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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741272/proton-pump-inhibitor-and-histamine-2-receptor-antagonist-use-and-risk-of-liver-cancer-in-two-population-based-studies
#1
K T Tran, Ú C McMenamin, B Hicks, P Murchie, A P Thrift, H G Coleman, L Iversen, B T Johnston, A J Lee, C R Cardwell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly used. PPIs have been shown to promote liver cancer in rats; however, only one study has examined the association in humans. AIMS: To investigate PPIs and H2RAs and risk of primary liver cancer in two large independent study populations. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Primary Care Clinical Informatics Unit (PCCIU) database in which up to five controls were matched to cases with primary liver cancer, recorded by General Practitioners...
May 9, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741240/follow-up-magnetic-resonance-imaging-3d-magnetic-resonance-cholangiopancreatography-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-challenging-for-experts-to-interpret
#2
R Zenouzi, T Liwinski, J Yamamura, C Weiler-Normann, M Sebode, S Keller, A W Lohse, C Schramm
BACKGROUND: In patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is performed by many centres, particularly for the early detection of biliary malignancies and strictures. Clinically meaningful MRI-based definitions of primary sclerosing cholangitis related complications are, however, lacking. AIM: To investigate how primary sclerosing cholangitis experts interpret follow-up MRI/MRCP with a focus on conclusions that may impact clinical decision-making in primary sclerosing cholangitis...
May 9, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737553/post-operative-complications-in-elderly-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-study
#3
S-C Sacleux, H Sarter, M Fumery, C Charpentier, N Guillon-Dellac, H Coevoet, B Pariente, L Peyrin-Biroulet, C Gower-Rousseau, G Savoye
BACKGROUND: IBD diagnosed after the age of 60 is increasing. Data on post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD are scarce. AIM: To describe the incidence of and factors associated with post-operative complications in elderly onset IBD, diagnosed after the age of 60. METHODS: Using EPIMAD Cohort (1988-2006), among 841 incident IBD patients, 139 (17%) underwent intestinal surgery, including 100 Crohn's disease (CD) and 39 ulcerative colitis (UC)...
May 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733115/food-knowledge-and-psychological-state-predict-adherence-to-a-gluten-free-diet-in-a-survey-of-5310-australians-and-new-zealanders-with-coeliac-disease
#4
E P Halmos, M Deng, S R Knowles, K Sainsbury, B Mullan, J A Tye-Din
BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet treats coeliac disease, but its efficacy depends on strict adherence. A variety of patient factors may influence adherence but have not been well described at a population level. AIM: To comprehensively assess the patient factors that influence gluten-free diet adherence in patients with coeliac disease. METHODS: Patients with coeliac disease completed an online survey comprising the validated Celiac Dietary Adherence Test in addition to data on demographics, details of diagnosis and management and assessment of diet knowledge, quality of life and psychological distress...
May 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722445/review-article-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722441/systematic-review-safety-of-mesalazine-in-ulcerative-colitis
#6
REVIEW
P Sehgal, J-F Colombel, A Aboubakr, N Narula
BACKGROUND: Mesalazine is the most commonly prescribed medication for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. It is generally well tolerated with some reported side effects. AIM: To summarise adverse drug events to mesalazine and recommend techniques for management. Furthermore, to determine if there is a dose-dependent relationship between high (>2.4 g/day) vs low dosing (≤2.4 g/day) and occurrence of adverse drug events. METHODS: A literature search for relevant studies from inception to 1 December 2017 of the MEDLINE database was conducted...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722439/high-efficacy-of-direct-acting-anti-viral-agents-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-cirrhotic-patients-with-successfully-treated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
M Persico, A Aglitti, A Aghemo, M Rendina, A Lleo, A Ciancio, V Di Marco, P Lampertico, M R Brunetto, M Zuin, P Andreone, E Villa, G Troshina, V Calvaruso, E Degasperi, B Coco, A Giorgini, F Conti, A Di Leo, L Marzi, V Boccaccio, S Bollani, P Maisonneuve, S Bruno
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) therapy in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. AIM: We prospectively evaluated whether previously treated HCC affects DAA efficacy in a large real-life cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: From January to December 2015 all consecutive HCV mono-infected patients with cirrhosis and/or history of HCC attending 10 Italian tertiary liver centres were enrolled...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722430/review-article-short-chain-fatty-acids-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-in-human-gastrointestinal-and-inflammatory-disorders
#8
REVIEW
P A Gill, M C van Zelm, J G Muir, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Butyrate, propionate and acetate are short chain fatty acids (SCFA), important for maintaining a healthy colon and are considered as protective in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, they may also regulate immune responses and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Consequently, their importance in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is emerging. AIMS: To review the physiology and metabolism of SCFA in humans, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which SCFA may act in health and disease, and approaches for therapeutic delivery of SCFA...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701277/review-article-therapeutic-bile-acids-and-the-risks-for-hepatotoxicity
#9
REVIEW
K Ashby, E E Navarro Almario, W Tong, J Borlak, R Mehta, M Chen
BACKGROUND: Bile acids play important roles in cholesterol metabolism and signal through farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled receptors. Given their importance in liver biology, bile acid therapy enables therapeutic applications beyond the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. However, predicting hepatotoxicity of bile acids in humans is obscured due to inconsistent extrapolations of animal data to humans. AIM: To review the evidence that could explain discordant bile acids hepatotoxicity observed in humans and animals...
