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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910121/letter-retreatment-of-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-who-have-failed-interferon-free-combination-therapy-with-direct-acting-anti-virals
#1
LETTER
K Kozbial, S W Aberle, S Susser, R Al-Zoairy, S Moser, A F Stättermayer, A Maieron, M Gschwantler, R Stauber, I Graziadei, H Zoller, S Beinhardt, H Holzmann, P Munda-Steindl, H Hofer, C Sarrazin, P Ferenci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910116/the-cost-effectiveness-of-testing-for-ns5a-resistance-associated-polymorphisms-at-baseline-in-genotype-1a-infected-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treatment-experienced-subjects-treated-with-all-oral-elbasvir-grazoprevir-regimens-in-the-united-states
#2
E H Elbasha, M N Robertson, C Nwankwo
BACKGROUND: The presence of baseline NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) impacted treatment response in HCV genotype 1a (GT1a)-infected patients treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) for 12 weeks, but not patients treated with EBR/GZR and ribavirin (RBV) for 16 weeks. AIM: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of baseline testing for NS5A RAVs in EBR/GZR-treated patients compared without testing and with current treatments for GT1a patients. METHODS: We simulated the course of treatment with EBR/GZR, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir (3D) with or without RBV and natural history of disease of GT1a patients...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910115/an-expert-consensus-definition-of-failure-of-a-treatment-to-provide-adequate-relief-f-par-for-chronic-constipation-an-international-delphi-survey
#3
J Tack, H Boardman, P Layer, I Schiefke, D Jayne, C Scarpignato, M Fox, T Frieling, P Ducrotte, S Hamdy, K Gill, C Ciriza de Los Rios, R Felt-Bersma, D De Looze, V Stanghellini, A Mohr Drewes, M Simrén, C Pehl, T Hoheisel, A Leodolter, E Rey, J Dalrymple, A Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: As treatments for constipation become increasingly available, it is important to know when to progress along the treatment algorithm if the patient is not better. AIM: To establish the definition of failure of a treatment to provide adequate relief (F-PAR) to support this management and referral process in patients with chronic constipation. METHODS: We conducted an international Delphi Survey among gastroenterologists and general practitioners with a special interest in chronic constipation...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910113/diagnostic-accuracy-of-faecal-biomarkers-in-detecting-colorectal-cancer-and-adenoma-in-symptomatic-patients
#4
M M Widlak, C L Thomas, M G Thomas, C Tomkins, S Smith, N O'Connell, S Wurie, L Burns, C Harmston, C Evans, C U Nwokolo, B Singh, R P Arasaradnam
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be difficult as symptoms are variable with poor specificity. Thus, there is a quest for simple, non-invasive testing that can help streamline those with significant colonic pathology. AIM: To assess using faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) or faecal calprotectin (FCP) to detect CRC and adenoma in symptomatic patients referred from primary care. METHODS: A total of 799 referred for urgent lower gastrointestinal investigations were prospectively recruited...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896822/simeprevir-in-combination-with-sofosbuvir-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-experienced-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-infection-a-phase-iii-open-label-single-arm-study-pluto
#5
M Buti, J L Calleja, S Lens, M Diago, E Ortega, J Crespo, R Planas, M Romero-Gómez, F G Rodríguez, J M Pascasio, B Fevery, D Kurland, C Corbett, R Kalmeijer, W Jessner
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV genotype 4 is found widely in the Middle East, Egypt and Africa, and has also spread into Europe. There are limited data available regarding the use of direct-acting antiviral agents in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with cirrhosis. AIM: The Phase III, open-label, single-arm PLUTO study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of simeprevir (HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (HCV nucleotide-analogue NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in treatment-naïve and (peg)interferon ± ribavirin-experienced HCV genotype 4-infected patients, with or without compensated cirrhosis...
November 29, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896821/clinical-symptom-tool-that-raises-the-index-of-suspicion-for-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-in-adults-and-drives-earlier-biopsy-for-definitive-diagnosis
#6
U von Arnim, F-W Röhl, S Miehlke, D Jechorek, D Reinhold, T Wex, P Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) present with overlapping symptomatology and it is challenging to distinguish EoE from GERD clinically before endoscopy. AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of a set of clinical symptoms and laboratory values in patients with EoE and GERD. METHODS: In this prospective, single-centre, observational study, we compared clinical and laboratory data from 202 patients with EoE or GERD (10 relevant characteristics)...
