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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326568/early-response-predicts-a-sustained-response-to-eluxadoline-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhoea-in-two-phase-3-studies
#1
W D Chey, L S Dove, D A Andrae, P S Covington
BACKGROUND: The mixed μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, eluxadoline, is licensed in the USA for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D), based on the results of two large Phase 3 clinical trials. AIM: To understand the time course of treatment benefits with eluxadoline by comparing responder rates over the first month of treatment with responder rates over longer treatment intervals. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of two Phase 3 studies, composite and adequate relief (AR) responder rates were calculated over month 1 and patients were stratified by their responder status...
March 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326566/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-comparative-efficacy-of-biologics-for-induction-and-maintenance-of-mucosal-healing-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
A Cholapranee, G S Hazlewood, G G Kaplan, L Peyrin-Biroulet, A N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Mucosal healing is an important therapeutic endpoint in the management of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Limited data exist regarding the comparative efficacy of various therapies in achieving this outcome. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of biologics for induction and maintenance of mucosal healing in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining mucosal healing as an endpoint of immunosuppressives, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) or anti-integrin monoclonal antibody therapy for moderate-to-severe CD or UC...
March 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326599/functional-dyspepsia-is-associated-with-duodenal-eosinophilia-in-an-australian-paediatric-cohort
#3
L Wauters, S Nightingale, N J Talley, B Sulaiman, M M Walker
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD) remains unknown. Duodenal eosinophil infiltration has been reported. AIM: To assess the association between dyspeptic symptoms and duodenal eosinophilia in children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, children with normal upper endoscopy and routine histology at a single tertiary paediatric centre between 2010 and 2014 were included...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326597/performing-routine-follow-up-biopsy-1-year-after-diagnosis-does-not-affect-long-term-outcomes-in-coeliac-disease
#4
H Pekki, K Kurppa, M Mäki, H Huhtala, K Laurila, T Ilus, K Kaukinen
BACKGROUND: A repeat biopsy is recommended, but often omitted in coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet. The effect of performing or not performing repeat biopsies is currently unknown. AIM: To identify factors associated with and the significance of lacking biopsy for long-term outcome. Predictors and the importance of incomplete histological recovery after 1 year was investigated in re-biopsied patients. METHODS: A total of 760 patients participated in a nationwide follow-up study...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326596/systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis-comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-different-intravenous-iron-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
REVIEW
A Aksan, H Işık, H H Radeke, A Dignass, J Stein
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326569/the-dynamics-of-the-oesophageal-squamous-epithelium-normalisation-process-in-patients-with-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-treated-with-long-term-acid-suppression-or-anti-reflux-surgery
#6
L Mastracci, R Fiocca, C Engström, S Attwood, C Ell, J P Galmiche, J G Hatlebakk, G Långström, S Eklund, T Lind, L Lundell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors and laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS) offer long-term symptom control to patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate the process of 'normalisation' of the squamous epithelium morphology of the distal oesophagus on these therapies. METHODS: In the LOTUS trial, 554 patients with chronic GERD were randomised to receive either esomeprazole (20-40 mg daily) or LARS. After 5 years, 372 patients remained in the study (esomeprazole, 192; LARS, 180)...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318052/systematic-review-benefits-and-harms-of-transarterial-embolisation-for-treating-hepatocellular-adenoma
#7
REVIEW
C Zhao, S-L Pei, A Cucchetti, T-J Tong, Y-L Ma, J-H Zhong, L-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Transarterial embolisation (TAE) is a standard treatment for bleeding hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and, occasionally, symptomatic HCA involving large tumours. Whether TAE is similarly safe and effective as an elective treatment for bleeding and nonbleeding HCA remains unclear. AIM: To investigate the benefits and harms of TAE for bleeding and nonbleeding HCA. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for studies that examined post-TAE tumour reduction in patients with bleeding or nonbleeding HCA and that were published between January 2000 and January 2017...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318045/diagnosis-of-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-is-enhanced-by-adding-oesophageal-histology-and-excluding-epigastric-pain
#8
N Vakil, M Vieth, B Wernersson, J Wissmar, J Dent
