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Bioethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#1
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
March 16, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240798/alcohol-use-disorder-liver-transplantation-and-ethics
#2
LETTER
Gianni Testino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240791/is-consent-based-on-trust-morally-inferior-to-consent-based-on-information
#3
Nana Cecilie Halmsted Kongsholm, Klemens Kappel
Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent - autonomy, voluntariness, non-manipulation, and non-exploitation - and assess whether these values are less protected and promoted by consent based on trust than they are by consent based on information...
February 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182296/ways-out-of-the-patenting-prohibition-human-parthenogenetic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun, Peter Dabrock
According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182294/is-there-a-right-to-the-death-of-the-foetus
#5
Eric Mathison, Jeremy Davis
At some point in the future - perhaps within the next few decades - it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a right to an abortion, there are reasons to doubt that there is a right to the death of the foetus...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#6
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182276/human-dignity-and-human-enhancement-a-multidimensional-approach
#7
David G Kirchhoffer
In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of 'dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals that the problem of dignity talk arises because proponents of various positions tend to ground human dignity in different features of the human individual...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160296/in-defense-of-artificial-replacement
#8
Derek Shiller
If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160293/epistemic-authority-and-genuine-ethical-controversies
#9
Adam James Roberts
In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked...
February 3, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220560/bioethics-in-a-post-truth-era
#10
EDITORIAL
Ruth Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008636/conscientious-objection-to-vaccination
#11
Steve Clarke, Alberto Giubilini, Mary Jean Walker
Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service...
March 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716989/doctors-have-no-right-to-refuse-medical-assistance-in-dying-abortion-or-contraception
#12
Julian Savulescu, Udo Schuklenk
In an article in this journal, Christopher Cowley argues that we have 'misunderstood the special nature of medicine, and have misunderstood the motivations of the conscientious objectors'. We have not. It is Cowley who has misunderstood the role of personal values in the profession of medicine. We argue that there should be better protections for patients from doctors' personal values and there should be more severe restrictions on the right to conscientious objection, particularly in relation to assisted dying...
March 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#13
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060433/the-social-value-of-pragmatic-trials
#14
Shona Kalkman, Ghislaine van Thiel, Rieke van der Graaf, Mira Zuidgeest, Iris Goetz, Diederick Grobbee, Johannes van Delden
Pragmatic trials aim to directly inform health care decision-making through the collection of so-called 'real world data' from observations of comparative treatment effects in clinical practice. In order to ensure the applicability and feasibility of a pragmatic trial, design features may be necessary that deviate from standard research ethics requirements. Examples are traditional requirements to seek written informed consent and to perform extensive data and safety monitoring. Proposals for deviations from standard research ethics practice have resulted in controversy about their ethical acceptability...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060432/should-social-value-obligations-be-local-or-global
#15
Rahul Nayak, Seema K Shah
According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor (and not just research participants and host communities)...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060431/the-social-value-of-knowledge-and-the-responsiveness-requirement-for-international-research
#16
Danielle M Wenner
Ethicists have long recognized that two necessary features of ethical research are scientific validity and social value. Yet despite a significant literature surrounding the validity component of this dictate, until recently there has been little attention paid to unpacking what the social value component might require. This article introduces a framework for assessing the social value of research, and in particular, for determining whether a given research program is likely to have significant social value of the kind necessary to fulfill the social value requirement...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060430/defining-and-negotiating-the-social-value-of-research-in-public-health-facilities-perceptions-of-stakeholders-in-a-research-active-province-of-south-africa
#17
Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack, Douglas Wassenaar
This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060429/reconfiguring-social-value-in-health-research-through-the-lens-of-liminality
#18
Agomoni Ganguli-Mitra, Edward S Dove, Graeme T Laurie, Samuel Taylor-Alexander
Despite the growing importance of 'social value' as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure its variegated approaches...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060428/the-social-value-of-health-research-and-the-worst-off
#19
Nicola Barsdorf, Joseph Millum
In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: (1) in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and (2) in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals when research ethics committees (RECs) assess whether the social value of the research is sufficient to justify the risks and burdens to research participants and others...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060427/in-defense-of-a-social-value-requirement-for-clinical-research
#20
David Wendler, Annette Rid
Many guidelines and commentators endorse the view that clinical research is ethically acceptable only when it has social value, in the sense of collecting data which might be used to improve health. A version of this social value requirement is included in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Nuremberg Code, and is codified in many national research regulations. At the same time, there have been no systematic analyses of why social value is an ethical requirement for clinical research. Recognizing this gap in the literature, recent articles by Alan Wertheimer and David Resnik argue that the extant justifications for the social value requirement are unpersuasive...
February 2017: Bioethics
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