April 27, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696674/a-pilot-single-arm-observational-study-of-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-200-45-mg-in-6-to-12-year-old-children
#10
M H F El-Shabrawi, N M Kamal, H R El-Khayat, E M Kamal, M M A H AbdElgawad, M Yakoot
BACKGROUND: No available data on the use of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir combination in treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children 6- to 12- year old. AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in children 6- to 12- year old with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection. METHODS: This is a pilot prospective single arm observational open-label multicentre study. A total of 20 consecutive eligible chronic HCV infected children, aged from 6- to 12- years were included in this study and treated with a fixed sofosbuvir/ledipasvir combination in half the adult dose (200/45 mg) once daily for 12 weeks...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696671/safety-and-efficacy-of-pasireotide-in-dumping-syndrome-results-from-a-phase-2-multicentre-study
#11
J Tack, J Aberle, J Arts, M Laville, J-M Oppert, G Bender, S Bhoyrul, T McLaughlin, T Yoshikawa, A Vella, J Zhou, V Q Passos, P O'Connell, A P Van Beek
BACKGROUND: Dumping syndrome is a prevalent complication of oesophageal and gastric surgery characterised by early (postprandial tachycardia) and late (hypoglycaemia) postprandial symptoms. AIM: To evaluate efficacy and safety of the somatostatin analogue, pasireotide in patients with dumping syndrome after bariatric or upper gastrointestinal cancer surgery. METHODS: A single-arm, open-label, multicentre, intrapatient dose-escalation, phase 2 study with 4 phases: screening, 3-month SC (subcutaneous), 3-month IM (intramuscular) and 6-month optional extension IM phase...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696670/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-endoscopic-and-histologic-placebo-rates-in-induction-and-maintenance-trials-of-ulcerative-colitis
#12
C Ma, L Guizzetti, R Panaccione, R N Fedorak, R K Pai, C E Parker, T M Nguyen, R Khanna, N Vande Casteele, G D'Haens, W J Sandborn, B G Feagan, V Jairath
BACKGROUND: Regulatory requirements for claims of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis (UC) will require demonstration of both endoscopic and histologic healing. Quantifying these rates is essential for future drug development. AIMS: To meta-analyse endoscopic and histologic placebo response and remission rates in UC randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and identify factors influencing these rates. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2017 for placebo-controlled trials of pharmacological interventions for UC...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696666/randomised-clinical-trial-a-leucine-metformin-sildenafil-combination-ns-0200-vs-placebo-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
N Chalasani, R Vuppalanchi, M Rinella, M S Middleton, M S Siddiqui, A S Barritt, O Kolterman, O Flores, C Alonso, M Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, R Gil-Redondo, C B Sirlin, M B Zemel
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is suppressed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while its' stimulation or overexpression results in reduced disease severity in pre-clinical NAFLD models. Leucine allosterically activates Sirt1 and synergise with other Sirt/AMPK/NO pathway activators. We developed a triple combination of leucine, metformin and sildenafil (NS-0200), which was effective in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). AIM: To report the results from a Phase 2, randomised clinical trial of of NS-0200 in 91 subjects with NAFLD (liver fat ≥15% by magnetic resonance imaging-proton-density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF))...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696665/using-the-chronic-kidney-disease-guidelines-to-evaluate-the-renal-safety-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-hepatitis-b-patients
#14
H J Tsai, Y W Chuang, S W Lee, C Y Wu, H Z Yeh, T Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction remains an issue in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. AIM: To evaluate renal safety of TDF according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. METHODS: We retrospectively recruited CHB patients who received either TDF or entecavir (ETV) monotherapy from January 2008 to August 2015. After excluding confounding conditions, 253 patients who received TDF were randomly matched 1:2 with 506 patients who received ETV through the propensity scores, which consisted of age, gender, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672874/review-article-novel-oral-targeted-therapies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
J R White, F Phillips, T Monaghan, W Fateen, S Samuel, S Ghosh, G W Moran
BACKGROUND: There is a great unmet clinical need for efficacious, tolerable, economical and orally administrated drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New therapeutic avenues have become possible including the development of medications that target specific genetic pathways found to be relevant in other immune mediated diseases. AIMS: To provide an overview of recent clinical trials for new generation oral targeted medications that may have a future role in IBD management...
