 mice...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753116/effects-of-domestic-chemical-stressors-on-expression-of-allergen-genes-in-the-european-house-dust-mite
#16
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, B N Lambrecht, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
The expression of allergen genes in house dust mites is influenced by temperature and relative humidity, but little is known of the impacts of other environmental factors that may alter the repertoire of allergens released by mites in home microhabitats. Bioassays were conducted in concave microscope slides in combination with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to analyse gene expression of 17 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) exposed to three chemical stressors that can be present in domestic environments...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747901/population-dynamics-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-in-a-subtropical-subhumid-region-of-argentina-for-use-in-the-design-of-control-strategies
#17
J T Canevari, A J Mangold, A A Guglielmone, S Nava
The population dynamics of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in northwest Argentina was analysed to support the design of strategic methods for its control. Both parasitic and non-parasitic phases were studied. The seasonal activity of R. microplus in its parasitic phase was characterized by three peaks in abundance: the first in mid-late spring; the second in summer, and the third in autumn. The non-parasitic phase of R. microplus was characterized by a long total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from mid-summer to early autumn, a short total non-parasitic period observed after exposures of females from late winter to late spring, a short period of larval longevity in early and mid-summer, and no hatch of the eggs produced by females exposed in mid- and late autumn and winter...
October 16, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718267/the-recombinant-protein-rsp03b-is-a-valid-antigen-for-screening-dog-exposure-to-phlebotomus-perniciosus-across-foci-of-canine-leishmaniasis
#18
T Kostalova, T Lestinova, C Maia, P Sumova, M Vlkova, L Willen, N Polanska, E Fiorentino, A Scalone, G Oliva, F Veronesi, J M Cristóvão, O Courtenay, L Campino, L Gradoni, M Gramiccia, P Volf
The frequency of sandfly-host contacts can be measured by host antibody levels against sandfly salivary proteins. Recombinant salivary proteins are suggested to represent a valid replacement for salivary gland homogenate (SGH); however, it is necessary to prove that such antigens are recognized by antibodies against various populations of the same species. Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of Leishmania infantum (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) in southwest Europe and is widespread from Portugal to Italy...
October 8, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699814/impact-of-white-tailed-deer-on-the-spread-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#19
A Roome, L Hill, V Al-Feghali, C G Murnock, J A Goodsell, R Spathis, R M Garruto
There is a public perception that the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. This study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of Borrelia in adult Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the black-legged tick, collected from white-tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguous counties west of the Hudson Valley in upstate New York...
October 4, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677531/demographic-effects-of-deltamethrin-resistance-in-the-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-infestans
#20
M D Germano, M I Picollo
Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. Resistance to deltamethrin was reported in Argentina and recently associated with reproductive and longevity trade-offs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the demographic consequences of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans and to establish possible target stages for chemical control in susceptible and resistant colonies. A stage-classified matrix model was constructed based on the average stage length for susceptible, resistant and reciprocal matings' progeny...
September 28, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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