November 29, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#7
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
November 28, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891639/consensus-report-faecal-microbiota-transfer-clinical-applications-and-procedures
#8
REVIEW
J König, A Siebenhaar, C Högenauer, P Arkkila, M Nieuwdorp, T Norén, C Y Ponsioen, U Rosien, N G Rossen, R Satokari, A Stallmach, W de Vos, J Keller, R J Brummer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication. AIM: To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891632/randomised-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-vonoprazan-vs-lansoprazole-in-patients-with-gastric-or-duodenal-ulcers-results-from-two-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trials
#9
H Miwa, N Uedo, J Watari, Y Mori, Y Sakurai, Y Takanami, A Nishimura, T Tatsumi, N Sakaki
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan is a new potassium-competitive acid blocker for treatment of acid-related diseases. AIM: To conduct two randomised-controlled trials, to evaluate the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, for treatment of gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with ≥1 endoscopically-confirmed GU or DU (≥5 mm white coating) were randomised 1:1 using double-dummy blinding to receive lansoprazole (30 mg) or vonoprazan (20 mg) for 8 (GU study) or 6 (DU study) weeks...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885681/dynamics-of-occurrence-of-refractory-coeliac-disease-and-associated-complications-over-25%C3%A2-years
#10
W Eigner, K Bashir, C Primas, L Kazemi-Shirazi, F Wrba, M Trauner, H Vogelsang
BACKGROUND: Refractory coeliac disease, enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma are rare but prognostically important complications in coeliac disease. AIM: To analyse potential changes in occurrence of complicated coeliac disease over the last 25 years. METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty eight patients were included and evaluated based on their time of first presentation at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria...
November 25, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878833/presence-of-intraepithelial-food-antigen-in-patients-with-active-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#11
E V Marietta, D M Geno, T C Smyrk, A Becker, J A Alexander, M Camilleri, J A Murray, D A Katzka
BACKGROUND: Although eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is putatively mediated by an abnormal response to food antigen, the oesophagus is considered relatively impermeable to large molecules. AIM: To assess whether food antigens penetrate the oesophageal mucosa in patients with EoE. METHODS: Anti-gliadin staining was performed in three groups: active EoE, inactive EoE and EoE patients on a low or gluten free diet. To appraise the specificity of our results, we also performed gliadin staining on six patients without oesophageal disease who were consuming gluten...
November 22, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878827/review-article-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#12
REVIEW
C Grégoire, C Lechanteur, A Briquet, É Baudoux, F Baron, E Louis, Y Beguin
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert powerful immunomodulatory effects and stimulate tissue repair. AIM: To review the current data on mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in IBD. METHOD: We searched PubMed and 'ClinicalTrials.gov' databases using the terms 'mesenchymal stromal cells', 'mesenchymal stem cell transplantation', 'inflammatory bowel diseases', 'Crohn disease' and 'colitis, ulcerative'...
November 22, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868217/chronic-opioid-use-is-associated-with-altered-gut-microbiota-and-predicts-readmissions-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#13
C Acharya, N S Betrapally, P M Gillevet, R K Sterling, H Akbarali, M B White, D Ganapathy, A Fagan, M Sikaroodi, J S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is epidemic in cirrhosis, which could precipitate hepatic encephalopathy (HE) potentially through gut dysbiosis and inflammation. AIM: To define the effect of opioids on readmissions and on gut microbiota composition and functionality. METHODS: Cohort 1 had 200 cirrhotic in-patients (with/without opioid use) followed prospectively through the index hospitalisation and 6 months post discharge. Readmissions (HE-related/unrelated) were compared between patients discharged on opioids compared to the rest, including using a multi-variable analysis...
