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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023957/the-ethics-of-public-policy-rcts-the-principle-of-policy-equipoise
#1
Douglas MacKay
In this article, I ask whether a principle analogous to the principle of clinical equipoise should govern the design and conduct of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of policy interventions. I answer this question affirmatively, and introduce and defend the principle of policy equipoise. According to this principle, all arms of a policy RCT must be, at minimum, in a state of equipoise with the best proven policy that is also morally and practically attainable and sustainable. For all arms of a policy RCT, policy experts must either (1) reasonably disagree about whether the trial arms are more effective than this policy, or (2) know that they are...
October 11, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975656/scanning-the-body-sequencing-the-genome-dealing-with-unsolicited-findings
#2
Roel H P Wouters, Candice Cornelis, Ainsley J Newson, Eline M Bunnik, Annelien L Bredenoord
The introduction of novel diagnostic techniques in clinical domains such as genomics and radiology has led to a rich ethical debate on how to handle unsolicited findings that result from these innovations. Yet while unsolicited findings arise in both genomics and radiology, most of the relevant literature to date has tended to focus on only one of these domains. In this article, we synthesize and critically assess similarities and differences between "scanning the body" and "sequencing the genome" from an ethical perspective...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975654/a-prospectus-for-ethical-analysis-of-ageing-individuals-responsibility-to-prevent-cognitive-decline
#3
Cynthia Forlini, Wayne Hall
As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities...
October 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921608/moral-bioenhancement-and-agential-risks-good-and-bad-outcomes
#4
Phil Torres
In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu argue that our collective existetial predicment is unprecedentedly dangerous due to climate change and terrorism. Given these global risks to human prosperity and survival, Persson and Savulescu argue that we should explore the radical possibility of moral bioenhancement in addition to cognitive enhancement. In this article, I argue that moral bioenhancements could nontrivially exacerbate the threat posed by certain kinds of malicious agents, while reducing the threat of other kinds...
September 18, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#5
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885727/does-benefit-justify-research-with-children
#6
Ariella Binik
The inclusion of children in research gives rise to a difficult ethical question: What justifies children's research participation and exposure to research risks when they cannot provide informed consent? This question arises out of the tension between the moral requirement to obtain a subject's informed consent for research participation, on the one hand, and the limited capacity of most children to provide informed consent, on the other. Most agree that children's participation in clinical research can be justified...
September 8, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873235/a-kantian-ethics-approach-to-moral-bioenhancement
#7
Sarah Carter
It seems, at first glance, that a Kantian ethics approach to moral enhancement would tend towards the position that there could be no place for emotional modulation in any understanding of the endeavour, owing to the typically understood view that Kantian ethics does not allow any role for emotion in morality as a whole. It seems then that any account of moral bioenhancement which places emotion at its centre would therefore be rejected. This article argues, however, that this assumption is incorrect. Given later writings by Kant on the role of sympathy, and taking into account other concerns in Kantian ethics (such as bodily integrity), it may in fact be the case that Kantian ethics would allow for an account of moral bioenhancement through emotional modulation, and that in some (rare) cases such an intervention might even be considered to be a duty...
September 5, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873231/medical-innovation-in-a-children-s-hospital-diseases-desperate-grown-by-desperate-appliance-are-relieved-or-not-at-all
#8
Vic Larcher, Helen Turnham, Joe Brierley
A balance needs to be struck between facilitating compassionate access to innovative treatments for those in desperate need, and the duty to protect such vulnerable individuals from the harms of untested/unlicensed treatments. We introduced a principle-based framework (2009) to evaluate such requests and describe its application in the context of recently evolved UK, US and European regulatory processes. 24 referrals (20 individual; four group) were received by our quaternary children's hospital Clinical Ethics Committee (CEC) over the 5-year period (2011-16)...
September 5, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873213/bioethics-children-and-the-environment
#9
Timothy F Murphy
Queer perspectives have typically emerged from sexual minorities as a way of repudiating flawed views of sexuality, mischaracterized relationships, and objectionable social treatment of people with atypical sexuality or gender expression. In this vein, one commentator offers a queer critique of the conceptualization of children in regard to their value for people's identities and relationships. According to this account, children are morally problematic given the values that make them desirable, their displacement of other beings and things entitled to moral protection, not to mention the damaging environmental effects that follow in the wake of population growth...
