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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214683/queer-reproduction-revisited-and-why-race-class-and-citizenship-still-matters-a-response-to-cristina-richie
#1
Doris Leibetseder
In the dialogue between Timothy F. Murphy and Cristina Richie about queer bioethics and queer reproduction in this journal, significant points of the emergent and extremely important discussions on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and queer bioethics are raised. Richie specifies correctly that queer bioethics can either complement or contradict LGBT bioethics and the queer standpoint against heteroconformity and heterofuturity is decisive here. As the field of queer bioethics is such a recent and essential part of consideration for bioethics and as it is still evolving, the objective of this intervention is to provide both an overview of important milestones of queer bioethics and to highlight that queer bioethics is not mono-logic and monolithic...
December 7, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205423/different-games-of-moral-bioenhancement
#2
Vojin Rakić, Harris Wiseman
Rakić has serious misgivings about Wiseman's inability to frame ethical issues in the context of transcending existing realities (the 'is') with the aim of achieving what we believe is morally right (the 'ought'). This inability to think beyond the present is misguided in ethics. He also criticizes Wiseman for making the unimaginative and unsubstantiated assumption that moral bioenhancement (MBE) technologies have reached their zenith already. Rakić argues that MBE will become more effective in the time to come, that it ought to be optional for every free individual, and that it should be directed at enhancing our motivation to act in line with how we believe we ought to act...
December 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194680/who-gets-the-gametes-an-argument-for-a-points-system-for-fertility-patients
#3
Simon Jenkins, Jonathan Ives, Sue Avery, Heather Draper
This paper argues that the convention of allocating donated gametes on a 'first come, first served' basis should be replaced with an allocation system that takes into account more morally relevant criteria than waiting time. This conclusion was developed using an empirical bioethics methodology, which involved a study of the views of 18 staff members from seven U.K. fertility clinics, and 20 academics, policy-makers, representatives of patient groups, and other relevant professionals, on the allocation of donated sperm and eggs...
December 1, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171867/enthusiastic-portrayal-of-3d-bioprinting-in-the-media-ethical-side-effects
#4
Frederic Gilbert, John Noel M Viaña, Cathal D O'Connell, Susan Dodds
There has been a surge in mass media reports extolling the potential for using three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. Given that mass media is recognized as one of the most important sources of health and medical information for the general public, especially prospective patients, we report and discuss the ethical consequences of coverage of 3D bioprinting in the media. First, we illustrate how positive mass media narratives of a similar biofabricated technology, namely the Macchiarini scaffold tracheas, which was involved in lethal experimental human trials, influenced potential patient perceptions...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171675/judgments-of-moral-responsibility-in-tissue-donation-cases
#5
John Beverley, James Beebe
If a person requires an organ or tissue donation to survive, many philosophers argue that whatever moral responsibility a biological relative may have to donate to the person in need will be grounded at least partially, if not entirely, in biological relations the potential donor bears to the recipient. We contend that such views ignore the role that a potential donor's unique ability to help the person in need plays in underwriting such judgments. If, for example, a sperm donor is judged to have a significant moral responsibility to donate tissue to a child conceived with his sperm, we think this will not be due to the fact that the donor stands in a close biological relationship to the recipient...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171674/a-dubious-defense-of-after-birth-abortion-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#6
Christopher Kaczor
Scholars have offered various critiques of Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva's controversial article, 'After-birth abortion: Why should the baby live?' My book The Ethics of Abortion: Women's Rights, Human Life, and the Question of Justice presents four such critiques. First, Giubilini and Minerva argue from the deeply controversial to the even more controversial. Second, they presuppose a false view of personal identity called body-self dualism. Third, their view cannot secure human equality. And fourth, their account of harm cannot account for harm found in some cases of murder...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171659/conscientious-objection-professional-duty-and-compromise-a-response-to-savulescu-and-schuklenk
#7
Jonathan A Hughes
In a recent article in this journal, Savulescu and Schuklenk defend and extend their earlier arguments against a right to medical conscientious objection in response to criticisms raised by Cowley. I argue that while it would be preferable to be less accommodating of medical conscientious than many countries currently are, Savulescu and Schuklenk's argument that conscientious objection is 'simply unprofessional' is mistaken. The professional duties of doctors should be defined in relation to the interests of patients and society, and for reasons set out in this article, these may support limited accommodation of conscientious objection on condition that it does not impede access to services...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171657/the-parenthood-argument
#8
William Simkulet
Don Marquis is well known for his future like ours theory (FLO), according to which the killing beings like us is seriously morally wrong because it deprives us of a future we can value. According to Marquis, human fetuses possess a future they can come to value, and thus according to FLO have a right to life. Recently Mark Brown has argued that even if FLO shows fetuses have a right to life, it fails to show that fetuses have a right to use their mother's body, evoking Judith Jarvis Thomson's famous violinist case...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023957/the-ethics-of-public-policy-rcts-the-principle-of-policy-equipoise
#9
Douglas MacKay
In this article, I ask whether a principle analogous to the principle of clinical equipoise should govern the design and conduct of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of policy interventions. I answer this question affirmatively, and introduce and defend the principle of policy equipoise. According to this principle, all arms of a policy RCT must be, at minimum, in a state of equipoise with the best proven policy that is also morally and practically attainable and sustainable. For all arms of a policy RCT, policy experts must either (1) reasonably disagree about whether the trial arms are more effective than this policy, or (2) know that they are...
