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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382751/treatment-of-hcv-infection-in-liver-transplant-recipients-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-without-ribavirin
#1
A A Pillai, R Maheshwari, R Vora, J P Norvell, R Ford, S Parekh, N Cheng, A Patel, N Young, J R Spivey, O Mgbemena, J P Wedd
BACKGROUND: Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir is a well-tolerated regimen with high sustained virological response (SVR) rates in pre-liver transplant patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), but data in liver transplant recipients outside of clinical trials is limited. AIMS: To address this knowledge gap and assess SVR rates without the use of ribavirin in liver transplant recipients METHODS: This is a retrospective study examining the treatment of 75 post-liver transplant recipients with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir without ribavirin...
April 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382674/diagnostic-features-of-malignancy-associated-pseudoachalasia
#2
F A Ponds, M I van Raath, S M M Mohamed, A J P M Smout, A J Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: Pseudoachalasia is a condition in which clinical and manometric signs of achalasia are mimicked by another abnormality, most often a malignancy. AIM: To identify risk factors that suggest presence of malignancy-associated pseudoachalasia. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, achalasia patients newly diagnosed by manometry were included. Patients with a normal initial endoscopy, clinical and manometric signs of achalasia who were afterwards found to have an underlying malignant cause were classified as pseudoachalasia...
April 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378364/chenodeoxycholic-acid-stimulated-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-response-a-potential-biochemical-test-for-bile-acid-diarrhoea
#3
C Borup, S Wildt, J J Rumessen, P N Bouchelouche, J Graff, M Damgaard, C McQuitty, D Rainteau, L K Munck
BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid diarrhoea. METHODS: Eight patients with primary bile acid diarrhoea and eight healthy volunteers ingested (i) a meal plus 1250 mg chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), (ii) 1250 mg CDCA or (iii) the meal...
April 5, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378342/randomised-clinical-trial-yoga-vs-written-self-care-advice-for-ulcerative-colitis
#4
H Cramer, M Schäfer, M Schöls, J Köcke, S Elsenbruch, R Lauche, H Engler, G Dobos, J Langhorst
BACKGROUND: Perceived stress seems to be a risk factor for exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. Yoga has been shown to reduce perceived stress. AIMS: To assess the efficacy and safety of yoga for improving quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A total of 77 patients (75% women; 45.5 ± 11.9 years) with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission but impaired quality of life were randomly assigned to yoga (12 supervised weekly sessions of 90 min; n = 39) or written self-care advice (n = 38)...
April 5, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370355/a-visual-analogue-scale-and-a-likert-scale-are-simple-and-responsive-tools-for-assessing-dysphagia-in-eosinophilic-oesophagitis
#5
C C Reed, W A Wolf, C C Cotton, E S Dellon
BACKGROUND: While symptom scores have been developed to evaluate dysphagia in eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), their complexity may limit clinical use. AIM: To evaluate a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 10-point Likert scale (LS) for assessment of dysphagia severity before and after EoE treatment. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study enrolling consecutive adults undergoing out-patient endoscopy. Incident cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines...
March 31, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370150/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-hyperandrogenism-as-a-risk-factor-for-non-obese-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
J J Kim, D Kim, J Y Yim, J H Kang, K H Han, S M Kim, K R Hwang, S Y Ku, C S Suh, S H Kim, Y M Choi
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, most studies investigated the prevalence of NAFLD in obese PCOS patients. AIM: To compare the prevalence of non-obese NAFLD in women with or without PCOS, and to assess an independent association between PCOS and NAFLD in a non-obese Asian cohort. METHODS: This was a case-control study using a prospective PCOS cohort...
March 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370090/reversal-of-hepatorenal-syndrome-type-1-with-terlipressin-plus-albumin-vs-placebo-plus-albumin-in-a-pooled-analysis-of-the-ot-0401-and-reverse-randomised-clinical-studies
#7
A J Sanyal, T D Boyer, R T Frederick, F Wong, L Rossaro, V Araya, H E Vargas, K R Reddy, S C Pappas, P Teuber, S Escalante, K Jamil
BACKGROUND: The goal of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 (HRS-1) treatment is to improve renal function. Terlipressin, a synthetic vasopressin analogue, is a systemic vasoconstrictor used for the treatment of HRS-1, where it is available. AIM: To compare the efficacy of terlipressin plus albumin vs. placebo plus albumin in patients with HRS-1. METHODS: Pooled patient-level data from two large phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled studies were analysed for HRS reversal [serum creatinine (SCr) value ≤133 μmol/L], 90-day survival, need for renal replacement therapy and predictors of HRS reversal...
