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David J Tweats, George E Johnson, Ivan Scandale, James Whitwell, Dean B Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Mutagenesis
Hunasanahally Puttaswamygowda Gurushankara, Ramamurthy Venu, Venkateshaiah Vasudev
To understand the role of hyperthermia (HT) in adaptive response, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) adapted meiotic cells of Poecilocerus pictus were used. Poecilocerus pictus were treated with conditioning (L) or challenging (H) dose of MMS and 2-h time lag (TL) between these doses (L-2h-H) (combined) was employed. Different treatment schedules were used to analyse the influence of HT on MMS-induced adaptive response namely pre; inter; post-treatment and cross-adaptation. After each treatment schedules, chromosomal anomalies were analysed...
July 6, 2018: Mutagenesis
Yang Liu, Yixiang Wang, Xiangyu Sun, Xianli Zhang, Xiaozhe Wang, Chenying Zhang, Shuguo Zheng
Disturbed permanent tooth eruption is common in cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), a skeletal disorder caused by heterozygous mutation of RUNX2, but the mechanism underlying is still unclear. As it is well known that dental follicle cells (DFCs) play a critical role in tooth eruption, the changed biological characteristics of DFCs might give rise to disturbance of permanent tooth eruption in CCD patients. Thus, primary DFCs from one CCD patient and normal controls were collected to investigate the effect of RUNX2 mutation on the bone remodeling activity of DFCs and explore the mechanism of impaired permanent tooth eruption in this disease...
June 26, 2018: Mutagenesis
Rafiqa Eachkoti, Sanah Farooq, Sheikh Imran Syeed, Hilal Ahmed Wani, Sabhiya Majid, Mohd Rafiq Pampori
Molecular studies have implicated mutant B-type Raf kinase (BRAFMut) of MAP-kinase signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of several cancers including colorectal cancer. Recently, the prognostic and therapeutic relevance of the most frequent BRAFV600E mutation also has been highlighted in colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation and to determine the correlation between this mutation and indicators of poor prognosis and outcome in patients with CRCs from Kashmir, North India...
May 23, 2018: Mutagenesis
Andreas Zeller, Stefan Pfuhler, Silvio Albertini, Frank Bringezu, Andreas Czich, Yasmin Dietz, Rolf Fautz, Nicola J Hewitt, Annette Kirst, Peter Kasper
Genotoxicity testing is an important part of standard safety testing strategies. Animal studies have always been a key component, either as a mandatory part of the regulatory test battery, or to follow-up questionable in vitro findings. The strengths and weaknesses of in vivo assays is a continuous matter of debate, including their capacity to predict (human) carcinogenicity. We have therefore analysed the sensitivity of five routinely used in vivo tests to determine, in addition to other aspects, which tests or combination of tests best identify 73 chemicals classified as IARC Group 1 and 2A carcinogens...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Cristiana M M Freire, Mariana G Braz, João Paulo C Marcondes, Nayara M Arruda, José Reinaldo C Braz, Cláudia A Rainho, Leandro G Braz, Daisy M F Salvadori
Despite the widespread use of the anaesthetics propofol (PROP) and isoflurane (ISO), data about their toxicogenomic potential and interference in epigenetic events are unknown. This study evaluated the expression and methylation profile of two important DNA-repair genes (XRCC1 and hOGG1) in 40 patients undergoing elective and minimally invasive surgery (tympanoplasty and septoplasty) under ISO or PROP anaesthesia. The endpoints were examined at three sampling times: before anaesthesia (T0), 2 h after the beginning of anaesthesia (T2) and 24 h after the beginning of surgery (T24)...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Vívian F Silva Kahl, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Daniel Simon, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mirian Salvador, Cátia Dos Santos Branco, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Flávia V Thiesen, Johnny F Dias, Claudia Telles de Souza, Michael Fenech, Juliana da Silva
Tobacco farming is an important economic income in Brazil, although it has been challenged as regard the occupational exposure to both pesticides and nicotine endured by farmers. Chronic occupational exposure to complex mixtures can lead to health hazardous. We examined genomic instability and epigenetic changes in tobacco farmers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in blood cells. Genomic DNA was isolated, and telomere length was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Abhishek Sadhu, Ilika Ghosh, Yuji Moriyasu, Anita Mukherjee, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
The effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeNP) in plants has elicited substantial controversy. While some investigators have reported that CeNP possesses antioxidant properties, others observed CeNP to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of considerable research carried out on the effects of CeNP in metazoans, fundamental studies that can unveil its intracellular consequences linking ROS production, autophagy and DNA damage are lacking in plants. To elucidate the impact of CeNP within plant cells, tobacco BY-2 cells were treated with 10, 50 and 250 µg ml-1 CeNP (Ce10, Ce50 and Ce250), for 24 h...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Hashim M Aljohani, Mohamed Aittaleb, John M Furgason, Peter Amaya, Ayham Deeb, Jeffery J Chalmers, El Mustapha Bahassi
Approximately 90% of all cancer deaths arise from the metastatic spread of primary tumours. Of all the processes involved in carcinogenesis, local invasion and the formation of metastases are clinically the most relevant, but they are the least well understood at the molecular level. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as 'anoikis', in circulation. The recent technological advances in the isolation and characterisation of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) will allow a better understanding of anoikis resistance...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Xinyue You, Tomoko Ando, Jing Xi, Yiyi Cao, Weiying Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Masamitsu Honma, Kenichi Masumura, Yang Luan
Flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a representative PBDE congener with widespread distribution and relatively high toxicity potential. Although it has been reported that BDE-47 can cause DNA damage in various in vitro systems, few studies have provided in vivo genotoxicity information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genotoxicity of BDE-47 in mice. Male gpt delta mice were administered BDE-47 by gavage at 0, 0...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Valentin P Volobaev, Aleksey V Larionov, Ekaterina E Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina S Serdyukova, Svetlana Yakovleva, Vladimir G Druzhinin, Olga O Babich, Elena G Hill, Victor A Semenihin, Nikolay I Panev, Varvara I Minina, Saravana Devi Sivanesan, Pravin Naoghare, Juliana da Silva, Gustavo R M Barcelos, Alexander Y Prosekov
Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1β T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963)...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Jana Lebedová, Yolanda S Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Hanna L Karlsson
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising nanomaterials used in different technological solutions as well as in consumer products. Silver (Ag), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) represent three metallic NPs with current or suggested use in different applications. Pt is also used as vehicle exhaust catalyst leading to a possible exposure via inhalation. Despite their use, there is limited data on their genotoxic potential and possible size-dependent effects, particularly for Pt NPs. The aim of this study was to explore size-dependent genotoxicity of these NPs (5 and 50 nm) following exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
José M Enciso, Kristine B Gutzkow, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Adela López de Cerain, Amaya Azqueta
The alkaline comet assay, in vivo and in vitro, is currently used in several areas of research and in regulatory genotoxicity testing. Several efforts have been made in order to decrease the inter-experimental and inter-laboratory variability and increase the reliability of the assay. In this regard, lysis conditions are considered as one of the critical variables and need to be further studied. Here, we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) and two different lysis solutions in human lymphoblast (TK6) cells unexposed or exposed to X-rays...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Peter Møller
During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Ezgi Eyluel Bankoglu, Florian Seyfried, Charlotte Arnold, Alexander Soliman, Christian Jurowich, Christoph Thomas Germer, Christoph Otto, Helga Stopper
Obesity is associated with several detrimental health consequences, among them an increased risk for development of cancer, and an overall elevated mortality. Multiple factors like hyperinsulinemia, chronic microinflammation and oxidative stress may be involved. The comet assay has been proven to be very sensitive for detection of DNA damage and has been used to explore the relationship between overweight/obesity and DNA damage, but results are controversial. Very few investigations have been performed to correlate weight loss of obese individuals and possible reduction of DNA damage and these studies have not provided clear results...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Danieli Benedetti, Barbara Lopes Alderete, Claudia Telles de Souza, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Liana Niekraszewicz, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Juliana Da Silva
Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. However, epidemiological studies are scarce, and further work is needed to find biomarkers sensitive to the health of exposed populations. Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. The alkaline comet assay modified with restriction enzyme (hOGG1: human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) was used to detect oxidised guanine, and compared with the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, global methylation, haematological parameters, biochemical analyses (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and butyrylcholinesterase), and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of inorganic elements...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Siri Helland Hansen, Agnieszka J Pawlowicz, Leif Kronberg, Kristine Bjerve Gützkow, Ann-Karin Olsen, Gunnar Brunborg
The alkaline comet assay and a cell-free system were used to characterise DNA lesions induced by treatment with glycidamide (GA), a metabolite of the food contaminant acrylamide. DNA lesions induced by GA were sensitively detected when the formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme was included in the comet assay. We used LC-MS to characterise modified bases from GA-treated naked DNA with and without subsequent Fpg treatment. N7-GA-Guanine and N3-GA-Adenine aglycons were detected in the supernatant showing some depurination of adducted bases; treatment of naked DNA with Fpg revealed no further increase in the adduct yield nor occurrence of other adducted nucleobases...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
Amaya Azqueta, Elisa Rundén-Pran, Elisabeth Elje, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Kristiane Haug Berg, Ingrida Smeringaiova, Katerina Jirsova, Andrew R Collins
The human eye is relatively unexplored as a source of cells for investigating DNA damage. There have been some clinical studies, using cells from surgically removed tissues, and altered DNA bases as well as strand breaks have been measured using the comet assay. Tissues examined include corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens capsule, iris and retinal pigment epithelium. For the purpose of biomonitoring for exposure to potential mutagens in the environment, the eye-relatively unprotected as it is compared with the skin-would be a valuable object for study; non-invasive techniques exist to collect lachrymal duct cells from tears, or cells from the ocular surface by impression cytology, and these methods should be further developed and validated...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
John Einset, Andrew R Collins
Among several factors affecting radiation sensitivity, genome size has received limited attention during the last 50 years since research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) and other locations demonstrated substantial differences in radiation sensitivities, e.g. between tree species with large (e.g. conifers such as pines) versus small (e.g. dicots such as oaks) genome sizes. Taking advantage of the wide range of genome sizes among species, we investigated radiation sensitivity which we define in this study as DNA damage (break frequency) measured with the alkaline comet assay in isolated nuclei exposed to X-rays...
February 24, 2018: Mutagenesis
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