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Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431147/detection-of-epigenetic-mutagens-including-anthracene-derived-compounds-using-yeast-flo1-promoter-gfp-reporter-gene-assay
#1
Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Hiroko Furusawa, Petr Grúz, Masamitsu Honma
Recently, we have reported that the FLO1-mediated flocculation levels of yeast are affected by an epigenetic mutagen, alizarin. Alizarin promoted flocculation and reduced the bulk levels of histone H3 in yeast cells. Since alizarin has been known to possess carcinogenesis-promoting properties, it is important to estimate the effect of alizarin-related compounds on epigenome as measured by the flocculation of yeast. In this study, we examined the effects of two anthracene-derived compounds other than alizarin on the flocculation level of yeast...
April 20, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387869/genotoxicity-study-of-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-in-female-wistar-rats-after-acute-oral-exposure
#2
Naresh Dumala, Bhanuramya Mangalampalli, Srinivas Chinde, Srinivas Indu Kumari, Mohammad Mahoob, Mohammad Fazlur Rahman, Paramjit Grover
Nanoparticles (NPs) apart from their widespread advantages and increased utilisation, have aroused concerns over their safe use. Nickel (II) oxides (NiO) NPs are used as catalysts, biosensors and in many of the consumer products. The increasing use of NiO NPs necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study, we investigated the acute genotoxic effects of NiO NPs by oral route administration with three different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bw)...
April 6, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#3
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
March 24, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340196/erratum
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340109/mth1-an-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine-triphosphatase-and-myh-a-dna-glycosylase-cooperate-to-inhibit-mutations-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-of-ionising-radiation
#5
Sara Shakeri Manesh, Traimate Sangsuwan, Ali Pour Khavari, Asal Fotouhi, S Noushin Emami, Siamak Haghdoost
Our previous results showed that in addition to the immediate interaction of ionising radiation with DNA (direct and indirect effect), low-dose and chronic low-dose rate of irradiation induce endogenous oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, free radicals react with DNA, nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), proteins and lipids, and modify their structures. The MYH and MTH1 genes play important roles in preventing mutations induced by 8-hydroxy-guanine, which is an oxidised product of guanine. In this study, we used short-hairpin RNA to permanently knockdown MYH and MTH1 proteins in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells...
March 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340065/the-next-three-decades-of-the-comet-assay-a-report-of-the-11th-international-comet-assay-workshop
#6
Gudrun Koppen, Amaya Azqueta, Bertrand Pourrut, Gunnar Brunborg, Andrew R Collins, Sabine A S Langie
The International Comet Assay Workshops are a series of scientific conferences dealing with practical and theoretical aspects of the Comet Assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis)-a simple method for detecting DNA strand breaks. The first paper describing such an assay was published over 30 years ago in 1984 by Swedish researchers O. Ostling and K. J. Johanson. Appropriately, the theme for the 2015 meeting was looking to the future: 'The Next 3 Decades of the Comet Assay'. The programme included 25 oral and 43 poster presentations depicting the latest advances in technical developments as well as applications of the comet assay in genotoxicity testing (in vitro and in vivo) and biomonitoring of both humans and the environment...
March 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340039/infant-birth-outcomes-are-associated-with-dna-damage-biomarkers-as-measured-by-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-the-dadhi-study
#7
Mansi Dass Singh, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Theodora Almond, Julie Owens, William Hague, Michael Fenech
Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative diseases in adult life such as cancers. The extent of DNA damage in infants and the correlation of maternal factors during pregnancy with neonate birth outcomes and DNA damage is not known in infants born in Australia. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to collect data on DNA damage in lymphocytes of Australian infants (aged 0, 3 and 6 months), using the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay...
