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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707337/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-and-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
REVIEW
M N Quraishi, M Widlak, N Bhala, D Moore, M Price, N Sharma, T H Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the commonest nosocomial cause of diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an approved treatment for recurrent or refractory CDI but there is uncertainty about its use. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of FMT in treating recurrent and refractory CDI and investigate outcomes from modes of delivery and preparation. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, trial registers and conference proceedings were searched...
July 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707319/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-significantly-decreases-serum-lipoprotein-levels-compared-with-entecavir-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#2
A A Shaheen, M AlMattooq, S Yazdanfar, K W Burak, M G Swain, S E Congly, M A Borman, S S Lee, R P Myers, C S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. AIM: To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers...
July 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691377/effectiveness-of-8-or-12-weeks-of-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-in-real-world-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-infected-patients
#3
M P Curry, E B Tapper, B Bacon, D Dieterich, S L Flamm, L Guest, K V Kowdley, Y Lee, S Milligan, N Tsai, Z Younossi, N H Afdhal
BACKGROUND: Treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with combination direct acting anti-virals is associated with very high rates of sustained virological response (SVR). Daily combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is approved for the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients, though noncirrhotic patients who are naïve to treatment with a baseline HCV RNA <6 million IU/mL can be treated for 8 weeks. This guidance stemmed from a post hoc analysis of the ION 3 clinical trial, which demonstrated similar SVR for patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for 8 or 12 weeks...
July 10, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691284/performance-characteristics-of-serum-c4-and-fgf19-measurements-to-exclude-the-diagnosis-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-in-ibs-diarrhoea-and-functional-diarrhoea
#4
P Vijayvargiya, M Camilleri, P Carlson, A Lueke, J O'Neill, D Burton, I Busciglio, L Donato
BACKGROUND: The serum biomarkers, elevated 7αC4 (C4) and decreased FGF19, have been proposed as screening tests for bile acid diarrhoea. AIM: To analyse prevalence, specificity and reproducibility of fasting C4 and FGF19 in identifying bile acid diarrhoea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhoea or functional diarrhoea (summarised as IBS-D). METHODS: We prospectively studied fasting serum C4 and FGF19 in 101 IBS-D patients; we reviewed data from 37 of the 101 patients with prior fasting serum C4 and FGF19 and from 30 of the 101 patients with prior faecal bile acids per 48 hours...
July 10, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677333/review-article-new-treatments-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
S A Townsend, P N Newsome
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the fastest growing cause of liver disease in the Western world, yet there is no approved pharmacotherapy. While lifestyle modifications remain the mainstay of treatment, only a proportion of individuals are able to make or sustain them, and so more treatment options are required. AIM: To review the potential benefit of drugs used in clinical practice, those entering phase II trials, and compounds being investigated in pre-clinical studies...
July 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671338/mixture-model-analysis-identifies-irritable-bowel-syndrome-subgroups-characterised-by-specific-profiles-of-gastrointestinal-extraintestinal-somatic-and-psychological-symptoms
#6
A Polster, L Van Oudenhove, M Jones, L Öhman, H Törnblom, M Simrén
BACKGROUND: Current subgrouping of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is exclusively based on stool consistency without considering other relevant gastrointestinal (GI), extraintestinal somatic or psychological features. AIM: To identify subgroups based on a comprehensive set of IBS-related parameters. METHODS: Mixture model analysis was used, with the following input variables: 13 single-item scores from the IBS-specific Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, average stool consistency and frequency from a 7-day Bristol Stool Form diary, 12 single-item extraintestinal symptom scores from the Patient Health Questionnaire-12, and anxiety and depression subscale scores from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale...
July 3, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664992/the-outcome-of-ulcerative-colitis-patients-undergoing-pouch-surgery-is-determined-by-pre-surgical-factors
#7
H Yanai, S Ben-Shachar, L Mlynarsky, L Godny, M Leshno, H Tulchinsky, I Dotan
BACKGROUND: Pouch surgery, a common intervention for ulcerative colitis (UC) complications, is often associated with the development of pouchitis. AIM: To identify predictors of pouch outcome in a cohort of patients with UC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective unmatched case-cohort study in a tertiary IBD referral centre. Adult patients with UC were classified into the worst phenotype throughout follow-up: normal pouch, a form of chronic pouchitis (either chronic pouchitis or Crohn's like disease of pouch [CLDP]), or episodic recurrent acute pouchitis (RAP)...
