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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419505/assisted-dying-disability
#1
Christopher A Riddle
This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal...
April 17, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374479/fair-resource-allocation-to-health-research-priority-topics-for-bioethics-scholarship
#2
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
This article draws attention to the limited amount of scholarship on what constitutes fairness and equity in resource allocation to health research by individual funders. It identifies three key decisions of ethical significance about resource allocation that research funders make regularly and calls for prioritizing scholarship on those topics - namely, how health resources should be fairly apportioned amongst public health and health care delivery versus health research, how health research resources should be fairly allocated between health problems experienced domestically versus other health problems typically experienced by disadvantaged populations outside the funder's country, and how domestic and non-domestic health research funding should be further apportioned to different areas, e...
April 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374464/wrongness-responsibility-and-conscientious-refusals-in-health-care
#3
Alida Liberman
In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several important ways: they cannot involve empirical falsehoods, objectionably discriminatory attitudes, or unreasonable normative beliefs...
April 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374428/ethical-considerations-of-triage-following-natural-disasters-the-idf-experience-in-haiti-as-a-case-study
#4
Efrat Ram-Tiktin
Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals...
April 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#5
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
March 16, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240798/alcohol-use-disorder-liver-transplantation-and-ethics
#6
LETTER
Gianni Testino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240791/is-consent-based-on-trust-morally-inferior-to-consent-based-on-information
#7
Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm, Klemens Kappel
Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent - autonomy, voluntariness, non-manipulation, and non-exploitation - and assess whether these values are less protected and promoted by consent based on trust than they are by consent based on information...
February 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182296/ways-out-of-the-patenting-prohibition-human-parthenogenetic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun, Peter Dabrock
According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182294/is-there-a-right-to-the-death-of-the-foetus
#9
Eric Mathison, Jeremy Davis
At some point in the future - perhaps within the next few decades - it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a right to an abortion, there are reasons to doubt that there is a right to the death of the foetus...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#10
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182276/human-dignity-and-human-enhancement-a-multidimensional-approach
#11
David G Kirchhoffer
In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of 'dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals that the problem of dignity talk arises because proponents of various positions tend to ground human dignity in different features of the human individual...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160296/in-defense-of-artificial-replacement
#12
Derek Shiller
If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160293/epistemic-authority-and-genuine-ethical-controversies
#13
Adam James Roberts
In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417521/evaluating-the-quality-of-the-deliberation-in-moral-case-deliberations-a-coding-scheme
#14
Hylke Jellema, Swanny Kremer, Anne-Ruth Mackor, Bert Molewijk
Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) is an up and coming form of ethics support wherein clinical professionals deliberate about moral questions they face in their work. So far, it has been unclear what quality of deliberation in MCD is entailed and how to evaluate this quality. This article proposes a coding scheme that fits the theoretical background of MCD and allows researchers to evaluate the quality of the deliberation in MCDs. We consider deliberation in MCD to be of good quality when participants enrich their own understanding of a case by being exposed to the viewpoints of others...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417520/integrating-theory-and-data-in-evaluating-clinical-ethics-support-still-a-long-way-to-go
#15
EDITORIAL
Bert Molewijk, Jan Schildmann, Anne Slowther
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417519/methodological-reflections-on-the-contribution-of-qualitative-research-to-the-evaluation-of-clinical-ethics-support-services
#16
Sebastian Wäscher, Sabine Salloch, Peter Ritter, Jochen Vollmann, Jan Schildmann
This article describes a process of developing, implementing and evaluating a clinical ethics support service intervention with the goal of building up a context-sensitive structure of minimal clinical-ethics in an oncology department without prior clinical ethics structure. Scholars from different disciplines have called for an improvement in the evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) for different reasons over several decades. However, while a lot has been said about the concepts and methodological challenges of evaluating CESS up to the present time, relatively few empirical studies have been carried out...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417518/what-outcomes-do-dutch-healthcare-professionals-perceive-as-important-before-participation-in-moral-case-deliberation
#17
Janine de Snoo-Trimp, Guy Widdershoven, Mia Svantesson, Riekie de Vet, Bert Molewijk
BACKGROUND: There has been little attention paid to research on the outcomes of clinical ethics support (CES) or critical reflection on what constitutes a good CES outcome. Understanding how CES users perceive the importance of CES outcomes can contribute to a better understanding, use of and normative reflection on CES outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perceptions of Dutch healthcare professionals on important outcomes of moral case deliberation (MCD), prior to MCD participation, and to compare results between respondents...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417517/evaluating-clinical-ethics-support-a-participatory-approach
#18
Suzanne Metselaar, Guy Widdershoven, Rouven Porz, Bert Molewijk
The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services (CESS) in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what 'good CESS' should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be it as receivers or providers...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417516/discovering-what-matters-interrogating-clinician-responses-to-ethics-consultation
#19
Stuart G Finder, Virginia L Bartlett
Against the background assumptions that (a) knowing what clinical ethics consultation represents to those with whom ethics consultants work most closely is a necessary component for being responsible in the practice of ethics consultation, and (b) the complexities of soliciting and understanding colleague evaluations require another inherent responsibility for the methods by which ethics consultations are evaluated, in this article we report our experience soliciting, analyzing, and trying to understand retrospective evaluations of our Clinical Ethics Consultation Service...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220560/bioethics-in-a-post-truth-era
#20
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Bioethics
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