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Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Lance C Visser, Joanna L Kaplan, Satoko Nishimura, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Catherine Bélanger, Maureen S Oldach, Joshua A Stern, Mikaela S Mueller
BACKGROUND: Sotalol is a commonly used antiarrhythmic drug that may alter ventricular function. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sotalol on echocardiographic indices of ventricular systolic function in dogs with ventricular arrhythmias. ANIMALS: Thirty-five client-owned dogs with ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS: Dogs with ventricular arrhythmias (n = 27) had an echocardiogram and 5-minute ECG performed at baseline and 2-4 hours post-sotalol (2-2...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Bart Pardon, Stefaan Ribbens, Lien Van Damme, Lieven Vlaminck, Ann Martens, Piet Deprez
BACKGROUND: Necrotic laryngitis, caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, frequently requires surgical intervention (laryngostomy) in the chronic stage. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine survival until slaughter of cattle surgically treated for necrotic laryngitis and to identify predictors of mortality. ANIMALS: A total of 221 cattle diagnosed with necrotic laryngitis by laryngoscopy and surgically treated METHODS: Retrospective cohort study...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Beatriz Belda, Nicholas Petrovitch, Kyle G Mathews
BACKGROUND: Cribriform lysis has been considered a contraindication for topical treatment of sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) because of concerns about drug extravasation with resultant neurologic signs or death. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To describe dogs with SNA and cribriform plate lysis treated with topical antifungal medications. Our hypothesis was that the conventional dogma that topical therapy should be avoided in these cases is incorrect. ANIMALS: Nine client-owned dogs with SNA and lysis of the cribriform plate, lysis of the floor of a frontal sinus or both detected by computed tomography (CT)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Toby L Pinn, Thomas J Divers, Teresa Southard, Nikhita P De Bernardis, Joe J Wakshlag, Stephanie Valberg
A 12-hours-old Paint filly was examined because of weakness and dull mentation after birth. Despite IV administered dextrose, the foal remained persistently hypoglycemic with increase in serum activity of muscle and liver enzymes. A postmortem diagnosis of lipid myopathy most similar to multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) was confirmed by findings of myofiber lipid accumulation, elevated urine organic acids, and serum free acylcarnitines with respect to control foals. This report details a case of equine neonatal lipid storage myopathy with many biochemical characteristics of MADD...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Florian M Trefz, Ingrid Lorenz, Peter D Constable
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia in neonatal diarrheic calves can potentially result in serious cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. OBJECTIVES: To document electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and the sequence of ECG changes that are associated with increasing plasma potassium concentrations (cK+ ) in a large population of neonatal diarrheic calves. ANIMALS: One hundred and thirty neonatal diarrheic calves (age ≤21 days). METHODS: Prospective observational study involving calves admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Tiffany L Wormhoudt, Mary-Keara Boss, Katharine Lunn, Lynn Griffin, Del Leary, Kristy Dowers, Sangeeta Rao, Susan M LaRue
BACKGROUND: Conventional fractionated radiotherapy has been shown to be partially effective for management of pituitary tumors in cats that cause acromegaly and diabetes mellitus (DM), but, the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) as a treatment for acromegalic cats has not been described. HYPOTHESIS: Stereotactic radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment for controlling acromegaly associated with pituitary adenomas in cats. Additionally, SRT-treated acromegalic cats with DM will experience a decrease in insulin requirements after radiation therapy...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Gustavo F Agne, Seung Woo Jung, Anne A Wooldridge, Susan H Duran, William Ravis, Ramiro Toribio
BACKGROUND: Diuretic treatment is the mainstay for management of congestive heart failure in horses, and its use has been restricted to injectable medications because no currently data supports the use of PO administered loop diuretics. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of PO administered torsemide and, determine if PO administered torsemide, could be used as an alternative to injectable diuretics in the horse. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult mares...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Lindsay Van den Bossche, Frank G van Steenbeek, Maarten F Weber, Bart Spee, Louis C Penning, Freek J van Sluijs, Flin Zomerdijk, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Jan Rothuizen, Iwan A Burgener, Anne Kummeling
BACKGROUND: In dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS), recovery after surgical CPSS attenuation is difficult to predict. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to build a model with plasma albumin concentration and mRNA expression levels of hepatic gene products as predictors of recovery from portosystemic shunting after surgery. ANIMALS: Seventy-three client-owned dogs referred for surgical attenuation of CPSS. METHODS: A prediction model was constructed using 2 case-control studies of recovered and nonrecovered dogs after surgical CPSS attenuation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Roberta Troìa, Marta Gruarin, Chiara Grisetti, Federica Serafini, Luca Magna, Erika Monari, Massimo Giunti, Francesco Dondi
BACKGROUND: The value of fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes to characterize and prognosticate acute kidney injury (AKI) is poorly documented in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic roles of FE of electrolytes in dogs with AKI. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 135) with AKI treated with standard care (February 2014-December 2016). METHODS: Prospective study. Clinical and laboratory variables including FE of electrolytes, were measured upon admission...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Fauna Leah Smith, Johanna L Watson, Sharon J Spier, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Samantha Mapes, Claudia Sonder, Nicola Pusterla
