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Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077953/the-comet-assay-applied-to-cells-of-the-eye
#1
Amaya Azqueta, Elisa Rundén-Pran, Elisabeth Elje, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Kristiane Haug Berg, Ingrida Smeringaiova, Katerina Jirsova, Andrew R Collins
The human eye is relatively unexplored as a source of cells for investigating DNA damage. There have been some clinical studies, using cells from surgically removed tissues, and altered DNA bases as well as strand breaks have been measured using the comet assay. Tissues examined include corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens capsule, iris and retinal pigment epithelium. For the purpose of biomonitoring for exposure to potential mutagens in the environment, the eye-relatively unprotected as it is compared with the skin-would be a valuable object for study; non-invasive techniques exist to collect lachrymal duct cells from tears, or cells from the ocular surface by impression cytology, and these methods should be further developed and validated...
October 25, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045752/genome-size-and-sensitivity-to-dna-damage-by-x-rays-plant-comets-tell-the-story
#2
John Einset, Andrew R Collins
Among several factors affecting radiation sensitivity, genome size has received limited attention during the last 50 years since research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) and other locations demonstrated substantial differences in radiation sensitivities, e.g. between tree species with large (e.g. conifers such as pines) versus small (e.g. dicots such as oaks) genome sizes. Taking advantage of the wide range of genome sizes among species, we investigated radiation sensitivity which we define in this study as DNA damage (break frequency) measured with the alkaline comet assay in isolated nuclei exposed to X-rays...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045708/association-between-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-dna-damage-in-human-volunteers-during-fire-extinction-exercises
#3
Maria Helena Guerra Andersen, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Per Axel Clausen, Julie Elbæk Pedersen, Mille Løhr, Ali Kermanizadeh, Steffen Loft, Niels Ebbehøj, Åse Marie Hansen, Peter Bøgh Pedersen, Ismo Kalevi Koponen, Eva-Carina Nørskov, Peter Møller, Ulla Vogel
This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The personal exposure was measured as dermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)...
October 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036349/seasonal-variations-as-predictive-factors-of-the-comet-assay-parameters-a-retrospective-study
#4
Marko Geric, Goran Gajski, Višnja Orešcanin, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
Since there are several predicting factors associated with the comet assay parameters, we have decided to assess the impact of seasonal variations on the comet assay results. A total of 162 volunteers were retrospectively studied, based on the date when blood donations were made. The groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn) were matched in terms of age, gender, smoking status, body mass index and medical diagnostic exposure in order to minimise the impact of other possible predictors. Means and medians of the comet assay parameters were higher when blood was sampled in the warmer period of the year, the values of parameters being the highest during summer...
September 19, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992346/searching-for-assay-controls-for-the-fpg-and-hogg1-modified-comet-assay
#5
Peter Møller, Kim Jantzen, Mille Løhr, Maria Helena Andersen, Ditte Marie Jensen, Martin Roursgaard, Pernille Høgh Danielsen, Annie Jensen, Steffen Loft
The formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1)-modified comet assays have been widely used in human biomonitoring studies. The purpose of this article is to assess differences in reported levels of Fpg- and hOGG1-sensitive sites in leukocytes and suggest suitable assay controls for the measurement of oxidatively damaged DNA. An assessment of the literature showed a large variation in the reported levels of Fpg-sensitive sites (range 0.05-1.31 lesions/106 bp). The levels of Fpg-sensitive sites are lower in studies where Fpg has been obtained from commercial suppliers or unknown sources as compared to Fpg from one particular non-commercial source (χ2 = 7...
September 15, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992336/molecular-and-cytogenetic-effects-of-thai-royal-jelly-modulation-through-c-myc-h-tert-nrf2-ho-1-bcl2-bax-and-cyclins-in-human-lymphocytes-in-vitro
#6
Wantha Jenkhetkan, Sumon Thitiorul, Chalerm Jansom, Treetip Ratanavalachai
Royal jelly (RJ) is widely used as a food supplement for anti-aging and beauty. However, its use has been linked to asthma and hemorrhagic colitis. Since its mechanisms of toxicity have not been fully identified, we conducted an investigation to elucidate its molecular and cytogenetic effects. Using human lymphocytes in vitro, treatments with RJ (0.0005-5 mg/ml) for 3 h did not induce sister chromatid exchanges until 5 mg/ml was used. Treatments for 24 h showed a dose-dependent reduction in BCL2/BAX, c-MYC/BAX and HO-1/BAX ratios...
September 15, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992132/dna-strand-breaks-in-peripheral-blood-leucocytes-of-polish-blood-donors
#7
Malgorzata M Dobrzynska, Krzysztof A Pachocki, Katarzyna Owczarska
Knowledge about the basal level of DNA damage in leucocytes of healthy control populations is essential before estimation of the effects of exposure to external agents in biomonitoring studies. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of some lifestyle factors on baseline DNA damage in leucocytes of humans. The material consisted of the peripheral blood from 276 healthy volunteer blood donors. In addition to the standard blood donation questionnaire, they were asked about age, gender, occupation, radiological history, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, medicine use and pet ownership...
