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Immunology and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#1
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045025/interferon-epsilon-promotes-hiv-restriction-at-multiple-steps-of-viral-replication
#2
Albert Garcia-Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Niamh E Mangan, Corinna Pade, San S Lim, Antony Y Matthews, Nicole A de Weerd, Paul J Hertzog, Johnson Mak
Interferon epsilon (IFNɛ) is a type I IFN that is expressed constitutively in the female reproductive tract (FRT), and contributes to protection in models of sexually transmitted infections. Using multiple cell systems, including reporter cell lines and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), we show that recombinant IFNɛ impairs HIV infection at stage(s) post HIV entry and up to the translation of viral proteins. Consistent with this, IFNɛ upregulated a number of host cell restriction factors that block HIV at these stages of the replication cycle...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974746/role-of-fc-fc%C3%AE-r-interactions-in-the-antitumor-activity-of-therapeutic-antibodies
#3
REVIEW
Bryan C Barnhart, Michael Quigley
The use of antibody therapy for cancer has steadily increased in recent years and has become standard treatment for numerous tumor types. It is now appreciated that the clinical activity of these antibodies relies upon their specific interactions with Fc receptors in addition to the well-studied target-binding region. The interactions mediated by antibody Fc domains can strongly affect the functional outcome of antibody therapy. The Fc portion of an antibody defines its interaction with numerous immune cells and has become an intense area of research as selecting the optimal Fc can greatly enhance the activity as well as mechanism of action of therapeutic antibodies...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974745/mechanisms-of-ripk3-induced-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Inbar Shlomovitz, Sefi Zargrian, Motti Gerlic
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3/RIPK3) is a multifunctional regulator of cell death and inflammation. It controls signalling downstream of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) and toll-like receptors (TLRs). Today, it is also widely recognized as a component of caspase-independent cell death known as necroptosis, and cytokine production via activation of the inflammasome. Its role in inflammasome activation, in particular, make the interpretation of its role in vivo more complex...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904150/regulating-the-balance-between-necroptosis-apoptosis-and-inflammation-by-inhibitors-of-apoptosis-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Lazaros Vasilikos, Lisanne M Spilgies, Janin Knop, Wendy Wei-Lynn Wong
Understanding how inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate apoptosis and necroptosis has been fast-forwarded by the use of Smac mimetics (SMs) to deplete or inhibit the IAPs, specifically cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP. The loss or inhibition of cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP causes the majority of cells to be sensitized to death receptor induced cell death, such as with tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Mouse genetics shows that there is some functional redundancy and the use of SMs has allowed us to understand how changing the composition of proteins recruited to TNF receptor 1 on TNF ligation can alter protein complex formation and activation of apoptosis or necroptosis, particularly when caspases are inhibited...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808086/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-promotes-the-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-chronic-schistosomiasis
#6
Jie Luo, Yuejin Liang, Fanping Kong, Jingfan Qiu, Xinjian Liu, Ailing Chen, Bruce A Luxon, Hannah W Wu, Yong Wang
The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event in fibrotic pathogenesis. However, the mechanism involving activation of HSCs in chronic schistosomiasis is not entirely clear. Human HSC LX-2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) were cultured with Schistosoma japonicum antigens (SA) in vitro. Fibrosis-associated genes and cell proliferation were analyzed. HSCs were isolated from mice of chronic schistosomiasis with or without praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, followed by the microarray analysis for the liver fibrosis-associated pathways...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003642/car-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Carmen S M Yong, Valerie Dardalhon, Christel Devaud, Naomi Taylor, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw
The potential for immunotherapy as a treatment option for cancer is clear from remarkable responses of some leukemia patients to adoptive cell transfer using autologous T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). However, the vast majority of cancers, in particular the more common solid cancers, such as those of the breast, colon and lung, fail to respond significantly to infusions of CAR T cells. Solid cancers present some formidable barriers to adoptive cell transfer, including suppression of T cell function and inhibition of T cell localization...
December 22, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999434/adoptive-cellular-immunotherapy-for-virus-associated-cancers-a-new-paradigm-in-personalized-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna
Persistent viral infections are associated with the majority of human cancers where infectious agents have been recognized as the primary etiological agent. These viruses contribute to the malignant transformation of human cells either through the expression of oncogenic proteins or chronic inflammation. In spite of the high prevalence of these viral infections in humans, only a small proportion of these individuals who may have an underlying immune defect develop malignant disease. Furthermore, many of these viruses have evolved unique mechanisms to avoid the host immune system to successfully establish latent infection with limited gene expression...
December 21, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999433/insane-in-the-membrane-a-structural-perspective-of-mlkl-function-in-necroptosis
#9
REVIEW
Emma J Petrie, Joanne M Hildebrand, James M Murphy
Necroptosis (or 'programmed necrosis') is a caspase-independent cell death pathway that operates downstream of death receptors, including Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 (TNFR1), and the Toll-like receptors, TLR3 and TLR4. Owing to its immunogenicity, necroptosis has been attributed roles in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the tissue damage arising from ischemic-reperfusion injuries. Only over the past 7 years has the core machinery of this pathway, the receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) and the pseudokinase, Mixed Lineage Kinase domain-Like (MLKL), been defined...
December 21, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999432/targeting-cancer-related-inflammation-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Kyohei Nakamura, Mark J Smyth
Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint blockade therapy have dramatically changed the therapeutic strategy against advanced malignancies. Still, only a subset of patients shows a good response to any single therapy. Moreover, it remains largely unsolved how we can maintain durable clinical responses, or how we can successfully treat a broader range of cancers by immunotherapy. Growing evidence suggests that the major barrier to more successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumour microenvironment (TME), where chronic inflammation plays a predominant role in tumour survival and proliferation, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression...
