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Mutagenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575466/dose-response-mutation-and-spectrum-analyses-reveal-similar-responses-at-two-microsatellite-loci-in-benzo-a-pyrene-exposed-mouse-spermatogonia
#1
Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Marc A Beal, Andrew Williams, Francesco Marchetti, Carole L Yauk
Identifying chemical exposures that can cause germline mutations is important as these mutations can be inherited, impacting both individual and population health. However, germline mutations are extremely rare and difficult to detect. Chemically induced germline mutations can be detected through analysis of highly unstable tandem repeat DNA. We recently developed a single-molecule PCR (SM-PCR) approach to quantify mutations at a mouse microsatellite locus (Mm2.2.1) in sperm for such purposes. In this study, we refine this approach through the combined analysis of mouse microsatellites Mm2...
May 30, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521016/influence-of-gsh-s-transferase-on-the-mutagenicity-induced-by-dichloromethane-and-1-2-dichloropropane
#2
Nozomi Akiba, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Yoshitaka Matsushima, Osamu Endo, Kazuho Inaba, Yukari Totsuka
It has been suggested that dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) are responsible for occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Dihaloalkanes are metabolically activated by GSH S-transferase theta1 (GSTT1) to yield products such as episulfonium ions. However, whether the GSTT1-mediated step of these dihaloalkanes is related to occupational cholangiocarcinoma is not known. In the present study, we investigated the influence of GSTT1 activation on the mutagenicity of DCM and 1,2-DCP using GSTT1-expressing Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100-GST)...
May 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505335/functional-analysis-of-novel-runx2-mutations-in-cleidocranial-dysplasia
#3
Li Zeng, Jiahui Wei, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yang Liu, Na Zhao, Shichen Sun, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene. The purpose of this study was to explore novel RUNX2 mutations in seven individuals with CCD and investigate the function of the mutant RUNX2 proteins. DNA samples were prepared from the peripheral blood of the CCD individuals, and then subjected to DNA sequencing. Conservation and secondary structure analysis were performed based on RUNX2 sequencing results. pEGFP-C1 plasmids containing GFP-tagged wild-type RUNX2 and three novel RUNX2 mutations expression cassettes were constructed, and then transfected into HEK293T cells...
May 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472308/the-oecd-s-micronucleus-test-guideline-for-single-exposure-to-an-agent-and-the-genotox-kinetic-alternative
#4
Pedro Morales-Ramírez, Teresita Vallarino-Kelly, Virginia Leticia Cruz-Vallejo
The 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals' aims to identify whether a chemical is a genotoxic hazard, and these guidelines 'are periodically reviewed in the light of scientific progress, changing regulatory needs and animal welfare considerations'. OECD published a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test guideline for testing chemicals (1) that proposes: 'Animals are treated with the test chemical once…Samples of peripheral blood are taken at least twice (from the same group of animals), starting not earlier than 36 h after treatment, with appropriate intervals following the first sample, but not extending beyond 72 h'...
May 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472404/three-generation-study-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-following-exposure-of-pubescent-f0-male-mice-to-di-n-butyl-phthalate
#5
Malgorzata M Dobrzynska, Ewa J Tyrkiel, Aneta Gajowik
Humans are exposed to phthalates continuously throughout life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects induced in male mice following 8 weeks of subchronic exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during their puberty and to investigate the possibility of transmission of mutations to subsequent generations via the sperm. Pzh:Sfis outbred male mice aged 4.5 weeks were exposed to DBP by gavage for 8 weeks, 3 days per week to doses of 1/16 LD50 or 1/4 LD50 each time. Six to seven males from each dosage group were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the start of exposure for examination of sperm count and quality...