September 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992082/frequency-of-micronuclei-among-persons-resident-in-the-vicinity-of-a-mineral-sand-processing-factory-in-pulmoddai-sri-lanka
#8
Tania Warnakulasuriya, Senani Williams, Mangala Dabarera, Kusum Rodrigo, Thiwanka Weerakkody, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd (LMS), a government-owned company, has been mining mineral sands including monazite which contains thorium (Th) at Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka since 1957. Th emits alpha particles on decay and gamma rays are emitted by the daughter products. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay is popular for large scale radiation exposure studies as it is an easy, fast and reliable method of biodosimetry. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of micronuclei among persons residing in the vicinity of LMS...
August 29, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048576/monitoring-characteristics-and-genotoxic-effects-of-engineered-nanoparticle-protein-corona
#9
Violet Aileen Senapati, Krupa Kansara, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan, Ashutosh Kumar
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) possess different physical and chemical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. These unique properties have found application in various products in the area of therapeutics, consumer goods, environmental remediation, optical and electronic fields. This has also increased the likelihood of their release into the environment thereby affecting human health and ecosystem. ENPs, when in contact with the biological system have various physical and chemical interactions with cellular macromolecules including proteins...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048575/microrna-binding-site-polymorphisms-in-genes-involved-in-colorectal-cancer-etiopathogenesis-and-their-impact-on-disease-prognosis
#10
Michaela Schneiderova, Alessio Naccarati, Barbara Pardini, Fabio Rosa, Cornelia Di Gaetano, Katerina Jiraskova, Alena Opattova, Miroslav Levy, Karel Veskrna, Veronika Veskrnova, Tomas Buchler, Stefano Landi, Pavel Vodicka, Veronika Vymetalkova
According to the Vogelstein's model of colorectal carcinogenesis, genetic variations in highly penetrant genes may be involved in the colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Similarly, aberrant function and/or altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) often occur in CRC. In this context, polymorphisms in miRNA-binding sites (miRSNPs) may affect miRNA/target gene interaction, resulting in differential mRNA/protein expression and increased susceptibility to common diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we have mined the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of genes known to be frequently mutated in CRC to search for miRSNPs and tested their association with CRC risk and clinical outcome...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040706/inhibition-of-survivin-expression-after-using-oxaliplatin-and-vinflunine-to-induce-cytogenetic-damage-in-vitro-in-lymphocytes-from-colon-cancer-patients-and-healthy-individuals
#11
Amal A A Alotaibi, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Justin D Davies, Adolf Baumgartner, Diana Anderson
Chemotherapy drugs usually inflict a lethal dose to tumour cells with the consequence that these cells are being killed by cell death. However, each round of chemotherapy also causes damage to normal somatic cells. The DNA cross-linking agent oxaliplatin (OXP), which causes DNA double-strand breaks, and vinflunine (VFN), which disrupts the mitotic spindle, are two of these chemotherapy drugs which were evaluated in vitro using peripheral lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals to determine any differential response...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992182/association-of-dna-repair-gene-polymorphisms-with-genotoxic-stress-in-underground-coal-miners
#12
Maxim Yu Sinitsky, Varvara I Minina, Maxim A Asanov, Arseniy E Yuzhalin, Anastasia V Ponasenko, Vladimir G Druzhinin
In underground coal mining, numerous harmful substances and ionising radiation pose a major threat to the occupational safety and health of workers. Because cell DNA repair machinery eliminates genotoxic stress conferred by these agents, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in hOGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC1 (rs25487), ADPRT (rs1136410), XRCC4 (rs6869366) and LIG4 (rs1805388) genes modulate the genotoxic damage assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in lymphocytes from 143 underground coal miners and 127 healthy non-exposed males...
August 8, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992092/the-influence-of-exogenous-metabolism-on-the-specificity-of-in-vitro-mammalian-genotoxicity-tests
#13
Matthew J Tate, Richard M Walmsley
A two-part study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of the rodent liver 'S9' exogenous metabolic activating system contributes to the generation of misleading positive results by the regulator-required in vitro mammalian genotoxicity tests. The mono-oxygenase enzymes in S9 produce direct-acting DNA-reactive electrophiles, and are included in in vitro genotoxicity tests to enhance the detection of substances which only become genotoxic following metabolism. However, as the S9 system lacks 'detoxifying' phase 2 factors it was hypothesised that increased chemical metabolism per se may lead to an increase in irrelevant S9 test outcomes in safety assessment...
