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Gastroenterology Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164857/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164856/the-gut-microbiome-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-other-functional-bowel-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Yehuda Ringel
Emerging data from epidemiologic, microbiome, and physiology research in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs) provide evidence for a linkage between alterations in the intestinal microbiota and FBDs. However, currently most of the data is based on association studies, and the causality role of the microbiota in these disorders is not established. Growing evidence for compositional changes and the increasing recognition of the association between the intestinal microbiota and gut-brain functions that are relevant to the pathophysiology and/or clinical symptoms of FBDs have led to increased interest in manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the treatment of these disorders...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164855/from-culture-to-high-throughput-sequencing-and-beyond-a-layperson-s-guide-to-the-omics-and-diagnostic-potential-of-the-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Paul W O'Toole, Burkhardt Flemer
Detailed knowledge of the community of organisms in the gut has become possible in recent years because of the development of culture-independent methods. Largely based on latest DNA sequencing platforms, it is now possible to establish the composition of the microbiota and the repertoire of biochemical functions it encodes. Variations in either or both of these parameters have been linked to intestinal and extraintestinal disease. This article summarizes how these methods are applied, with special reference to gastroenterology, and describes the achievements and future potential of microbiota analysis as a diagnostic tool...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164854/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164853/impact-of-antibiotics-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#5
REVIEW
Michael A Silverman, Liza Konnikova, Jeffrey S Gerber
Antibiotic treatment alters the composition and metabolic function of the intestinal microbiota. These alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Recent studies are beginning to unravel the contribution of specific groups of microbes and their metabolic pathways to these diseases. Probiotics or other microbiota-targeted therapies may provide effect strategies to prevent and treat NEC and AAD.
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164852/diet-and-the-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Nida Murtaza, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison
The gut microbiota provides a range of ecologic, metabolic, and immunomodulatory functions relevant to health and well-being. The gut microbiota not only responds quickly to changes in diet, but this dynamic equilibrium may be managed to prevent and/or treat acute and chronic diseases. This article provides a working definition of the term "microbiome" and uses two examples of dietary interventions for the treatment of large bowel conditions to emphasize the links between diet and microbiome. There remains a need to develop a better functional understanding of the microbiota, if its management for clinical utility is to be fully realized...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164851/biology-of-the-microbiome-2-metabolic-role
#7
REVIEW
Jia V Li, Jonathan Swann, Julian R Marchesi
The human microbiome is a new frontier in biology and one that is helping to define what it is to be human. Recently, we have begun to understand that the "communication" between the host and its microbiome is via a metabolic superhighway. By interrogating and understanding the molecules involved we may start to know who the main players are, and how we can modulate them and the mechanisms of health and disease.
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164850/biology-of-the-microbiome-1-interactions-with-the-host-immune-response
#8
REVIEW
Sylwia Smolinska, David Groeger, Liam O'Mahony
The intestinal immune system is intimately connected with the vast diversity of microbes present within the gut and the diversity of food components that are consumed daily. The discovery of novel molecular mechanisms, which mediate host-microbe-nutrient communication, have highlighted the important roles played by microbes and dietary factors in influencing mucosal immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, T regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B cells can all be influenced by the microbiome...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164849/fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Stephen M Vindigni, Christina M Surawicz
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the transfer of stool from a healthy donor into the colon of a patient whose disease is a result of an altered microbiome, with the goal of restoring the normal microbiota and thus curing the disease. The most effective and well-studied indication for FMT is recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend FMT for other gastrointestinal diseases, but studies are under way. There is also insufficient evidence to recommend FMT for nongastrointestinal diseases at this time...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164848/gut-microbiota-and-complications-of-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Chathur Acharya, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications are epidemic worldwide. Most complications are mediated through a dysfunctional gut-liver axis. New techniques have made culture-independent analysis of the gut microbiome widespread. With insight into an unfavorable microbiome (dysbiosis) and how it affects liver disease, investigators have discovered new targets to potentially improve outcomes. Dysbiosis is associated with endotoxemia and propagates liver injury due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and alcohol...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164847/the-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Donal Sheehan, Fergus Shanahan
