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Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131404/efficacy-of-radiation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-sialocele-in-dogs
#1
V J Poirier, S Mayer-Stankeová, J Buchholz, D M Vail, B Kaser Hotz
BACKGROUND: Sialocele is a collection of saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland or duct and is surrounded by granulation tissue. Surgery is the recognized first-line treatment. Recurrence rate after surgery is 5-14%. Salivary gland tissue is very sensitive to radiation therapy (RT). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Radiation therapy will be useful for the treatment of sialocele. The aims were to characterize response rate and clinical course of dogs with sialocele treated with RT and to determine a starting dose for clinical use...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131400/evaluation-of-3-serological-tests-for-early-detection-of-leptospira-specific-antibodies-in-experimentally-infected-dogs
#2
J Lizer, S Velineni, A Weber, M Krecic, P Meeus
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis in dogs is a disease of global importance. Early detection and appropriate therapeutic intervention are necessary to resolve infection and prevent zoonotic transmission. However, its diagnosis is hindered by nonspecific clinical signs and lack of rapid diagnostic tests of early infection. Recently, 2 rapid point-of-care tests (WITNESS Lepto [WITNESS Lepto, Zoetis LLC, Kalamazoo, MI, USA] and SNAP Lepto [SNAP Lepto, IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME, USA]) for detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in canine sera were developed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131399/cholangitis-and-cholangiohepatitis-in-dogs-a-descriptive-study-of-54-cases-based-on-histopathologic-diagnosis-2004-2014
#3
J L Harrison, B J Turek, D C Brown, C Bradley, J Callahan Clark
BACKGROUND: Cholangitis in dogs appears to be more common than previously thought, but understanding of the disease remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To describe a population of dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis. ANIMALS: Fifty-four client-owned dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis. METHODS: Medical records of dogs with cholangitis or cholangiohepatitis confirmed by histopathology between January 2004 and December 2014 were identified using a computer-based search and retrospectively reviewed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131397/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-prospective-randomized-study-of-beraprost-sodium-treatment-for-cats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
M Takenaka, A Iio, R Sato, T Sakamoto, H Kurumatani
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common progressive and irreversible disease in cats. The efficacy and safety of beraprost sodium (BPS) in cats with CKD have not been evaluated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of BPS in the treatment of cats with CKD, as compared to placebo. ANIMALS: Seventy-four client-owned cats with naturally occurring CKD. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, prospective, randomized trial...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131390/immune-function-in-critically-ill-dogs
#5
D Hoffman, J Amorim, A DeClue
BACKGROUND: People with critical illness (CI) commonly develop various forms of immune dysfunction, however, there is limited information concerning immune dysfunction in dogs with CI. HYPOTHESIS: The immune response in CI dogs differs from that of healthy dogs. ANIMALS: Immunologic variables were compared between 14 dogs with CI, defined as APPLEfast score of >20 points, admitted to the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center Small Animal Clinic Intensive Care Unit and healthy controls (n = 15)...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130572/ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-a-dog-with-acute-bilateral-blindness-and-primary-systemic-hypertension
#6
L Mari, R Stavinohova, E Dominguez, J Premont, J Oliver, L De Risio
A 6-year-old neutered female Jack Russell terrier was investigated for sudden onset prechiasmatic bilateral blindness, left circling, reduced proprioception in the right pelvic limb and right facial allodynia. Electroretinography was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed that the right optic nerve and the optic chiasm were hyperintense on diffusion weighted imaging and hypointense on apparent diffusion coefficient map consistent with ischemic optic neuropathy. A concurrent lacunar infarct was detected in the left rostral colliculus...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119628/stat3-expression-and-activity-are-up-regulated-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-of-dogs
#7
A L F V Assumpção, P C Jark, C C Hong, Z Lu, H M Ruetten, C M Heaton, M E Pinkerton, X Pan
