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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039887/the-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-myth
#1
Tina Rulli
This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer (MST) and pro-nuclear transfer (PNT), are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, 'Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,' by Wrigley, Wilkinson, and Appleby, who argue that PNT is morally favorable to MST due to the Non-Identity Problem...
December 30, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032367/the-consequences-of-vagueness-in-consent-to-organ-donation
#2
David M Shaw
In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032366/permanence-can-be-defended
#3
Andrew Mcgee, Dale Gardiner
In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death (DCDD), the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981 (USA), a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is 'irreversible'. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032365/the-human-genome-as-public-justifications-and-implications
#4
Michelle J Bayefsky
Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome - its common nature - has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the genome has been used to reinforce individual rights and justify important privacy protections, so too the common nature of the genome can be employed to support protections of the genome at a population level and policies designed to promote the public's wellbeing...
December 28, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008642/the-substance-view-a-critique-part-3
#5
Rob Lovering
In my articles 'The Substance View: A Critique' and 'The Substance View: A Critique (Part 2),' I raise objections to the substance view (naturally), a theory of intrinsic value and moral standing defended by a number of contemporary moral philosophers, including Robert P. George, Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Francis Beckwith. In part one of my critique of the substance view, I raise reductio-style objections to the substance view's conclusion that the standard human fetus has the same intrinsic value and moral standing as the standard adult human being, among other human beings...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008640/objection-to-conscience-an-argument-against-conscience-exemptions-in-healthcare
#6
Alberto Giubilini
I argue that appeals to conscience do not constitute reasons for granting healthcare professionals exemptions from providing services they consider immoral (e.g. abortion). My argument is based on a comparison between a type of objection that many people think should be granted, i.e. to abortion, and one that most people think should not be granted, i.e. to antibiotics. I argue that there is no principled reason in favour of conscientious objection qua conscientious that allows to treat these two cases differently...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008639/the-invisible-discrimination-before-our-eyes-a-bioethical-analysis
#7
Francesca Minerva
The goal of this article is to introduce a philosophical analysis of a widely neglected condition which affects between 3% and 18% of the population. People affected by this condition (which will be revealed later in the article) experience a lower level of wellbeing than the average population and are discriminated against in both their professional and their personal life. I will argue that this form of discrimination should be taken more seriously in philosophical debate and that social, legal and medical measures ought to be taken in order to improve the quality of life of people affected by this condition...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008638/when-is-a-choice-not-a-choice-sham-offers-and-the-asymmetry-of-adolescent-consent-and-refusal
#8
Neil C Manson
In some jurisdictions there is a puzzling asymmetry between consent and refusal, where, for some kinds of treatment, the adolescent patient has the power to permit her own treatment but her refusal does not have the same kind of normative significance as refusal of treatment by a competent adult. In this journal I recently offered a clarification and defence of this asymmetry in terms of a paternalistic justification of the sharing of normative powers between adolescents and other parties. Lawlor (2016) offers a number of objections to this account...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008637/the-edge-of-human-the-problem-with-the-posthuman-as-the-beyond
#9
David R Lawrence
This article asks whether enhancement can truly lead to something beyond humanity, or whether it is, itself, an inherently human act. The 'posthuman' is an uncertain proposition. What, exactly, would one be? Many commentators suggest it to be an endpoint for the use of enhancement technologies, yet few choose to codify the term outright; which frequently leads to unnecessary confusion. Characterizing and contextualizing the term, particularly its more novel uses, is therefore a valuable enterprise. The abuse of the term 'Human', especially in the context of the enhancement debate and the myriad meanings ascribed to it, could give 'posthuman' very different slants depending on one's assumptions...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008636/conscientious-objection-to-vaccination
#10
Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini, Mary Jean Walker
Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service...
December 23, 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#11
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060433/the-social-value-of-pragmatic-trials
#12
Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee, Johannes van Delden
Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called 'real world data' from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their ethical acceptability...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060432/should-social-value-obligations-be-local-or-global
#13
Rahul Nayak, Seema K Shah
According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor (and not just research participants and host communities)...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060431/the-social-value-of-knowledge-and-the-responsiveness-requirement-for-international-research
#14
Danielle M Wenner
Ethicists have long recognized that two necessary features of ethical research are scientific validity and social value. Yet despite a significant literature surrounding the validity component of this dictate, until recently there has been little attention paid to unpacking what the social value component might require. This article introduces a framework for assessing the social value of research, and in particular, for determining whether a given research program is likely to have significant social value of the kind necessary to fulfill the social value requirement...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060430/defining-and-negotiating-the-social-value-of-research-in-public-health-facilities-perceptions-of-stakeholders-in-a-research-active-province-of-south-africa
#15
Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack, Douglas Wassenaar
This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060429/reconfiguring-social-value-in-health-research-through-the-lens-of-liminality
#16
Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra, Edward S Dove, Graeme T Laurie, Samuel Taylor-Alexander
Despite the growing importance of 'social value' as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure its variegated approaches...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060428/the-social-value-of-health-research-and-the-worst-off
#17
Nicola Barsdorf, Joseph Millum
In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: (1) in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and (2) in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals when research ethics committees (RECs) assess whether the social value of the research is sufficient to justify the risks and burdens to research participants and others...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060427/in-defense-of-a-social-value-requirement-for-clinical-research
#18
David Wendler, Annette Rid
Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this gap in the literature, recent articles by Alan Wertheimer and David Resnik argue that the extant justifications for the social value requirement are unpersuasive...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060426/substantiating-the-social-value-requirement-for-research-an-introduction
#19
EDITORIAL
Annette Rid, Seema K Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973722/a-mitochondrial-story-mitochondrial-replacement-identity-and-narrative
#20
Jackie Leach Scully
Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity (i) directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (ii) indirectly through changing the child's experience of disease, and by generating novel intrafamilial relationships that shape the sense of self...
January 2017: Bioethics
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