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Abhishek Sadhu, Ilika Ghosh, Yuji Moriyasu, Anita Mukherjee, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
The effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeNP) in plants has elicited substantial controversy. While some investigators have reported that CeNP possesses antioxidant properties, others observed CeNP to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of considerable research carried out on the effects of CeNP in metazoans, fundamental studies that can unveil its intracellular consequences linking ROS production, autophagy and DNA damage are lacking in plants. To elucidate the impact of CeNP within plant cells, tobacco BY-2 cells were treated with 10, 50 and 250 µg ml-1 CeNP (Ce10, Ce50 and Ce250), for 24 h...
February 28, 2018: Mutagenesis
Hashim M Aljohani, Mohamed Aittaleb, John M Furgason, Peter Amaya, Ayham Deeb, Jeffery J Chalmers, El Mustapha Bahassi
Approximately 90% of all cancer deaths arise from the metastatic spread of primary tumours. Of all the processes involved in carcinogenesis, local invasion and the formation of metastases are clinically the most relevant, but they are the least well understood at the molecular level. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as 'anoikis', in circulation. The recent technological advances in the isolation and characterisation of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) will allow a better understanding of anoikis resistance...
February 21, 2018: Mutagenesis
Xinyue You, Tomoko Ando, Jing Xi, Yiyi Cao, Weiying Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Masamitsu Honma, Kenichi Masumura, Yang Luan
Flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a representative PBDE congener with widespread distribution and relatively high toxicity potential. Although it has been reported that BDE-47 can cause DNA damage in various in vitro systems, few studies have provided in vivo genotoxicity information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxicity of BDE-47 in mice. Male gpt delta mice were administered BDE-47 by gavage at 0, 0...
February 15, 2018: Mutagenesis
Valentin P Volobaev, Aleksey V Larionov, Ekaterina E Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina S Serdyukova, Svetlana Yakovleva, Vladimir G Druzhinin, Olga O Babich, Elena G Hill, Victor A Semenihin, Nikolay I Panev, Varvara I Minina, Saravana Devi Sivanesan, Pravin Naoghare, Juliana da Silva, Gustavo R M Barcelos, Alexander Y Prosekov
Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1β T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963)...
January 25, 2018: Mutagenesis
Awadhesh N Jha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Xiao-Dan Chang, Ya-Juan Gu, Shan Dai, Xue-Rong Chen, Chun-Lei Zhang, Hong-Shan Zhao, Qing-Hua Song
Autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH/HT: OMIM #278150/604379) is a rare hereditary hair disease characterized by tightly curled hair at birth which can lead to sparse hair later in life. The mutations in both LIPH and LPAR6/P2RY5 are responsible for autosomal recessive woolly hair with or without hypotrichosis (ARWH/HT). To conduct clinical and genetic investigations in four patients from three unrelated Chinese Han families with ARWH/HT, we performed mutation screening of LIPH and LPAR6/P2RY5 gene and identified four mutations in LIPH: c...
January 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
José M Enciso, Kristine B Gutzkow, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Adela López de Cerain, Amaya Azqueta
The alkaline comet assay, in vivo and in vitro, is currently used in several areas of research and in regulatory genotoxicity testing. Several efforts have been made in order to decrease the inter-experimental and inter-laboratory variability and increase the reliability of the assay. In this regard, lysis conditions are considered as one of the critical variables and need to be further studied. Here, we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) and two different lysis solutions in human lymphoblast (TK6) cells unexposed or exposed to X-rays...
January 10, 2018: Mutagenesis
Peter Møller
During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay...
January 6, 2018: Mutagenesis
Niels Hadrup, Stefan Bengtson, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Petra Jackson, Marek Nocun, Anne T Saber, Keld A Jensen, Håkan Wallin, Ulla Vogel
Intratracheal instillation serves as a model for inhalation exposure. However, for this, materials are dispersed in appropriate media that may influence toxicity. We tested whether different intratracheal instillation dispersion media influence the pulmonary toxicity of different nanomaterials. Rodents were intratracheally instilled with 162 µg/mouse/1620 µg/rat carbon black (CB), 67 µg/mouse titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) or 54 µg/mouse carbon nanotubes (CNT). The dispersion media were as follows: water (CB, TiO2); 2% serum in water (CB, CNT, TiO2); 0...
December 30, 2017: Mutagenesis
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Jana Lebedová, Yolanda S Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Hanna L Karlsson
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising nanomaterials used in different technological solutions as well as in consumer products. Silver (Ag), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) represent three metallic NPs with current or suggested use in different applications. Pt is also used as vehicle exhaust catalyst leading to a possible exposure via inhalation. Despite their use, there is limited data on their genotoxic potential and possible size-dependent effects, particularly for Pt NPs. The aim of this study was to explore size-dependent genotoxicity of these NPs (5 and 50 nm) following exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
David H Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2017: Mutagenesis
Bin Ma, Adam T Zarth, Erik S Carlson, Peter W Villalta, Irina Stepanov, Stephen S Hecht
The tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolically converted to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a reaction which is both stereoselective and reversible. NNAL is also a lung carcinogen, with both (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL inducing a high incidence of lung tumours in rats. Both NNAL and NNK undergo metabolic activation to intermediates which react with DNA to form pyridylhydroxybutyl and pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts, respectively. DNA adduct formation by NNAL and NNK is an important step in their mechanisms of carcinogenesis...