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in clinical practice is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and diagnostic testing. AIM: To determine if adding histology as a criterion and excluding patients with epigastric pain enhances the diagnosis for GERD. METHODS: Patients with frequent upper gastrointestinal symptoms who had not taken a proton pump inhibitor in the previous 2 months and who had evaluable distal oesophageal biopsies were included (Diamond study: NCT00291746)...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318043/the-effects-of-pregnancy-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-infliximab-and-adalimumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
C H Seow, Y Leung, N Vande Casteele, E Ehteshami Afshar, D Tanyingoh, G Bindra, M J Stewart, P L Beck, G G Kaplan, S Ghosh, R Panaccione
BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer of infliximab and adalimumab results in detectable drug levels in the cord blood and infant. AIM: To determine if pregnancy influenced the pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF agents in women with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Twenty-five women from the University of Calgary inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) pregnancy clinic on maintenance infliximab or adalimumab were recruited prospectively with serum bio-banking performed each trimester...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271521/transformation-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-treatment-in-a-national-healthcare-system-following-the-introduction-of-direct-antiviral-agents
#10
A M Moon, P K Green, K Berry, G N Ioannou
BACKGROUND: Highly effective direct antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) were introduced recently. Their utilisation has been limited by high cost and low access to care. AIM: To describe the effect of DAAs on HCV treatment and cure rates in the United States Veterans Affairs (VA) national healthcare system. METHODS: We identified all HCV antiviral treatment regimens initiated from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2015 (n = 105 369) in the VA national healthcare system, and determined if they resulted in sustained virological response (SVR)...
March 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261844/sublingual-tacrolimus-administration-provides-similar-drug-exposure-to-per-oral-route-employing-lower-doses-in-liver-transplantation-a-pilot-study
#11
S Solari, A Cancino, R Wolff, B Norero, J I Vargas, F Barrera, J F Guerra, J Martínez, N Jarufe, A Soza, M Arrese, C Benitez
BACKGROUND: Per-oral tacrolimus administration is not always practicable. Sublingual administration is a potential alternative, but its feasibility and effectiveness compared with oral route has not been established. AIM: To compare tacrolimus drug exposure after sublingual and oral administration in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Experimental, open-label, non-randomised, cross-over study. Tacrolimus exposure was evaluated in 32 liver transplant recipients receiving oral administration...
March 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261835/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-use-of-5-aminosalicylates-and-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
S Bonovas, G Fiorino, T Lytras, G Nikolopoulos, L Peyrin-Biroulet, S Danese
BACKGROUND: The relationship of 5-aminosalicylates' use with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the focus of a growing body of research. AIM: To investigate this association through an updated meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and major conference proceedings were searched up to December 2016. The identified studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity...
March 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261822/systematic-review-interferon-free-regimens-for-patients-with-hcv-related-child-c-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
M Guarino, F Morisco, M R Valvano, A M Ippolito, M Librandi, N Andriulli, M Greco, A Amoruso, A Iacobellis, G Niro, N Caporaso, A Andriulli
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the efficacy and long-term outcome of treating patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive cirrhosis with the new protease inhibitors will extend to those with Child C cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the interferon-free regimens in Child C cirrhotic patients with HCV infection. METHODS: A systematic Medline search was conducted to retrieve studies describing the treatment of Child C patients with direct-acting agents...
March 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252210/clinical-endoscopic-and-radiographic-outcomes-with-ustekinumab-in-medically-refractory-crohn-s-disease-real-world-experience-from-a-multicentre-cohort
#14
C Ma, R N Fedorak, G G Kaplan, L A Dieleman, S M Devlin, N Stern, K I Kroeker, C H Seow, Y Leung, K L Novak, B P Halloran, V W Huang, K Wong, P K Blustein, S Ghosh, R Panaccione
BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting interleukins-12 and -23, with efficacy in Crohn's disease (CD) demonstrated in clinical trials. AIM: To assess the real-world clinical, endoscopic and radiographic response and remission outcomes achieved with ustekinumab in medically-refractory CD. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre cohort study was performed on CD patients receiving ustekinumab between 2011 and 2016. The primary outcome was achievement of clinical and objective steroid-free response and remission at 3, 6 and 12 months...