March 29, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345155/a-nomogram-for-predicting-prognostic-value-of-inflammatory-response-biomarkers-in-decompensated-cirrhotic-patients-without-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#8
Y-J Cai, J-J Dong, J-Z Dong, Y Chen, Z Lin, M Song, Y-Q Wang, Y-P Chen, K-Q Shi, M-T Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a vital role in liver cirrhosis progression and prognosis. AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of inflammatory response markers in decompensated cirrhotic patients without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: Independent predictors were identified using multivariate Cox model and then assembled into a nomogram to predict survival. Concordance index (C-index) and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (td-ROC) analysis were adopted to evaluate and compare the performance of nomogram, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, MELD-Na and Chronic Liver Failure-consortium score for acute decompensated (CLIF-C ADs)...
March 26, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326568/early-response-predicts-a-sustained-response-to-eluxadoline-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhoea-in-two-phase-3-studies
#9
W D Chey, L S Dove, D A Andrae, P S Covington
BACKGROUND: The mixed μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, eluxadoline, is licensed in the USA for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D), based on the results of two large Phase 3 clinical trials. AIM: To understand the time course of treatment benefits with eluxadoline by comparing responder rates over the first month of treatment with responder rates over longer treatment intervals. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of two Phase 3 studies, composite and adequate relief (AR) responder rates were calculated over month 1 and patients were stratified by their responder status...
March 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326599/functional-dyspepsia-is-associated-with-duodenal-eosinophilia-in-an-australian-paediatric-cohort
#10
L Wauters, S Nightingale, N J Talley, B Sulaiman, M M Walker
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia (FD) remains unknown. Duodenal eosinophil infiltration has been reported. AIM: To assess the association between dyspeptic symptoms and duodenal eosinophilia in children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, children with normal upper endoscopy and routine histology at a single tertiary paediatric centre between 2010 and 2014 were included...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326597/performing-routine-follow-up-biopsy-1-year-after-diagnosis-does-not-affect-long-term-outcomes-in-coeliac-disease
#11
H Pekki, K Kurppa, M Mäki, H Huhtala, K Laurila, T Ilus, K Kaukinen
BACKGROUND: A repeat biopsy is recommended, but often omitted in coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet. The effect of performing or not performing repeat biopsies is currently unknown. AIM: To identify factors associated with and the significance of lacking biopsy for long-term outcome. Predictors and the importance of incomplete histological recovery after 1 year was investigated in re-biopsied patients. METHODS: A total of 760 patients participated in a nationwide follow-up study...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326596/systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis-comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-different-intravenous-iron-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
A Aksan, H Işık, H H Radeke, A Dignass, J Stein
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326569/the-dynamics-of-the-oesophageal-squamous-epithelium-normalisation-process-in-patients-with-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-treated-with-long-term-acid-suppression-or-anti-reflux-surgery
#13
L Mastracci, R Fiocca, C Engström, S Attwood, C Ell, J P Galmiche, J G Hatlebakk, G Långström, S Eklund, T Lind, L Lundell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors and laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS) offer long-term symptom control to patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To evaluate the process of 'normalisation' of the squamous epithelium morphology of the distal oesophagus on these therapies. METHODS: In the LOTUS trial, 554 patients with chronic GERD were randomised to receive either esomeprazole (20-40 mg daily) or LARS. After 5 years, 372 patients remained in the study (esomeprazole, 192; LARS, 180)...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318052/systematic-review-benefits-and-harms-of-transarterial-embolisation-for-treating-hepatocellular-adenoma
#14
REVIEW
C Zhao, S-L Pei, A Cucchetti, T-J Tong, Y-L Ma, J-H Zhong, L-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Transarterial embolisation (TAE) is a standard treatment for bleeding hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and, occasionally, symptomatic HCA involving large tumours. Whether TAE is similarly safe and effective as an elective treatment for bleeding and nonbleeding HCA remains unclear. AIM: To investigate the benefits and harms of TAE for bleeding and nonbleeding HCA. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for studies that examined post-TAE tumour reduction in patients with bleeding or nonbleeding HCA and that were published between January 2000 and January 2017...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318043/the-effects-of-pregnancy-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-infliximab-and-adalimumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
C H Seow, Y Leung, N Vande Casteele, E Ehteshami Afshar, D Tanyingoh, G Bindra, M J Stewart, P L Beck, G G Kaplan, S Ghosh, R Panaccione
BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer of infliximab and adalimumab results in detectable drug levels in the cord blood and infant. AIM: To determine if pregnancy influenced the pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF agents in women with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Twenty-five women from the University of Calgary inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) pregnancy clinic on maintenance infliximab or adalimumab were recruited prospectively with serum bio-banking performed each trimester...
