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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722283/comparative-analysis-of-storage-conditions-and-homogenization-methods-for-tick-and-flea-species-for-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms
#1
A Nebbak, B El Hamzaoui, J-M Berenger, I Bitam, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months...
July 19, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714569/seasonal-dynamics-of-the-tick-haemaphysalis-tibetensis-in-the-tibetan-plateau-china
#2
M Liu, T Li, Z J Yu, Z X Qiu, P Yan, Y Li, J Liu
The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis (Acari: Ixodidae) Hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. The current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic H. tibetensis over a 2-year period from March 2014 to February 2016 in the Tibetan Plateau, China. During this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and parasitic ticks were removed weekly from selected sheep...
July 17, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714540/anti-feeding-and-insecticidal-efficacy-of-a-topical-administration-of-dinotefuran-pyriproxyfen-permethrin-spot-on-vectra%C3%A2-3d-on-mice-against-stegomyia-albopicta-%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus
#3
D Tahir, B Davoust, L Almeras, J M Berenger, M Varloud, P Parola
An ectoparasiticide combining three active ingredients [dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen (DPP)] was used in mice in an experiment designed to evaluate its anti-feeding and insecticidal efficacy against Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Twenty-two adult mice were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of an untreated control group and a DPP-treated group. Mice were exposed individually for 1 h to a mean ± standard deviation of 27 ± 2 starved female mosquitoes on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-treatment...
July 17, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707301/the-role-of-wing-geometric-morphometrics-in-the-identification-of-sandflies-within-the-subgenus-lutzomyia
#4
B F Giordani, A J Andrade, E A B Galati, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
The Lutzomyia subgenus (Diptera: Psychodidae) includes sibling species with morphologically indistinguishable females. The aims of this study were to analyse variations in the size and shape of wings of species within the Lutzomyia subgenus and to assess whether these analyses might be useful in their identification. Wings (n = 733) of 18 species deposited in Brazilian collections were analysed by geometric morphometrics, using other genera and subgenera as outgroups. Shape variation was summarized in multivariate analyses and differences in wing size among species were tested by analysis of variance...
July 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692183/host-range-and-distribution-of-small-mammal-fleas-in-south-africa-with-a-focus-on-species-of-medical-and-veterinary-importance
#5
L VAN DER Mescht, S Matthee
The host range and distribution of flea species on rodents and insectivores across multiple vegetation types in South Africa were investigated. Habitat suitability for flea species considered as important vectors of disease in humans and domestic animals was modelled. Data originated from fleas that were recovered from small mammals captured at 29 localities during 2009-2013 and published literature searched for flea records. Climate-based predictor variables, widely used in arthropod vector distribution, were selected and habitat suitability modelled for 10 flea vector species...
July 10, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685834/molecular-survey-of-haemoplasmas-in-shelter-dogs-and-associations-with-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-sensu-lato
#6
M Aktas, S Ozubek
This study aimed to assess the occurrence of canine haemoplasma infection in domestic dogs and its possible trans-stadial transmission by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in shelter dogs in Diyarbakır Province in southeast Turkey. Blood samples (n = 282) collected from domestic dogs were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of canine haemoplasma. Fully engorged nymphs (n = 204) were removed from dogs that were positive for canine haemoplasma by PCR and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting...
July 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671735/lifecycle-of-rhipicephalus-haemaphysaloides-under-laboratory-conditions
#7
G C P Diyes, D A Apanaskevich, R S Rajakaruna
Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino, 1897 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host hard tick widely distributed in Sri Lanka. The lifecycle of the R. haemaphysaloides population in Sri Lanka was studied under laboratory conditions using fully engorged females collected from dogs. Larvae, nymphs and adults were reared on New Zealand rabbits. Engorged females weighed a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 470.1 ± 106.5 mg and laid a mean ± SD of 4067.4 ± 3136.2 eggs within 16.1 ± 3.7 days...
July 3, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639697/determination-of-metabolic-resistance-mechanisms-in-pyrethroid-resistant-and-fipronil-tolerant-brown-dog-ticks
#8
A L Eiden, P E Kaufman, F M Oi, M J Dark, J R Bloomquist, R J Miller
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its' entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its' control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous studies have confirmed permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in R. sanguineus populations, commonly conferred by metabolic detoxification or target site mutations. Herein, five strains of permethrin-resistant and three strains of fipronil-tolerant ticks were evaluated for metabolic resistance using synergists to block metabolic enzymes...
June 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639690/variation-in-host-preferences-of-malaria-mosquitoes-is%C3%A2-mediated-by-skin-bacterial-volatiles
#9
A O Busula, W Takken, J G DE Boer, W R Mukabana, N O Verhulst
The host preferences of the anthropophilic mosquito species in the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) are mediated by skin bacterial volatiles. However, it is not known whether these mosquitoes respond differentially to skin bacterial volatiles from non-human host species. In this study, the responses of two malaria mosquito species in the An.  gambiae complex, Anopheles gambiae s.s. (hereafter, An. gambiae) and Anopheles arabiensis, with different host preferences, to volatiles released from skin bacteria were tested...