March 2, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252185/on-target-sorafenib-toxicity-predicts-improved-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-multi-centre-prospective-study
#15
J Howell, D J Pinato, R Ramaswami, D Bettinger, T Arizumi, C Ferrari, C Yen, A Gibbin, M E Burlone, G Guaschino, L Sellers, J Black, M Pirisi, M Kudo, R Thimme, J-W Park, R Sharma
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and has high mortality despite treatment. While sorafenib has a survival benefit for patients with advanced HCC, clinical response is highly variable. AIM: To determine whether development of sorafenib toxicity is a prognostic marker of survival in HCC. METHODS: In this prospective multicentre cohort study, patients with advanced-stage HCC receiving sorafenib were recruited from five international specialist centres...
March 2, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247573/review-article-moving-towards-common-therapeutic-goals-in-crohn-s-disease-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
P B Allen, P Olivera, P Emery, D Moulin, J-Y Jouzeau, P Netter, S Danese, B Feagan, W J Sandborn, L Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic, progressive and disabling conditions that frequently lead to structural tissue damage. Based on strategies originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, the treatment goal for CD has recently moved from exclusively controlling symptoms to both clinical remission and complete mucosal healing (deep remission), with the final aim of preventing bowel damage and disability. AIM: To review the similarities and differences in treatment goals between CD and rheumatoid arthritis...
March 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244124/visceral-adiposity-predicts-post-operative-crohn-s-disease-recurrence
#17
D Q Holt, G T Moore, B J G Strauss, A L Hamilton, P De Cruz, M A Kamm
BACKGROUND: Excessive visceral adipose tissue has been associated with poorer outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AIM: To determine whether body composition is associated with outcome in a prospective study of post-operative Crohn's disease patients. METHODS: The POCER study evaluated management strategies for prevention of post-operative Crohn's disease recurrence; subjects were enrolled after resection of all macroscopic Crohn's disease and were randomised to early endoscopy and possible treatment escalation, or standard care...
February 28, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239880/long-term-use-of-oral-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-does-not-increase-cancer-risk-a-cohort-study-of-44-494-subjects
#18
G L-H Wong, Y-K Tse, T C-F Yip, H L-Y Chan, K K-F Tsoi, V W-S Wong
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) need long-term antiviral treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Animal studies suggest that some NA may increase cancer risk, but human data are lacking. AIM: To investigate cancer risks in patients with or without NA treatment. METHODS: We conducted a territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. The diagnosis of CHB and various malignancies was based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes between 2000 and 2012...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239869/intra-patient-variability-in-adalimumab-drug-levels-within-and-between-cycles-in-crohn-s-disease
#19
M G Ward, P A Thwaites, L Beswick, J Hogg, G Rosella, D Van Langenberg, J Reynolds, P R Gibson, M P Sparrow
BACKGROUND: Whether therapeutic drug monitoring for adalimumab needs to be performed at trough has not been defined. AIM: To determine intra-patient adalimumab drug-level variation and to identify modulating patient and disease factors. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, adult patients with Crohn's disease established on maintenance adalimumab had drug levels measured repeatedly according to pre-defined schedules (visit 1: day 4-6, visit 2: day 7-9, trough: day 13-14) across two consecutive fortnightly cycles...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239876/the-potential-of-volatile-organic-compounds-for-the-detection-of-active-disease-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#20
A Smolinska, A G L Bodelier, J W Dallinga, A A M Masclee, D M Jonkers, F-J van Schooten, M J Pierik
BACKGROUND: To optimise treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), patients need repeated assessment of mucosal inflammation. Current non-invasive biomarkers and clinical activity indices do not accurately reflect disease activity in all patients and cannot discriminate UC from non-UC colitis. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air could be predictive of active disease or remission in Crohn's disease. AIM: To investigate whether VOCs are able to differentiate between active UC, UC in remission and non-UC colitis...
February 26, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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