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Immunology and Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428612/granzyme-k-deficient-mice-show-no-evidence-of-impaired-anti-viral-immunity
#1
Lars T Joeckel, Cody C Allison, Mark Pellegrini, Catherina H Bird, Phillip Ian Bird
The biological role of granzyme K, a serine protease of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), is controversial. It has been reported to induce perforin-mediated cell death in vitro, but is also reported to be non-cytotoxic and to operate in inflammatory processes. To elucidate the biological role of this protease we have deleted the granzyme K gene in mice (mutant allele: Gzmk(tm1.1Pib); MGI:5636646). Gzmk(-/-) mice are healthy, anatomically normal, fecund, and show normal hematopoietic development. Gzmk(-/-) mice readily recover from Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and mouse pox Ectromelia virus infection...
April 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420873/viewing-immune-regulation-as-it-happens-in-vivo-imaging-for-investigation-of-regulatory-t-cell-function
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Hickey, Zachary Chow
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play indispensable roles in the immune system, in limiting excessive or inappropriate immune and inflammatory responses. They achieve this function via effects on other immune cells in the secondary lymphoid system, and in peripheral locations such as skin, gut and bone marrow. As for the more extensively-studied cellular players in the immune system, particularly dendritic cells and conventional T cells, in vivo imaging of Tregs via two-photon or multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been central to the development of understanding how these cells function...
April 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418020/pathogenic-cd4-t-cells-regulating-b-cell-differentiation-in-autoimmunity-not-exactly-tfh-cells
#3
Stuart G Tangye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405017/lectin-pathway-factors-in-patients-suffering-from-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#4
Katarzyna Kasperkiewicz, Łukasz Eppa, Anna S Świerzko, Marcin A Bartłomiejczyk, Zbigniew M Żuber, Katarzyna Siniewicz-Luzeńczyk, Elżbieta Mężyk, Misao Matsushita, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn, Krzysztof Zeman, Mikael Skurnik, Maciej Cedzyński
Both complement activation and certain infections (including those with Yersinia sp.) may contribute to the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We investigated factors specific for the lectin pathway of complement: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins and associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), in 144 patients and 98 controls. 106 patients had oligoarticular disease and 38 had polyarticular disease. In 51 patients (out of 133 tested), Yersinia-reactive antibodies were found (JIA Ye+ group)...
April 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405016/influenza-induced-lung-trm-not-all-memories-last-forever
#5
REVIEW
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, John T Harty
In the light of new findings that lung tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells (Trm) represent major mediators of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza virus, it is of utmost importance to understand the basic biological mechanisms behind induction, formation and maintenance of this cell population. Addressing these important knowledge gaps will potentially inform development of superior, broadly-protective influenza vaccines and new immunization strategies.Immunology and Cell Biology accepted article preview online, 13 April 2017...
April 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392557/in-vitro-tracking-and-intracellular-protein-distribution-in-immunology
#6
REVIEW
Kajal Zibaei, Sarah M Russell
New imaging techniques have enabled major advances in understanding how immune reactions are initiated, coordinated and controlled. Imaging methods, which were previously mostly descriptive and supplementary to more quantitative approaches, have now reached sufficient precision and throughput that they are becoming integral to almost all aspects of immunology research. Imaging methodologies that increase the resolution and sensitivity of detection, alongside an ever-expanding range of fluorescent reporters of molecular and cellular activity, and vastly improved analysis methods, have all facilitated this transformation...
April 10, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377613/follistatin-like-protein-1-modulates-il-17-signaling-via-il-17rc-regulation-in-stromal-cells
#7
Brian T Campfield, Taylor Eddens, Matthew Henkel, Martin Majewski, William Horne, Yury Chaly, Sarah L Gaffen, Raphael Hirsch, Jay K Kolls
Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL-1) possesses several newly identified roles in mammalian biology, including IL-17 driven inflammation, though the mechanism underlying FSTL-1 influence on IL-17 mediated cytokine production is unknown. Using parallel in vitro bone marrow stromal cell models of FSTL-1 suppression we employed unbiased microarray analysis to identify FSTL-1 regulated genes and pathways that could influence IL-17 dependent production of IL-6 and G-CSF. We discovered that FSTL-1 modulates Il17rc gene expression...