March 3, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096451/quantitative-relationships-between-lacz-mutant-frequency-and-dna-adduct-frequency-in-muta%C3%A2-mouse-tissues-and-cultured-cells-exposed-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone
#8
Paul A White, George R Douglas, David H Phillips, Volker M Arlt
The frequency of stable DNA adducts in a target tissue can be used to assess biologically effective dose; however, the utility of the metric in a risk assessment context depends on the likelihood that the DNA damage will be manifested as mutation. Previously, we employed the Muta™Mouse system to examine the induction of lacZ mutants and DNA adducts following exposure to the well-studied mutagenic carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). In this follow-up work, we examined the empirical relationships between total adduct frequency and mutant frequency (MF) in tissues and cultured cells following acute 3-NBA exposure...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096450/analysis-of-genome-instability-biomarkers-in-children-with-non-syndromic-orofacial-clefts
#9
Luíza Araújo da Costa Xavier, João Felipe Bezerra, Adriana Augusto de Rezende, Raffael Azevedo de Carvalho Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira Dalmolin, Viviane Souza do Amaral
The non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The possible role of genome instability on NSCL/P patient needs more investigation, since DNA metabolism is an essential cellular function to keep cells with normal genotypes and gene expression patterns according to tissue specificities, which is critical during embryo development because it requires sensitive regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057708/development-of-an-in-vitro-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-in-human-cells
#10
Benjamin J Rees, Matthew Tate, Anthony M Lynch, Catherine A Thornton, Gareth J Jenkins, Richard M Walmsley, George E Johnson
Mutagens can be carcinogens, and traditionally, they have been identified in vitro using the Salmonella 'Ames' reverse mutation assay. However, prokaryotic DNA packaging, replication and repair systems are mechanistically very different to those in the humans we inevitably seek to protect. Therefore, for many years, mammalian cell line genotoxicity assays that can detect eukaryotic mutagens as well as clastogens and aneugens have been used. The apparent lack of specificity in these largely rodent systems, due partly to their mutant p53 status, has contributed to the use of animal studies to resolve data conflicts...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932515/genotoxic-effect-of-iron-overload-and-disease-complications-in-transfused-%C3%AE-thalassaemic-patients
#11
Elisa Ferro, Giuseppa Visalli, Maria Angela La Rosa, Basilia Piraino, Rosa Civa, Gaetano Randazzo Papa, Angela Di Pietro
In previously reported studies, we observed significantly high genotoxicity biomarkers in regularly transfused thalassaemic patients, thus, in this study, we better investigated the genotoxic effect of iron overload and of thalassaemia complications, including their drug treatments. The assessment was performed in 64 regularly transfused thalassaemic patients using cytokinesis-block micronucleus and comet assays. All patients were splenectomised and undergoing iron chelation therapy. To reduce hypoxia-induced oxidative damage, the patients with haemoglobin levels <9...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831478/radio-adaptive-response-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-individuals-residing-in-high-level-natural-radiation-areas-of-kerala-in-the-southwest-coast-of-india
#12
E N Ramachandran, C V Karuppasamy, V Anil Kumar, D C Soren, P R Vivek Kumar, P K M Koya, G Jaikrishan, Birajalaxmi Das
The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671865/inter-laboratory-consistency-and-variability-in-the-buccal-micronucleus-cytome-assay-depends-on-biomarker-scored-and-laboratory-experience-results-from-the-humnxl-international-inter-laboratory-scoring-exercise
#13
Claudia Bolognesi, Siegfried Knasmueller, Armen Nersesyan, Paola Roggieri, Marcello Ceppi, Marco Bruzzone, Ewa Blaszczyk, Danuta Mielzynska-Svach, Mirta Milic, Stefano Bonassi, Danieli Benedetti, Juliana Da Silva, Raphael Toledo, Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori, Helena Groot de Restrepo, Metka Filipic, Klara Hercog, Ayça Aktas, Sema Burgaz, Michael Kundi, Tamara Grummt, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Maria Escudero-Fung, Nina Holland, Michael Fenech
The buccal micronucleus cytome (BMNcyt) assay in uncultured exfoliated epithelial cells from oral mucosa is widely applied in biomonitoring human exposures to genotoxic agents and is also proposed as a suitable test for prescreening and follow-up of precancerous oral lesions. The main limitation of the assay is the large variability observed in the baseline values of micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies mainly related to different scoring criteria. The aim of this international collaborative study, involving laboratories with different level of experience, was to evaluate the inter- and intra-laboratory variations in the BMNcyt parameters, using recently implemented guidelines, in scoring cells from the same pooled samples obtained from healthy subjects (control group) and from cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (treated group)...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613236/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-mycobacterium-marinum-non-homologous-end-joining-proteins-can-function-together-to-join-dna-ends-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Douglas G Wright, Reneau Castore, Runhua Shi, Amrita Mallick, Don G Ennis, Lynn Harrison