September 5, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857225/reconsidering-paternalism-in-clinical-research
#10
Lynn A Jansen, Steven Wall
The ethical standards that regulate clinical research have multiple rationales. Among them is the need to protect potential subjects from making imprudent decisions, which extends beyond the soft paternalistic concern to protect people from making uninformed decisions to participate in trials. This article argues that a plausible risk/benefit restriction on clinical trials is presumptively justified by hard paternalism, which in turn is supported by a deeper fairness-based rationale. This presumptive case for hard paternalism in research is not defeated by the alleged right to participate in clinical trials, by concerns about insult or status, by the need to conduct early phase trials that promise little to no benefit to participants, or by the recognition that some potential subjects are altruistically motivated...
August 30, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857220/presuming-patient-autonomy-in-the-face-of-therapeutic-misconception
#11
Pat McConville
Therapeutic misconception involves the failure of subjects either to understand or to incorporate into their own expectations the distinctions in nature and purpose of personally responsive therapeutic care, and the generic relationship between subject and investigator which is constrained by research protocols. Researchers cannot disregard this phenomenon if they are to ensure that subjects engage in research on the basis of genuine informed consent. However, our presumption of patient autonomy must be sustained unless we have compelling evidence of serious misunderstanding...
August 30, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857215/the-indispensability-of-labelled-groups-to-vulnerability-in-bioethics
#12
Adrian Kwek
Regarding the determination of vulnerability, the bioethics community has univocally jettisoned "labelled groups", groups whose membership confers a context-invariant "vulnerable" status to their members. While the usual reasons against the sole use of labelled groups to determine the vulnerability of individuals are sound, labelled groups as exemplars of vulnerability can play indispensable roles in bioethical reasoning. In this article, I argue against the wholesale jettisoning of labelled groups by showing how they can be useful...
August 30, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853172/when-doctors-deny-drugs-sexism-and-contraception-access-in-the-medical-field
#13
J B Delston
Politicians, employers, courts, and health insurance companies are often discussed as problematically preventing access to birth control. However, doctors have more direct control over women's health and quietly have been much more effective at preventing patients' access to contraception. Obstetrician/Gynecologists routinely deny their patients access to contraception ostensibly in the name of health by withholding birth control until patients undergo yearly pap smears. I argue that those in the medical field are motivated by similarly sexist concerns as those in other major institutions in the United States, but that they are often overlooked in discussions of biomedical ethics...
August 29, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833415/two-kinds-of-physician-assisted-death
#14
Govert den Hartogh
I argue that the concept 'physician-assisted suicide' covers two procedures that should be distinguished: giving someone access to humane means to end his own life, and taking co-responsibility for the safe and effective execution of that plan. In the first section I explain the distinction, in the following sections I show why it is important. To begin with I argue that we should expect the laws that permit these two kinds of 'assistance' to be different in their justificatory structure. Laws that permit giving access only presuppose that the right to self-determination implies a right to suicide, but laws that permit doctors to take co-responsibility may have to appeal to a principle of mercy or beneficence...
August 23, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833363/shame-and-hiv-strategies-for-addressing-the-negative-impact-shame-has-on-public-health-and-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hiv
#15
Phil Hutchinson, Rageshri Dhairyawan
There are five ways in which shame might negatively impact upon our attempts to combat and treat HIV. Shame can prevent an individual from disclosing all the relevant facts about their sexual history to the clinician. Shame can be a motivational factor in people living with HIV not engaging with or being retained in care. Shame can prevent individuals from presenting at clinics for STI and HIV testing. Shame can prevent an individual from disclosing their HIV (or STI) status to new sexual partners. Shame can serve to psychologically imprison people, it makes the task of living with HIV a far more negative experience than it should, or needs to, be...
August 23, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044695/ectogenesis-abortion-and-a-right-to-the-death-of-the-fetus
#16
Joona Räsänen
Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this position, by arguing against three common arguments for a right to the death of the fetus...
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044694/a-bioethics-editor-s-summer-2017-conference-season-conscientious-objection-and-research-ethics
#17
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044693/erratum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901603/fertility-immigration-and-the-fight-against-climate-change
#19
Jake Earl, Colin Hickey, Travis N Rieder
Several philosophers have recently argued that policies aimed at reducing human fertility are a practical and morally justifiable way to mitigate the risk of dangerous climate change. There is a powerful objection to such "population engineering" proposals: even if drastic fertility reductions are needed to prevent dangerous climate change, implementing those reductions would wreak havoc on the global economy, which would seriously undermine international antipoverty efforts. In this article, we articulate this economic objection to population engineering and show how it fails...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901602/iab-presidential-address-searching-for-justice
#20
Angela Ballantyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Bioethics
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