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Blood Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196633/old-and-new-oral-anticoagulants-food-herbal-medicines-and-drug-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Alessandro Di Minno, Beatrice Frigerio, Gaia Spadarella, Alessio Ravani, Daniela Sansaro, Mauro Amato, Joseph P Kitzmiller, Mauro Pepi, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre
The most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulants worldwide are the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of VKAs are important because deviations from their narrow therapeutic window can result in bleedings due to over-anticoagulation or thrombosis because of under-anticoagulation. In addition to pharmacodynamic interactions (e.g., augmented bleeding risk for concomitant use of NSAIDs), interactions with drugs, foods, herbs, and over-the-counter medications may affect the risk/benefit ratio of VKAs...
February 5, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185693/advances-in-oral-anticoagulation-therapy-what-s-in-the-pipeline
#2
REVIEW
P S S Rao, T Burkart
Approximately 900,000 people are affected by some sort of venous thromboembolic (VTE) event every year in the United States. VTE diagnosis used to mean treatment with medications that required routine lab monitoring for safety and efficacy. Activated factor X (FXa) inhibition has emerged as a convenient pathway for management of VTE and currently three FXa inhibitors are available for anticoagulation management - rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Continued development of medications utilizing this pathway may offer advantages via novel pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties that may minimize the adverse effects associated with traditional anticoagulant therapy...
February 5, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190619/bone-marrow-evaluation-for-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#3
REVIEW
Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Catherine Lai, Elihu Estey, Christopher S Hourigan
The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be made based on peripheral blood or bone marrow blasts. In this review, we will discuss the role of bone marrow evaluation and peripheral blood monitoring in the diagnosis, management, and follow up of AML patients. For patients with circulating blasts, it is reasonable to perform the necessary studies needed for diagnosis and risk stratification, including multiparametric flow cytometry, cytogenetics, and molecular analysis, on a peripheral blood specimen...
February 2, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173959/the-clinical-impact-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-why-the-quest-for-meaningful-prophylaxis-still-matters
#4
REVIEW
Shawna T Chan, Aaron C Logan
Latent infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is common. Functional immunity effectively contains such latent infections; however, CMV reactivation may cause significant complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). In spite of the universal implementation of post-transplant screening for CMV viremia and the institution of pre-emptive antiviral management, CMV disease still occurs in a small portion of patients. Moreover, interactions between CMV and the immune system have significant implications for the incidence of graft-versus-host disease, the recurrence of malignancy, and non-relapse mortality following alloHCT, even in the era of pre-emptive antiviral management...
February 2, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077241/the-role-of-splenectomy-in-autoimmune-hematological-disorders-outdated-or-still-worth-considering
#5
REVIEW
Judith Sys, Drew Provan, Alexander Schauwvlieghe, Steven Vanderschueren, Daan Dierickx
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998619/how-do-you-decide-on-hormone-replacement-therapy-in-women-with-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism
#6
REVIEW
Danijela Lekovic, Predrag Miljic, Aleksandar Dmitrovic, Jecko Thachil
Women are increasingly encouraged to participate in making decisions about hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In postmenopausal women with severe vasomotor symptoms, HRT can significantly improve the quality of life. However, the use of HRT may also increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the risk which depends of both treatment-related and patient-related factors. This review summarizes some important points about the selection of the safest hormonal replacement modality in women with a history of VTE and management of VTE risks in postmenopausal women wishing to take HRT...
December 15, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087197/microrna-defining-a-new-niche-in-leukemia
#7
REVIEW
Queenie Fernandes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNAs found to play key roles in the pathogenesis of leukemia. Apart from being traditionally identified as modulators of oncogenes, the potential roles of miRNAs seems to be growing with novel and recent findings among different subtypes of hematological malignancies. Leukemia is one of the earliest malignancies to be linked to abnormal expression of miRNAs. However, a clear understanding of the involvement of miRNAs in intricate mechanisms of leukemogenesis is still a necessity...