December 21, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995905/lymphocytic-division-clocked-up-by-myc
#11
Amir Erez, Grégoire Altan-Bonnet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909314/controlled-detonation-evolution-of-necroptosis-in-pathogen-defense
#12
REVIEW
Michelle Brault, Andrew Oberst
Necroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death that involves the swelling and rupture of dying cells. Although several necroptosis-inducing stimuli have been defined, in most cells this pathway is kept in check by the action of the pro-apoptotic protease caspase-8 and the IAP ubiquitin ligases. How and when necroptosis is triggered under physiological conditions therefore remains a persistent question. Because necroptosis likely arose as a defensive mechanism against viral infection, exploration of this question requires a consideration of host-pathogen interactions, and how the sensing of infection could sensitize cells to necroptosis...
December 20, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899813/the-pro-fibrotic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-experimental-liver-injury
#13
Xin M Wang, Lauren E Holz, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Shaun P Cordoba, Kathryn A Evans, Margaret G Gall, Ana Júlia Vieira de Ribeiro, Yuan Zhou Zheng, Miriam T Levy, Denise Mt Yu, Tsun-Wen Yao, Natasa Polak, Christopher J Jolly, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Mark D Gorrell
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process involving inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26, is a cell surface glycoprotein and serine protease. DPP4 binds to fibronectin, can inactivate specific chemokines, incretin hormone and neuropeptides, and influences cell adhesion and migration. Such properties suggest a pro-fibrotic role for this peptidase but this hypothesis needs in vivo examination. Experimental liver injury was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in DPP4 gene knockout (gko) mice...
December 20, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990018/chlamydial-protease-like-activity-factor-mediated-protection-against-c-trachomatis-in-guinea-pigs
#14
Shradha Wali, Rishein Gupta, Jieh-Juen Yu, Gopala Krishna Koundinya Lanka, James P Chambers, M Neal Guentzel, Guangming Zhong, Ashlesh K Murthy, Bernard P Arulanandam
We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C...
December 19, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922620/relevance-of-necroptosis-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Najoua Lalaoui, Gabriela Brumatti
Resistance to caspase-dependent apoptosis is often responsible for treatment failures in cancer. Finding novel therapeutic strategies that can activate alternative cell death programs appears to be appealing. Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis that occurs under caspase deficient conditions. This alternative form of cell death has recently emerged as a potential anti-cancer therapy that could overcome apoptosis resistance. A growing understanding of the molecular events triggering necroptosis helped to examine its implication in cancer development and to define new therapeutic strategies...
December 6, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833091/divergent-macrophage-responses-to-mycobacterium-bovis-among-naturally-exposed-uninfected-and-infected-cattle
#16
Omar A Alcaraz-López, Cindy García-Gil, Claudia Morales-Martínez, Gonzalo López-Rincón, Ciro Estrada-Chávez, José A Gutiérrez-Pabello, Hugo Esquivel-Solís
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), is a successful pathogen that remains an important global threat to livestock. Cattle naturally exposed to M. bovis normally become reactive to the M. bovis-purified protein derivative (tuberculin) skin test; however, some individuals remain negative, suggesting that they may be resistant to infection. To better understand host innate resistance to infection, 26 cattle from herds with a long history of high TB prevalence were included in this study...
December 6, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897162/batf3-selectively-determines-acquisition-of-cd8-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-function
#17
Janin Chandra, Paula T Y Kuo, Anne M Hahn, Gabrielle T Belz, Ian H Frazer
Batf3 is a transcription factor that impacts the development of CD103(+) tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether Batf3 is absolutely required for the development of CD8(+) DCs remains controversial. Id2 is required for CD8(+) DC development. Here we show that bone marrow chimeric mice with a deletion of Id2 in the CD11c compartment lose the ability to reject a skin graft expressing a non-self protein antigen or mount a delayed hypersensitivity response. In contrast, Batf3((-/-)) mice remained competent for skin graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity, and retained a CD8(+) DC population with markers characteristic of the CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD11b, CD4 and CD172α, as well as the key regulator transcription factor IRF4, but lacked IRF8 expression...
November 29, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874015/metabolic-sialic-acid-blockade-lowers-the-activation-threshold-of-modcs-for-tlr-stimulation
#18
Christian Büll, Estel Collado-Camps, Esther D Kers-Rebel, Torben Heise, Jonas N Søndergaard, Martijn H den Brok, Barbara M Schulte, Thomas J Boltje, Gosse J Adema
Sialic acid sugars cover the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and have been suggested to impact several aspects of DC biology. Research into the role of sialic acids in DCs, however, is complicated by the limited number of tools available to modulate sialic acid expression. Here we report on a synthetic, fluorinated sialic acid mimetic, Ac53FaxNeu5Ac, which potently blocks sialic acid expression in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). Sialic acid blockade enhanced the responsiveness of moDCs to Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation as measured by increased maturation marker expression and cytokine production...
November 22, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874014/epithelial-extracellular-atp-an-initiator-of-immunity-to-parasitic-infections
#19
Sean Nelson, Hiroshi Kiyono, Yosuke Kurashima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826146/a-motive-for-killing-effector-functions-of-regulated-lytic-cell-death
#20
REVIEW
Meghan Bliss-Moreau, Alyce A Chen, Akshay D'Cruz, Ben A Croker
Immunological responses activated by pathogen recognition come in many guises. The proliferation, differentiation, and recruitment of immune cells, and the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are central to lifelong immunity. Cell death serves as a key function in the resolution of innate and adaptive immune responses. It also coordinates cell-intrinsic effector functions to restrict infection. Necrosis was formally considered a passive form of cell death or a consequence of pathogen virulence factor expression, and necrotic tissue was associated with infection...
November 9, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
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