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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233394/predictors-of-response-to-a-low-fodmap-diet-in-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-lactose-or-fructose-intolerance
#1
C H Wilder-Smith, S S Olesen, A Materna, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Diets low in fermentable sugars (low-FODMAP diets) are increasingly adopted by patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), but outcome predictors are unclear. AIM: To identify factors predictive of an efficacious response to a low-FODMAP diet in FGID patients with fructose or lactose intolerance thereby gaining insights into underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Fructose and lactose breath tests were performed in FGID patients to determine intolerance (positive symptom score) and malabsorption (increased hydrogen or methane concentrations)...
February 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230306/suppression-of-anti-drug-antibodies-to-infliximab-or-adalimumab-with-the-addition-of-an-immunomodulator-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
A S Strik, G R van den Brink, C Ponsioen, R Mathot, M Löwenberg, G R D'Haens
BACKGROUND: Loss of response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often caused by anti-drug antibody formation with neutralisation of drug effect. Addition of an immunomodulator has been suggested to reduce immunogenicity, leading to regained response. AIM: To investigate whether addition of an immunomodulator to anti-TNF monotherapy could lead to anti-drug antibody suppression and regained clinical response in IBD patients...
February 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230274/epidemiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-among-participants-of-the-millennium-cohort-incidence-deployment-related-risk-factors-and-antecedent-episodes-of-infectious-gastroenteritis
#3
C K Porter, M Welsh, M S Riddle, C Nieh, E J Boyko, G Gackstetter, T I Hooper
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two pathotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with unique pathology, risk factors and significant morbidity. AIM: To estimate incidence and identify IBD risk factors in a US military population, a healthy subset of the US population, using information from the Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Incident IBD was identified from medical encounters from 2001 to 2009 or by self-report...
February 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229470/the-incidence-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-denmark-1980-2013-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#4
S N Lophaven, E Lynge, J Burisch
BACKGROUND: Globally, the incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasing; however, data from high-incidence areas are conflicting. Previous studies in Denmark have assessed incidence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) using short observation periods. AIM: To investigate trends in IBD incidence in Denmark over a thirty-year period using nationwide data. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CD or UC in Denmark between 1980 and 2013 were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) and included in a nationwide cohort...
February 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225186/randomised-clinical-trial-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-oltipraz-a-liver-x-receptor-alpha-inhibitory-dithiolethione-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
W Kim, B G Kim, J S Lee, C K Lee, J E Yeon, M S Chang, J H Kim, H Kim, S Yi, J Lee, J-Y Cho, S G Kim, J-H Lee, Y J Kim
BACKGROUND: Oltipraz is a synthetic dithiolethione with an antisteatotic effect by inhibiting the activity of liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α). Recent studies demonstrated the disruptive role of oltipraz on LXR-α-dependent lipogenesis in hepatocytes and a high-fat diet mouse model. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oltipraz for reducing liver fat in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We performed a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study...
February 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220514/randomised-clinical-trial-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridum-difficile-infection-fresh-or-frozen-or-lyophilised-microbiota-from-a-small-pool-of-healthy-donors-delivered-by-colonoscopy
#6
Z D Jiang, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, G Jun, C L Hanis, M Shah, L Hochman, V Ankoma-Sey, A W DuPont, M C Wong, A Alexander, S Ke, H L DuPont
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become routine in managing recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics. AIM: To compare clinical response and improvements in colonic microbiota diversity in subjects with recurrent CDI using different donor product. METHODS: Seventy-two subjects with ≥3 bouts of CDI were randomised in a double-blind study to receive fresh, frozen or lyophilised FMT product via colonoscopy from 50 g of stool per treatment from eight healthy donors...
February 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220520/factors-associated-with-villus-atrophy-in-symptomatic-coeliac-disease-patients-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#7
S Mahadev, J A Murray, T-T Wu, V S Chandan, M S Torbenson, C P Kelly, M Maki, P H R Green, D Adelman, B Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: Duodenal injury persists in some coeliac disease patients despite gluten-free diet, and is associated with adverse outcomes. AIM: To determine the prevalence and clinical risk factors for persistent villus atrophy among symptomatic coeliac disease patients. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional analysis was performed on coeliac disease patients with self-reported moderate or severe symptoms while following a gluten-free diet, who underwent protocol-mandated duodenal biopsy upon enrolment in the CeliAction clinical trial...
