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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815645/lenalidomide-as-second-line-therapy-for-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-exploration-of-biomarkers-for-treatment-efficacy
#1
Y-Y Shao, B-B Chen, D-L Ou, Z-Z Lin, C-H Hsu, M-J Wang, A-L Cheng, C Hsu
BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic effects and showed moderate anti-tumour efficacy in patients with. advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) AIM: To explore potential biomarkers of lenalidomide efficacy as second-line therapy for HCC. METHODS: Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced HCC, documented progression on sorafenib, and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Patients received 25 mg/day lenalidomide orally on days 1-21 every 4 weeks...
August 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815649/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-enteral-nutrition-therapy-for-the-induction-of-remission-in-paediatric-crohn-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
A Swaminath, A Feathers, A N Ananthakrishnan, L Falzon, S Li Ferry
BACKGROUND: Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. AIM: To see if current literature supports the use of EEN versus CS in paediatric populations...
August 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805309/safety-of-herpes-zoster-vaccination-among-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-being-treated-with-anti-tnf-medications
#3
N Khan, Y Shah, C Trivedi, J D Lewis
BACKGROUND: The risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with anti-TNF medications. While it is optimal to give herpes zoster vaccine prior to initiation of therapy clinical circumstances may not always allow this. AIM: To determine the safety of giving herpes zoster vaccine while patients are on anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving IBD patients who were followed in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system between 2001 and 2016...
August 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805258/impact-of-beta-blockers-on-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#4
M P Wallen, A Hall, K A Dias, J S Ramos, S E Keating, A J Woodward, T L Skinner, G A Macdonald, R Arena, J S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced liver disease may develop portal hypertension that can result in variceal haemorrhage. Beta-blockers reduce portal pressure and minimise haemorrhage risk. These medications may attenuate measures of cardiopulmonary performance, such as the ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing. AIM: To determine the effect of beta-blockers on cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables in patients with advanced liver disease...
August 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799258/helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-serum-level-of-pepsinogen-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-metachronous-gastric-neoplasm-after-endoscopic-resection
#5
Y Kwon, S Jeon, S Nam, I Shin
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancers (EGCs) are at risk for metachronous gastric neoplasm. AIM: To determine whether serum level of pepsinogen (PG), a marker of gastric atrophy, can determine which patients who have undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection for EGC are at risk for metachronous gastric neoplasm. We also investigated the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on metachronous gastric neoplasm incidence...
August 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791711/is-early-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-cirrhotic-patients-affected-by-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#6
G Cabibbo, S Petta, V Calvaruso, I Cacciola, M R Cannavò, S Madonia, M Distefano, L Larocca, T Prestileo, F Tinè, G Bertino, L Giannitrapani, F Benanti, A Licata, I Scalisi, G Mazzola, F Cartabellotta, N Alessi, M Barbàra, M Russello, G Scifo, G Squadrito, G Raimondo, A Craxì, V Di Marco, C Cammà
BACKGROUND: Data on HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) early recurrence in patients whose HCC was previously cured, and subsequently treated by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), are equivocal. AIM: To assess the risk of HCC early recurrence after DAAs exposure in a large prospective cohort of HCV-cirrhotic patients with previous successfully treated HCC, also looking for risk factors for cancer early recurrence. METHODS: We enrolled 143 consecutive patients with complete response after curative treatment of HCC, subsequently treated with DAAs and monitored by the web-based RESIST-HCV database...
August 9, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782119/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-diagnostic-performance-of-the-combination-of-pepsinogen-gastrin-17-and-anti-helicobacter-pylori-antibodies-serum-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-atrophic-gastritis
#7
REVIEW
R M Zagari, S Rabitti, D C Greenwood, L H Eusebi, A Vestito, F Bazzoli
BACKGROUND: The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays (panel test) is a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. However, the diagnostic reliability of this test is still uncertain. AIM: To assess the diagnostic performance of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. METHODS: Medline via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases and abstracts of international conferences proceedings were searched from January 1995 to December 2016 using the primary keywords "pepsinogens," "gastrin," "atrophic gastritis," "gastric precancerous lesions...