November 24, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923516/therapy-related-myelodysplastic-syndromes-or-are-they
#8
REVIEW
Abdallah Abou Zahr, Ami M Kavi, Sudipto Mukherjee, Amer M Zeidan
The incidence of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) is increasing as the number of cancer survivors is increasing. While t-MDS is currently defined descriptively by prior receipt of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, some forms of MDS that occur post localized radiation monotherapy, biologically and clinically resemble de novo (d)-MDS more than t-MDS, and therefore may not be truly therapy-related. Although patients with t-MDS, as a group, fare worse than patients with d-MDS, a variation in individual outcomes of patients with t-MDS has increasingly been appreciated...
November 24, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899218/modeling-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-from-mutations-to-mouse-models-and-back-again
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Morotti, Stefania Rocca, Giovanna Carrà, Giuseppe Saglio, Mara Brancaccio
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are defined according to the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the recent 2016 revision. Over the years, several genetic lesions have been associated with the development of MPNs, with important consequences for identifying unique biomarkers associated with specific neoplasms and for developing targeted therapies. Defining the genotype-phenotype relationship in MPNs is essential to identify driver somatic mutations that promote MPN development and maintenance in order to develop curative targeted therapies...
November 24, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639498/molecular-biomarkers-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Jeanette Prada-Arismendy, Johanna C Arroyave, Sarah Röthlisberger
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. The pathophysiology of this disease is just beginning to be understood at the cellular and molecular level, and currently cytogenetic markers are the most important for risk stratification and treatment of AML patients. However, with the advent of new technologies, the detection of other molecular markers such as point mutations and characterization of epigenetic and proteomic profiles, have begun to play an important role in how the disease is approached...
January 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625113/measurement-and-reversal-of-the-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#11
REVIEW
Bethany T Samuelson, Adam Cuker
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) offer noninferior efficacy and improved safety compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Unlike VKAs, DOACs do not require routine laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effect and dose adjustment. In certain situations, however, laboratory assessment of anticoagulant effect may be desirable. Here we review the utility of currently available assays for assessment of DOAC effect and recommend an optimal assessment strategy for each drug, including calibrated dilute thrombin time or ecarin-based assays for dabigatran and calibrated anti-Xa activity assays for the factor Xa inhibitors...
January 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568879/tumour-cell-surface-antigen-targeted-therapies-in-b-cell-lymphomas-beyond-rituximab
#12
REVIEW
Matthew Ku, Geoff Chong, Eliza A Hawkes
Recent proliferation of novel targeted therapies in lymphoma has been substantial. B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been a major focus, however significant advances in monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) which directly target malignant cells have also occurred. These MoAbs continue to make significant impact in lymphoma management. Novel dosing schedules of anti-CD20 MoAb rituximab potentially optimise efficacy in specific lymphoma subgroups, as certain populations may be receiving suboptimal doses using current schedules...
January 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884555/after-10years-of-jak2v617f-disease-biology-and-current-management-strategies-in-polycythaemia-vera
#13
REVIEW
Jacob Grinfeld, Anna L Godfrey
The JAK2V617F mutation accounts for the vast majority of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) and around half of those with other Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Since its discovery in 2005, numerous insights have been gained into the pathways by which JAK2V617F causes myeloproliferation, including activation of JAK-STAT signalling but also through other canonical and non-canonical pathways. A variety of mechanisms explain how this one mutation can be associated with distinct clinical disorders, demonstrating how constitutional and acquired factors may interact in the presence of a single mutation to determine disease phenotype...
November 15, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596109/clinical-approach-to-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Paolo F Caimi, Brian T Hill, Eric D Hsi, Mitchell R Smith
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of lymphoma. We now recognize that DLBCL corresponds to a biologically heterogeneous family of diseases. Given the potential for cure for most DLBCL patients, appropriate diagnostic and staging evaluation and therapy are essential. Here we review areas of consensus as well as controversy in the evaluation, treatment and monitoring of patients with DLBCL and its related subtypes.