November 20, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868216/the-endoscopic-reference-score-shows-modest-accuracy-to-predict-either-clinical-or-histological-activity-in-adult-patients-with-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#14
J Rodríguez-Sánchez, J Barrio-Andrés, O Nantes Castillejo, E Valdivieso-Cortazar, I Pérez-Martínez, A Boumidi, J A Olmos-Jérez, G Payeras-Llodra, N Alcaide-Suarez, L Ruiz-Rebollo, B Madrigal-Rubiales, E Gonzalez-Obeso, E de la Santa Belda, B López Viedma, J Molina-Infante
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results have been recently reported for the accuracy of the Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS), an standardised endoscopic classification, to predict the histological activity of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of the EREFS to predict either histological or clinical activity of EoE. METHODS: Prospective multicentre study conducted in eight Spanish centres evaluating adult EoE patients, either naïve or after treatment...
November 20, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868215/the-contribution-of-clinical-and-psychosocial-factors-to-fatigue-in-182-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
M Artom, W Czuber-Dochan, J Sturt, T Murrells, C Norton
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a frequently reported and predominant symptom experienced by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its impact has been associated with poorer quality of life (QoL). The complex interplay between disease-related variables and potentially modifiable psychosocial factors in IBD-fatigue has yet to be unravelled. AIM: To evaluate the contribution of clinical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors to the severity and impact of IBD-fatigue and QoL...
November 20, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859470/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases-and-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#16
J S Ahn, D H Sinn, Y W Min, S N Hong, H S Kim, S-H Jung, S Gu, P-L Rhee, S W Paik, H J Son, G-Y Gwak
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with colorectal neoplasia. Yet, NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. AIM: To investigate the risk of colorectal neoplasia according to the presence and severity of NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 26 540 asymptomatic adults who underwent same day first-time colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography as a health check-up programme were analysed...
November 18, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859421/the-learning-curve-for-interpretation-of-oesophageal-high-resolution-manometry-a-prospective-interventional-cohort-study
#17
S Gaddam, C A Reddy, S Munigala, A Patel, N Kanuri, S Almaskeen, M K Rude, A Abdalla, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: High-resolution manometry has become the preferred choice of oesophagologists for oesophageal motor assessment, but the learning curve among trainees remains unclear. AIM: To determine the learning curve of high-resolution manometry interpretation. METHODS: A prospective interventional cohort study was performed on 18 gastroenterology trainees, naïve to high-resolution manometry (median age 32 ± 4.0 years, 44.4% female). An intake questionnaire and a 1-h standardised didactic session were performed at baseline...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859412/oesophageal-lichen-planus-the-efficacy-of-topical-steroid-based-therapies
#18
A Podboy, D Sunjaya, T C Smyrk, J A Murray, M Binder, D A Katzka, J A Alexander, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder characterized by significant oesophageal stricturing. Oesophageal lichen planus is a rare, difficult to diagnose, and likely an under recognized disease. As a result, there is no standardized approach to therapy and treatment strategies vary. AIM: To examine the utility of topical steroid therapy (fluticasone or budesonide) in the management of oesophageal lichen planus. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients diagnosed with oesophageal lichen planus who underwent baseline and follow up endoscopy pre and post topical steroid therapy between 1995 and 2016 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859410/effects-of-vedolizumab-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-results-from-the-randomised-gemini-1-trial
#19
B G Feagan, H Patel, J-F Colombel, D T Rubin, A James, R Mody, K Lasch
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is often diminished in patients with ulcerative colitis. AIM: To evaluate the effects of vedolizumab on HRQL in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Using maintenance phase data from the GEMINI 1 study, an analysis of covariance model was used to calculate mean differences between the vedolizumab and placebo groups in changes from baseline to week 52 for 3 HRQL instruments: The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and EQ-5D...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859394/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-comparative-effectiveness-of-aspirin-vs-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-prevention
#20
REVIEW
L Emilsson, Ø Holme, M Bretthauer, N R Cook, J E Buring, M Løberg, H-O Adami, H D Sesso, M J Gaziano, M Kalager
BACKGROUND: Both aspirin use and screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy or guaiac faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) may reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, but comparative effectiveness of these interventions is unknown. AIM: To compare aspirin to guaiac FOBT screening with regard to incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE and the COCHRANE central register (CENTRAL) for relevant randomised trials identified until 31 October 2015...
November 17, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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