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Functional Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976608/network-functional-connectivity-and-whole-brain-functional-connectomics-to-investigate-cognitive-decline-in-neurodegenerative-conditions
#1
O Dipasquale, Mara Cercignani
Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC...
December 15, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976607/the-challenge-of-in-vivo-tissue-characterization-connectivity-and-big-data
#2
C Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938528/modeling-white-matter-microstructure
#3
T Duval, N Stikov, J Cohen-Adad
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging can be combined with advanced biophysical models to measure microstructural features of white matter. Non-invasive microstructural imaging has the potential to revolutionize neuroscience, and acquiring these measures in clinically feasible times would greatly improve patient monitoring and clinical studies of drug efficacy. However, a good understanding of microstructural imaging techniques is essential to set realistic expectations and to prevent over-interpretation of results...
December 12, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#4
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072386/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#5
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072385/connectivity-measures-in-the-poffenberger-paradigm-indicate-hemispheric-asymmetries
#6
N Erbil, Suha Yagcioglu
The Poffenberger paradigm is a well-known measure of interhemispheric transfer delays, calculated on the basis of the crossed vs uncrossed reaction time difference (CUD). However, the proper interpretation of CUD is extensively debated in the literature. In this study we used connectivity measures in an attempt to interpret CUD from the perspective of functional connectivity. Accordingly, we tried to define functional couplings in the Poffenberger paradigm; we used a simple choice version of the paradigm, and included a stimulation only (SO) condition for comparison...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#7
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072383/reconstructing-contralateral-fiber-tracts-methodological-aspects-of-cerebello-thalamocortical-pathway-reconstruction
#8
Fulvia Palesi, Jacques-Donald Tournier, F Calamante, Nils Muhlert, Gloria Castellazzi, Declan Chard, E D'Angelo, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-resolution maps, created with track density imaging (TDI), were compared with those reconstructed by defining regions of interest (ROIs) on non-diffusion weighted images (b0)...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072382/modeling-white-matter-microstructure
#9
REVIEW
T Duval, N Stikov, J Cohen-Adad
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging can be combined with advanced biophysical models to measure microstructural features of white matter. Non-invasive microstructural imaging has the potential to revolutionize neuroscience, and acquiring these measures in clinically feasible times would greatly improve patient monitoring and clinical studies of drug efficacy. However, a good understanding of microstructural imaging techniques is essential to set realistic expectations and to prevent over-interpretation of results...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072381/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#10
REVIEW
A Del Sole, S Malaspina, Alberto Magenta Biasina
Neuroimaging, both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), has gained a pivotal role in the diagnosis of primary neurodegenerative diseases. These two techniques are used as biomarkers of both pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is able to identify structural changes including patterns of atrophy characterizing neurodegenerative diseases, and to distinguish these from other causes of cognitive impairment, e...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072380/network-functional-connectivity-and-whole-brain-functional-connectomics-to-investigate-cognitive-decline-in-neurodegenerative-conditions
#11
REVIEW
O Dipasquale, Mara Cercignani
Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072379/the-challenge-of-in-vivo-tissue-characterization-connectivity-and-big-data
#12
EDITORIAL
C Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666410/incidence-and-predictors-of-stroke-during-the-index-event-in-an-ethnically-diverse-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-population
#13
A Dias, E Franco, S Janzer, Nikoloz Koshkelashvili, V Bhalla, Manolo Rubio, Sarah Amanullah, Kathy Hebert, Vincent M Figueredo
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population...
September 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428291/new-test-of-odor-pleasantness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Kristyna Pospichalova, Jan Vodicka, Ales Kopal
The New Test of Odor Pleasantness (NTOP) evaluates the hedonicity of olfactory stimulants. The aim of this study was to compare results of the NTOP, the Sniffin' Sticks test, and the Odorized Marker Test (OMT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The study sample comprised 30 PD patients (mean age 71±7.36 years) and the control group made up of 31 non-PD subjects (mean age 68±12.39 years). Sociodemographic data, medical history and tests of cognitive function were investigated. Olfaction was evaluated using the NTOP, Sniffin' Sticks test and OMT...
July 18, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428290/robot-assisted-gait-training-versus-treadmill-training-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-kinematic-evaluation-with-gait-profile-score
#15
M Galli, V Cimolin, M F De Pandis, D Le Pera, I Sova, G Albertini, F Stocchi, M Franceschini
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects, on walking performance, of end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training versus intensive training with a treadmill in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty patients with PD were randomly divided into two groups: 25 were assigned to the robot-assisted therapy group (RG) and 25 to the intensive treadmill therapy group (IG). They were evaluated with clinical examination and 3D quantitative gait analysis [gait profile score (GPS) and its constituent gait variable scores (GVSs) were calculated from gait analysis data] at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the treatment...
July 18, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428289/spectrum-of-cognitive-disorders-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#16
Marta Picascia, B Minafra, Roberta Zangaglia, L Gracardi, N G Pozzi, E Sinforiani, Claudio Pacchetti
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by ventricular dilation accompanied by a progressive triad of a gait disturbance, "dementia" and incontinence. We retrospectively evaluated cognitive profile, and its relationship with disease variables, in 64 iNPH patients. The iNPH group performed significantly worse than the control group on all neuropsychological tests, except for verbal memory (within the normal range). The patients were subdivided into four groups: group 1 (42%: global cognitive impairment); group 2 (24%: frontosubcortical dysfunction); group 3 (17%: isolated deficit of a single cognitive domain); group 4 (17%: no cognitive impairment)...
July 18, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428288/women-with-epilepsy-clinically-relevant-issues
#17
S Bangar, Abhishek Shastri, Hany El-Sayeh, Andrea E Cavanna
Women with epilepsy (WWE) face specific challenges throughout their lifespan due to the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs on hormonal function, potentially affecting both sexual and reproductive health. This review article addresses the most common issues of practical relevance to clinicians treating WWE: epidemiology and clinical presentations (including catamenial epilepsy), contraception, reproductive and sexual dysfunction, pregnancy, lactation, menopause-related issues (including bone health), and mental health aspects...
July 18, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678213/what-is-cluster-headache-fact-sheet-for-patients-and-their-families-a-publication-to-mark-cluster-headache-day-2016
#18
Paolo Rossi, J Whelan, A Craven, E Ruiz De La Torre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678212/post-stroke-spasticity-as-a-condition-a-new-perspective-on-patient-evaluation
#19
LETTER
A Baricich, A Picelli, F Molteni, E Guanziroli, Andrea Santamato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678211/frailty-and-resilience-in-an-older-population-the-role-of-resilience-during-rehabilitation-after-orthopedic-surgery-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-comorbidities
#20
G A A Rebagliati, L Sciumè, P Iannello, A Mottini, A Antonietti, V A Caserta, V Gattoronchieri, Lorenzo Panella, Camilla Callegari
Hip fracture is common in the elderly and it is usually associated with comorbidities and physiological changes which may have an impact on functioning and quality of life. The concept of resilience may explain why this impact varies among patients. The aim of this open, prospective cohort study was to explore the relationships between resilience, frailty and quality of life in orthopedic rehabilitation patients, and also to assess whether these factors might affect rehabilitation outcome. Eighty-one patients, older than 60 years, underwent a multidisciplinary assessment at the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation period following orthopedic surgery to the lower limb...
July 2016: Functional Neurology
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