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Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Giulio Menciotti, Michele Borgarelli, Michael Aherne, Paula Camacho, Jens Häggström, Ingrid Ljungvall, Sunshine M Lahmers, Jonathan A Abbott
BACKGROUND: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is more prevalent in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) compared to dogs of other breeds at a given age. Abnormal valvular stress is thought to contribute to the development and progression of MMVD, and a relationship exists between mitral valve (MV) morphology and stress acting on the valve. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the MV morphology of healthy adult CKCSs differs from the morphology of healthy adult dogs of other breeds determined by RT-3DTTE...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Karen R Muñana, Arturo J Otamendi, Julie A Nettifee, Mark G Papich
BACKGROUND: Extended-release levetiracetam (LEV-XR) has gained acceptance as an antiepileptic drug in dogs. No studies have evaluated its disposition in dogs with epilepsy. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV-XR in epileptic dogs when administered alone or with phenobarbital or zonisamide. ANIMALS: Eighteen client-owned dogs on steady-state maintenance treatment with LEV-XR (Group L, n = 6), LEV-XR and phenobarbital (Group LP, n = 6), or LEV-XR and zonisamide (Group LZ, n = 6)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Annabel Botsford, Ellen N Behrend, Robert J Kemppainen, Philippe R Gaillard, Frank Oprandy, Hollie P Lee
BACKGROUND: Low-dose ACTH stimulation testing would lower cost and may increase sensitivity for identification of partial ACTH deficiency. HYPOTHESIS: (1) The low-dose ACTH stimulation test will provide comparable results to the standard-dose ACTH stimulation test in dogs suspected of hypoadrenocorticism and (2) partial ACTH deficiency exists in dogs and can result in chronic, intermittent gastrointestinal signs. ANIMALS: Thirty-one client-owned dogs suspected of having hypoadrenocorticism...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Romy M Heilmann, Jörg M Steiner
Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in dogs are a group of disorders that are characterized by chronic persistent or recurrent signs of gastrointestinal disease and histologic evidence of mucosal inflammation. These CIEs are classified as either food-responsive, antibiotic-responsive, or immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy. Patients not clinically responding to immunomodulatory treatment are grouped as nonresponsive enteropathy and dogs with intestinal protein loss as protein-losing enteropathy. Disease-independent clinical scoring systems were established in dogs for assessment of clinical disease severity and patient monitoring during treatment...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Kathleen M Ivester, Laurent L Couëtil, George E Moore
BACKGROUND: Mild equine asthma is presumed to arise in response to environmental exposures but the relative impact of differing inflammatory phenotypes upon performance are largely unexplored. HYPOTHESES: Airway inflammation negatively affects performance and cytological phenotype varies with environmental exposure. ANIMALS: Thoroughbred racehorses in active training and racing. METHODS: Thoroughbreds were recruited 24-48 hours before racing...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Jan S Suchodolski, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic enzyme supplements for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs can be uncoated or enteric coated. Enteric coated supplements might be advantageous. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Enteric coated enzyme supplements are superior to uncoated supplements in dogs with clinical EPI. ANIMALS: Eleven dogs with naturally occurring EPI that were apparently free from other diseases. METHODS: Randomized, blinded, controlled cross-over clinical trial comparing a novel micro-encapsulated enteric coated enzyme supplement to a commercially available uncoated product in dogs with clinical EPI...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Patrick S Moyle, Andrew Specht, Richard Hill
BACKGROUND: Preanalytic protein adsorption to polymer and glass container surfaces may decrease urine protein concentration measurements and urine protein: creatinine ratios (UPC). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Urine stored in PC or glass containers will have lower UPC than urine stored in HP containers. The specific objective was to determine whether clinically relevant differences in UPC would be detected after storage in glass, PC, or HP containers using common storage times and temperatures...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Charlotte A Easton-Jones, John E Madigan, Samantha Barnum, Lara K Maxwell, Sandra D Taylor, Terry Arnesen, Nicola Pusterla
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus-5 is commonly isolated from the lungs of horses with EMPF, suggesting an etiological link. Valacyclovir is used empirically to treat EMPF; however, no data is available concerning its impact on EHV-5 viral kinetics. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of oral administration of valacyclovir on EHV-5 viral load measured by qPCR in blood, nasal secretions (NS) and BALF in horses with EMPF. ANIMALS: Six horses diagnosed with EMPF...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jessica L Ward, Gregory R Lisciandro, Wendy A Ware, Austin K Viall, Brent D Aona, Kari A Kurtz, Yamir Reina-Doreste, Teresa C DeFrancesco
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) in cats is challenging. Point-of-care (POC) thoracic ultrasound and NT-proBNP testing are emerging tools that may aid in diagnosis. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of POC lung ultrasound (LUS), focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU), and NT-proBNP in predicting a final diagnosis of CHF. ANIMALS: Fifty-one cats in respiratory distress. METHODS: Blood NT-proBNP, LUS, and FCU evaluating left atrial (LA) size and presence of pericardial effusion (PCEFF) were performed in all cats...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Tommaso Vezzosi, Oriol Domenech, Giulia Costa, Federica Marchesotti, Luigi Venco, Eric Zini, Maria Josefa Fernández Del Palacio, Rosalba Tognetti
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) enlargement and dysfunction are associated with prognosis in humans with pulmonary hypertension (PH). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess RV size and systolic function in dogs with PH and to determine if they are associated with disease severity and right-sided congestive heart failure (R-CHF). ANIMALS: 89 dogs with PH and 74 healthy dogs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. PH was classified according to the tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Marc Myers, Peter V Scrivani, Kenneth W Simpson