October 11, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975654/a-prospectus-for-ethical-analysis-of-ageing-individuals-responsibility-to-prevent-cognitive-decline
#10
Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall
As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#11
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044695/ectogenesis-abortion-and-a-right-to-the-death-of-the-fetus
#12
Joona Räsänen
Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this position, by arguing against three common arguments for a right to the death of the fetus...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044694/a-bioethics-editor-s-summer-2017-conference-season-conscientious-objection-and-research-ethics
#13
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044693/erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975656/scanning-the-body-sequencing-the-genome-dealing-with-unsolicited-findings
#15
Roel H P Wouters, Candice Cornelis, Ainsley J Newson, Eline M Bunnik, Annelien L Bredenoord
The introduction of novel diagnostic techniques in clinical domains such as genomics and radiology has led to a rich ethical debate on how to handle unsolicited findings that result from these innovations. Yet while unsolicited findings arise in both genomics and radiology, most of the relevant literature to date has tended to focus on only one of these domains. In this article, we synthesize and critically assess similarities and differences between "scanning the body" and "sequencing the genome" from an ethical perspective...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921608/moral-bioenhancement-and-agential-risks-good-and-bad-outcomes
#16
Phil Torres
In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that our collective existetial predicment is unprecedentedly dangerous due to climate change and terrorism. Given these global risks to human prosperity and survival, Persson and Savulescu argue that we should explore the radical possibility of moral bioenhancement in addition to cognitive enhancement. In this article, I argue that moral bioenhancements could nontrivially exacerbate the threat posed by certain kinds of malicious agents, while reducing the threat of other kinds...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873235/a-kantian-ethics-approach-to-moral-bioenhancement
#17
Sarah Carter
It seems, at first glance, that a Kantian ethics approach to moral enhancement would tend towards the position that there could be no place for emotional modulation in any understanding of the endeavour, owing to the typically understood view that Kantian ethics does not allow any role for emotion in morality as a whole. It seems then that any account of moral bioenhancement which places emotion at its centre would therefore be rejected. This article argues, however, that this assumption is incorrect. Given later writings by Kant on the role of sympathy, and taking into account other concerns in Kantian ethics (such as bodily integrity), it may in fact be the case that Kantian ethics would allow for an account of moral bioenhancement through emotional modulation, and that in some (rare) cases such an intervention might even be considered to be a duty...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901603/fertility-immigration-and-the-fight-against-climate-change
#18
Jake Earl, Colin Hickey, Travis N Rieder
Several philosophers have recently argued that policies aimed at reducing human fertility are a practical and morally justifiable way to mitigate the risk of dangerous climate change. There is a powerful objection to such "population engineering" proposals: even if drastic fertility reductions are needed to prevent dangerous climate change, implementing those reductions would wreak havoc on the global economy, which would seriously undermine international antipoverty efforts. In this article, we articulate this economic objection to population engineering and show how it fails...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901602/iab-presidential-address-searching-for-justice
#19
Angela Ballantyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901601/family-interests-and-medical-decisions-for-children
#20
Paul Baines
Medical decisions for children are usually justified by the claim that they are in a child's best interests. More recently, following criticisms of the best interests standard, some advocate that the family's interests should influence medical decisions for children, although what is meant by family interests is often not made clear. I argue that at least two senses of family interests may be discerned. There is a 'weak' sense (as the amalgamated interests of family members) of family interests and a 'strong' sense (that the family itself has interests over and above the interests of individuals)...
October 2017: Bioethics
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