June 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106262/phlebotomine-sandfly-ecology-on-the-indian-subcontinent-does-village-vegetation-play-a-role-in-sandfly-distribution-in-bihar-india
#10
D M Poché, R M Poché, S Mukherjee, G A Franckowiak, L N Briley, D J Somers, R B Garlapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Recently, in Bihar, India, considerable sandfly numbers have been recorded outdoors in village vegetation, which suggests that IRS may control only a portion of the population...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976815/high-relative-abundance-of-the-stable-fly-stomoxys-calcitrans-is-associated-with-lumpy-skin-disease-outbreaks-in-israeli-dairy-farms
#11
E Kahana-Sutin, E Klement, I Lensky, Y Gottlieb
The vector of lumpy skin disease (LSD), a viral disease affecting Bovidae, is currently unknown. To evaluate the possible vector of LSD virus (LSDV) under field conditions, a yearlong trapping of dipterans was conducted in dairy farms that had been affected by LSD, 1-2 years previously. This was done in order to calculate monthly relative abundances of each dipteran in each farm throughout the year. The relative abundances of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in the months parallel to the outbreaks (December and April) were significantly higher than those of other dipterans...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966215/behavioural-responses-of-ixodes-ricinus-nymphs-to-carbon-dioxide-and-rodent-odour
#12
G VAN Duijvendijk, G Gort, H Sprong, W Takken
Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910106/identification-of-semiochemicals-attractive-to-simulium-vittatum-is-7
#13
G G Verocai, T W McGAHA, J P Iburg, C R Katholi, E W Cupp, R Noblet, T R Unnasch
Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910105/molecular-screening-of-leishmania-spp-infection-and-bloodmeals-in-sandflies-from-a-leishmaniasis-focus-in-southwestern-turkey
#14
M Karaku Ş, M Pekağ Irba Ş, S Demir, H Eren, S Töz, Y Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862092/assessment-of-the-anti-feeding-and-insecticidal-effects-of-the-combination-of-dinotefuran-permethrin-and-pyriproxyfen-vectra-%C3%A2-3d-against-triatoma-infestans-on-rats
#15
D Tahir, B Davoust, M Varloud, J-M Berenger, D Raoult, L Almeras, P Parola
This study, based on the rat model, was designed to explore the anti-feeding and insecticidal efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide, dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen (DPP), against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), for which dogs are domestic reservoir hosts. Twenty rats were divided into two equal groups: untreated and treated. Each rat was exposed under sedation to 16 T. infestans of mixed life stages for 1 h on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 post-treatment...
June 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429824/application-of-an-embryonated-chicken-egg-model-to-assess-the-vector-competence-of-australian-culicoides-midges-for-bluetongue-viruses
#16
M R VAN DER Saag, M P Ward, P D Kirkland
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of Australian Culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of BTV. A total of 7393 Culicoides brevitarsis were reared from bovine dung, and 3364 Culicoides were induced to feed from ECEs infected with different strains of BTV...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429373/dietary-shifts-have-consequences-for-the-repertoire-of-allergens-produced-by-the-european-house-dust-mite
#17
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, S Rombauts, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
Products manufactured from mass-cultured house dust mites, currently commercialized for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy, are heterogeneous in terms of allergen composition and thus present concerns to regulatory authorities. The most abundant species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), produces 19 allergenic proteins. Many of these are putatively involved in mite digestive physiology and metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mite-rearing media on allergen production...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426182/usefulness-and-accuracy-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-as-a-supplementary-tool-to-identify-mosquito-vector-species-and-to-invest-in-development-of-international-database
#18
F N Raharimalala, T M Andrianinarivomanana, A Rakotondrasoa, J M Collard, S Boyer
Arthropod-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The identification of vector species relies mainly on morphological features and/or molecular biology tools. The first method requires specific technical skills and may result in misidentifications, and the second method is time-consuming and expensive. The aim of the present study is to assess the usefulness and accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a supplementary tool with which to identify mosquito vector species and to invest in the creation of an international database...
April 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421653/permethrin-and-malathion-ld90-values-for-culex-quinquefasciatus-vary-with-topical-application-site
#19
R L Aldridge, P E Kaufman, J R Bloomquist, S A Gezan, K J Linthicum
Prior research in multiple insect species has demonstrated that insecticide-induced mortality varies according to the body region exposed on the insect. This variation has been demonstrated in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), but has not been quantified using dose-response curves. Applications of technical permethrin or malathion to one of three body regions on Cx. quinquefasciatus resulted in dose-response curves that were not equivalent to one another. The generated LD90 values and curves for each body region were compared with previously reported LD values for analogous sites in several mosquito species, specifically the mesothorax...
April 19, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419493/distribution-of-the-tick-dermacentor-reticulatus-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
J M Medlock, K M Hansford, A G C Vaux, B Cull, S Abdullah, M E Pietzsch, R Wall, N Johnson, L P Phipps
The recent implication of Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in the transmission of canine babesiosis in the U.K. has highlighted the lack of accurate published data on its distribution in this country. This paper aims to collate and appraise historical data for D. reticulatus, to supplement such data with more recent surveillance data and to report on field sampling conducted during 2009-2016. These updated data facilitate better understanding of the current distribution of this tick in the U.K., which will better inform disease risk assessments...
April 17, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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