Genes, bacteria, and immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Most genetic risk relates to defective sensing of microbes and their metabolites or defective regulation of the host response to the microbiota. Because the composition of the microbiota shapes the developing immune system and is determined in early life, the prospect of therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota in adulthood after the onset of disease is questionable. However, the microbiota may be a marker of risk and a modifier of disease activity and a contributor to extraintestinal manifestations and associations in some patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164846/the-esophageal-and-gastric-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Richard H Hunt, Mohammad Yaghoobi
The esophagus and stomach are host to their own population of bacteria, which differs in health and disease. Helicobacter pylori uniquely colonizes only gastric mucosa, but an increasing number of bacteria is now isolated from the gastric juice and gastric mucosa, including Lactobacillus. The presence of H pylori alters populations of other gastric bacteria with a marked reduction in diversity. Alterations in intragastric acidity may be the cause or the consequence of changes in the microbial populations of the stomach...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164845/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-and-other-intestinal-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal, Ujjala Ghoshal
Gut microbiota is the largest organ of the human body. Although growth of bacteria more than 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter in culture of upper gut aspirate is used to diagnosis small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), 10(3) CFU or more is being considered to suggest the diagnosis, particularly if colonic type bacteria are present in the upper gut. Although neither very sensitive nor specific, hydrogen breath tests are widely used to diagnose SIBO. Rifaximin is the best treatment for SIBO due to its broad spectrum, lack of systemic absorption, and safety profile...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164844/basic-definitions-and-concepts-organization-of-the-gut-microbiome
#14
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
New claims are frequently made for a role for the microbiome in a disease or disorder previously considered remote from the gut. The microbiome has been linked to such seemingly unrelated entities as depression, anorexia nervosa, autism, Parkinson disease, allergy, and asthma. Although many of these proposals have been based on animal studies, explorations of the microbiome in human disease continue to proliferate, facilitated by technologies that provide a detailed assessment of the microbial inhabitants of our gastrointestinal tract and their biological activities and metabolic products...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837785/obesity-and-gastroenterology
#15
EDITORIAL
Octavia Pickett-Blakely, Linda A Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837784/childhood-overweight-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Jamilah Grant-Guimaraes, Ronald Feinstein, Erica Laber, Jennifer Kosoy
Childhood overweight and obesity are increasing in prevalence and are a growing health concern. The diseases and their comorbidities have devastating consequences to children and adults as well as families, communities, and the nation. Comorbidities are cardiorespiratory, endocrinologic, gastrointestinal, orthopedic, and psychosocial. Health care providers are facing this crisis with limited medical, community, and federal resources and insufficient reimbursement. This article reviews recent trends in the assessment and treatment of this disease as well as trends in reimbursement, financial implications, and the need for further research and advocacy...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837783/future-therapies-in-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Octavia Pickett-Blakely, Carolyn Newberry
Although diet and exercise have been the cornerstone of therapy for obesity, efficacy is suboptimal and short lived. Surgical procedures are durable but invasive therapy for obesity. Supplemental therapies for obesity that are minimally invasive, low risk, and effective are needed. Several therapeutic options are being developed that offer obese patients and their health care providers alternatives to what is currently available.
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837782/the-surgical-management-of-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Christopher J Neylan, Umashankkar Kannan, Daniel T Dempsey, Noel N Williams, Kristoffel R Dumon
In the United States, more than one-third of the population is obese. Currently, bariatric surgery is the best known treatment for obesity, and multiple meta-analyses have shown bariatric surgery to be more effective for treating obesity than diet and exercise or pharmacologic treatment. The modern era of bariatric surgery began in 2005, which is defined by a drastic increase in the use of laparoscopy. Bariatric surgery has the potential to improve obesity-related comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837781/endoscopic-management
#19
REVIEW
Michael C Bennett, Ricardo Badillo, Shelby Sullivan
Endoscopic bariatric therapy consists of devices or procedures for primary weight loss or weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass that are placed or done endoscopically. In most cases, they result in less weight loss, but fewer complications than bariatric surgery; and more weight loss than lifestyle therapy or weight loss medications. These therapies are important advances to treat patients with obesity. This article focuses on therapies or devices with US Food and Drug Administration approval or those with current or planned US pivotal trials...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837780/pharmacotherapy-in-treatment-of-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Jeanette N Keith
Common disease states in gastroenterology are more effectively treated in an obese patient when weight loss is incorporated into the treatment plan. Strategies that seek to achieve weight loss improve outcomes in the treatment of hepatitis C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and colorectal cancer, as examples. Pharmacologic therapy is an important adjunctive intervention that improves both short-term and long-term outcomes in the management of obese patients. This article reviews currently available drug therapy with a focus on pharmacotherapy approved long-term weight management in non-diabetic obese individuals since 2012, encouraging the use of these tools in the practice of gastroenterology...
December 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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