December 31, 2017: Mutagenesis
Ezgi Eyluel Bankoglu, Florian Seyfried, Charlotte Arnold, Alexander Soliman, Christian Jurowich, Christoph Thomas Germer, Christoph Otto, Helga Stopper
Obesity is associated with several detrimental health consequences, among them an increased risk for development of cancer, and an overall elevated mortality. Multiple factors like hyperinsulinemia, chronic microinflammation and oxidative stress may be involved. The comet assay has been proven to be very sensitive for detection of DNA damage and has been used to explore the relationship between overweight/obesity and DNA damage, but results are controversial. Very few investigations have been performed to correlate weight loss of obese individuals and possible reduction of DNA damage and these studies have not provided clear results...
December 23, 2017: Mutagenesis
Danieli Benedetti, Barbara Lopes Alderete, Claudia Telles de Souza, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Liana Niekraszewicz, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Juliana Da Silva
Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. However, epidemiological studies are scarce, and further work is needed to find biomarkers sensitive to the health of exposed populations. Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. The alkaline comet assay modified with restriction enzyme (hOGG1: human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) was used to detect oxidised guanine, and compared with the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, global methylation, haematological parameters, biochemical analyses (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and butyrylcholinesterase), and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of inorganic elements...
December 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
Siri Helland Hansen, Agnieszka J Pawlowicz, Leif Kronberg, Kristine Bjerve Gützkow, Ann-Karin Olsen, Gunnar Brunborg
The alkaline comet assay and a cell-free system were used to characterise DNA lesions induced by treatment with glycidamide (GA), a metabolite of the food contaminant acrylamide. DNA lesions induced by GA were sensitively detected when the formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme was included in the comet assay. We used LC-MS to characterise modified bases from GA-treated naked DNA with and without subsequent Fpg treatment. N7-GA-Guanine and N3-GA-Adenine aglycons were detected in the supernatant showing some depurination of adducted bases; treatment of naked DNA with Fpg revealed no further increase in the adduct yield nor occurrence of other adducted nucleobases...
December 12, 2017: Mutagenesis
Gudrun Koppen, Sofie De Prins, An Jacobs, Vera Nelen, Greet Schoeters, Sabine A S Langie
The comet assay is often applied in human biomonitoring. Most of the time the assay is performed with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, using whole blood instead of isolated cells reduces processing time, and only 20 µl is sufficient for analysis. In this study, a cryopreservation protocol for human whole blood for application in the comet assay was optimised by removing excess plasma before adding freezing medium. Cryopreservation of whole blood samples (n = 30) did not increase the detected level of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites...
December 9, 2017: Mutagenesis
Javier Revollo, Javed A Bhalli, Cameron Tebbe, Jessica Noteboom, Demetria Thomas, Page McKinzie, Nicholas Felton, Mason G Pearce, Vasily N Dobrovolsky
Procarbazine is a primary component of antineoplastic combination chemotherapy often used for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is believed that cytostatic and cytotoxic properties of procarbazine are mediated via its interaction with genomic DNA. Procarbazine is a carcinogen in animal models; it is classified as Group 2A compound by IARC. Also it is known as an in vitro and in vivo mutagen and genotoxicant. However, the molecular mechanism by which procarbazine induces mutations is not thoroughly understood and the spectrum of procarbazine-induced in vivo mutations is described insufficiently...
December 8, 2017: Mutagenesis
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Yuqian Zhu, Tao Zhou, Xiaoling Ma, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Folates comprise the essential B9 vitamin that act as cofactors and cosubstrates in one-carbon metabolism for both biosynthesis and methylation of DNA and RNA. Folate deficiency (FD) has been shown to induce chromosomal instability (CIN), yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we used human NCM460 colon mucosal cells as a model to investigate the effect of FD on spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a cell-cycle regulatory pathway preventing CIN during mitosis. Cells were maintained in medium containing 1...
November 19, 2017: Mutagenesis
Amaya Azqueta, Elisa Rundén-Pran, Elisabeth Elje, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Kristiane Haug Berg, Ingrida Smeringaiova, Katerina Jirsova, Andrew R Collins
The human eye is relatively unexplored as a source of cells for investigating DNA damage. There have been some clinical studies, using cells from surgically removed tissues, and altered DNA bases as well as strand breaks have been measured using the comet assay. Tissues examined include corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens capsule, iris and retinal pigment epithelium. For the purpose of biomonitoring for exposure to potential mutagens in the environment, the eye-relatively unprotected as it is compared with the skin-would be a valuable object for study; non-invasive techniques exist to collect lachrymal duct cells from tears, or cells from the ocular surface by impression cytology, and these methods should be further developed and validated...
October 25, 2017: Mutagenesis
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