BACKGROUND: Imported horses that have undergone recent long distance transport might represent a serious risk for spreading infectious respiratory pathogens into populations of horses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of shedding of respiratory pathogens in recently imported horses. ANIMALS: All imported horses with signed owner consent (n = 167) entering a USDA quarantine for contagious equine metritis from October 2014 to June 2016 were enrolled in the study...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Elodie Darnis, Soren Boysen, Anne-Christine Merveille, Loïc Desquilbet, Serge Chalhoub, Kris Gommeren
BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of intravascular volume status is challenging. In humans, ultrasonographic assessment of the inferior vena cava diameter, directly or as a ratio to the aortic diameter is used to estimate intravascular volume status. OBJECTIVES: To ultrasonographically obtain reference values (RV) for caudal vena cava diameter (CVCD ), area (CVCa ) and aortic ratios using 3 views in awake healthy dogs. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-six healthy adult dogs from clients, students, faculty, or staff...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
John M Thomason, Todd M Archer, Robert W Wills, Andrew J Mackin
BACKGROUND: In dogs, the effects of immunosuppressive medications on hemostasis are not well known. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine the effects of immunosuppressive medications on primary and secondary hemostasis. Our hypothesis was that cyclosporine and prednisone would increase markers of hypercoagulability and thromboxane synthesis, while azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and leflunomide would have minimal effects on hemostasis. ANIMALS: Eight healthy dogs...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
François-René Bertin, Debra Ruffin-Taylor, Allison Jean Stewart
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is a cause of insulin dysregulation in many species, but the insulin and glucose dynamics in adult horses diagnosed with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are poorly documented. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: In SIRS in horses, insulin and glucose dynamics will be altered and associated with survival. ANIMALS: Adult horses diagnosed with SIRS admitted to a referral hospital. METHODS: Prospective study enrolling horses diagnosed with SIRS in which serum insulin and glucose concentrations were measured...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Rikke Buhl, Helena Carstensen, Eva Zander Hesselkilde, Bjørg Zinkernagel Klein, Karen Margrethe Hougaard, Kirsten Bomberg Ravn, Ameli Victoria Loft-Andersen, Merle Friederike Fenner, Christian Pipper, Thomas Jespersen
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting performance in horses. However, no previous studies have quantified the performance reduction in horses suffering from AF. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of AF on maximum velocity (Vmax ), maximum heart rate (HRmax ), heart rate recovery (T100 ), hematologic parameters and development of abnormal QRS complexes. ANIMALS: Nine Standardbred trotters. METHODS: Two-arm controlled trial...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Tera Pijnacker, Hans S Kooistra, Cathelijne F Vermeulen, Merel van der Vinne, Marrit Prins, Sara Galac, Jan A Mol
BACKGROUND: A low plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) concentration in combination with a plasma TSH concentration within reference range does not distinguish between hypothyroidism and nonthyroidal illness (NTI) in dogs. Hypothyroidism is associated with TSH-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced increased release of growth hormone (GH). HYPOTHESIS: Basal and TRH-induced plasma GH concentrations can be used to distinguish hypothyroid dogs from NTI dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty-one dogs with signs consistent with hypothyroidism, a low plasma TT4 concentration, and a plasma TSH concentration within reference interval...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
D Hendrik N van den Broek, Yu-Mei Chang, Jonathan Elliott, Rosanne E Jepson
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased mortality and renal function decline in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium is furthermore inversely associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), an important prognostic factor in CKD in cats. However, the prognostic significance of plasma magnesium in cats with CKD is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations of plasma total magnesium concentration (tMg) with plasma FGF23 concentration, all-cause mortality, and disease progression in cats with azotemic CKD...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Edward J Ives, Edward MacKillop, Natasha J Olby
Disorders affecting the control of saccadic eye movements result in involuntary saccadic oscillations and are widely reported in human medicine. Information regarding the occurrence and potential importance of saccadic oscillations in veterinary medicine is currently limited. The clinical histories of three dogs and one cat displaying involuntary eye movements consistent with opsoclonus are presented, with final diagnoses including idiopathic generalized tremor syndrome and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Sarah Shropshire, Christine Olver, Michael Lappin
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs can cause thrombocytopenia and clinical evidence of bleeding. It is unknown why some dogs show signs of bleeding whereas others do not despite clinically relevant thrombocytopenia. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Activated platelets, decreased fibrinolysis or both mitigate bleeding tendency. Assess standard hemostatic variables, platelet dynamics, and specialized coagulation testing in dogs experimentally infected with E. canis to evaluate this clinical discrepancy...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Alexandra C E Draper, Richard J Piercy
Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) is a highly prevalent and predominantly left-sided, degenerative disorder of the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLn) of tall horses, that causes inspiratory stridor at exercise because of intrinsic laryngeal muscle paresis. The associated laryngeal dysfunction and exercise intolerance in athletic horses commonly leads to surgical intervention, retirement or euthanasia with associated financial and welfare implications. Despite speculation, there is a lack of consensus and conflicting evidence supporting the primary classification of RLN, as either a distal ("dying back") axonopathy or as a primary myelinopathy and as either a (bilateral) mononeuropathy or a polyneuropathy; this uncertainty hinders etiological and pathophysiological research...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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