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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Yao-Chun Hsu, Mindie H Nguyen, Lein-Ray Mo, Ming-Shiang Wu, Tzeng-Huey Yang, Chieh-Chang Chen, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Chi-Ming Tai, Chun-Ying Wu, Jaw-Town Lin, Yasuhito Tanaka, Chi-Yang Chang
BACKGROUND: There remains an unmet need for convenient biomarkers to assess the risks of discontinuing nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). AIM: To investigate if hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is an independent of surface antigen (HBsAg) for risk prediction of NA cessation. METHODS: This prospective multicentre study enrolled 135 CHB patients who stopped entecavir or tenofovir after achieving viral remission for a median of 25...
November 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Susana G Rodrigues, Sebastian Sixt, Juan G Abraldes, Andrea De Gottardi, Christoph Klinger, Jaime Bosch, Iris Baumgartner, Annalisa Berzigotti
BACKGROUND: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has been increasingly used in patients with portal vein thrombosis to obtain patency, but evidenced-based decisions are challenging. AIM: To evaluate published data on efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in portal vein thrombosis. METHODS: Systematic search of PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and Embase for studies (in English, until October 2017) reporting feasibility, safety, 12-month portal vein recanalisation, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt patency, and survival in patients with benign portal vein thrombosis undergoing endovascular treatment...
November 18, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Tomer Ziv-Baran, Séamus Hussey, Malgorzata Sladek, Jorge Amil Dias, Javier Martin de Carpi, Erasmo Miele, Gabor Veres, Paolo Lionetti, Sibylle Koletzko, Federica Nuti, Anders Paerregaard, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Richard K Russell, Ron Shaoul, Dror Weiner, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Johanna Escher, Lenne Finnby, Dan Turner, Arie Levine
BACKGROUND: Paediatric Crohn's disease is characteried by frequently relapsing disease which may lead to hospitalisations and complications. AIM: To develop predictive models for early relapse following first remission. METHODS: The GROWTH CD prospective inception cohort was designed to predict risk for early disease relapse and poor outcomes. Newly diagnosed children underwent endoscopies and imaging. They were phenotyped and followed at scheduled visits through 78 weeks for relapses...
November 18, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Li Du, Shenghua Zhu, Zhiwen Lu, Ting Xu, Tao Bai, Dong Xu, Xiuqi Wei, Jin Li, Keshu Xu, Jin Ye, Xiaohua Hou, Yuhu Song
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic value of ascitic cholesterol in the differential diagnosis of ascites is controversial. AIM: To investigate the diagnostic performance of ascitic cholesterol in the differential diagnosis of ascites. METHODS: Consecutive patients with new-onset ascites were enrolled prospectively. The pertinent data were collected from 629 patients with all forms of ascites. RESULTS: In the training cohort, determination of the ascitic cholesterol level was a highly effective method of distinguishing non-portal hypertension (NPH) from portal hypertension (PH)...
November 15, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mohamed Noureldin, Peter D R Higgins, Shail M Govani, Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Brooke C Kenney, Ryan W Stidham, Jennifer F Waljee, Akbar K Waljee
BACKGROUND: Opioids are commonly prescribed to manage pain associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unknown what percentage of patients develop new persistent opioid use following a steroid-treated IBD flare. AIM: To identify the incidence and the predictors of new persistent opioid use following an IBD flare. METHODS: We used a national insurance claim dataset to identify patients with IBD who received an opioid medication around the time of a corticosteroid-treated IBD flare...
November 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mitchell Shiffman, Bradley Freilich, Raj Vuppalanchi, Kymberly Watt, Jean L Chan, Al Spada, David T Hagerty, Eugene Schiff
BACKGROUND: Lipotoxicity leading to excessive caspase-mediated apoptosis and inflammation is believed to drive liver damage in NAFLD. Emricasan is a pan-caspase inhibitor that decreased serum ALT and apoptotic and inflammatory markers in subjects with chronic hepatitis. AIMS: To assess whether 28 days of emricasan would reduce elevated levels of serum ALT, AST, cleaved cytokeratin-18, full-length cytokeratin-18, and caspase 3/7 in subjects with NAFLD and raised aminotransferases...
