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Blood Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223447/clinical-laboratory-and-imaging-findings-in-castleman-s-disease-the-subtype-decides
#1
REVIEW
Michael Haap, Julia Wiefels, Marius Horger, Annika Hoyer, Karsten Müssig
Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with its distinct unicentric (uCD) and multicentric (mCD) entities. The present work aimed at characterizing CD in more detail. From the 775 articles found by a PubMed search, 1133 cases were extracted. Two own cases were included. UCD was identified in 719 (42% males) and mCD in 416 (63% males) cases. Age in uCD was 34±17 and in mCD 48±18years. The hyaline-vascular type predominated in uCD and the plasma cell type in mCD. Clinical symptoms were more common in mCD...
November 29, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198753/cell-therapies-for-hematological-malignancies-don-t-forget-non-gene-modified-t-cells
#2
REVIEW
Melanie L Grant, Catherine M Bollard
Cell therapy currently performs an important role in the treatment of patients with various hematological malignancies. The response to the cell therapy is regulated by multiple factors including the patient's immune system status, genetic profile, stage at diagnosis, age, and underlying disease. Cell therapy that does not require genetic manipulation can be mediated by donor lymphocyte infusion strategies, selective depletion in the post-transplant setting and the ex vivo expansion of antigen-specific T cells...
November 27, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174416/unrelated-donor-umbilical-cord-blood-transplant-versus-unrelated-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Xiao Lou, Chuanhua Zhao, Hu Chen
Acute leukemia is a global disease with a poor prognosis for many patients. While an increasing number of patients with acute leukemia are being treated with unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) or umbilical cord blood transplants (UCBT), recent comparative reports of these 2 procedures are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the safety and efficacy of unrelated HSCT and unrelated single-unit UCBT for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
November 15, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132746/diabetes-mellitus-as-a-poor-mobilizer-condition
#4
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Fadini, John F DiPersio
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation in an effective and curative therapy for numerous hematological malignancies. Mobilization of HSCs from bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) followed by apheresis is the gold standard for obtaining HSCs for both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. After administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), up to 30% of patients fail to mobilize "optimal" numbers of HSCs required for engraftment. This review summarizes the current experimental and clinical evidence that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for poor mobilization...
November 8, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157973/when-the-good-go-bad-mutant-npm1-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Preethi Kunchala, Sudhakiranmayi Kuravi, Roy Jensen, Joseph McGuirk, Ramesh Balusu
Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) is a nucleolar phosphoprotein that performs diverse biological functions including molecular chaperoning, ribosome biogenesis, DNA repair, and genome stability. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, more than half of the AML cases exhibit normal karyotype (NK). Approximately 50-60 percent of patients with NK-AML carry NPM1 mutations which are characterized by cytoplasmic dislocation of the NPM1 protein. In AML, mutant NPM1 (NPM1c+) acts in a dominant negative fashion and also blocks the differentiation of myeloid cells through gain-of-function for the AML phenotype...
November 4, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126566/venous-thromboembolic-events-in-lymphoma-patients-actual-relationships-between-epidemiology-mechanisms-clinical-profile-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Darko Antic, Jelena Jelicic, Vojin Vukovic, Srdjan Nikolovski, Biljana Mihaljevic
Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are an underestimated health problem in patients with lymphoma. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of thromboembolism and the interplay between various mechanisms that provoke VTE is still poorly understood. The identification of parameters that are associated with an increased risk of VTE in lymphoma patients led to the creation of several risk-assessment models. The models that evaluate potential VTE risk in lymphoma patients in particular are quite limited, and have to be validated in larger study populations...
October 31, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122300/using-prognostic-models-in-cll-to-personalize-approach-to-clinical-care-are-we-there-yet
#7
REVIEW
Alain Mina, Jose Sandoval Sus, Elsa Sleiman, Javier Pinilla-Ibarz, Farrukh T Awan, Mohamed A Kharfan-Dabaja
Four decades ago, two staging systems were developed to help stratify CLL into different prognostic categories. These systems, the Rai and the Binet staging, depended entirely on abnormal exam findings and evidence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Better understanding of biologic, genetic, and molecular characteristics of CLL have contributed to better appreciating its clinical heterogeneity. New prognostic models, the GCLLSG prognostic index and the CLL-IPI, emerged. They incorporate biologic and genetic information related to CLL and are capable of predicting survival outcomes and cases anticipated to need therapy earlier in the disease course...