June 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660640/randomised-clinical-trial-sofosbuvir-and-ledipasvir-in-patients-with-transfusion-dependent-thalassaemia-and-hcv-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#8
A Mangia, R Sarli, R Gamberini, A Piga, G Cenderello, V Piazzolla, R Santoro, V Caruso, A Quarta, R Ganga, M Copetti, G Forni
BACKGROUND: Patients with thalassaemia major depend on blood transfusions. In Italy, up to 80% of thalassaemia patients bear HCV antibodies due to HCV contaminated transfusions before 1990. Thalassaemia patients with HCV infection have high risk of developing HCC. Treatment based on Pegylated-IFN (Peg-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) was limited by relevant side effects. AIM: To evaluate the impact of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) fixed dose combination for 12 weeks without RBV, in patients with thalassaemia major and HCV Genotype 1 or 4 (GT1/4)...
June 29, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653753/the-development-of-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-index-for-fistulising-crohn-s-disease
#9
M A Samaan, C A J Puylaert, B G Levesque, G Y Zou, L Stitt, S A Taylor, L M Shackelton, M K Vandervoort, R Khanna, C Santillan, J Rimola, P Hindryckx, C Y Nio, W J Sandborn, G D'Haens, B G Feagan, V Jairath, J Stoker
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for assessment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease (CD). The Van Assche index is the most commonly used MRI fistula index. AIMS: To assess the reliability of the Van Assche index, and to modify the instrument to improve reliability and create a novel index for fistulising CD. METHODS: A consensus process developed scoring conventions for existing Van Assche index component items and new items...
June 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653751/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-probiotics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Y Derwa, D J Gracie, P J Hamlin, A C Ford
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Evidence implicates disturbances of the gastrointestinal microbiota in their pathogenesis. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of probiotics in IBD. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (until November 2016). Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruited adults with UC or CD, and compared probiotics with 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs) or placebo...
June 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639700/systematic-review-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adults-with-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-instruments-for-measurement-and-determinant-factors
#11
REVIEW
A J Lucendo, L Arias-González, J Molina-Infante, Á Arias
BACKGROUND: Several measures have been used to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). AIMS: To systematically review these HRQoL measures, to appraise measurement properties of specific instruments and to evaluate determinant factors influencing HRQoL in paediatric and adult EoE patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS) and PsycINFO databases for documents providing original information on the development of measurement tools and/or evaluation of HRQoL outcomes in EoE patients of all ages...
June 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627791/no-evidence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-patients-with-resolved-infection-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-hepatitis-c-in-a-large-real-world-cohort
#12
V T Mücke, M M Mücke, K-H Peiffer, N Weiler, T M Welzel, C Sarrazin, S Zeuzem, A Berger, J Vermehren
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been observed following interferon (IFN)-based treatment in HBV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Recent reports suggest that reactivation may also occur in both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative patients during HCV treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). AIM: To investigate the rate of patients with HBV reactivation during IFN-based and IFN-free HCV treatment in a large real-world cohort...
June 19, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593685/one-year-effectiveness-and-safety-of-vedolizumab-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#13
A Amiot, M Serrero, L Peyrin-Biroulet, J Filippi, B Pariente, X Roblin, A Buisson, C Stefanescu, C Trang-Poisson, R Altwegg, P Marteau, T Vaysse, A Bourrier, S Nancey, D Laharie, M Allez, G Savoye, J Moreau, L Vuitton, S Viennot, A Aubourg, A-L Pelletier, G Bouguen, V Abitbol, C Gagniere, Y Bouhnik
BACKGROUND: We recently showed that vedolizumab is effective in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) with prior anti-TNF failure in a multicentre compassionate early-access programme before marketing authorisation was granted to vedolizumab. AIMS: To assess effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab at week 54 in patients UC and CD. METHODS: Between June and December 2014, 173 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 121 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were treated with vedolizumab induction therapy...
June 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589631/systematic-review-exercise-induced-gastrointestinal-syndrome-implications-for-health-and-intestinal-disease
#14
REVIEW
R J S Costa, R M J Snipe, C M Kitic, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: "Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome" refers to disturbances of gastrointestinal integrity and function that are common features of strenuous exercise. AIM: To systematically review the literature to establish the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal integrity and function in healthy populations and those with chronic gastrointestinal conditions. METHODS: Search literature using five databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, SPORTSdiscus, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal injury, permeability, endotoxaemia, motility and malabsorption in healthy populations and populations with gastrointestinal diseases/disorders...
