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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182296/ways-out-of-the-patenting-prohibition-human-parthenogenetic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun, Peter Dabrock
According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182294/is-there-a-right-to-the-death-of-the-foetus
#2
Eric Mathison, Jeremy Davis
At some point in the future - perhaps within the next few decades - it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a right to an abortion, there are reasons to doubt that there is a right to the death of the foetus...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#3
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182276/human-dignity-and-human-enhancement-a-multidimensional-approach
#4
David G Kirchhoffer
In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of 'dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals that the problem of dignity talk arises because proponents of various positions tend to ground human dignity in different features of the human individual...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160296/in-defense-of-artificial-replacement
#5
Derek Shiller
If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160293/epistemic-authority-and-genuine-ethical-controversies
#6
Adam James Roberts
In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039887/the-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-myth
#7
Tina Rulli
This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem...
December 30, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032367/the-consequences-of-vagueness-in-consent-to-organ-donation
#8
David M Shaw
In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032366/permanence-can-be-defended
#9
Andrew McGee, Dale Gardiner
In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death (DCDD), the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981 (USA), a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is 'irreversible'. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032365/the-human-genome-as-public-justifications-and-implications
#10
Michelle J Bayefsky
Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome - its common nature - has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the genome has been used to reinforce individual rights and justify important privacy protections, so too the common nature of the genome can be employed to support protections of the genome at a population level and policies designed to promote the public's wellbeing...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008642/the-substance-view-a-critique-part-3
#11
Rob Lovering
In my articles 'The Substance View: A Critique' and 'The Substance View: A Critique (Part 2),' I raise objections to the substance view (naturally), a theory of intrinsic value and moral standing defended by a number of contemporary moral philosophers, including Robert P. George, Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Francis Beckwith. In part one of my critique of the substance view, I raise reductio-style objections to the substance view's conclusion that the standard human fetus has the same intrinsic value and moral standing as the standard adult human being, among other human beings...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008640/objection-to-conscience-an-argument-against-conscience-exemptions-in-healthcare
#12
Alberto Giubilini
I argue that appeals to conscience do not constitute reasons for granting healthcare professionals exemptions from providing services they consider immoral (e.g. abortion). My argument is based on a comparison between a type of objection that many people think should be granted, i.e. to abortion, and one that most people think should not be granted, i.e. to antibiotics. I argue that there is no principled reason in favour of conscientious objection qua conscientious that allows to treat these two cases differently...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008639/the-invisible-discrimination-before-our-eyes-a-bioethical-analysis
#13
Francesca Minerva
The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition (which will be revealed later in the article) experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order to improve the quality of life of people affected by this condition...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008638/when-is-a-choice-not-a-choice-sham-offers-and-the-asymmetry-of-adolescent-consent-and-refusal
#14
Neil C Manson
In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. Lawlor (2016) offers a number of objections to this account...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008637/the-edge-of-human-the-problem-with-the-posthuman-as-the-beyond
#15
David R Lawrence
This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The 'posthuman' is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term 'Human', especially in the context of the enhancement debate and the myriad meanings ascribed to it, could give 'posthuman' very different slants depending on one's assumptions...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008636/conscientious-objection-to-vaccination
#16
Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini, Mary Jean Walker
Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220560/bioethics-in-a-post-truth-era
#17
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#18
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060433/the-social-value-of-pragmatic-trials
#19
Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee, Johannes van Delden
Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called 'real world data' from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their ethical acceptability...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060432/should-social-value-obligations-be-local-or-global
#20
Rahul Nayak, Seema K Shah
According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor (and not just research participants and host communities)...
February 2017: Bioethics
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