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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914448/significant-burden-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-the-us-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-2011-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#1
R J Wong, B Liu, T Bhuket
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the US. Understanding the epidemiology of NAFLD, with specific focus on individuals with hepatic fibrosis is important to guide healthcare resource planning. AIM: To evaluate prevalence and predictors of hepatic fibrosis among US adults with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the updated 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national, stratified, multistage sampling survey of non-institutionalised US adults age ≥ 20...
September 15, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914446/risk-factors-for-thiopurine-induced-myelosuppression-and-infections-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-a-normal-tpmt-genotype
#2
M M T J Broekman, M J H Coenen, G J Wanten, C J van Marrewijk, O H Klungel, A L M Verbeek, P M Hooymans, H-J Guchelaar, H Scheffer, L J J Derijks, D R Wong, D J de Jong
BACKGROUND: Leucopenia is a common side effect in patients treated with thiopurines. Variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene are the best-known risk factor, but only explain up to 25% of leucopenia cases. AIM: To identify the clinical risk factors for thiopurine-induced leucopenia in patients without a common TPMT variant, and explore if these patients are at increased risk for infections. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the Thiopurine response Optimisation by Pharmacogenetic testing in Inflammatory bowel disease Clinics (TOPIC) trial...
September 15, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901565/review-article-next-generation-transformative-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#3
REVIEW
A J Czaja
BACKGROUND: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology. AIM: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations. METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
September 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892184/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-global-recurrence-rate-of-helicobacter-pylori
#4
REVIEW
Y Hu, J-H Wan, X-Y Li, Y Zhu, D Y Graham, N-H Lu
BACKGROUND: Up-to-date information regarding the recurrence rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) after eradication therapy is not available. AIM: To evaluate the global recurrence rate following H. pylori eradication therapy and confirm its association with socioeconomic and sanitary conditions. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library was performed to identify potentially relevant publications using the following keywords: "Helicobacter pylori" or "H...
September 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892178/review-article-the-diagnostic-approach-and-current-management-of-chylous-ascites
#5
REVIEW
B Lizaola, A Bonder, H D Trivedi, E B Tapper, A Cardenas
BACKGROUND: Chylous ascites is rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. An appropriate and stepwise approach to its diagnosis and management is of key importance. AIM: To review the current diagnostic approach and management of chylous ascites. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed using the key words 'chylous', 'ascites', 'cirrhosis', 'pathophysiology', 'nutritional therapy', 'paracentesis", "transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt" and "TIPSS'...
September 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892171/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-breastfeeding-and-the-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#6
REVIEW
L Xu, P Lochhead, Y Ko, B Claggett, R W Leong, A N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is a modifiable factor that may influence development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, literature on this has been inconsistent and not accounted for heterogeneity in populations and exposure. AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to examine the association between breastfeeding in infancy and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: A systematic search of Medline/PubMed and Embase was performed for full text, English-language literature through November 2016...
September 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884856/significance-of-measurement-of-serum-trough-level-and-anti-drug-antibody-of-adalimumab-as-personalised-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a%C3%A2-subanalysis-of-the-diamond-trial
#7
H Nakase, S Motoya, T Matsumoto, K Watanabe, T Hisamatsu, N Yoshimura, T Ishida, S Kato, T Nakagawa, M Esaki, M Nagahori, T Matsui, Y Naito, T Kanai, Y Suzuki, M Nojima, M Watanabe, T Hibi
BACKGROUND: Significance of monitoring adalimumab trough levels and anti-adalimumab antibodies (AAA) for disease outcome in Crohn's disease (CD) patients remained unclear. AIM: To evaluate the association of adalimumab trough levels and AAA at week 26 with clinical remission at week 52, the effect of azathiopurine on AAA and factors influencing trough levels in CD patients in the DIAMOND trial. METHODS: We performed this study using adalimumab trough levels, AAA at week 26 and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) in red blood cells at week 12...