November 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ugo Grossi, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Henriette Heinrich, Stuart A Taylor, Charles H Knowles, S Mark Scott
BACKGROUND: Defecography is considered the reference standard for the assessment of pelvic floor anatomy and function in patients with a refractory evacuation disorder. However, the overlap of radiologically significant findings seen in patients with chronic constipation (CC) and healthy volunteers is poorly defined. AIM: To systematically review and rates of structural and functional abnormalities diagnosed by barium defecography and/or magnetic resonance imaging defecography (MRID) in patients with symptoms of CC and in healthy volunteers...
November 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Cornelius Engelmann, Stefan Schob, Ines Nonnenmacher, Luise Werlich, Niklas Aehling, Sebastian Ullrich, Thorsten Kaiser, Sandra Krohn, Adam Herber, Robert Sucher, Michael Bartels, Alexey Surov, Dirk Hasenclever, Thomas Kahn, Daniel Seehofer, Michael Moche, Thomas Berg
BACKGROUND: Loss of skeletal muscle mass is a recognised complication with a prognostic impact in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To explore in a retrospective analysis which muscle compartment most reliably predicts the occurrence of cirrhosis-associated complications and if there are gender-related differences. METHODS: 795 patients with cirrhosis listed for liver transplantation between 2001 and 2014 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria including an abdominal CT scan (±200)...
November 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Donelle Cummings, Michael Cruise, Rocio Lopez, Dirk Roggenbuck, Vipul Jairath, Yinghong Wang, Bo Shen, Florian Rieder
BACKGROUND: Zymogen granule glycoprotein 2 (GP2) is a major autoantigen of Crohn's disease-specific pancreatic autoantibodies. AIM: To test a link between loss of tolerance to isoforms of GP2 and pouch disorders in a cross-sectional study in ulcerative colitis patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). METHODS: Serum samples of 117 consecutive ulcerative colitis patients after IPAA were tested for presence of Anti-GP2 isoforms 1 (GP21 ) & 4 (GP24 ) IgG and IgA as well as anti-Saccaromyces cervisiae (ASCA) IgG and IgA antibodies in a blinded fashion via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Satvinder Purewal, Sarah Chapman, Wladyslawa Czuber-Dochan, Christian Selinger, Helen Steed, Matthew J Brookes
BACKGROUND: High levels of voluntary childlessness and pregnancy-related fears have been reported amongst inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. AIMS: To investigate what factors determine IBD patients' childbearing decisions; and to examine psychosocial consequences of IBD on various aspects of patients' reproductive health. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched in a pre-specified and structured manner. RESULTS: A total of 41 articles with data on 7122 patients were included...
November 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Brian G Feagan, Gordon Lam, Christopher Ma, Gary R Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Biosimilar versions of widely prescribed drugs, including the tumour-necrosis factor antagonist infliximab, are becoming increasingly available. As biosimilars are not identical copies of reference products, evidence may be required to demonstrate that switching between a reference biologic and biosimilars is safe and efficacious. To establish interchangeability, US Food and Drug Administration guidance states that studies must demonstrate that biosimilars remain equivalent or non-inferior to a reference product after multiple switches between products...
November 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Toer W Stevens, Mijntje Matheeuwsen, Maria H Lönnkvist, Claire E Parker, Manon E Wildenberg, Krisztina B Gecse, Geert R D'Haens
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised by substantial heterogeneity in treatment response. With an expanding number of therapeutic agents, identifying optimal treatment at the patient level remains a major challenge. AIM: To systematically review the available literature on predictive biomarkers of therapeutic response in IBD. METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed on 30 January 2018 using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...
October 30, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Paschalis Paschos, Anastasia Katsoula, Georgia Salanti, Olga Giouleme, Eleni Athanasiadou, Apostolos Tsapas
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes are important in the assessment of efficacy of intervention for ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To compare the impact of interventions for moderate-to-severe UC on health-related quality of life (HRQL). METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and grey literature sources through October 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, vedolizumab or tofacitinib to each other or placebo...
October 30, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Prowpanga Udompap, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed, W Ray Kim
BACKGROUND: Long term renal safety of antiviral agents against hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been debated. AIM: To compare longitudinal trends of renal function among HBV mono-infected patients receiving entecavir (ETV), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and adefovir (ADV) in comparison to untreated subjects. METHODS: A retrospective cohort consisting of 815 patients with chronic HBV infection was constructed. Serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was compared to the expected rate of age-dependent decline in eGFR, derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data...