February 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220511/review-article-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-dependence-the-why-the-what-and-the-wherefore
#8
REVIEW
E T Goh, M Y Morgan
BACKGROUND: The development of alcohol dependence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For the majority of affected people the most appropriate goal, in terms of drinking behaviour, is abstinence from alcohol. Psychosocial intervention is the mainstay of the treatment but adjuvant pharmacotherapy is also available and its use recommended. AIM: To provide an updated analysis of current and potential pharmacotherapeutic options for the management of alcohol dependence...
February 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211593/higher-infliximab-trough-levels-are-associated-with-perianal-fistula-healing-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#9
A J Yarur, V Kanagala, D J Stein, F Czul, M A Quintero, D Agrawal, A Patel, K Best, C Fox, K Idstein, M T Abreu
BACKGROUND: Infliximab has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of fistulas in the setting of Crohn's disease, even though some patients do not benefit from therapy. AIM: To assess the correlation between perianal fistula healing and trough levels of infliximab. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we identified patients with Crohn's disease who had perianal fistulas and were treated with infliximab for at least 24 weeks. We excluded patients who underwent a faecal diversion procedure or proctectomy...
February 17, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206681/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-undergoing-anti-viral-therapy-with-an-interferon-free-regimen
#10
M-C Londoño, S Lens, Z Mariño, M Bonacci, X Ariza, T Broquetas, A Pla, C Bartres, M V Adriani, S Rodríguez-Tajes, J Costa, J A Carrión, S Pérez-Del-Pulgar, X Forns
BACKGROUND: A few cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during anti-viral therapy against hepatitis C (HCV) have been reported. However, the information regarding the real impact of this phenomenon is scarce. AIM: To evaluate the risk of HBV reactivation during anti-viral therapy against HCV with an interferon-free regimen with direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs). METHODS: Observational and prospective study of 352 patients receiving DAAs therapy between September 2015 and May 2016...
February 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206678/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-the-short-and-long-term-risks-of-colectomy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
C C Y Law, R Tariq, S Khanna, S Murthy, J D McCurdy
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with increased mortality in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the risk of colectomy is variable and has not been adequately studied. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of CDI on colectomy risk in IBD. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched systematically for observational studies reporting colectomy risk in IBD, stratified by the presence of CDI, and the duration of follow-up (short term 3 months, and long term at least 1 year)...
February 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185291/review-article-pathogenesis-and-clinical-manifestations-of-gastrointestinal-involvement-in-systemic-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
S Kumar, J Singh, S Rattan, A J DiMarino, S Cohen, S A Jimenez
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement is a common cause of debilitating symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). There are no disease modifying therapies for this condition and the treatment remains symptomatic, largely owing to the lack of a clear understanding of its pathogenesis. AIMS: To investigate novel aspects of the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal involvement in SSc. To summarise existing knowledge regarding the cardinal clinical gastrointestinal manifestations of SSc and its pathogenesis, emphasising recent investigations that may be valuable in identifying potentially novel therapeutic targets...
February 9, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176348/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-faroese-born-danish-residents-and-their-offspring-further-evidence-of-the-dominant-role-of-environmental-factors-in-ibd-development
#13
T Hammer, S N Lophaven, K R Nielsen, M von Euler-Chelpin, P Weihe, P Munkholm, J Burisch, E Lynge
BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is record high in the Faroe Islands, and many Faroese emigrate to Denmark, where the IBD incidence is considerably lower. AIM: To study the IBD incidence in first-, second- and third-generation immigrants from the Faroe Islands to Denmark to assess the extent to which the immigrants adopt the lower IBD incidence of their new home country. METHODS: Data on Faroese-born Danish residents and their children were retrieved from the Danish Central Population Register for 1980-2014...
February 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176335/smoking-at-diagnosis-significantly-decreases-5-year-cancer-specific-survival-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-18-166-colon-cancer-patients
#14
L Sharp, J McDevitt, C Brown, H Comber
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests smoking may adversely affect cancer patients' outcomes. Previous studies of smoking and survival in colon cancer have been limited by size and/or lack of a population basis and results have been inconsistent. AIM: To investigate in a large population-based cohort whether smoking status at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival in colon cancer and wether treatment modifies any impact of smoking...