March 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252185/on-target-sorafenib-toxicity-predicts-improved-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-multi-centre-prospective-study
#16
J Howell, D J Pinato, R Ramaswami, D Bettinger, T Arizumi, C Ferrari, C Yen, A Gibbin, M E Burlone, G Guaschino, L Sellers, J Black, M Pirisi, M Kudo, R Thimme, J-W Park, R Sharma
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and has high mortality despite treatment. While sorafenib has a survival benefit for patients with advanced HCC, clinical response is highly variable. AIM: To determine whether development of sorafenib toxicity is a prognostic marker of survival in HCC. METHODS: In this prospective multicentre cohort study, patients with advanced-stage HCC receiving sorafenib were recruited from five international specialist centres...
March 2, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247573/review-article-moving-towards-common-therapeutic-goals-in-crohn-s-disease-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
P B Allen, P Olivera, P Emery, D Moulin, J-Y Jouzeau, P Netter, S Danese, B Feagan, W J Sandborn, L Peyrin-Biroulet
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic, progressive and disabling conditions that frequently lead to structural tissue damage. Based on strategies originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, the treatment goal for CD has recently moved from exclusively controlling symptoms to both clinical remission and complete mucosal healing (deep remission), with the final aim of preventing bowel damage and disability. AIM: To review the similarities and differences in treatment goals between CD and rheumatoid arthritis...
March 1, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239869/intra-patient-variability-in-adalimumab-drug-levels-within-and-between-cycles-in-crohn-s-disease
#18
M G Ward, P A Thwaites, L Beswick, J Hogg, G Rosella, D Van Langenberg, J Reynolds, P R Gibson, M P Sparrow
BACKGROUND: Whether therapeutic drug monitoring for adalimumab needs to be performed at trough has not been defined. AIM: To determine intra-patient adalimumab drug-level variation and to identify modulating patient and disease factors. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, adult patients with Crohn's disease established on maintenance adalimumab had drug levels measured repeatedly according to pre-defined schedules (visit 1: day 4-6, visit 2: day 7-9, trough: day 13-14) across two consecutive fortnightly cycles...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239873/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ct-p13-a-biosimilar-of-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-agent-infliximab-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Y Komaki, A Yamada, F Komaki, D Micic, A Ido, A Sakuraba
BACKGROUND: Biosimilars of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents have now become clinically available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilars of anti-TNF-α agents in patients with IBD. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched. The outcomes were the pooled rates of clinical response or remission, sustained clinical response or remission, and adverse events in patients with IBD induced with or switched to biosimilars of anti-TNF-α agents...
February 26, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233394/predictors-of-response-to-a-low-fodmap-diet-in-patients-with-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-lactose-or-fructose-intolerance
#20
C H Wilder-Smith, S S Olesen, A Materna, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Diets low in fermentable sugars (low-FODMAP diets) are increasingly adopted by patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), but outcome predictors are unclear. AIM: To identify factors predictive of an efficacious response to a low-FODMAP diet in FGID patients with fructose or lactose intolerance thereby gaining insights into underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Fructose and lactose breath tests were performed in FGID patients to determine intolerance (positive symptom score) and malabsorption (increased hydrogen or methane concentrations)...
February 24, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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