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Medical and Veterinary Entomology

S E El-Kholy, I M El-Husseiny, W S Meshrif, A Abou El-Azm, M L Salem
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health burden in several countries. Although transmission through blood is the most likely potential route of HCV infection, other sources warrant exploration. This study was designed to examine the possibility that the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) might serve as a vector of HCV. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in female Cx. pipiens that were fed on blood taken from HCV patients and tested for the presence of HCV RNAs using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique...
December 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
D A Yee, R Dejesus-Crespo, F F Hunter, F Bai
The epidemic of Zika in the Western hemisphere has led to intense investigations of all species important in the transmission of Zika virus (ZikV), including putative mosquito vectors. Although evidence points to Stegomyia (= Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes as the primary vectors in nature among humans, there remains the possibility that other common mosquito species may be implicated in the rapid spread of the virus. Herein, field-caught Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected during June 2016 in different neighbourhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico were examined for the presence of natural infection with ZikV...
December 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E A Szelag, J R Rosa, M G Quintana, O D Salomon
Migonemyia migonei is the predominant species in the dry ecoregion and Nyssomyia neivai in the humid region, although co-dominance in humid highly modified areas could be observed. Vector abundance seems to be modulated by environmental anthropization, as the abundance and predominance of Ny. neiviai and Mg. migonei increased in highly modified areas. In Humid Chaco, the risk of human-vector contact would be present throughout the year, being particularly high in spring/summer, and in Dry Chaco, the risk would be restricted to temperate and humid months...
December 5, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C Barceló, M A Miranda
This research contributes to knowledge of the basic bionomic parameters of vector and non-vector Culicoides species. Field-collected gravid C. imicola and Obsoletus complex showed the longest lifespans in laboratory conditions. Culicoides paolae and C. circumscriptus seemed to be the most suitable species for laboratory rearing in view of their high oviposition rates, short lifecycles, long adult lifespans and female-biased sex ratios.
December 4, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
K Fletcher, D Baines
Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks are of economic and pathogenic importance across Europe. Within the uplands of the U.K., management to reduce ticks is undertaken to benefit red grouse Lagopus lagopus scotica (Galliformes: Phasianidae). Management strategies focus on the acaricide treatment of domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), but the effectiveness of this is less certain in the presence of wild hosts, particularly red deer Cervus elaphus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and mountain hare Lepus timidus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae)...
November 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Vazeille, J-S Dehecq, A-B Failloux
La Réunion Island has been the scene of unusually large epidemics of dengue and chikungunya viruses with Aedes albopictus as the sole vector. After experimental oral infection, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion Island can disseminate both dengue and chikungunya viruses but not the Asian genotype of Zika virus, suggesting a strong midgut barrier to dissemination. Autochthonous transmission of the Asian genotype of Zika virus is improbable on La Réunion Island.
November 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M S Santini, M S Fernández, R Cavia, O D Salomón
The aim of this work was to study the distribution of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psycodidade) abundance in time and space in an area in northeastern Argentina with vector transmission of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. For this, 51 households were selected using a 'worst scenario' criterion where one light trap was set during two consecutive nights in peridomiciles in the transitions between the four seasons, and the environment was surveyed simultaneously. The relationships of phlebotomine assemblage structure and the most abundant species with seasonality and environmental variables were evaluated using a canonical correspondence analysis and generalized linear mixed models, respectively...
November 27, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
P A Kuri-Morales, F Correa-Morales, C González-Acosta, M Moreno-Garcia, R Santos-Luna, S Román-Pérez, F Salazar-Penagos, M Lombera-González, G Sánchez-Tejeda, J F González-Roldán
In Mexico, mosquito vector-borne diseases are of public health concern as a result of their impact on human morbidity and mortality. The use of insecticides against adult mosquitoes is one of the most common ways of controlling mosquito population densities. However, the use of these compounds has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance. The aim of this study was to estimate susceptibility to six pyrethroids, two carbamates and two organophosphates in Mexican populations of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes...
November 22, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
L F Parizi, A Ali, L Tirloni, D P Oldiges, G A Sabadin, M L Coutinho, A Seixas, C Logullo, C Termignoni, I da Silva Vaz
Peptidase inhibitors regulate a wide range of physiological processes involved in the interaction between hematophagous parasites and their hosts, including tissue remodeling, the immune response and blood coagulation. In tick physiology, peptidase inhibitors have a crucial role in adaptation to improve parasitism mechanisms, facilitating blood feeding by interfering with defense-related host peptidases. Recently, a larger number of studies on this topic led to the description of several new tick inhibitors displaying interesting novel features, for example a role in pathogen transmission to the host...
November 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C Muñoz, J Risueño, A Yilmaz, P Pérez-Cutillas, E Goyena, M Ortuño, L J Bernal, J Ortiz, B Alten, E Berriatua
The spatial and temporal distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911), the sand fly vector of pathogens of public and animal health importance, was investigated in a high sand fly density rural area in Spain using light-attraction and sticky-interception traps. Traps were placed inside animal buildings and outside at increasing distance from animals. A total of 8506 sand flies were collected, 87% with light traps. Species frequency differed between trap types. The abundance of P...