September 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884838/review-article-transient-receptor-potential-channels-as-possible-therapeutic-targets-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
A B Beckers, Z Z R M Weerts, Z Helyes, A A M Masclee, D Keszthelyi
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains challenging to treat effectively. Researchers have attempted to elucidate visceral nociceptive processes in order to guide treatment development. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implied in the generation (TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1) and inhibition (TRPM8) of visceral pain signals. Pathological changes in their functioning have been demonstrated in inflammatory conditions, and appear to be present in IBS as well...
September 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881031/ribavirin-steady-state-plasma-level-is-a-predictor-of-sustained-virological-response-in-hepatitis-c-infected-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#9
M van Tilborg, F I Lieveld, E J Smolders, K J van Erpecum, C T M M de Kanter, R Maan, M van der Valk, J E Arends, A S M Dofferhoff, H Blokzijl, M Bijmolen, J P H Drenth, R J de Knegt, D M Burger
BACKGROUND: In the era of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ribavirin (RBV) is still considered beneficial in certain patients. AIM: To assess the association between RBV steady-state plasma levels and sustained virological response (SVR). METHODS: Consecutive HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs plus RBV from four Dutch academic medical centres were enrolled...
September 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881017/the-body-composition-profile-is-associated-with-response-to-anti-tnf-therapy-in-crohn-s-disease-and-may-offer-an-alternative-dosing-paradigm
#10
N S Ding, G Malietzis, P F C Lung, L Penez, W M Yip, S Gabe, J T Jenkins, A Hart
BACKGROUND: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)s form a major part of therapy in Crohn's disease and have a primary nonresponse rate of 10%-30% and a secondary loss of response rate of 5% per year. Myopenia is prevalent in Crohn's disease and is measured using body composition analysis tools. AIM: To test the hypothesis that body composition can predict outcomes of anti-TNF primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response. METHODS: Between January 2007 and June 2012, 106 anti-TNF naïve patients underwent anti-TNF therapy for Crohn's disease with body composition parameters analysed using CT scans to estimate body fat-free mass...
September 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877359/food-elimination-diets-are-effective-for-long-term-treatment-of-adults-with-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#11
C C Reed, C Fan, N T Koutlas, N J Shaheen, E S Dellon
BACKGROUND: Limited data describe the long-term efficacy of dietary elimination in eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). AIM: To assess the long-term outcomes of food elimination diets for treatment of adults with EoE. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at our centre analysing all EoE patients receiving a food elimination diet without concomitant steroids. Baseline data were abstracted using standardised collection forms. Follow-up data from a mean 24...
September 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869287/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-association-between-hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-haemodialysis
#12
REVIEW
S Haffar, F Bazerbachi, M D Leise, J J Dillon, R C Albright, M H Murad, P S Kamath, K D Watt
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection appears to be more common than previously thought. HEV seroprevalence in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) is unclear with a range from 0% to 44%. In addition, risk factors of transmission of HEV in patients on haemodialysis are unknown. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of HEV seroprevalence in HD patients compared with controls. METHODS: A systematic search of several databases identified all observational studies with comparative arms...
September 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869283/review-article-the-human-intestinal-virome-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
S R Carding, N Davis, L Hoyles
BACKGROUND: The human virome consists of animal-cell viruses causing transient infections, bacteriophage (phage) predators of bacteria and archaea, endogenous retroviruses and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. High-throughput, inexpensive, sensitive sequencing methods and metagenomics now make it possible to study the contribution dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA virus-like particles make to the human virome, and in particular the intestinal virome. AIM: To review and evaluate the pioneering studies that have attempted to characterise the human virome and generated an increased interest in understanding how the intestinal virome might contribute to maintaining health, and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases...
