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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369389/the-future-like-ours-argument-animalism-and-mereological-universalism
#1
Andrea Sauchelli
Which metaphysical theories are involved-whether presupposed or implied-in Marquis' future-like-ours (FLO) argument against abortion? Vogelstein has recently argued that the supporter of the FLO argument faces a problematic dilemma; in particular, Marquis, the main supporter of the argument, seems to have to either (a) abandon diachronic universalism (DU) or (b) acquiesce and declare that contraception is morally wrong. I argue that the premises of Marquis' argument can be reasonably combined with a form of unrestricted composition and that the FLO argument is better viewed as including animalism, i...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369383/effective-altruists-ought-to-be-allowed-to-sell-their-kidneys
#2
Ryan Tonkens
Effective altruists aim to do the most good that they can do with the resources available to them, without causing themselves or their dependents significant harm thereby. The argument presented in this paper demonstrates that there are no morally relevant dissimilarities between living kidney donation and living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons. Thus, since the former is allowed, the latter ought to be allowed as well. And, there are important moral differences between living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons and other reasons for kidney vending (e...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369381/why-arguments-against-infanticide-remain-convincing-a-reply-to-r%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-nen
#3
Daniel Rodger, Bruce P Blackshaw, Clinton Wilcox
In 'Pro-life arguments against infanticide and why they are not convincing' Joona Räsänen argues that Christopher Kaczor's objections to Giubilini and Minerva's position on infanticide are not persuasive. We argue that Räsänen's criticism is largely misplaced, and that he has not engaged with Kaczor's strongest arguments against infanticide. We reply to each of Räsänen's criticisms, drawing on the full range of Kaczor's arguments, as well as adding some of our own.
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369379/melanoma-in-the-shopping-mall-a-utilitarian-argument-for-offering-unsolicited-medical-opinions-in-informal-settings
#4
Gustav Preller, Sabine Salloch
Doctors occasionally make diagnoses in strangers outside of formal medical settings by using the medical skill of visual inspection, such as noticing signs of melanoma or the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. This may cause considerable moral unease and doubts on the side of the diagnosing physician. Such encounters force physicians to consider whether or not to intervene by introducing themselves to the stranger and offering an unsolicited medical opinion despite the absence of a formal doctor-patient relationship...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369376/influencing-relatives-to-respect-donor-autonomy-should-we-nudge-families-to-consent-to-organ-donation
#5
Adnan Sharif, Greg Moorlock
Refusing consent to organ donation remains unacceptably high, and improving consent rates from family or next-of-kin is an important step to procuring more organs for solid organ transplantation in countries where this approval is sought. We have thus far failed to translate fully our limited understanding of why families refuse permission into successful strategies targeting consent in the setting of deceased organ donation, primarily because our interventions fail to target underlying cognitive obstacles...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369374/fragile-lives-with-fragile-rights-justice-for-babies-born-at-the-limit-of-viability
#6
Manya J Hendriks, John D Lantos
There is an inconsistency in the ways that doctors make clinical decisions regarding the treatment of babies born extremely prematurely. Many experts now recommend that clinical decisions about the treatment of such babies be individualized and consider many different factors. Nevertheless, many policies and practices throughout Europe and North America still appear to base decisions on gestational age alone or on gestational age as the primary factor that determines whether doctors recommend or even offer life-sustaining neonatal intensive care treatment...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283190/manipulation-salience-and-nudges
#7
Robert Noggle
Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker...
December 28, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280167/from-applied-ethics-to-empirical-ethics-to-contextual-ethics
#8
Barry Hoffmaster
Bioethics became applied ethics when it was assimilated to moral philosophy. Because deduction is the rationality of moral philosophy, subsuming facts under moral principles to deduce conclusions about what ought to be done became the prescribed reasoning of bioethics, and bioethics became a theory comprised of moral principles. Bioethicists now realize that applied ethics is too abstract and spare to apprehend the specificity, particularity, complexity and contingency of real moral issues. Empirical ethics and contextual ethics are needed to incorporate these features into morality, not just bioethics...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280164/the-epistemic-costs-of-compromise-in-bioethics
#9
Katrien Devolder, Thomas Douglas
Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether this common sense view can be given a principled basis...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205423/different-games-of-moral-bioenhancement
#10
Vojin Rakić, Harris Wiseman
Rakić has serious misgivings about Wiseman's inability to frame ethical issues in the context of transcending existing realities (the 'is') with the aim of achieving what we believe is morally right (the 'ought'). This inability to think beyond the present is misguided in ethics. He also criticizes Wiseman for making the unimaginative and unsubstantiated assumption that moral bioenhancement (MBE) technologies have reached their zenith already. Rakić argues that MBE will become more effective in the time to come, that it ought to be optional for every free individual, and that it should be directed at enhancing our motivation to act in line with how we believe we ought to act...