August 8, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992085/assessment-of-dna-damage-in-ceramic-workers
#14
Hatice Gul Anlar, Gokce Taner, Merve Bacanli, Servet Iritas, Turker Kurt, Engin Tutkun, Omer Hinc Yilmaz, Nursen Basaran
It is known that ceramic workers are potentially exposed to complex mixture of chemicals such as silica, inorganic lead, lime, beryllium and aluminum that can be associated with an increased risk of several diseases. All operations in the ceramic industries such as mixing, moulding, casting, shaking out and finishing jobs, have been associated with the higher exposure levels and in most of the silica-related industries, average overall exposure exceeded permissible exposure levels for respirable crystalline silica...
July 19, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927196/the-intricate-interplay-between-msi-and-polymorphisms-of-dna-repair-enzymes-in-gastric-cancer-h-pylori-associated
#15
Isabelle Joyce de Lima Silva-Fernandes, Emanuele Silva de Oliveira, Juliana Carvalho Santos, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Adriana Camargo Ferrasi, Maria Inês de Moura Campos Pardini, Rommel Mário Rodriguez Burbano, Silvia Helena Barem Rabenhorst
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is a well-established risk factor and may cause injuries to genomic integrity through an inefficient DNA repair. This study aimed to examine the influence of polymorphisms in DNA repair enzymes using markers for microsatellite instability (MSI). Polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes were detected by PCR-RFLP and MSI, by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. Helicobacter pylori detection and genotyping were accomplished by PCR...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575466/dose-response-mutation-and-spectrum-analyses-reveal-similar-responses-at-two-microsatellite-loci-in-benzo-a-pyrene-exposed-mouse-spermatogonia
#16
Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Marc A Beal, Andrew Williams, Francesco Marchetti, Carole L Yauk
Identifying chemical exposures that can cause germline mutations is important as these mutations can be inherited, impacting both individual and population health. However, germline mutations are extremely rare and difficult to detect. Chemically induced germline mutations can be detected through analysis of highly unstable tandem repeat DNA. We recently developed a single-molecule PCR (SM-PCR) approach to quantify mutations at a mouse microsatellite locus (Mm2.2.1) in sperm for such purposes. In this study, we refine this approach through the combined analysis of mouse microsatellites Mm2...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521016/influence-of-gsh-s-transferase-on-the-mutagenicity-induced-by-dichloromethane-and-1-2-dichloropropane
#17
Nozomi Akiba, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Yoshitaka Matsushima, Osamu Endo, Kazuho Inaba, Yukari Totsuka
It has been suggested that dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) are responsible for occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Dihaloalkanes are metabolically activated by GSH S-transferase theta1 (GSTT1) to yield products such as episulfonium ions. However, whether the GSTT1-mediated step of these dihaloalkanes is related to occupational cholangiocarcinoma is not known. In the present study, we investigated the influence of GSTT1 activation on the mutagenicity of DCM and 1,2-DCP using GSTT1-expressing Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100-GST)...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505335/functional-analysis-of-novel-runx2-mutations-in-cleidocranial-dysplasia
#18
Li Zeng, Jiahui Wei, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yang Liu, Na Zhao, Shichen Sun, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. The purpose of this study was to explore novel RUNX2 mutations in seven individuals with CCD and investigate the function of the mutant RUNX2 proteins. DNA samples were prepared from the peripheral blood of the CCD individuals, and then subjected to DNA sequencing. Conservation and secondary structure analysis were performed based on RUNX2 sequencing results. pEGFP-C1 plasmids containing GFP-tagged wild-type RUNX2 and three novel RUNX2 mutations expression cassettes were constructed, and then transfected into HEK293T cells...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472404/three-generation-study-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-following-exposure-of-pubescent-f0-male-mice-to-di-n-butyl-phthalate
#19
Malgorzata M Dobrzynska, Ewa J Tyrkiel, Aneta Gajowik
Humans are exposed to phthalates continuously throughout life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects induced in male mice following 8 weeks of subchronic exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during their puberty and to investigate the possibility of transmission of mutations to subsequent generations via the sperm. Pzh:Sfis outbred male mice aged 4.5 weeks were exposed to DBP by gavage for 8 weeks, 3 days per week to doses of 1/16 LD50 or 1/4 LD50 each time. Six to seven males from each dosage group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the start of exposure for examination of sperm count and quality...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472308/the-oecd-s-micronucleus-test-guideline-for-single-exposure-to-an-agent-and-the-genotox-kinetic-alternative
#20
Pedro Morales-Ramírez, Teresita Vallarino-Kelly, Virginia Leticia Cruz-Vallejo
The 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals' aims to identify whether a chemical is a genotoxic hazard, and these guidelines 'are periodically reviewed in the light of scientific progress, changing regulatory needs and animal welfare considerations'. OECD published a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test guideline for testing chemicals (1) that proposes: 'Animals are treated with the test chemical once…Samples of peripheral blood are taken at least twice (from the same group of animals), starting not earlier than 36 h after treatment, with appropriate intervals following the first sample, but not extending beyond 72 h'...
July 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
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