May 2, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521046/cellular-and-population-level-processes-influence-the-rate-accumulation-and-observed-frequency-of-inherited-and-somatic-mtdna-mutations
#6
Richard G Melvin, John William O Ballard
Mitochondria are found in all animals and have the unique feature of containing multiple copies of their own small, circular DNA genome (mtDNA). The rate and pattern of mutation accumulation in the mtDNA are influenced by molecular, cellular and population level processes. We distinguish between inherited and somatic mtDNA mutations and review evidence for the often-made assumption that mutations accumulate at a higher rate in mtDNA than in nuclear DNA (nDNA). We conclude that the whole genome mutation accumulation rate is higher for mtDNA than for nDNA but include the caveat that rates overlap considerably between the individual mtDNA- and nDNA-encoded genes...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#7
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340196/erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340109/mth1-an-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine-triphosphatase-and-myh-a-dna-glycosylase-cooperate-to-inhibit-mutations-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-of-ionising-radiation
#9
Sara Shakeri Manesh, Traimate Sangsuwan, Ali Pour Khavari, Asal Fotouhi, S Noushin Emami, Siamak Haghdoost
Our previous results showed that in addition to the immediate interaction of ionising radiation with DNA (direct and indirect effect), low-dose and chronic low-dose rate of irradiation induce endogenous oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, free radicals react with DNA, nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), proteins and lipids, and modify their structures. The MYH and MTH1 genes play important roles in preventing mutations induced by 8-hydroxy-guanine, which is an oxidised product of guanine. In this study, we used short-hairpin RNA to permanently knockdown MYH and MTH1 proteins in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340065/the-next-three-decades-of-the-comet-assay-a-report-of-the-11th-international-comet-assay-workshop
#10
Gudrun Koppen, Amaya Azqueta, Bertrand Pourrut, Gunnar Brunborg, Andrew R Collins, Sabine A S Langie
The International Comet Assay Workshops are a series of scientific conferences dealing with practical and theoretical aspects of the Comet Assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis)-a simple method for detecting DNA strand breaks. The first paper describing such an assay was published over 30 years ago in 1984 by Swedish researchers O. Ostling and K. J. Johanson. Appropriately, the theme for the 2015 meeting was looking to the future: 'The Next 3 Decades of the Comet Assay'. The programme included 25 oral and 43 poster presentations depicting the latest advances in technical developments as well as applications of the comet assay in genotoxicity testing (in vitro and in vivo) and biomonitoring of both humans and the environment...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340039/infant-birth-outcomes-are-associated-with-dna-damage-biomarkers-as-measured-by-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-the-dadhi-study
#11
Mansi Dass Singh, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Theodora Almond, Julie Owens, William Hague, Michael Fenech
Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative diseases in adult life such as cancers. The extent of DNA damage in infants and the correlation of maternal factors during pregnancy with neonate birth outcomes and DNA damage is not known in infants born in Australia. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to collect data on DNA damage in lymphocytes of Australian infants (aged 0, 3 and 6 months), using the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993944/effects-of-airborne-toxicants-on-pulmonary-function-and-mitochondrial-dna-damage-in-rodent-lungs
#12
William L Rumsey, Brian Bolognese, Alicia B Davis, Pearl L Flamberg, Joseph P Foley, Steven R Katchur, Charles J Kotzer, Ruth R Osborn, Patricia L Podolin
Inhalation of airborne toxicants such as cigarette smoke and ozone is a shared health risk among the world's populations. The use of toxic herbicides like paraquat (PQ) is restricted by many countries, yet in the developing world PQ has demonstrable ill effects. The present study examined changes in pulmonary function, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and markers of DNA repair induced by acute or repeated exposure of PQ to rats. Similar to cigarette smoke and ozone, PQ promotes oxidative stress, and the impact of PQ on mtDNA was compared with that obtained with these agents...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816931/underlying-role-of-mitochondrial-mutagenesis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-a-disease-and-current-approaches-for-translational-research
#13
Maria Paraskevaidi, Pierre L Martin-Hirsch, Maria Kyrgiou, Francis L Martin
Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431147/detection-of-epigenetic-mutagens-including-anthracene-derived-compounds-using-yeast-flo1-promoter-gfp-reporter-gene-assay
#14
Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Hiroko Furusawa, Petr Grúz, Masamitsu Honma
Recently, we have reported that the FLO1-mediated flocculation levels of yeast are affected by an epigenetic mutagen, alizarin. Alizarin promoted flocculation and reduced the bulk levels of histone H3 in yeast cells. Since alizarin has been known to possess carcinogenesis-promoting properties, it is important to estimate the effect of alizarin-related compounds on epigenome as measured by the flocculation of yeast. In this study, we examined the effects of two anthracene-derived compounds other than alizarin on the flocculation level of yeast...
