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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148080/genetic-risk-factors-for-perception-of-symptoms-in-gerd-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
A Patel, S Hasak, B D Nix, G S Sayuk, R D Newberry, C P Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNβ3) and beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with pain and gut hypersensitivity, which can overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GNβ3 and ADRB2 systems, and reflux symptom burden, GERD phenotypes from ambulatory reflux monitoring, and quality of life. METHODS: Symptomatic adults undergoing ambulatory reflux testing were recruited and phenotyped based on acid burden and symptom reflux association; major oesophageal motor disorders and prior foregut surgery were exclusions...
November 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124774/early-drug-and-anti-infliximab-antibody-levels-for-prediction-of-primary-nonresponse-to-infliximab-therapy
#2
H Bar-Yoseph, N Levhar, L Selinger, U Manor, M Yavzori, O Picard, E Fudim, U Kopylov, R Eliakim, S Ben-Horin, Y Chowers, B Ungar
BACKGROUND: Primary nonresponse, defined as lack of clinical benefit during the induction phase, occurs in up to 30% of IBD patients treated with infliximab. The mechanisms underlying primary nonresponse have not yet been clearly defined. AIM: To evaluate the association of early (week 2 and week 6) induction infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody levels with primary nonresponse. METHODS: A retrospective observational case-control study of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with infliximab and followed at Sheba Medical Center between 2009 and 2016 was performed...
November 9, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115682/risk-factors-for-biopsy-proven-advanced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#3
Y A Patel, E J Gifford, L M Glass, R McNeil, M J Turner, B Han, D Provenzale, S S Choi, C A Moylan, C M Hunt
BACKGROUND: With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). AIMS: To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. METHODS: In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver...
November 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105115/randomised-clinical-study-the-effects-of-oral-taurine-6-day%C3%A2-g-vs-placebo-daily-on-portal-hypertension
#4
R Schwarzer, D Kivaranovic, M Mandorfer, R Paternostro, D Wolrab, B Heinisch, T Reiberger, M Ferlitsch, C Gerner, M Trauner, M Peck-Radosavljevic, A Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices. METHODS: Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study...
November 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105111/proton-pump-inhibitors-are-associated-with-accelerated-development-of-cirrhosis-hepatic-decompensation-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-noncirrhotic-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-results-from-erchives
#5
D K Li, P Yan, A-B Abou-Samra, R T Chung, A A Butt
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Their safety in cirrhosis has recently been questioned, but their overall effect on disease progression in noncirrhotic patients with chronic liver disease remains unclear. AIM: To determine the impact of proton pump inhibitors on the progression of liver disease in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Using the electronically retrieved cohort of HCV-infected veterans (ERCHIVES) database, we identified all subjects who received HCV treatment and all incident cases of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105106/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-use-and-gastro-oesophageal-cancer-survival-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
J Busby, Ú McMenamin, A Spence, B T Johnston, C Hughes, C R Cardwell
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs; including candesartan, losartan, olmesartan and valsartan) are widely used to treat hypertension, heart failure and diabetic neuropathy. There is considerable pre-clinical evidence that ARBs can reduce cancer progression, particularly for gastric cancer. Despite this, epidemiological studies have yet to assess the impact of ARB use on gastro-oesophageal cancer survival. AIM: To investigate the association between post-diagnosis ARB use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival...
November 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083036/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-significance-of-histological-disease-severity-in-lean-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
S Sookoian, C J Pirola
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that lean and obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) share an altered metabolic and cardiovascular profile. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the natural history of "lean-NAFLD." Indeed, an unanswered question is whether lean (BMI ≤ 25 Kg/m(2) ) NAFLD-patients are protected from severe histological outcomes. AIM: To perform a meta-analysis with the goal of providing a quantitative estimation of the magnitude of fibrosis, as well as histological features associated with the disease severity, in lean versus overweight/obese-NAFLD patients...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076171/randomised-clinical-trial-yoga-vs-a-low-fodmap-diet-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
D Schumann, J Langhorst, G Dobos, H Cramer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent gastrointestinal disorder. It is assumed that lifestyle interventions might be a rational treatment approach. AIM: To examine the effect of a yoga-based intervention vs a low-FODMAP diet on patients with irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with irritable bowel syndrome undertook a single-blind, randomised controlled trial involving yoga or a low-FODMAP diet for 12 weeks...
October 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064110/colectomy-prior-to-diagnosis-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-associated-with-improved-prognosis-in-a-nationwide-cohort-study-of-2594-psc-ibd-patients
#10
C Nordenvall, O Olén, P J Nilsson, E von Seth, A Ekbom, M Bottai, P Myrelid, A Bergquist
BACKGROUND: Despite the close relationship between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the association between colectomy and the prognosis of PSC remains controversial. AIM: To explore whether colectomy prior to PSC-diagnosis is associated with transplant-free survival. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study in Sweden including all patients aged 18 to 69 years in whom both PSC and IBD was diagnosed between 1987 and 2014 was undertaken...
