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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741210/language-barriers-and-epistemic-injustice-in-healthcare-settings
#1
Yael Peled
Contemporary realities of global population movement increasingly bring to the fore the challenge of quality and equitable health provision across language barriers. While this linguistic challenge is not unique to immigration contexts and is likewise shared by health systems responding to the needs of aboriginal peoples and other historical linguistic minorities, the expanding multilingual landscape of receiving societies renders this challenge even more critical, owing to limited or even non-existing familiarity of modern and often monolingual health systems with the particular needs of new linguistic minorities...
May 9, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741209/union-s-inspiration-universal-health-care-and-the-essential-partiality-of-solidarity
#2
Simon Derpmann
Solidarity is commonly invoked in the justification of public health care. This is understandable, as calls for and appeals to solidarity are effective in the mobilization of unison action and the willingness to incur sacrifices for others. However, the reference to solidarity as a moral notion requires caution, as there is no agreement on the meaning of solidarity. The article argues that the reference to solidarity as a normative notion is relevant to health-related moral claims, but that it does not provide a convincing foundation of claims to universal health care...
May 9, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726022/will-cognitive-enhancement-create-post-persons-the-use-lessness-of-induction-in-determining-the-likelihood-of-moral-status-enhancement
#3
Emilian Mihailov, Alexandru Dragomir
The prospect of cognitive enhancement well beyond current human capacities raises worries that the fundamental equality in moral status of human beings could be undermined. Cognitive enhancement might create beings with moral status higher than persons. Yet, there is an expressibility problem of spelling out what the higher threshold in cognitive capacity would be like. Nicholas Agar has put forward the bold claim that we can show by means of inductive reasoning that indefinite cognitive enhancement will probably mark a difference in moral status...
May 3, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718562/solidarity-as-a-national-health-care-strategy
#4
Peter West-Oram
The Trump Administration's recent attempts to repeal the Affordable Care Act have reignited long-running debates surrounding the nature of justice in health care provision, the extent of our obligations to others, and the most effective ways of funding and delivering quality health care. In this article, I respond to arguments that individualist systems of health care provision deliver higher-quality health care and promote liberty more effectively than the cooperative, solidaristic approaches that characterize health care provision in most wealthy countries apart from the United States...
May 2, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709059/health-worker-migration-and-migrant-healthcare-seeking-cosmopolitanism-in-the-nhs
#5
Arianne Shahvisi
The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) is critically reliant on staff from overseas, which means that a sizeable number of U.K. healthcare professionals have received their training at the cost of other states, whose populations are urgently in need of healthcare professionals. At the same time, while healthcare is widely seen as a primary good, many migrants are unable to access the NHS without charge, and anti-immigration political trends are likely to further reduce that access. Both of these topics have received close attention in the global health ethics literature...
April 30, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687472/conscience-claims-metaphysics-and-avoiding-an-lgbt-eugenic
#6
Abram Brummett
Novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are poised to present our society with strange new ethical questions, such as whether lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples should be allowed to produce children biologically related to both parents, or whether trans-women who want to experience childbirth should be allowed to receive uterine transplants. Clinicians opposed to offering such technologies to LGBT couples on moral grounds are likely to seek legal shelter through the conscience clauses enshrined in U...
April 23, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687469/educational-pelvic-exams-on-anesthetized-women-why-consent-matters
#7
Phoebe Friesen
It is argued here that the practice of medical students performing pelvic exams on women who are under anesthetic and have not consented is immoral and indefensible. This argument begins by laying out the ethical justification for the practice of informed consent, which can be found in autonomy and basic rights. Foregoing the process of consent within medicine can result in violations of both autonomy and basic rights, as well as trust, forming the basis of the wrong of unauthorized pelvic examinations. Several objections to this argument are considered, all of which stem from the idea that this practice constitutes an exception to the general requirement of informed consent...
April 23, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687460/regret-shame-and-denials-of-women-s-voluntary-sterilization
#8
Dianne Lalonde
Women face extraordinary difficulty in seeking sterilization as physicians routinely deny them the procedure. Physicians defend such denials by citing the possibility of future regret, a well-studied phenomenon in women's sterilization literature. Regret is, however, a problematic emotion upon which to deny reproductive freedom as regret is neither satisfactorily defined and measured, nor is it centered in analogous cases regarding men's decision to undergo sterilization or the decision of women to undergo fertility treatment...
April 23, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542172/empathy-social-media-and-directed-altruistic-living-organ-donation
#9
Greg Moorlock, Heather Draper
In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation...