September 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857208/temporal-trends-clinical-patterns-and-outcomes-of-nafld-related-hcc-in-patients-undergoing-liver-resection-over-a-20-year-period
#14
R Pais, L Fartoux, C Goumard, O Scatton, D Wendum, O Rosmorduc, V Ratziu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. NAFLD-HCC often occurs in noncirrhotic liver raising important surveillance issues. AIM: To determine the temporal trends for prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of NAFLD-HCC in patients undergoing liver resection. METHODS: Consecutive patients with histologically confirmed HCC who underwent liver resection over a 20-year period (1995-2014)...
August 31, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836723/rifaximin-treatment-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-cirrhotic-complications-and-prolonged-overall-survival-in-patients-experiencing-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
S H Kang, Y B Lee, J-H Lee, J Y Nam, Y Chang, H Cho, J-J Yoo, Y Y Cho, E J Cho, S J Yu, M Y Kim, Y J Kim, S K Baik, J-H Yoon
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin might decrease the risk of portal hypertension-related complications by controlling small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. AIM: To evaluate whether rifaximin was associated with the risk of death and cirrhotic complications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that included 1042 patients experiencing hepatic encephalopathy (HE): 421 patients without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; the non-HCC cohort) and 621 patients with HCC (the HCC cohort)...
August 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836278/systematic-review-cost-effectiveness-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-genotypes-2-6
#16
REVIEW
T He, M A Lopez-Olivo, C Hur, J Chhatwal
BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically changed the landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy; however, the cost and budget requirements for DAA treatment have been widely debated. AIMS: To systematically review published studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DAAs for HCV genotype 2-6 infections, and synthesise and re-evaluate results with updated drug prices. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of various electronic databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and EconLit for cost-effectiveness studies published from 2011 to 2016...
October 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833342/the-higher-prevalence-of-truncal-obesity-and-diabetes-in-american-than-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-might-contribute-to-more-rapid-progression-to-advanced-liver-disease
#17
H Rao, E Wu, S Fu, M Yang, B Feng, A Lin, R Fei, R J Fontana, A S Lok, L Wei
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States (US) and an emerging cause in China. AIM: To compare the clinical characteristics of hepatitis C patients in the US and China, and factors influencing disease stage. METHODS: Prospective study of 2 cohorts of HCV patients recruited at 1 site in the US and 3 sites in China. Standardised questionnaire on risk factors and medical history were used and diagnosis of cirrhosis and HCC was based on pre-defined criteria...
August 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833287/changes-in-medical-management-and-colectomy-rates-a-population-based-cohort-study-on-the-epidemiology-and-natural-history-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-%C3%A3-rebro-sweden-1963-2010
#18
C Eriksson, Y Cao, S Rundquist, Y Zhulina, I Henriksson, S Montgomery, J Halfvarson
BACKGROUND: Whether the epidemiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) has changed during recent decades is partly unknown. AIM: To depict temporal trends in the epidemiology and medical treatment of UC as well as the long-term risk of progression in disease extent and colectomy, during 1963-2010. METHODS: Patients were identified by evaluation of all medical records in the archive of the Colitis Clinic, Örebro University Hospital. Comparisons were made between three time periods, 1963-1975, 1976-1990 and 1991-2005...
August 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815645/lenalidomide-as-second-line-therapy-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-exploration-of-biomarkers-for-treatment-efficacy
#19
Y-Y Shao, B-B Chen, D-L Ou, Z-Z Lin, C-H Hsu, M-J Wang, A-L Cheng, C Hsu
BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic effects and showed moderate anti-tumour efficacy in patients with. advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) AIM: To explore potential biomarkers of lenalidomide efficacy as second-line therapy for HCC. METHODS: Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced HCC, documented progression on sorafenib, and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Patients received 25 mg/day lenalidomide orally on days 1-21 every 4 weeks...
August 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815649/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-enteral-nutrition-therapy-for-the-induction-of-remission-in-paediatric-crohn-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
A Swaminath, A Feathers, A N Ananthakrishnan, L Falzon, S Li Ferry
BACKGROUND: Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. AIM: To see if current literature supports the use of EEN versus CS in paediatric populations...
August 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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