BACKGROUND: The Janus Kinase (JAK) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in humans, and up-regulated STAT3 expression and activity are associated with worse clinical outcome in humans. No studies have evaluated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in DLBCL of dogs. HYPOTHESIS: STAT3 pathway is deregulated in DLBCL in dogs. We aim to assess the expression, activation, and cellular localization of STAT3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in DLBCL of dogs...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114956/quality-control-of-compounded-crystalloid-fluids-for-intravenous-delivery-to-horses
#8
C B Magnusson, K P Poulsen, J A Budde, F A Hartmann, N A Aulik, S M Raabis, A S D Moreira, B J Darien, S F Peek
BACKGROUND: Periodic lack of availability and high cost of commercially produced isotonic fluids for intravenous (IV) use in horses have increasingly led to use of home-made or commercially compound fluids by veterinarians. Data regarding the quality control and safety of compounded fluids would be of benefit to equine veterinarians. OBJECTIVES: To compare electrolyte concentrations, sterility, and endotoxin contamination of commercially available fluids to 2 forms of compounded isotonic crystalloid fluids intended for IV use in horses...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114943/pharmacokinetics-of-single-oral-dose-extended-release-levetiracetam-in-healthy-cats
#9
L Barnard, H Barnes Heller, D M Boothe
BACKGROUND: Repeated PO dosing of anti-epileptic drugs may contribute to poor compliance in treated cats. Intermediate-release levetiracetam has been used safely in cats, but must be given q8h to maintain serum concentrations in the therapeutic interval for humans (5-45 μg/mL). Approved extended-release levetiracetam (XRL) for human use may require less frequent dosing, but the large dosing unit has limited its use in cats. HYPOTHESES: In healthy cats, serum levetiracetam concentration will remain above 5 μg/mL for at least 24 hours after administration of a single dose of XRL PO and will be well tolerated...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106755/canine-gm2-gangliosidosis-sandhoff-disease-associated-with-a-3-base-pair-deletion-in-the-hexb-gene
#10
P Wang, P S Henthorn, E Galban, G Lin, T Takedai, M Casal
BACKGROUND: GM2-gangliosidosis is a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by deficiency of either β-hexosaminidase A (Hex-A) and β-hexosaminidase B (Hex-B) together, or the GM2 activator protein. Clinical signs can be variable and are not pathognomonic for the specific, causal deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the phenotype and genotype of GM2-gangliosidosis disease in an affected dog. ANIMALS: One affected Shiba Inu and a clinically healthy dog...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105875/questionnaire-based-analysis-of-owner-reported-scratching-and%C3%A2-pain-signs-in-cavalier-king-charles-spaniels-screened-for-chiari-like-malformation-and-syringomyelia
#11
C R Sparks, S Cerda-Gonzalez, E H Griffith, B D X Lascelles, N J Olby
BACKGROUND: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) cause a pain syndrome in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS). Clinical signs are not consistently apparent on neurologic examination, and owner reporting of signs provides vital clinical history. However, owner questionnaires for this disease are not well developed. OBJECTIVES: To develop a tool to capture owner-reported clinical signs for use in clinical trials and to compare owner-reported signs with the presence of pain on neurologic examination and SM on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105868/successful-treatment-of-disseminated-nocardiosis-caused-by-nocardia-veterana-in-a-dog
#12
S Yaemsiri, J E Sykes
A 5-year-old male castrated Lhasa Apso cross was evaluated for a 1-month history of inappetence, lethargy, gagging, and progressive right thoracic limb lameness. Synovial fluid analysis revealed nonseptic suppurative inflammation, and a diagnosis of immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) was made. After 3 months of treatment with prednisone and later cyclosporine, the dog developed multiple firm cutaneous and subcutaneous masses and a focal mass within the jejunum. Cultures of blood, urine, skin lesions, and the jejunal mass identified Nocardia veterana by matrix-absorption laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and allowed for earlier identification of the organism compared to more traditional secA1 gene sequencing...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105159/a-6-bp-deletion-variant-in-a-novel-canine-glutathione-s-transferase-gene-gstt5-leads-to-loss-of-enzyme-function
#13
S Craft, J Ekena, J Sacco, K Luethcke, L Trepanier
OBJECTIVES: Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify reactive xenobiotics, and defective GST gene polymorphisms increase cancer risk in humans. A low activity GST-theta variant was previously found in research beagles. The purpose of our study was to determine the molecular basis for this phenotype and its allele frequency in pet dogs. METHODS: Banked livers from 45 dogs of various breeds were screened for low GST-theta activity by the substrate 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), and were genotyped for variants in a novel canine GST gene, GSTT5...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080252/clinical-evaluation-of-tavocept-to-decrease-diuresis-time-and-volume-in-dogs-with-bladder-cancer-receiving-cisplatin