March 15, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676503/toward-a-global-geroethics-gerontology-and-the-theory-of-the-good-human-life
#10
Hans-Joerg Ehni, Selma Kadi, Maartje Schermer, Sridhar Venkatapuram
Gerontologists have proposed different concepts for ageing well such as 'successful ageing', 'active ageing', and 'healthy ageing'. These conceptions are primarily focused on maintaining health and preventing disease. But they also raise the questions: what is a good life in old age and how can it be achieved? While medical in origin, these concepts and strategies for ageing well also contain ethical advice for individuals and societies on how to act regarding ageing and old age. This connection between gerontology and ethics is overlooked by both schools of thought...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676502/indignity-and-old-age
#11
John-Stewart Gordon
This article examines the nature of human dignity against the background of old age and introduces the novel idea of treating human dignity as a formal principle related to the more foundational notion of indignity. The discussion starts with the objection that the notion of human dignity can be used to justify contrary positions and is therefore inconclusive. This pitfall can be averted by appealing to the notion of indignity rather than dignity in one's moral reasoning and decision-making. Cases of indignity are more primary and indicate the violation of the very core of a human being...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676501/the-canary-in-the-coal-mine-continence-care-for-people-with-dementia-in-acute-hospital-wards-as-a-crisis-of-dehumanization
#12
Paula Boddington, Katie Featherstone
Continence is a key moment of care that can tell us about the wider care of people living with dementia within acute hospital wards. The spotlight is currently on the quality of hospital care of older people across the UK, yet concerns persist about their poor treatment, neglect, abuse, and discrimination within this setting. Thus, within hospitals, the care of people living with dementia is both a welfare issue and a human rights issue. The challenge of continence care for people living with dementia can be seen as the 'canary in the coal mine' for the unravelling of dignity within the acute setting...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676500/the-ethics-of-ageing
#13
EDITORIAL
John-Stewart Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676499/responsibility-and-age-related-dementia
#14
Petr Frantik
This article identifies the assumption of responsibility as a basic need of human beings and applies the concept specifically to older people with dementia or Alzheimer's disease. It suggests a two-level concept of responsibility, based on the approach of discourse ethicist Karl-Otto Apel, as a promising approach to recognizing human diversity while at the same time respecting people's equal rights to participate in discourse. This concept can serve as a theoretical starting point for the construction of individually adapted types of responsibility...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676498/are-older-people-a-vulnerable-group-philosophical-and-bioethical-perspectives-on-ageing-and-vulnerability
#15
Claudia Bozzaro, Joachim Boldt, Mark Schweda
The elderly are often considered a vulnerable group in public and academic bioethical debates and regulations. In this paper, we examine and challenge this assumption and its ethical implications. We begin by systematically delineating the different concepts of vulnerability commonly used in bioethics, before then examining whether these concepts can be applied to old age. We argue that old age should not, in and of itself, be used as a marker of vulnerability, since ageing is a process that can develop in a variety of different ways and is not always associated with particular experiences of vulnerability...
May 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442382/reproductive-cloning-revisited
#16
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442381/fostering-caring-relationships-suggestions-to-rethink-liberal-perspectives-on-the-ethics-of-newborn-screening
#17
Simone van der Burg, Anke Oerlemans
Newborn screening (NBS) involves the collection of blood from the heel of a newborn baby and testing it for a list of rare and inheritable disorders. New biochemical screening technologies led to expansions of NBS programs in the first decade of the 21st century. It is expected that they will in time be replaced by genetic sequencing technologies. These developments have raised a lot of ethical debate. We reviewed the ethical literature on NBS, analyzed the issues and values that emerged, and paid particular interest to the type of impacts authors think NBS should have on the lives of children and their families...
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369389/the-future-like-ours-argument-animalism-and-mereological-universalism
#18
Andrea Sauchelli
Which metaphysical theories are involved-whether presupposed or implied-in Marquis' future-like-ours (FLO) argument against abortion? Vogelstein has recently argued that the supporter of the FLO argument faces a problematic dilemma; in particular, Marquis, the main supporter of the argument, seems to have to either (a) abandon diachronic universalism (DU) or (b) acquiesce and declare that contraception is morally wrong. I argue that the premises of Marquis' argument can be reasonably combined with a form of unrestricted composition and that the FLO argument is better viewed as including animalism, i...
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369381/why-arguments-against-infanticide-remain-convincing-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#19
COMMENT
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Clinton Wilcox
In 'Pro-life arguments against infanticide and why they are not convincing' Joona Räsänen argues that Christopher Kaczor's objections to Giubilini and Minerva's position on infanticide are not persuasive. We argue that Räsänen's criticism is largely misplaced, and that he has not engaged with Kaczor's strongest arguments against infanticide. We reply to each of Räsänen's criticisms, drawing on the full range of Kaczor's arguments, as well as adding some of our own.
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369379/melanoma-in-the-shopping-mall-a-utilitarian-argument-for-offering-unsolicited-medical-opinions-in-informal-settings
#20
Gustav Preller, Sabine Salloch
Doctors occasionally make diagnoses in strangers outside of formal medical settings by using the medical skill of visual inspection, such as noticing signs of melanoma or the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. This may cause considerable moral unease and doubts on the side of the diagnosing physician. Such encounters force physicians to consider whether or not to intervene by introducing themselves to the stranger and offering an unsolicited medical opinion despite the absence of a formal doctor-patient relationship...
March 2018: Bioethics
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