February 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169436/vedolizumab-exposure-in-pregnancy-outcomes-from-clinical-studies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
U Mahadevan, S Vermeire, K Lasch, B Abhyankar, F Bhayat, A Blake, M Dubinsky
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab is a gut-selective immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody to α4 β7 integrin for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Prospective clinical studies of vedolizumab in pregnancy have not been conducted; therefore, existing safety data of vedolizumab in pregnancy were examined. AIM: To assess pregnancy outcomes in females and partners of males who received vedolizumab. METHODS: All pregnancy data collected during the clinical programme (from 14 May 2007 to 27 June 2013) and in the post-marketing setting (to 19 November 2015) were analysed...
February 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164346/randomised-clinical-trial-the-analgesic-properties-of-dietary-supplementation-with-palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
C Cremon, V Stanghellini, M R Barbaro, R F Cogliandro, L Bellacosa, J Santos, M Vicario, M Pigrau, C Alonso Cotoner, B Lobo, F Azpiroz, S Bruley des Varannes, M Neunlist, D DeFilippis, T Iuvone, S Petrosino, V Di Marzo, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal immune activation is involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. While most dietary approaches in IBS involve food avoidance, there are fewer indications on food supplementation. Palmithoylethanolamide, structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, and polydatin are dietary compounds which act synergistically to reduce mast cell activation. AIM: To assess the effect on mast cell count and the efficacy of palmithoylethanolamide/polydatin in patients with IBS...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164327/liver-fibrosis-diagnosis-by-blood-test-and-elastography-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-agreement-or-combination
#17
P Calès, J Boursier, J Lebigot, V de Ledinghen, C Aubé, I Hubert, F Oberti
BACKGROUND: In chronic hepatitis C, the European Association for the Study of the Liver - Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado recommends performing transient elastography and a blood test to diagnose significant fibrosis; test concordance confirms diagnosis. AIM: To validate this rule and improve it by combining a blood test, FibroMeter (virus second generation, Echosens, Paris, France) and transient elastography (constitutive tests) into a single combined test, as suggested by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164321/dose-de-escalation-to-adalimumab-40-mg-every-3-weeks-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#18
S Van Steenbergen, S Bian, S Vermeire, G Van Assche, A Gils, M Ferrante
BACKGROUND: Data on dose de-escalation in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are limited. AIM: To evaluate outcomes of dose de-escalation from adalimumab (ADM) every other week (EOW) to every three weeks (ETW). METHODS: We selected patients with CD receiving maintenance therapy with ADM 40 mg ETW with serum levels (SL) available before and after dose de-escalation. Sex- and age-matched controls continuing ADM 40 mg EOW were identified. Patient reported outcome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin were collected...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164348/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-placebo-rates-in-induction-and-maintenance-trials-of-crohn-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
V Jairath, G Zou, C E Parker, J K MacDonald, M H Mosli, T AlAmeel, M Al Beshir, M AlMadi, T Al-Taweel, N S S Atkinson, S Biswas, T P Chapman, P S Dulai, M A Glaire, D Hoekman, O Kherad, A Koutsoumpas, E Minas, S Restellini, M A Samaan, R Khanna, B G Levesque, G D'Haens, W J Sandborn, B G Feagan
BACKGROUND: Minimising placebo response is essential for drug development. AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine placebo response and remission rates in trials and identify the factors affecting these rates. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched from inception to April 2014 for placebo-controlled trials of pharmacological interventions for Crohn's disease. Placebo response and remission rates for induction and maintenance trials were pooled by random-effects and mixed-effects meta-regression models to evaluate effects of study-level characteristics on these rates...
February 5, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144999/risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-among-individuals-with-different-aetiologies-of-cirrhosis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
J West, T R Card, G P Aithal, K M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Among patients with cirrhosis, only those determined to be at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should undergo surveillance. However, little is known about how different aetiologies of cirrhosis affect risk for HCC. AIM: To quantify the cumulative incidence of HCC among a representative population of people with cirrhosis of the liver of varying aetiology. METHODS: We identified subjects with hepatic cirrhosis from the UK's General Practice Research Database (1987-2006)...
February 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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