November 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
S Wagner, A Mathis, A C Schönenberger, S Becker, J Schmidt-Chanasit, C Silaghi, E Veronesi
Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald) is an invasive mosquito species in Central Europe, where it has colonized several areas. In this study, field-collected specimens of Ae. japonicus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) from Zürich (Switzerland) were orally exposed to two strains (NY99 and FIN) of the avian zoonotic pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). Dissemination and transmission of the viruses after incubation for 12-15 days under a fluctuating Central European midsummer temperature regime (24 ± 7 °C) was investigated by detection of viral RNA in homogenates of pools of both head/thorax and saliva by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 30, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
E J Kweka, E A Mausa, N Venter, Y A Derua, E E Kimaro, M Coetzee
A hydrolysis probe analysis (TaqMan assay) was used to study clade types in Anopheles funestus sensu stricto Giles, a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, with specimens collected from Muheza in Tanga, northeastern Tanzania. A total of 186 An. funestus specimens were analysed, revealing that 176 (94.6%) were of clade I and 10 (5.4%) of clade II. These findings extend the distribution of clade type II from southern Mozambique and northern Zambia to northeastern Tanzania. The technique used can also be of great value in assessing the role and contribution of these clade types in malaria transmission and insecticide resistance frequencies for An...
October 25, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
C L Culverwell
To successfully implement surveillance or control strategies for mosquitoes, up-to-date knowledge of regional species composition is vital. The last report regarding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Åland archipelago, southwestern Finland listed 19 species (Utrio, 1979). To determine the current species diversity, one collection trip was made to mainland Åland in 2015 and three in 2016. Mosquitoes (n = 3286) were collected as both adult and immature life stages from 88 collections within 29 1-km(2) areas...
October 24, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M Leggewie, R Krumkamp, M Badusche, A Heitmann, S Jansen, J Schmidt-Chanasit, E Tannich, S C Becker
Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) infects a wide range of arthropods, including several mosquito species. The bacterium is known to induce a plethora of phenotypes in its host, examples being the reproductive phenotype cytoplasmic incompatibility or resistance against infection with arboviruses. The latter is especially relevant when assessing the vector competence of mosquito species for emerging arboviruses. Thus, knowledge of Wolbachia infection status is important for the assessment of vector competence...
September 14, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Z Galvez-Marroquin, L Cruz-López, E A Malo, J M Ramsey, J C Rojas
The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3-5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10-15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts...
September 11, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
O Carmona-Castro, D A Moo-Llanes, J M Ramsey
Climate change can influence the geographical range of the ecological niche of pathogens by altering biotic interactions with vectors and reservoirs. The distributions of 20 epidemiologically important triatomine species in North America were modelled, comparing the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt), with or without topographical variables. Potential shifts in transmission niche for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) (Chagas, 1909) were analysed for 2050 and 2070 in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4...
September 9, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
G C P Diyes, D A Apanaskevich, R S Rajakaruna
Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino, 1897 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host hard tick widely distributed in Sri Lanka. The lifecycle of the R. haemaphysaloides population in Sri Lanka was studied under laboratory conditions using fully engorged females collected from dogs. Larvae, nymphs and adults were reared on New Zealand rabbits. Engorged females weighed a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 470.1 ± 106.5 mg and laid a mean ± SD of 4067.4 ± 3136.2 eggs within 16.1 ± 3.7 days. The mean ± SD preoviposition period was 6...
September 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A L Eiden, P E Kaufman, F M Oi, M J Dark, J R Bloomquist, R J Miller
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its' entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its' control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous studies have confirmed permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in R. sanguineus populations, commonly conferred by metabolic detoxification or target site mutations. Herein, five strains of permethrin-resistant and three strains of fipronil-tolerant ticks were evaluated for metabolic resistance using synergists to block metabolic enzymes...
September 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A O Busula, W Takken, J G DE Boer, W R Mukabana, N O Verhulst
The host preferences of the anthropophilic mosquito species in the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) are mediated by skin bacterial volatiles. However, it is not known whether these mosquitoes respond differentially to skin bacterial volatiles from non-human host species. In this study, the responses of two malaria mosquito species in the An. gambiae complex, Anopheles gambiae s.s. (hereafter, An. gambiae) and Anopheles arabiensis, with different host preferences, to volatiles released from skin bacteria were tested...
September 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
M R VAN DER Saag, M P Ward, P D Kirkland
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of a number of globally important arboviruses that affect livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus. In this study, a model using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was utilized to undertake vector competence studies of Australian Culicoides spp. for 13 laboratory-adapted or wild-type virus strains of BTV. A total of 7393 Culicoides brevitarsis were reared from bovine dung, and 3364 Culicoides were induced to feed from ECEs infected with different strains of BTV...
September 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
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