journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bioethics

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691236/response-to-vogelstein-how-the-2012-aap-task-force-on-circumcision-went-wrong
#1
Robert S Van Howe
Vogelstein cautions medical organizations against jumping into the fray of controversial issues, yet proffers the 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics' Task Force policy position on infant male circumcision as 'an appropriate use of position-statements.' Only a scratch below the surface of this policy statement uncovers the Task Force's failure to consider Vogelstein's many caveats. The Task Force supported the cultural practice by putting undeserved emphasis on questionable scientific data, while ignoring or underplaying the importance of valid contrary scientific data...
July 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614616/tying-oneself-to-the-mast-one-necessary-cost-to-morally-enhancing-oneself-biomedically
#2
Benedict Rumbold
In this article I seek to establish what, if anything, might be morally troubling about morally enhancing oneself through biomedical means. Building on arguments by Harris, while simultaneously acknowledging several valid counter-arguments that have been put forth by his critics, I argue that taking BMEs necessarily incurs at least one moral cost in the restrictions they impose on our freedom. This does not necessarily entail that the use of BMEs cannot be overall justified, nor that, in certain cases, their costs may not be forestalled...
June 14, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614604/-you-are-inferior-revisiting-the-expressivist-argument
#3
Bjørn Hofmann
According to the expressivist argument the choice to use biotechnologies to prevent the birth of individuals with specific disabilities is an expression of disvalue for existing people with this disability. The argument has stirred a lively debate and has recently received renewed attention. This article starts with presenting the expressivist argument and its core elements. It then goes on to present and examine the counter-arguments before it addresses some aspects that have gained surprisingly little attention...
June 14, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786178/first-do-no-harm-generalized-procreative-non-maleficence
#4
Ben Saunders
New reproductive technologies allow parents some choice over their children. Various moral principles have been suggested to regulate such choices. This article starts from a discussion of Julian Savulescu's Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PPB), according to which parents ought to choose the child expected to have the best quality of life, before combining two previously separate lines of attack against this principle. First, it is suggested that the appropriate moral principles of guiding reproductive choices ought to focus on general wellbeing rather than prioritizing that of the child and, second, that they ought to be non-maximizing (e...
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786177/a-pragmatic-analysis-of-vulnerability-in-clinical-research
#5
David Wendler
Identifying which subjects are vulnerable, and implementing safeguards to protect them, is widely regarded as essential to clinical research. Commentators have endorsed a number of responses to these challenges and have thereby made significant progress in understanding vulnerability in clinical research. At the same time, this literature points to a central contradiction which calls into question its potential to protect vulnerable subjects in practice. Specifically, analysis suggests that all human subjects are vulnerable and vulnerability in clinical research is comparative and context dependent, in the sense that individuals are vulnerable relative to others and in some contexts only...
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786176/ways-of-showing-respect-for-life
#6
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786175/euthanasia-and-cryothanasia
#7
Francesca Minerva, Anders Sandberg
In this article we discuss the moral and legal aspects of causing the death of a terminal patient in the hope of extending their life in the future. We call this theoretical procedure cryothanasia. We argue that administering cryothanasia is ethically different from administering euthanasia. Consequently, objections to euthanasia should not apply to cryothanasia, and cryothanasia could also be considered a legal option where euthanasia is illegal.
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786174/defending-the-social-value-of-knowledge-as-a-safeguard-for-public-trust
#8
Felicitas S Holzer
The 'socially valuable knowledge' (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating the validity of SVK in research and offered various lines of argument against the SVK principle as a necessary constraint to research...