October 29, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Chen-Hua Liu, Ming-Lung Yu, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Wei-Wen Su, Pin-Nan Cheng, Chih-Lin Lin, Ching-Chu Lo, Chi-Yi Chen, Jyh-Jou Chen, Qian Ma, Craig Brooks-Rooney, Jia-Horng Kao
BACKGROUND: While direct-acting antivirals have been approved for treating hepatitis C, the guidelines highlight the importance of considering potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and concomitant medications. AIM: To assess comorbidity prevalence, concomitant medication use and potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and concomitant medications for hepatitis C patients in Taiwan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 822 patients from May to August 2016 in Taiwan...
October 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Javier Ampuero, Rocío Aller, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Jesus M Banales, Javier Crespo, Carmelo García-Monzón, María Jesús Pareja, Eduardo Vilar-Gómez, Juan Caballería, Desamparados Escudero-García, Judith Gomez-Camarero, José Luis Calleja, Mercedes Latorre, Agustín Albillos, Javier Salmeron, Patricia Aspichueta, Oreste Lo Iacono, Rubén Francés, Salvador Benlloch, Conrado Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier García-Samaniego, Pamela Estévez, Raúl J Andrade, Juan Turnes, Manuel Romero-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) shows a reduced risk compared with obese patients with adverse metabolic conditions. Lean people suffering some metabolic derangements also have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related outcomes compared with non-obese subjects with a few metabolic risks. AIM: To define the impact of the metabolic status on the NAFLD-related outcomes, beyond the presence of obesity. METHODS: We designed a multicentre cross-sectional study, including 1058 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients...
October 23, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Lorenza Putignani, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Anna Picca, Federica Del Chierico, Sofia Reddel, Riccardo Calvani, Emanuele Marzetti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: The cure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may contribute to the reduction of liver fibrosis progression and potentially influence the gut-liver axis. AIM: To investigate the influence of HCV infection eradication with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) on the gut microbiota composition as well as on intestinal and systemic inflammatory parameters in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HCV-related cirrhosis receiving DAA treatment were included...
October 22, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jordi Rimola, Ignacio Alfaro, Agnès Fernández-Clotet, Jesús Castro-Poceiro, Daniel Vas, Sonia Rodríguez, Maria Carme Masamunt, Ingrid Ordás, Elena Ricart, Julián Panés
BACKGROUND: In Crohn's disease, it is essential to distinguish between persistent damage and abnormalities that can heal with anti-inflammatory therapy. AIM: To magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) lesions that persist in patients in long-standing endoscopic remission, analyse their relationship with baseline characteristics, and determine their prognostic implications. METHODS: We systematically reviewed pre- and post-treatment MRE findings in patients with Crohn's disease and severe inflammation (segmental CDEIS ≥ 7 or ulcers in at least one segment) who achieved endoscopic remission (CDEIS < 2) after 1 year of treatment with TNF-inhibitors or autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation...
October 22, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Aynur Unalp-Arida, Constance E Ruhl
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is a significant global public health burden, contributing to premature death. AIM: To examine whether liver fat scores were associated with increased overall and disease-specific mortality in a United States (US) population-based survey with up to 27 years of linked mortality data. METHODS: We studied 9200 fasted viral hepatitis-negative adults in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994...
September 18, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jessica K Dyson, Lin Lee Wong, Theophile Bigirumurame, Gideon M Hirschfield, Stuart Kendrick, Ye H Oo, Ansgar W Lohse, Michael A Heneghan, David E J Jones
BACKGROUND: Treatment paradigms in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have remained largely unchanged for decades. Studies report ≤20% of patients have sub-optimal treatment response with most requiring long-term therapy. AIM: The United Kingdom Autoimmune Hepatitis (UK-AIH) study was established to evaluate current treatment practice and outcomes, determine the unmet needs of patients, and develop and implement improved treatment approaches. METHODS: The United Kingdom Autoimmune Hepatitis study is a cross-sectional cohort study examining secondary care management of prevalent adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis...
September 18, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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