April 5, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377612/dominant-tnf%C3%AE-and-impaired-il-2-cytokine-profiles-of-cd4-t-cells-from-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
Julia Seyfarth, Katharina Förtsch, Heinz Ahlert, Hans-Juergen Laws, Beate Karges, Rene Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner, Marc Jacobsen
Aberrantly activated CD4(+) T memory cells play a central role in the development of type-1-diabetes. Interleukin-7 promotes generation of autoimmune memory T cells and increased Interleukin-7 availability is associated with type-1-diabetes susceptibility. T-cell mediated immune pathology at onset of type-1-diabetes is well defined, but characteristics of long-term symptomatic disease stages remain largely elusive. In the present study memory CD4(+) T-cell activation and cytokine expression as well as sensitivity to Interleukin-7 in vitro were compared between patients with type-1-diabetes at clinical onset (n=25), long-term symptomatic disease (median duration 4...
April 5, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366932/intravital-microscopy-in-historic-and-contemporary-immunology
#9
REVIEW
Judith Secklehner, Cristina Lo Celso, Leo M Carlin
In this review, we discuss intravital microscopy of immune cells, starting from its historic origins to current applications in diverse organs. It is clear from a quantitative review of the literature that intravital microscopy is a key tool in both historic and contemporary immunological research, providing unique advances in our understanding of immune responses. We have chosen to focus this review on how intravital microscopy methodologies are used to image specific organs or systems and we present recent descriptions of fundamental immunological processes that could not have been achieved by other methods...
April 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356570/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-a-role-for-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Gerard F Hoyne, Hannah Elliott, Steven E Mutsaers, Cecilia M Prêle
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. It is typically associated with extensive and progressive fibrosis, is fatal and has limited treatment options. Characteristically IPF patients display large lymphocyte aggregates composed of CD3(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells within the lung tissue that are located near sites of active fibrosis. In addition, IPF patients can have autoantibodies to a range of host antigens, suggesting a breakdown in immunological tolerance...
March 30, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356569/synergistic-targeting-of-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-by-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-cd8-t-cells
#11
Hung-Chang Chen, Noémie Joalland, John S Bridgeman, Fouad S Alchami, Ulrich Jarry, Mohd Wajid A Khan, Luke Piggott, Yasmin Shanneik, Jianqiang Li, Marco J Herold, Thomas Herrmann, David A Price, Awen M Gallimore, Richard W Clarkson, Emmanuel Scotet, Bernhard Moser, Matthias Eberl
The inherent resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to existing therapies has largely hampered the development of effective treatments for advanced malignancy. To help develop novel immunotherapy approaches that efficiently target CSCs, an experimental model allowing reliable distinction of CSCs and non-CSCs was set up to study their interaction with non-MHC restricted γδ T cells and antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Stable lines with characteristics of breast CSC-like cells were generated from ras-transformed human mammary epithelial (HMLER) cells as confirmed by their CD44(hi) CD24(lo) GD2(+) phenotype, their mesenchymal morphology in culture and their capacity to form mammospheres under non-adherent conditions, as well as their potent tumorigenicity, self-renewal and differentiation in xenografted mice...
March 30, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356568/negative-regulators-and-their-mechanisms-in-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-signalling
#12
REVIEW
Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Hyun-Woo Suh, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that cause the release of biologically active IL-1β. The best-characterized inflammasome is the NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 or Nod-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome forms an assembly consisting of the ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain [CARD]) adaptor protein and the effector, caspase-1 (cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-1)...
March 30, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202908/silencing-c-rel-in-macrophages-dampens-th1-and-th17-immune-responses-and-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#13
Hongling Zhang, Jiacheng Bi, Huqiang Yi, Tingting Fan, Qingguo Ruan, Lintao Cai, Youhai H Chen, Xiaochun Wan
Autoimmune Th1 and Th17 responses are critical for the development of central nervous system (CNS) pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for human multiple sclerosis. Although macrophages play important roles in the development of Th1 and Th17 responses, whether modulating macrophage gene transcription can diminish the Th1- and Th17 cell-induced CNS pathology is unclear. In this study, we successfully silenced the expression of the transcription factor c-Rel in macrophages of mice with EAE (including those infiltrating the CNS) using chemically modified c-Rel-specific siRNAs delivered by nanoparticles...