April 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667211/randomised-clinical-trial-gastrointestinal-events-in-arthritis-patients-treated-with-celecoxib-ibuprofen-or-naproxen-in-the-precision-trial
#16
N D Yeomans, D Y Graham, M E Husni, D H Solomon, T Stevens, J Vargo, Q Wang, L M Wisniewski, K E Wolski, J S Borer, P Libby, A M Lincoff, T F Lüscher, W Bao, C Walker, S E Nissen
BACKGROUND: We evaluated GI safety of celecoxib compared with 2 nonselective (ns) NSAIDs, as a secondary objective of a large trial examining multiorgan safety. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind controlled trial analysed 24 081 patients. Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients, needing ongoing NSAID treatment, were randomised to receive celecoxib 100-200 mg b.d., ibuprofen 600-800 mg t.d.s. or naproxen 375-500 mg b.d. plus esomeprazole, and low-dose aspirin or corticosteroids if already prescribed...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665097/real-world-use-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-retrospective-analyses-from-the-trio-network
#17
S L Flamm, B Bacon, M P Curry, S Milligan, C U Nwankwo, N Tsai, Z Younossi, N Afdhal
BACKGROUND: Elbasvir-grazoprevir is indicated for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4. AIMS: To evaluate the utilization and outcomes of chronic HCV patients treated with elbasvir-grazoprevir in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults treated with elbasvir-grazoprevir with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV genotypes 1 or 4 infection. Data were collected from healthcare providers and specialty pharmacies through Innervation Platform, a proprietary, cloud-based disease management program from Trio Health...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665081/safety-of-sofosbuvir-based-regimens-after-liver-transplantation-longitudinal-assessment-of-renal-function-in-the-prospective-anrs-co23-cupilt-study
#18
R Anty, G Favre, A Coilly, E Rossignol, P Houssel-Debry, C Duvoux, V De Ledinghen, V Di Martino, V Leroy, S Radenne, N Kamar, V Canva, L D'Alteroche, F Durand, J Dumortier, P Lebray, C Besch, A Tran, C M Canivet, D Botta-Fridlund, H Montialoux, C Moreno, F Conti, C Silvain, P Perré, F Habersetzer, A Abergel, M Debette-Gratien, S Dharancy, V L M Esnault, C Fougerou-Leurent, C Cagnot, A Diallo, A Veislinger, H Danjou, D Samuel, G-P Pageaux, J-C Duclos-Vallée
BACKGROUND: In liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus recurrence, there is concern about renal safety of sofosbuvir-based regimens. Changes in serum creatinine or in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under treatment are used to look for possible renal toxicity. However, serum creatinine and eGFR are highly variable. AIM: To analyse renal function trajectory with numerous assays of serum creatinine over a long period of time. METHODS: In a multicentre cohort of 139 patients, the eGFR was obtained from serum creatinine using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665069/generic-velpatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-patients-with-or-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#19
C-H Liu, H-Y Sun, C-J Liu, W-H Sheng, S-M Hsieh, Y-C Lo, W-C Liu, T-H Su, H-C Yang, C-M Hong, T-C Tseng, P-J Chen, D-S Chen, C-C Hung, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic velpatasvir plus sofosbuvir (VEL/SOF) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of generic VEL/SOF-based therapy for HCV infection in patients with or without HIV coinfection in Taiwan. METHODS: Sixty-nine HIV/HCV-coinfected and 159 HCV-monoinfected patients receiving 12 weeks of generic VEL/SOF with or without ribavirin (RBV) for HCV were prospectively enrolled...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665045/high-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-treatment-failure-and-surgery-in-biologic-treated-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#20
S Kurnool, N H Nguyen, J Proudfoot, P S Dulai, B S Boland, N Vande Casteele, E Evans, E L Grunvald, A Zarrinpar, W J Sandborn, S Singh
BACKGROUND: Though pharmacokinetic studies suggest accelerated biologic drug clearance with increasing body weight, evidence of obesity's impact on clinical outcomes in biologic-treated patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is inconsistent. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of obesity on real world response to biological therapy in patients with UC. METHODS: In a single-centre retrospective cohort study between 2011-2016 of biologic-treated patients with UC, we evaluated treatment response by baseline body mass index (BMI)...
April 17, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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