An 8-year-old male American Staffordshire terrier was admitted for evaluation of chronic episodes of ptyalism and hematemesis after exercise. Abnormalities were not detected on routine clinicopathological tests, thoracic radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography. Endoscopic examination revealed a labyrinthine network of severely distended, hemorrhagic esophageal blood vessels. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a network of para-esophageal vessels that communicated with the celiac artery caudally and the brachiocephalic trunk cranially, consistent with a diagnosis of non-cirrhotic esophageal varices...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Neil S Mittelman, Darko Stefanovski, Amy L Johnson
BACKGROUND: Accurate antemortem EPM diagnosis requires evidence of intrathecal antibody production. Some advocate the use of acute phase proteins in addition to serology, which alone results in substantial false positives. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine if serum C-reactive protein (CRP) or serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations were elevated in cases of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) compared to other neurological diseases...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Marie-Ève Bilodeau, Damien Achard, David Francoz, Carolyn Grimes, André Desrochers, Sylvain Nichols, Marie Babkine, Gilles Fecteau
BACKGROUND: Threshold values for total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of downer dairy cows suggestive of a spinal cord lesion were recently published. OBJECTIVES: Determine short- and long-term survival of downer cows that underwent CSF analysis using the reported threshold values. Evaluate the prognostic value of these threshold values to predict short- and long-term survival. ANIMALS: Two hundred and fourteen downer adult dairy cows that underwent CSF analysis during hospitalization at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire (CHUV) of the Université de Montréal...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Alexander Erlen, Heidrun Potschka, Holger A Volk, Carola Sauter-Louis, Dan G O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Primary-care veterinary clinical records can offer data to determine generalizable epidemiological data on seizures occurrence in the dog population. OBJECTIVES: To identify and examine epidemiologic characteristics of seizure occurrence in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK participating in the VetCompass™ Programme. ANIMALS: 455,553 dogs in VetCompass™'. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis estimated the 1-year period prevalence and risk factors for dogs with seizures during 2013...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Kathy N Wright, Chad E Connor, Holly M Irvin, Timothy K Knilans, Dawn Webber, Philip H Kass
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs) in dogs have been reported rarely. Data regarding clinical presentation and long-term outcome after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) are limited. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To study clinical features, electrophysiologic characteristics, and outcome of RFCA in dogs with APs. ANIMALS: Eighty-nine dogs presented consecutively for RFCA of APs. METHODS: Case series...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
D J X Liu, E Meyer, B J G Broeckx, S Daminet, J R Delanghe, E Stock, E Bogaerts, M Hesta, K Vanderperren
BACKGROUND: Markers of kidney dysfunction and damage have potential to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD) in early stages. However, data on long-term variation of these markers in healthy dogs is lacking and is crucial for the interpretation of results. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine temporal variations of serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), immunoglobulin G (uIgG), and C-reactive protein (uCRP) in healthy dogs...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Melanie J Hezzell, Chloë L Block, Danielle S Laughlin, Mark A Oyama
BACKGROUND: Treatment targeted to achieve reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) improves outcomes in human congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. HYPOTHESIS: A pre-specified therapeutic algorithm that increased diuretic or pimobendan usage will reduce plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). ANIMALS: Twenty-six dogs with clinically stable CHF secondary to MMVD...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Radana Karlíková, Jitka Široká, Marek Mech, David Friedecký, Hana Janečková, Lucie Mádrová, Františka Hrdinová, Zuzana Drábková, Olga Dobešová, Tomáš Adam, Petr Jahn
The case of atypical myopathy (AM) in newborn Haflinger foal with clinical signs of depression and weakness appearing 6 hours after birth resulting in recumbency 12 hours after birth is described. The foal's dam was diagnosed with AM in the 6th month of gestation based on clinical signs of a myopathy, elevated serum activity of creatine kinase, metabolomic analysis and the presence of methylenecyclopropyl acetyl carnitine (MCPA-carnitine) in the blood. At the time of delivery, the mare was grazing on a pasture near sycamore trees but was free of clinical signs of AM...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Andre J Kortum, Emilie A Cloup, Tim L Williams, Fernendo Constantino-Casas, Penny J Watson
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis (CH) occurs commonly in dogs but is associated with a variable and largely unpredictable prognosis. p21, a cell-cycle inhibitor and marker of cellular senescence, is upregulated in human liver disease and is a better prognostic marker than histological or clinical scoring systems. OBJECTIVE: To quantify hepatocyte p21 immunopositivity in histopathology samples from dogs with CH and determine its association with outcome. ANIMALS: Twenty-six client-owned dogs with histologically confirmed CH, and 15 dogs with normal liver histology...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Patrick C Barko, David A Williams
BACKGROUND: In humans, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is associated with deficiencies in lipid-soluble vitamins. Little is reported regarding lipid-soluble vitamin status in dogs with EPI. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Compare serum concentrations of retinol, 25-hydrocholecalciferol (25OHD), and α-tocopherol among dogs with EPI, those with subclinical EPI (sEPI), and healthy dogs. Detect associations between serum concentrations of lipid-soluble vitamins and residual clinical signs in treated dogs with EPI and sEPI...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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