March 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303902/ms4a4a-a-novel-cell-surface-marker-for-m2-macrophages-and-plasma-cells
#14
Ratna Sanyal, Maria J Polyak, Jonathan Zuccolo, Mandip Puri, Lili Deng, Luc Roberts, Ania Zuba, Jan Storek, Joanne M Luider, Ellen M Sundberg, Adnan Mansoor, Eva Baigorri, Michael P Chu, Andrew R Belch, Linda M Pilarski, Julie P Deans
MS4A4A is a member of the membrane-spanning, 4 domain family, subfamily A (MS4A) that includes CD20 (MS4A1), FcRβ (MS4A2) and Htm4 (MS4A3). Like the first three members of this family, transcription of MS4A4A appears to be limited to hematopoietic cells. To evaluate expression of the MS4A4A protein in hematopoietic cell lineages and subsets we generated monoclonal antibodies against extracellular epitopes for use in flow cytometry. In human peripheral blood we found that MS4A4A is expressed at the plasma membrane in monocytes but not in granulocytes or lymphocytes...
March 17, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294139/imaging-to-study-solid-tumour-origin-and-progression-lessons-from-research-and-clinical-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Stefania Raimondo, Giovanni Zito
Biomedical imaging in recent decades has clarified our understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes in vivo. In particular, this approach recently provided insights into processes occurring at a molecular or genetic level rather than at the anatomical level. The evolution of this discipline by engineering have led to its integration into biomedical research to (1) increase sensitivity and resolution imaging and to (2) improve tissue and cell specificity. Currently, imaging approaches are used in three different biomedical areas: (a) identification of cellular processes in physiological and disease state, (b) in vivo single cell imaging, and (c) identification of new prognostic and therapeutical strategies...
March 15, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294138/machine-learning-applications-in-cell-image-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Andrey Kan
Machine learning refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on machine learning applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (e.g., variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of machine learning, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples...
March 15, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290451/development-of-sh2-probes-and-pull-down-assays-to-detect-pathogen-induced-site-specific-tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-the-tlr-adaptor-scimp
#17
Lin Luo, Samuel J Tong, Adam A Wall, Tatiana Khromykh, Matthew J Sweet, Jennifer L Stow
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation guides many molecular interactions for cellular functions. SCIMP is a transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP) family member that mediates selective proinflammatory cytokine responses generated by pathogen-activated Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways in macrophages. TLR activation triggers SCIMP phosphorylation and selective phosphorylation of distinct tyrosine residues on this adaptor offers the potential for regulating or biasing inflammatory responses. To analyze site-specific phosphorylation events, we developed three probes based on the SH2 domains of known SCIMP effectors, and used them for pull-downs from macrophage extracts...
March 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290450/when-input-does-not-match-output-lung-resident-memory-t-cells-decay
#18
Linda M Wakim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228641/evaluation-of-trained-immunity-by-%C3%AE-1-3-d-glucan-on-murine-monocytes-in-vitro-and-duration-of-response-in-vivo
#19
Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Ruth Marian Guzman-Genuino, David L Williams, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener
The β-1, 3 (d)-glucan (β-glucan) present in the cell wall of Candida albicans induces epigenetic changes in human monocytes resulting in primed macrophages exhibiting increased cytokine responsiveness to reinfection. This phenomenon is referred to as trained immunity or innate immune memory. However, whether β-glucan can reprogramme murine monocytes in vitro or induce lasting effects in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Thus, purified murine spleen-derived monocytes were primed with β-glucan in vitro and assessed for markers of differentiation and survival...
March 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244489/chromosome-choice-for-initiation-of-v-d-j-recombination-is-not-governed-by-genomic-imprinting
#20
Claudia Gebert, Lauren Correia, Zhenhu Li, Howard T Petrie, Paul E Love, Karl Pfeifer
V-(D)-J recombination generates the antigen receptor diversity necessary for immune cell function, while allelic exclusion ensures that each cell expresses a single antigen receptor. V-(D)-J recombination of the Ig, Tcrb, Tcrg and Tcrd antigen receptor genes is ordered and sequential so that only one allele generates a productive rearrangement. The mechanism controlling sequential rearrangement of antigen receptor genes, in particular how only one allele is selected to initiate recombination while at least temporarily leaving the other intact, remains unresolved...
February 28, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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