August 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782118/undetectable-negative-tissue-transglutaminase-iga-antibodies-predict-mucosal-healing-in-treated-coeliac-disease-patients
#8
H Fang, K S King, J J Larson, M R Snyder, T T Wu, M J Gandhi, J A Murray
BACKGROUND: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) immunoglobulin A (IgA) testing is a sensitive adjunct to the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The threshold for positivity was developed for diagnosis, with negative results reported as below the reference value (<4 U/mL). AIM: To investigate if an undetectable (tTG IgA<1.2 U/mL) is more predictive of healing compared to patients with negative but detectable serology (1.2-3.9 U/mL). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 402 treated coeliac disease patients seen at the Mayo Clinic with negative tTG IgA values drawn within 1 month of duodenal biopsy between January 2009 and December 2015...
August 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766727/ethnic-disparities-in-progression-to-advanced-liver-disease-and-overall-survival-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-impact-of-a-sustained-virological-response
#9
A K Le, C Zhao, J K Hoang, S A Tran, C Y Chang, M Jin, N H Nguyen, L A Yasukawa, J Q Zhang, S C Weber, G Garcia, M H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with improved outcomes, however, its impact on different ethnic groups is unknown. AIM: To evaluate ethnic differences in the natural history of CHC and the impact of SVR. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 8039 consecutive adult CHC patients seen at two medical centres in California between January 1997 and June 2016...
August 2, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752637/anti-tnf-treatment-in-crohn-s-disease-and-risk-of-bowel-resection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
M Eberhardson, J K Söderling, M Neovius, T Cars, P Myrelid, J F Ludvigsson, J Askling, A Ekbom, O Olén
BACKGROUND: TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have been shown to reduce the need for surgery in Crohn's disease, but few studies have examined their effect beyond the first year of treatment. AIM: To conduct a register-based observational cohort study in Sweden 2006-2014 to investigate the risk of bowel resection in bowel surgery naïve TNFi-treated Crohn's disease patients and whether patients on TNFi ≥12 months are less likely to undergo bowel resection than patients discontinuing treatment before 12 months...
July 28, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752524/serial-combination-of-non-invasive-tools-improves-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-severe-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-nafld
#11
S Petta, V W-S Wong, C Cammà, J-B Hiriart, G L-H Wong, J Vergniol, A W-H Chan, V Di Marco, W Merrouche, H L-Y Chan, F Marra, B Le-Bail, U Arena, A Craxì, V de Ledinghen
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of available non-invasive tools for staging severe fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still limited. AIM: To assess the diagnostic performance of paired or serial combination of non-invasive tools in NAFLD patients. METHODS: We analysed data from 741 patients with a histological diagnosis of NAFLD. The GGT/PLT, APRI, AST/ALT, BARD, FIB-4, and NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) scores were calculated according to published algorithms...
July 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737264/review-article-the-many-potential-roles-of-intestinal-serotonin-5-hydroxytryptamine-5-ht-signalling-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
M D Coates, I Tekin, K E Vrana, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of every major gut-related function. Recent investigations also suggest that 5-HT can influence the development and severity of inflammation within the gut, particularly in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To review the roles that the intestinal serotonin signalling system plays in gut function, with a specific focus on IBD. METHODS: We reviewed manuscripts from 1952 to 2017 that investigated and discussed roles for 5-HT signalling in gastrointestinal function and IBD, as well as the influence of inflammation on 5-HT signalling elements within the gut...
July 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691377/effectiveness-of-8-or-12-weeks-of-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-in-real-world-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-infected-patients
#13
M P Curry, E B Tapper, B Bacon, D Dieterich, S L Flamm, L Guest, K V Kowdley, Y Lee, S Milligan, N Tsai, Z Younossi, N H Afdhal
BACKGROUND: Treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with combination direct acting anti-virals is associated with very high rates of sustained virological response (SVR). Daily combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is approved for the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients, though noncirrhotic patients who are naïve to treatment with a baseline HCV RNA <6 million IU/mL can be treated for 8 weeks. This guidance stemmed from a post hoc analysis of the ION 3 clinical trial, which demonstrated similar SVR for patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for 8 or 12 weeks...
July 10, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677333/review-article-new-treatments-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
REVIEW
S A Townsend, P N Newsome
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the fastest growing cause of liver disease in the Western world, yet there is no approved pharmacotherapy. While lifestyle modifications remain the mainstay of treatment, only a proportion of individuals are able to make or sustain them, and so more treatment options are required. AIM: To review the potential benefit of drugs used in clinical practice, those entering phase II trials, and compounds being investigated in pre-clinical studies...