October 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052254/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-smoking-behaviour-predict-the-risk-of-surgery-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#11
B M Lang, L Biedermann, W T van Haaften, C de Vallière, M Schuurmans, S Begré, J Zeitz, M Scharl, M Turina, T Greuter, P Schreiner, H Heinrich, T Kuntzen, S R Vavricka, G Rogler, N Beerenwinkel, B Misselwitz
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a strong environmental factor leading to adverse outcomes in Crohn's disease, but a more benign course in ulcerative colitis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with smoking quantity and behaviour. AIMS: To assess whether smoking-associated SNPs interact with smoking to influence the clinical course of inflammatory bowel diseases. METHODS: Genetic and prospectively obtained clinical data from 1434 Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort patients (821 Crohn's disease and 613 ulcerative colitis) were analysed...
October 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052237/the-taxonomic-composition-of-the-donor-intestinal-microbiota-is-a-major-factor-influencing-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-therapy-refractory-ulcerative-colitis
#12
P Kump, P Wurm, H P Gröchenig, H Wenzl, W Petritsch, B Halwachs, M Wagner, V Stadlbauer, A Eherer, K M Hoffmann, A Deutschmann, G Reicht, L Reiter, P Slawitsch, G Gorkiewicz, C Högenauer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown. AIMS: To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success...
October 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044584/direct-medical-costs-associated-with-the-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-france
#13
P Cacoub, M Vautier, A C Desbois, D Saadoun, Z Younossi
BACKGROUND: The economic impact of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unknown for France. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV and the direct medical costs associated with them. METHODS: Estimates of 13 extrahepatic manifestations prevalence were obtained from (1) a retrospective data analysis of HCV-infected patients in a specialised centre and the baseline prevalence in the general French population and (2) an international systematic review...
October 18, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035002/short-term-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-hepatitis-c-virus-eradication-following-direct-acting-anti-viral-treatment
#15
E Ogawa, N Furusyo, H Nomura, K Dohmen, N Higashi, K Takahashi, A Kawano, K Azuma, T Satoh, M Nakamuta, T Koyanagi, M Kato, S Shimoda, E Kajiwara, J Hayashi
BACKGROUND: With the development of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs), almost all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can achieve sustained viral response (SVR). AIM: To evaluate the short-term risk of HCC among patients with SVR by DAAs, including those with cirrhosis or previous HCC. METHODS: This large-scale, multicentre cohort study included 1,675 consecutive patients who achieved SVR by treatment with interferon-free sofosbuvir-based regimens, divided into groups with (n = 152) or without previous HCC (n = 1,523)...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#17
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027693/efficacy-and-safety-of-golimumab-in-crohn-s-disease-a-french-national-retrospective-study
#18
C Martineau, B Flourié, P Wils, T Vaysse, R Altwegg, A Buisson, A Amiot, G Pineton de Chambrun, V Abitbol, M Fumery, X Hébuterne, S Viennot, D Laharie, L Beaugerie, S Nancey, H Sokol
BACKGROUND: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents have improved the care of Crohn's disease (CD). After the first anti-TNF discontinuation, it is possible to switch to another anti-TNF. Three anti-TNF agents are available for ulcerative colitis (infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab), but only the first 2 have been approved for CD because golimumab has not been studied for this indication. AIM: To report the efficacy and safety of golimumab in CD. METHODS: Crohn's disease patients who received golimumab were identified in 12 French tertiary centres and were retrospectively analysed...
October 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027257/review-article-consensus-statements-on-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#19
REVIEW
N Mitrev, N Vande Casteele, C H Seow, J M Andrews, S J Connor, G T Moore, M Barclay, J Begun, R Bryant, W Chan, C Corte, S Ghaly, D A Lemberg, V Kariyawasam, P Lewindon, J Martin, R Mountifield, G Radford-Smith, P Slobodian, M Sparrow, C Toong, D van Langenberg, M G Ward, R W Leong
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents can help optimise outcomes. Consensus statements based on current evidence will help the development of treatment guidelines. AIM: To develop evidence-based consensus statements for TDM-guided anti-TNF therapy in IBD. METHODS: A committee of 25 Australian and international experts was assembled. The initial draft statements were produced following a systematic literature search...
October 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023803/hbeag-levels-at-week-24-predict-response-to-8%C3%A2-years-of-tenofovir-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#20
D Wong, M Littlejohn, L Yuen, K Jackson, H Mason, J Bayliss, G Rosenberg, A Gaggar, K Kitrinos, M Subramanian, P Marcellin, M Buti, H L A Janssen, E Gane, S Locarnini, A Thompson, P A Revill
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is a treatment endpoint for HBeAg-positive CHB, and a necessary precursor to HBsAg loss. Biomarkers that predict serological outcomes would be useful. AIM: To evaluate the utility of measuring HBeAg levels for predicting HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss under long-term tenofovir (TDF) therapy. METHODS: A total of 266 patients were enrolled into a phase III study of TDF vs adefovir (ADV) for 48 weeks in HBeAg-positive patients, followed by open-label TDF up to 384 weeks...
October 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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