December 4, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194680/who-gets-the-gametes-an-argument-for-a-points-system-for-fertility-patients
#11
Simon Jenkins, Jonathan Ives, Sue Avery, Heather Draper
This paper argues that the convention of allocating donated gametes on a 'first come, first served' basis should be replaced with an allocation system that takes into account more morally relevant criteria than waiting time. This conclusion was developed using an empirical bioethics methodology, which involved a study of the views of 18 staff members from seven U.K. fertility clinics, and 20 academics, policy-makers, representatives of patient groups, and other relevant professionals, on the allocation of donated sperm and eggs...
December 1, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442382/reproductive-cloning-revisited
#12
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442381/fostering-caring-relationships-suggestions-to-rethink-liberal-perspectives-on-the-ethics-of-newborn-screening
#13
Simone van der Burg, Anke Oerlemans
Newborn screening (NBS) involves the collection of blood from the heel of a newborn baby and testing it for a list of rare and inheritable disorders. New biochemical screening technologies led to expansions of NBS programs in the first decade of the 21st century. It is expected that they will in time be replaced by genetic sequencing technologies. These developments have raised a lot of ethical debate. We reviewed the ethical literature on NBS, analyzed the issues and values that emerged, and paid particular interest to the type of impacts authors think NBS should have on the lives of children and their families...
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369377/relational-autonomy-care-and-jehovah-s-witnesses-in-germany
#14
Małgorzata Rajtar
Drawing from an ethics of care, relational approaches to autonomy have recently emerged in bioethics. Unlike individual autonomy with its emphasis on patients' rights, choice, and self-determination which has been the hallmark of bioethics consistent with the ideology of individualism in neoliberal democracies in Western countries, relational autonomy highlights the relatedness, interdependency, and social embeddedness of patients. By examining the mediating role that male Hospital Liaison Committee members in Germany play in facilitating care that supports Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood transfusions, this article moves beyond 'dyadic relations' and contexts of caregiving...
March 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314187/the-trouble-with-public-health-hiv-aids-in-canada-as-a-case-in-point
#15
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214683/queer-reproduction-revisited-and-why-race-class-and-citizenship-still-matters-a-response-to-cristina-richie
#16
Doris Leibetseder
In the dialogue between Timothy F. Murphy and Cristina Richie about queer bioethics and queer reproduction in this journal, significant points of the emergent and extremely important discussions on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and queer bioethics are raised. Richie specifies correctly that queer bioethics can either complement or contradict LGBT bioethics and the queer standpoint against heteroconformity and heterofuturity is decisive here. As the field of queer bioethics is such a recent and essential part of consideration for bioethics and as it is still evolving, the objective of this intervention is to provide both an overview of important milestones of queer bioethics and to highlight that queer bioethics is not mono-logic and monolithic...
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266339/reproductive-autonomy-and-responsibility-current-trends
#17
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885727/does-benefit-justify-research-with-children
#18
Ariella Binik
The inclusion of children in research gives rise to a difficult ethical question: What justifies children's research participation and exposure to research risks when they cannot provide informed consent? This question arises out of the tension between the moral requirement to obtain a subject's informed consent for research participation, on the one hand, and the limited capacity of most children to provide informed consent, on the other. Most agree that children's participation in clinical research can be justified...
January 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171867/enthusiastic-portrayal-of-3d-bioprinting-in-the-media-ethical-side-effects
#19
Frederic Gilbert, John Noel M Viaña, Cathal D O'Connell, Susan Dodds
There has been a surge in mass media reports extolling the potential for using three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. Given that mass media is recognized as one of the most important sources of health and medical information for the general public, especially prospective patients, we report and discuss the ethical consequences of coverage of 3D bioprinting in the media. First, we illustrate how positive mass media narratives of a similar biofabricated technology, namely the Macchiarini scaffold tracheas, which was involved in lethal experimental human trials, influenced potential patient perceptions...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171675/judgments-of-moral-responsibility-in-tissue-donation-cases
#20
John Beverley, James Beebe
If a person requires an organ or tissue donation to survive, many philosophers argue that whatever moral responsibility a biological relative may have to donate to the person in need will be grounded at least partially, if not entirely, in biological relations the potential donor bears to the recipient. We contend that such views ignore the role that a potential donor's unique ability to help the person in need plays in underwriting such judgments. If, for example, a sperm donor is judged to have a significant moral responsibility to donate tissue to a child conceived with his sperm, we think this will not be due to the fact that the donor stands in a close biological relationship to the recipient...
November 24, 2017: Bioethics
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