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis express a Ku protein and a DNA ligase D and are able to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). This pathway protects against DNA damage when bacteria are in stationary phase. Mycobacterium marinum is a member of this mycobacterium family and like M. tuberculosis is pathogenic. M. marinum lives in water, forms biofilms and infects fish and frogs. M. marinum is a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) organism as it can infect humans, although infections are limited to the skin...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011751/editors-note
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011750/epigenetic-effects-of-carbon-nanotubes-in-human-monocytic-cells
#16
Deniz Öner, Matthieu Moisse, Manosij Ghosh, Radu C Duca, Katrien Poels, Katrien Luyts, Eveline Putzeys, Stevan M Cokic, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Diether Lambrechts, Lode Godderis, Peter H M Hoet
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fibrous carbon-based nanomaterials with a potential to cause carcinogenesis in humans. Alterations in DNA methylation on cytosine-phosphate-guanidine (CpG) sites are potential markers of exposure-induced carcinogenesis. This study examined cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and DNA methylation alterations on human monocytic cells (THP-1) after incubation with single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). Higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were observed after incubation with SWCNTs than incubation with MWCNTs...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011749/integrated-biological-responses-and-tissue-specific-expression-of-p53-and-ras-genes-in-marine-mussels-following-exposure-to-benzo-%C3%AE-pyrene-and-c60-fullerenes-either-alone-or-in-combination
#17
Yanan Di, Yann Aminot, Declan C Schroeder, James W Readman, Awadhesh N Jha
We used the marine bivalve (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to assess a range of biological or biomarker responses following exposure to a model-engineered nanoparticle, C60 fullerene, either alone or in combination with a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo(α)pyrene [B(α)P]. An integrated biomarker approach was used that included: (i) determination of 'clearance rates' (a physiological indicator at individual level), (ii) histopathological alterations (at tissue level), (iii) DNA strand breaks using the comet assay (at cellular level) and (iv) transcriptional alterations of p53 (anti-oncogene) and ras (oncogene) determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (at the molecular/genetic level)...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011748/genotoxicity-and-gene-expression-analyses-of-liver-and-lung-tissues-of-mice-treated-with-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#18
Yan Li, Jian Yan, Wei Ding, Ying Chen, Lindsay M Pack, Tao Chen
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in paints, plastics, papers, inks, foods, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. However, TiO2 NPs cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis and lung tumours in animals and are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Although there are a large number of studies on the toxicities of TiO2 NPs, the data are inconclusive and the mechanisms underlying the toxicity are not clear. In this study, we used the Comet assay to evaluate genotoxicity and whole-genome microarray technology to analyse gene expression pattern in vivo to explore the possible mechanisms for toxicity and genotoxicity of TiO2 NPs...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011747/nanogenotoxicology-present-and-the-future
#19
Shareen H Doak, Maria Dusinska
This Mutagenesis special issue is on the topic of nanogenotoxicology. It unites a collection of reports that provide insight into: (i) the properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that contribute to genotoxicity, (ii) the genotoxic mechanisms associated with DNA damage observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests and (iii) the future test systems that will provide more accurate prediction of ENM genotoxicity to support regulatory hazard assessment frameworks. The contributions within therefore provide collective oversight of our current understanding, coupled to future perspectives aimed at overcoming technical hurdles and describing novel analytical methods to further advance the field...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864332/weak-silica-nanomaterial-induced-genotoxicity-can-be-explained-by-indirect-dna-damage-as-shown-by-the-ogg1-modified-comet-assay-and-genomic-analysis
#20
Stefan Pfuhler, Thomas R Downs, Ashley J Allemang, Yuching Shan, Meredith E Crosby
In a previous study, 15-nm silica nanoparticles (NPs) caused small increases in DNA damage in liver as measured in the in vivo comet and micronucleus assays after intravenous administration to rats at their maximum tolerated dose, a worst-case exposure scenario. Histopathological examination supported a particle-induced, tissue damage-mediated inflammatory response. This study used a targeted approach to provide insight into the mode of action (MoA) by examining transcriptional regulation of genes in liver in a time and dose-dependent manner at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after intravenous administration of 15-nm silica NPs...
January 2017: Mutagenesis
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