June 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569401/macrophage-inhibitory-cytokine-1-growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-predictor-of-colonic-neoplasia
#15
M Danta, D A Barber, H P Zhang, M Lee-Ng, S W L Baumgart, V W W Tsai, Y Husaini, M Saxena, C P Marquis, W Errington, S Kerr, S N Breit, D A Brown
BACKGROUND: Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) concentration has been associated with colonic adenomas and carcinoma. AIMS: To determine whether circulating MIC-1/GDF15 serum concentrations are higher in the presence of adenomas and whether the level decreases after excision. METHODS: Patients were recruited prospectively from a single centre and stratified into five groups: no polyps (NP); hyperplastic polyps (HP); sessile serrated ademona (SSA); adenomas (AP); and colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
June 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568974/randomised-non-inferiority-trial-1600%C3%A2-mg-versus-400%C3%A2-mg-tablets-of-mesalazine-for-the-treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-ulcerative-colitis
#16
G R D'Haens, W J Sandborn, G Zou, L W Stitt, P J Rutgeerts, D Gilgen, V Jairath, P Hindryckx, L M Shackelton, M K Vandervoort, C E Parker, C Muller, R K Pai, O Levchenko, Y Marakhouski, M Horynski, E Mikhailova, N Kharchenko, S Pimanov, B G Feagan
BACKGROUND: High concentration mesalazine formulations are more convenient than conventional low concentration formulations for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of 1600 mg and 400 mg tablet mesalazine formulations. METHODS: Patients with mild-to-moderate active UC (Mayo Clinic Score >5; N=817) were randomised to 3.2 g of oral mesalazine, administered as two 1600 mg tablets once, or four 400 mg tablets twice daily...
June 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547755/demographic-and-socioeconomic-influences-on-helicobacter-pylori-gastritis-and-its-pre-neoplastic-lesions-amongst-us-residents
#17
R M Genta, K O Turner, A Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can lead to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. AIMS: To investigate in a cross-sectional study these changes among different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within the USA. METHODS: We used the Miraca Life Sciences database, an electronic depository of clinicopathological records from patients distributed throughout the USA, to extract data from 487 587 patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy between 1/2008 and 12/2014...
May 25, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543334/the-use-of-selective-serotonin-receptor-inhibitors-ssris-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-endoscopy-refractory-bleeding-rebleeding-or-mortality-in-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#18
S B Laursen, G I Leontiadis, A J Stanley, J Hallas, O B Schaffalitzky de Muckadell
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have consistently shown an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in users of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs), probably explained by their inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, treatment with SSRIs is often temporarily withheld in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs is associated with development of withdrawal symptoms in one-third of patients. Further data are needed to clarify whether treatment with SSRIs is associated with poor outcomes, which would support temporary discontinuation of treatment...
May 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543263/randomised-clinical-trial-mesalazine-versus-placebo-in-the-prevention-of-diverticulitis-recurrence
#19
W Kruis, V Kardalinos, T Eisenbach, M Lukas, T Vich, I Bunganic, J Pokrotnieks, J Derova, J Kondrackiene, R Safadi, D Tuculanu, Z Tulassay, J Banai, A Curtin, A E Dorofeyev, S F Zakko, N Ferreira, S Björck, M M Diez Alonso, J Mäkelä, N J Talley, K Dilger, R Greinwald, R Mohrbacher, R Spiller
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of mesalazine in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of mesalazine granules in the prevention of recurrence of diverticulitis after acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. METHODS: Two phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre trials (SAG-37 and SAG-51) investigated mesalazine granules in patients with prior episodes (<6 months) of uncomplicated left-sided diverticulitis...
May 23, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543549/review-article-recent-insights-into-clinical-decision-making-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#20
REVIEW
P D J Dunne, E H Forrest
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with a high mortality. Management of patients with this condition has been a matter of controversy for many years; however, recent clinical studies have sought to improve the clinical approach to these patients. AIM: To use these recent studies in order to guide clinical management. METHODS: A MeSH search of Medline was performed to specifically identify recent studies which influenced clinical diagnosis, assessment and management of alcoholic hepatitis...
May 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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