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786173/human-organisms-begin-to-exist-at-fertilization
#9
Calum Miller, Alexander Pruss
Eugene Mills has recently argued that human organisms cannot begin to exist at fertilization because the evidence suggests that egg cells persist through fertilization and simply turn into zygotes. He offers two main arguments for this conclusion: that 'fertilized egg' commits no conceptual fallacy, and that on the face of it, it looks as though egg cells survive fertilization when the process is watched through a microscope. We refute these arguments and offer several reasons of our own to think that egg cells do not survive fertilization, appealing to various forms of essentialism regarding persons, fission cases, and a detailed discussion of the biological facts relevant to fertilization and genetics...
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608972/new-frontiers-in-end-of-life-ethics-and-policy-scope-advance-directives-and-conscientious-objection
#10
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608971/the-experiences-of-pregnant-women-in-an-interventional-clinical-trial-research-in-pregnancy-ethics-ripe-study
#11
Angela Ballantyne, Susan Pullon, Lindsay Macdonald, Christine Barthow, Kristen Wickens, Julian Crane
There is increasing global pressure to ensure that pregnant women are responsibly and safely included in clinical research in order to improve the evidence base that underpins healthcare delivery during pregnancy. One supposed barrier to inclusion is the assumption that pregnant women will be reluctant to participate in research. There is however very little empirical research investigating the views of pregnant women. Their perspective on the benefits, burdens and risks of research is a crucial component to ensuring effective recruitment...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503892/the-ethics-of-clinical-trials-research-in-severe-mood-disorders
#12
Allison C Nugent, Franklin G Miller, Ioline D Henter, Carlos A Zarate
Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), are highly prevalent, frequently disabling, and sometimes deadly. Additional research and more effective medications are desperately needed, but clinical trials research in mood disorders is fraught with ethical issues. Although many authors have discussed these issues, most do so from a theoretical viewpoint. This manuscript uses available empirical data to inform a discussion of the primary ethical issues raised in mood disorders research...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419505/assisted-dying-disability
#13
Christopher A Riddle
This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374428/ethical-considerations-of-triage-following-natural-disasters-the-idf-experience-in-haiti-as-a-case-study
#14
Efrat Ram-Tiktin
Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240791/is-consent-based-on-trust-morally-inferior-to-consent-based-on-information
#15
Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm, Klemens Kappel
Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent - autonomy, voluntariness, non-manipulation, and non-exploitation - and assess whether these values are less protected and promoted by consent based on trust than they are by consent based on information...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503835/neuroethics-neuroscience-s-contributions-to-bioethics
#16
EDITORIAL
Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J Jox, Eric Racine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503834/respect-for-autonomy-in-light-of-neuropsychiatry
#17
Sabine Müller
Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503833/moral-enhancement-meets-normative-and-empirical-reality-assessing-the-practical-feasibility-of-moral-enhancement-neurotechnologies
#18
Veljko Dubljević, Eric Racine
Moral enhancement refers to the possibility of making individuals and societies better from a moral standpoint. A fierce debate has emerged about the ethical aspects of moral enhancement, notably because steering moral enhancement in a particular direction involves choosing amongst a wide array of competing options, and these options entail deciding which moral theory or attributes of the moral agent would benefit from enhancement. Furthermore, the ability and effectiveness of different neurotechnologies to enhance morality have not been carefully examined...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503832/the-voluntary-nature-of-decision-making-in-addiction-static-metaphysical-views-versus-epistemologically-dynamic-views
#19
Eric Racine, Simon Rousseau-Lesage
The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with middle-ground positions between these two extremes, we flesh out an account of voluntary action that makes room for finer-grained analyses than the proposed all-or-nothing stances, which rely on a rather static metaphysical understanding of the nature of the voluntariness of action...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503831/can-neuroscience-contribute-to-practical-ethics-a-critical-review-and-discussion-of-the-methodological-and-translational-challenges-of-the-neuroscience-of-ethics
#20
Eric Racine, Veljko Dubljević, Ralf J Jox, Bernard Baertschi, Julia F Christensen, Michele Farisco, Fabrice Jotterand, Guy Kahane, Sabine Müller
Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions...
June 2017: Bioethics
journal
journal
29525
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"