July 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671338/mixture-model-analysis-identifies-irritable-bowel-syndrome-subgroups-characterised-by-specific-profiles-of-gastrointestinal-extraintestinal-somatic-and-psychological-symptoms
#15
A Polster, L Van Oudenhove, M Jones, L Öhman, H Törnblom, M Simrén
BACKGROUND: Current subgrouping of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is exclusively based on stool consistency without considering other relevant gastrointestinal (GI), extraintestinal somatic or psychological features. AIM: To identify subgroups based on a comprehensive set of IBS-related parameters. METHODS: Mixture model analysis was used, with the following input variables: 13 single-item scores from the IBS-specific Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, average stool consistency and frequency from a 7-day Bristol Stool Form diary, 12 single-item extraintestinal symptom scores from the Patient Health Questionnaire-12, and anxiety and depression subscale scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale...
July 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664992/the-outcome-of-ulcerative-colitis-patients-undergoing-pouch-surgery-is-determined-by-pre-surgical-factors
#16
H Yanai, S Ben-Shachar, L Mlynarsky, L Godny, M Leshno, H Tulchinsky, I Dotan
BACKGROUND: Pouch surgery, a common intervention for ulcerative colitis (UC) complications, is often associated with the development of pouchitis. AIM: To identify predictors of pouch outcome in a cohort of patients with UC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective unmatched case-cohort study in a tertiary IBD referral centre. Adult patients with UC were classified into the worst phenotype throughout follow-up: normal pouch, a form of chronic pouchitis (either chronic pouchitis or Crohn's like disease of pouch [CLDP]), or episodic recurrent acute pouchitis (RAP)...
June 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660640/randomised-clinical-trial-sofosbuvir-and-ledipasvir-in-patients-with-transfusion-dependent-thalassaemia-and-hcv-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#17
A Mangia, R Sarli, R Gamberini, A Piga, G Cenderello, V Piazzolla, R Santoro, V Caruso, A Quarta, R Ganga, M Copetti, G Forni
BACKGROUND: Patients with thalassaemia major depend on blood transfusions. In Italy, up to 80% of thalassaemia patients bear HCV antibodies due to HCV contaminated transfusions before 1990. Thalassaemia patients with HCV infection have high risk of developing HCC. Treatment based on Pegylated-IFN (Peg-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) was limited by relevant side effects. AIM: To evaluate the impact of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) fixed dose combination for 12 weeks without RBV, in patients with thalassaemia major and HCV Genotype 1 or 4 (GT1/4)...
June 29, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653753/the-development-of-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-index-for-fistulising-crohn-s-disease
#18
M A Samaan, C A J Puylaert, B G Levesque, G Y Zou, L Stitt, S A Taylor, L M Shackelton, M K Vandervoort, R Khanna, C Santillan, J Rimola, P Hindryckx, C Y Nio, W J Sandborn, G D'Haens, B G Feagan, V Jairath, J Stoker
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for assessment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease (CD). The Van Assche index is the most commonly used MRI fistula index. AIMS: To assess the reliability of the Van Assche index, and to modify the instrument to improve reliability and create a novel index for fistulising CD. METHODS: A consensus process developed scoring conventions for existing Van Assche index component items and new items...
June 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653751/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-probiotics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Y Derwa, D J Gracie, P J Hamlin, A C Ford
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Evidence implicates disturbances of the gastrointestinal microbiota in their pathogenesis. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of probiotics in IBD. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (until November 2016). Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruited adults with UC or CD, and compared probiotics with 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs) or placebo...
June 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627791/no-evidence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-patients-with-resolved-infection-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-hepatitis-c-in-a-large-real-world-cohort
#20
V T Mücke, M M Mücke, K-H Peiffer, N Weiler, T M Welzel, C Sarrazin, S Zeuzem, A Berger, J Vermehren
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been observed following interferon (IFN)-based treatment in HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Recent reports suggest that reactivation may also occur in both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative patients during HCV treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). AIM: To investigate the rate of patients with HBV reactivation during IFN-based and IFN-free HCV treatment in a large real-world cohort...
June 19, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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