October 28, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054350/what-can-we-learn-from-ineffective-erythropoiesis-in-thalassemia
#8
REVIEW
Paraskevi Rea Oikonomidou, Stefano Rivella
Erythropoiesis is a dynamic process regulated at multiple levels to balance proliferation, differentiation and survival of erythroid progenitors. Ineffective erythropoiesis is a key feature of various diseases, including β-thalassemia. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to ineffective erythropoiesis are complex and still not fully understood. Altered survival and decreased differentiation of erythroid progenitors are both critical processes contributing to reduced production of mature red blood cells. Recent studies have identified novel important players and provided major advances in the development of targeted therapeutic approaches...
October 3, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969872/closing-the-gap-novel-therapies-in-treating-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#9
REVIEW
Brian D Friend, Gary J Schiller
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common cancer diagnoses identified in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Although most children with ALL are cured of their disease, AYAs have experienced much worse outcomes over time, with event-free survival ranging from 30 to 45%. This survival disparity is likely due to differences in tumor biology, treatment-related toxicities, and nonmedical issues. This review summarizes these differences as well as focusing on the various trials that have demonstrated superior outcomes with pediatric protocols in AYAs with ALL...
September 21, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958644/immunoglobulin-therapy-in-hematologic-neoplasms-and-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Masumi Ueda, Melvin Berger, Robert Peter Gale, Hillard M Lazarus
Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer...
September 19, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943040/treatment-of-musculo-skeletal-pain-in-haemophilia
#11
REVIEW
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
Musculo-skeletal pain treatment is inadequate in many haemophilic patients. Analgesics are used only by 36% of adult patients. FVIII/FIX intravenous infusion is mainly used to lessen pain, followed in frequency by usage of NSAIDS (primarily COX-2 inhibitors). In about 30% of patients, pain continues after infusion of F VIII/IX. In acute haemarthroses pain treatment must continue until total disappearance (checked by ultrasonography) and include haematologic treatment, short-term rest of the involved joint, cryotherapy, joint aspiration and analgesic medication (paracetamol in mild pain, metamizole for more intense pain, and in a few precise patients, soft opioids such as codeine or tramadol)...
September 19, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033137/the-global-problem-of-early-deaths-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-a-strategy-to-decrease-induction-mortality-in-the-most-curable-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
A P Jillella, V K Kota
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hyper-acute illness and presents with profound cytopenias in most patients and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Excellent treatment options are now available with drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), arsenic trioxide (ATO), anthracyclines and cytarabine. The outcome in APL has improved tremendously in the last 50years due to better understanding of the disease, development of effective targeted agents and improvement in supportive care. Carefully selected groups of patients treated in large multi-center trials on a protocol and in experienced centers have shown survival rates in excess of 85%...
September 18, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965757/erythroleukemia-historical-perspectives-and-recent-advances-in-diagnosis-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Prajwal Boddu, Christopher B Benton, Wei Wang, Gautam Borthakur, Joseph D Khoury, Naveen Pemmaraju
Acute erythroleukemia is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia recognized by its distinct phenotypic attribute of erythroblastic proliferation. After a century of its descriptive history, many diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications relating to this unique leukemia subset remain uncertain. The rarity of the disease and the simultaneous involvement of its associated myeloid compartment have complicated in vitro studies of human erythroleukemia cell lines. Although murine and cell line erythroleukemia models have provided valuable insights into pathophysiology, translation of these concepts into treatment are not forthcoming...