November 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453201/beta-thalassemia-in-31-734-cases-with-hbb-gene-mutations-pathogenic-and-structural-analysis-of-the-common-mutations-iran-as-the-crossroads-of-the-middle-east
#15
REVIEW
Nejat Mahdieh, Bahareh Rabbani
Thalassemia is one of the most common single gene disorders worldwide. Nearly 80 to 90 million with minor beta thalassemia and 60-70 thousand affected infants are born annually worldwide. A comprehensive search on several databases including PubMed, InterScience, British Library Direct, and Science Direct was performed extracting papers about mutation detection and frequency of beta thalassemia. All papers reporting on the mutation frequency of beta thalassemia patients were selected to analyze the frequency of mutations in different regions and various ethnicities...
November 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344554/blood-coagulation-factor-xiii-and-factor-xiii-deficiency
#16
REVIEW
Akbar Dorgalaleh, Jamal Rashidpanah
Factor XIII (FXIII) is a multifunctional pro-γ-transglutaminase that, in addition to its well-known role in hemostasis, has a crucial role in angiogenesis, maintenance of pregnancy, wound healing, bone metabolism, and even cardio protection. FXIII deficiency (FXIIID) is a rare bleeding disorder (RBD) with an estimated incidence of one per two million that is accompanied by life-threatening bleeding such as umbilical cord bleeding, recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Today, the disease is successfully managed by FXIII concentrate and recombinant FXIII for prophylaxis, management of minor and major bleeding, treatment of ICH, and successful delivery in women with recurrent pregnancy loss...
November 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773462/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-its-potential-as-a-target-for-therapy-in-lymphoid-neoplasms
#17
Li Yu, Ling Li, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Ken H Young
The NF-κB pathway, a critical regulator of apoptosis, plays a key role in many normal cellular functions. Genetic alterations and other mechanisms leading to constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway contribute to cancer development, progression and therapy resistance by activation of downstream anti-apoptotic pathways, unfavorable microenvironment interactions, and gene dysregulation. Not surprisingly, given its importance to normal and cancer cell function, the NF-κB pathway has emerged as a target for therapy...
October 13, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760710/recent-discoveries-in-the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-the-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndrome-fanconi-anemia
#18
REVIEW
Nicholas E Mamrak, Akiko Shimamura, Niall G Howlett
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal and X-linked genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and increased cancer risk during early adulthood. The median lifespan for FA patients is approximately 33years. The proteins encoded by the FA genes function together in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair DNA damage and to maintain genome stability. Within the past two years, five new FA genes have been identified-RAD51/FANCR, BRCA1/FANCS, UBE2T/FANCT, XRCC2/FANCU, and REV7/FANCV-bringing the total number of disease-causing genes to 21...
October 13, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745715/selecting-initial-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-in-older-adults
#19
REVIEW
Nikolai A Podoltsev, Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan, Steven D Gore
More than half of the patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are older than 60years. The treatment outcomes in this group remain poor with a median overall survival of <1year. Selecting initial treatment for these patients involves an assessment of 'fitness' for induction chemotherapy. This is done based on patient and disease-related characteristics which help to estimate treatment-related mortality and chance of complete remission with induction chemotherapy. If the risk of treatment-related mortality is high and/or the likelihood of a patient achieving a complete remission is low, lower-intensity treatment (low-dose cytarabine, decitabine and azacitidine) should be discussed...
October 8, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742133/monitoring-minimal-residual-disease-in-acute-leukemia-technical-challenges-and-interpretive-complexities
#20
REVIEW
Xueyan Chen, Brent L Wood
Minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy has unequivocal prognostic value in acute leukemia. Over the past 20years, a number of techniques have evolved into routine laboratory tools to detect MRD, most notably, multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods. There is growing evidence that the presence of MRD detected by MFC or molecular methods provides independent prognostic information and is associated with an increased risk of relapse and shortened survival...
October 5, 2016: Blood Reviews
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