#14
C J Henry, B K Flesner, S A Bechtel, J N Bryan, D J Tate, K A Selting, J C Lattimer, M E Bryan, L Grubb, F Hausheer
BACKGROUND: Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common bladder cancer of dogs. Cisplatin combined with piroxicam provides superior response rates, but unacceptable rates of nephrotoxicity. Tavocept is a chemoprotectant that has mitigated cisplatin toxicity and decreased the required infusion/diuresis volume in clinical trials in humans. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that Tavocept would decrease diuresis volume and time and facilitate safe administration of a cisplatin/piroxicam protocol to dogs with bladder cancer...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031032/the-frequency-and-clinical-implications-of-bacteriuria-in-chronically-paralyzed-dogs
#15
S R Baigi, S Vaden, N J Olby
BACKGROUND: Paralysis is a known risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and death in paralyzed people, but there are no data available on diagnostic criteria for UTI versus bacteriuria, their frequency, or clinical implications in chronically paralyzed dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: That chronically paralyzed dogs suffer frequent bacteriuria causing reduced duration of survival. We documented the frequency of bacteriuria, associated clinical signs, and survival rate in chronically paralyzed dogs...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031030/ectopic-bone-as-a-nidus-for-calcium-oxalate-urocystolithiasis-in-a-cat
#16
J P Lulich, H S Prasad, M Manno, B Bagley
A 7-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred to the urology service for nonsurgical urocystolith removal. A urolith was attached to the urothelium by ectopic bone. Interventional removal without surgery was successful. Follow-up evaluation 3 years after urolith removal revealed recurrent uroliths, bladder wall mineralization, and marked renal mineralization. This case illustrates the metaplastic potential of the urothelium and that ectopic bone should be included among the pathological factors that promote lithogenesis...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031029/glutathione-peroxidase-activity-plasma-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-urinary-f2-isoprostanes-as-markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-anemic-dogs
#17
A Kendall, A Woolcock, A Brooks, G E Moore
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of several diseases and has been documented as a contributor to disease in both the human and veterinary literature. One at-risk cell is the erythrocyte, however, the role of oxidative stress in anemia in dogs has not been widely investigated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: Anemic dogs will have an alteration in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and an increased concentration of urinary 15-F2 -isoprostanes (F2 -IsoP) when compared to healthy dogs...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031028/risk-factors-for-death-in-dogs-treated-for-esophageal-foreign-body-obstruction-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-222-cases-1998-2017
#18
A G Burton, C T Talbot, M S Kent
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing risk factors for death, and long-term outcomes in dogs with esophageal foreign body (EFB) obstruction. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes, and analyze risk factors for death in dogs with EFB obstruction. We hypothesized duration of entrapment and treatment type would affect outcome. ANIMALS: A total of 222 dogs were treated for EFB obstruction at an emergency and referral hospital between March 1998 and March 2017...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031027/evaluation-of-renal-perfusion-in-hyperthyroid-cats-before-and-after-radioiodine-treatment
#19
E Stock, S Daminet, D Paepe, E Buresova, E Vandermeulen, P Smets, L Duchateau, J H Saunders, K Vanderperren
BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common in elderly cats. Consequently, both diseases often occur concurrently. Furthermore, renal function is affected by thyroid status. Because changes in renal perfusion play an important role in functional renal changes in hyperthyroid cats, investigation of renal perfusion may provide novel insights. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate renal perfusion in hyperthyroid cats with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031025/measurement-variation-and-repeatability-of-echocardiographic-variables-used-to-estimate-pulmonary-artery-pressure-in-dogs
#20
J A Abbott, J M Gentile-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important clinical entity in dogs. Pulmonary hypertension is generally identified based on echocardiographic findings, but measurement variation of the variables most often used in this context has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To define measurement variation of echocardiographic variables that are used to estimate pulmonary artery pressure. ANIMALS: Four dogs with subclinical tricuspid valve regurgitation were selected from a hospital population...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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