September 18, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802907/the-who-how-and-why-allogeneic-transplant-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-patients-older-than-60years
#14
REVIEW
Sarah A Wall, Steven Devine, Sumithira Vasu
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is primarily a disease of the elderly, and as such, our approach to treatment needs to be tailored to address an aging population. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the only potentially curative treatment for intermediate and high risk AML, and until recently, its use had been limited to a younger population and dependent on availability of a donor. Advances in conditioning regimens, supportive care, and the use of alternative donor sources have greatly expanded access to this therapy...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802906/pathways-towards-indolent-b-cell-lymphoma-etiology-and-therapeutic-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Michiel van den Brand, Blanca Scheijen, Corine J Hess, J Han Jm van Krieken, Patricia J T A Groenen
Although patients with indolent B-cell lymphomas have a relatively good survival rate, conventional chemotherapy is not curative. Disease courses are typically characterized by multiple relapses and progressively shorter response duration with subsequent lines of therapy. There has been an explosion of innovative targeted agents in the past years. This review discusses current knowledge on the etiology of indolent B-cell lymphomas with respect to the role of micro-organisms, auto-immune diseases, and deregulated pathways caused by mutations...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797519/treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-next-decade-towards-real-time-functional-testing-and-personalized-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Stephen Sze-Yuen Lam, Alex Bai-Liang He, Anskar Yu-Hung Leung
Information arising from next generation sequencing of leukemia genome has shed important light on the heterogeneous and combinatorial driver events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has also provided insight into its intricate signaling pathways operative in the disease pathogenesis. These have also become biomarkers and targets for therapeutic intervention. Emerging evidence from in vitro drug screening has demonstrated its potential value in predicting clinical drug responses in specific AML subtypes. However, the best culture conditions and readouts have yet to be standardized and the drugs included in these screening exercises frequently revised in view of the rapid emergence of new therapeutic agents in the oncology field...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784423/diagnosis-and-management-of-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Shruti Chaturvedi, Keith R McCrae
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications in the presence of persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA). Laboratory diagnosis of APLA depends upon the detection of a lupus anticoagulant, which prolongs phospholipid-dependent anticoagulation tests, and/or anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein-1 (β2GPI) antibodies. APLA are primarily directed toward phospholipid binding proteins. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying thrombosis and pregnancy loss in APS include APLA induced cellular activation, inhibition of natural anticoagulant and fibrinolytic systems, and complement activation, among others...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756877/platelet-populations-and-priming-in-hematological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Constance C F M J Baaten, Hugo Ten Cate, Paola E J van der Meijden, Johan W M Heemskerk
In healthy subjects and patients with hematological diseases, platelet populations can be distinguished with different response spectra in hemostatic and vascular processes. These populations partly overlap, and are less distinct than those of leukocytes. The platelet heterogeneity is linked to structural properties, and is enforced by inequalities in the environment. Contributing factors are variability between megakaryocytes, platelet ageing, and positive or negative priming of platelets during their time in circulation...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755795/therapeutic-use-of-transferrin-to-modulate-anemia-and-conditions-of-iron-toxicity
#19
REVIEW
M Boshuizen, K van der Ploeg, L von Bonsdorff, B J Biemond, S S Zeerleder, R van Bruggen, N P Juffermans
As the main iron transporter, transferrin delivers iron to target tissues like the bone marrow for erythropoiesis. Also, by binding free iron, transferrin prevents formation of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin deficiency due to congenital hypotransferrinemia is characterized by anemia as well as oxidative stress related to toxic free iron. Transferrin supplementation may be beneficial in two ways. First, transferrin can correct anemia by modulating the amount of iron that is available for erythropoiesis...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732587/the-skin-as-a-window-to-the-blood-cutaneous-manifestations-of-myeloid-malignancies
#20
REVIEW
Alvin W Li, Emily S Yin, Maximilian Stahl, Tae Kon Kim, Gauri Panse, Amer M Zeidan, Jonathan S Leventhal
Cutaneous manifestations of myeloid malignancies are common and have a broad range of presentations. These skin findings are classified as specific, due to direct infiltration by malignant hematopoietic cells, or non-specific. Early recognition and diagnosis can have significant clinical implications, as skin manifestations may be the first indication of underlying hematologic malignancy, can reflect the immune status and stage of disease, and cutaneous reactions may occur from conventional and targeted agents used to treat myeloid disease...
November 2017: Blood Reviews
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