April 20, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387869/genotoxicity-study-of-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-in-female-wistar-rats-after-acute-oral-exposure
#15
Naresh Dumala, Bhanuramya Mangalampalli, Srinivas Chinde, Srinivas Indu Kumari, Mohammad Mahoob, Mohammad Fazlur Rahman, Paramjit Grover
Nanoparticles (NPs) apart from their widespread advantages and increased utilisation, have aroused concerns over their safe use. Nickel (II) oxides (NiO) NPs are used as catalysts, biosensors and in many of the consumer products. The increasing use of NiO NPs necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study, we investigated the acute genotoxic effects of NiO NPs by oral route administration with three different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bw)...
April 6, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096451/quantitative-relationships-between-lacz-mutant-frequency-and-dna-adduct-frequency-in-muta%C3%A2-mouse-tissues-and-cultured-cells-exposed-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone
#16
Paul A White, George R Douglas, David H Phillips, Volker M Arlt
The frequency of stable DNA adducts in a target tissue can be used to assess biologically effective dose; however, the utility of the metric in a risk assessment context depends on the likelihood that the DNA damage will be manifested as mutation. Previously, we employed the Muta™Mouse system to examine the induction of lacZ mutants and DNA adducts following exposure to the well-studied mutagenic carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). In this follow-up work, we examined the empirical relationships between total adduct frequency and mutant frequency (MF) in tissues and cultured cells following acute 3-NBA exposure...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096450/analysis-of-genome-instability-biomarkers-in-children-with-non-syndromic-orofacial-clefts
#17
Luíza Araújo da Costa Xavier, João Felipe Bezerra, Adriana Augusto de Rezende, Raffael Azevedo de Carvalho Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira Dalmolin, Viviane Souza do Amaral
The non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The possible role of genome instability on NSCL/P patient needs more investigation, since DNA metabolism is an essential cellular function to keep cells with normal genotypes and gene expression patterns according to tissue specificities, which is critical during embryo development because it requires sensitive regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057708/development-of-an-in-vitro-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-in-human-cells
#18
Benjamin J Rees, Matthew Tate, Anthony M Lynch, Catherine A Thornton, Gareth J Jenkins, Richard M Walmsley, George E Johnson
Mutagens can be carcinogens, and traditionally, they have been identified in vitro using the Salmonella 'Ames' reverse mutation assay. However, prokaryotic DNA packaging, replication and repair systems are mechanistically very different to those in the humans we inevitably seek to protect. Therefore, for many years, mammalian cell line genotoxicity assays that can detect eukaryotic mutagens as well as clastogens and aneugens have been used. The apparent lack of specificity in these largely rodent systems, due partly to their mutant p53 status, has contributed to the use of animal studies to resolve data conflicts...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932515/genotoxic-effect-of-iron-overload-and-disease-complications-in-transfused-%C3%AE-thalassaemic-patients
#19
Elisa Ferro, Giuseppa Visalli, Maria Angela La Rosa, Basilia Piraino, Rosa Civa, Gaetano Randazzo Papa, Angela Di Pietro
In previously reported studies, we observed significantly high genotoxicity biomarkers in regularly transfused thalassaemic patients, thus, in this study, we better investigated the genotoxic effect of iron overload and of thalassaemia complications, including their drug treatments. The assessment was performed in 64 regularly transfused thalassaemic patients using cytokinesis-block micronucleus and comet assays. All patients were splenectomised and undergoing iron chelation therapy. To reduce hypoxia-induced oxidative damage, the patients with haemoglobin levels <9...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831478/radio-adaptive-response-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-individuals-residing-in-high-level-natural-radiation-areas-of-kerala-in-the-southwest-coast-of-india
#20
E N Ramachandran, C V Karuppasamy, V Anil Kumar, D C Soren, P R Vivek Kumar, P K M Koya, G Jaikrishan, Birajalaxmi Das
The present study investigates whether the chronic low-dose radiation exposure induces an in vivo radio-adaptive response in individuals from high-level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of the Kerala coast. Peripheral blood samples from 54 adult male individuals aged between 26 and 65 years were collected for the study with written informed consent. Each of the whole blood sample was divided into three, one was sham irradiated, second and third was exposed to challenging doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma radiation, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
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