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American Journal of Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237636/vaccine-education-of-medical-students-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Solen Kernéis, Caroline Jacquet, Aurélie Bannay, Thierry May, Odile Launay, Pierre Verger, Céline Pulcini, Pierre Abgueguen, Séverine Ansart, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Aurélie Bannay, Louis Bernard, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, David Boutoille, Nadim Cassir, Charles Cazanave, Elisa Demonchy, Olivier Epaulard, Manuel Etienne, Emmanuel Faure, Caroline Jacquet, Odile Launay, Vincent Le Moing, Xavier Lescure, Zoha Maakaroun-Vermesse, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Thierry May, Frédéric Méchai, Guillaume Mellon, Marie-Caroline Meyohas, Lionel Piroth, Céline Pulcini, France Roblot, Jean-Luc Schmit, Albert Sotto, Pierre Tattevin, Renaud Verdon, Pierre Verger, Benjamin Wyplosz
Physicians play a primary role in vaccination of the population. Strong initial training of medical students is therefore essential to enable them to fulfill this role. This cross-sectional nationwide online survey conducted between September 2015 and January 2016 obtained 2,118 completed surveys from 6,690 eligible respondents (response rate, 32%) at 27 of 32 medical schools in France regarding their education about vaccination. The data were analyzed in April-June 2016. The survey covered their knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions, and assessed their level of perceived preparedness for their future practice as interns...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237635/prevent-dm-comparative-effectiveness-trial-of-lifestyle-intervention-and-metformin
#2
Matthew J O'Brien, Alberly Perez, Adam B Scanlan, Victor A Alos, Robert C Whitaker, Gary D Foster, Ronald T Ackermann, Jody D Ciolino, Carol Homko
INTRODUCTION: Although the Diabetes Prevention Program and other clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) and metformin to prevent type 2 diabetes, no studies have tested their comparative effects in pragmatic settings. This study was designed to compare the real-world effectiveness of ILI, metformin, and standard care among Hispanic women (Latinas) with prediabetes. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two Latinas, who had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 5...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237634/geographic-information-systems-to-assess-external-validity-in-randomized-trials
#3
Margaret R Savoca, David A Ludwig, Stedman T Jones, K Jason Clodfelter, Joseph B Sloop, Linda Y Bollhalter, Alain G Bertoni
INTRODUCTION: To support claims that RCTs can reduce health disparities (i.e., are translational), it is imperative that methodologies exist to evaluate the tenability of external validity in RCTs when probabilistic sampling of participants is not employed. Typically, attempts at establishing post hoc external validity are limited to a few comparisons across convenience variables, which must be available in both sample and population. A Type 2 diabetes RCT was used as an example of a method that uses a geographic information system to assess external validity in the absence of a priori probabilistic community-wide diabetes risk sampling strategy...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237633/lifestyle-interventions-in-preschool-children-a-meta-analysis-of-effectiveness
#4
REVIEW
Jiying Ling, Lorraine B Robbins, Fujun Wen, Nanhua Zhang
CONTEXT: With healthy behaviors becoming established in the preschool years, intervening with preschool children to assist them in establishing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a long-term healthy weight is critical. To optimize future intervention designs, this meta-analysis aimed to estimate the effects of lifestyle interventions on BMI among preschool children and explore potential intervention moderators. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In October 2015, a search of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Cochrane library databases yielded 52 eligible articles with 42 randomized intervention-control comparisons (31 prevention and 11 treatment)...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236518/an-out-of-pocket-cost-removal-intervention-on-fecal-occult-blood-test-attendance
#5
Takahiro Tabuchi, Hiroshi Murayama, Takahiro Hoshino, Tomio Nakayama
INTRODUCTION: To date, no comparative study has assessed the impact of a cost-removal intervention on fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). In 2012, the Japanese government introduced a nationwide project to remove out-of-pocket costs for FOBT. The study objective was to evaluate the differential impact of the intervention on FOBT attendance in the total population and various subgroups. METHODS: This study analyzed 309,103 people in national, repeated cross-sectional studies, observed pre- and post-intervention (2010 and 2013), using covariate-adjusted difference-in-differences estimates to compare intervention and no-intervention groups...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236517/national-disparities-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-obese-adults
#6
Ryan G Seibert, Amresh D Hanchate, Jonathan P Berz, Paul C Schroy
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly among men. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence of guideline-adherent CRC screening among obese adults using nationally representative data, assess trends in screening strategies, and identify obesity-specific screening barriers. METHODS: Data from 8,550 respondents aged 50-75 years in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, representing >70 million adults, were analyzed in 2015 using multivariable logistic regression...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214251/children-s-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-attending-summer-day-camps
#7
Keith Brazendale, Michael W Beets, R Glenn Weaver, Jessica L Chandler, Allison B Randel, Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Justin B Moore, Jennifer L Huberty, Dianne S Ward
INTRODUCTION: National physical activity standards call for all children to accumulate 60 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The contribution of summer day camps toward meeting this benchmark is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of children's MVPA during summer day camps. METHODS: Children (n=1,061, 78% enrollment; mean age, 7.8 years; 46% female; 65% African American; 48% normal weight) from 20 summer day camps wore ActiGraph GT3x+ accelerometers on the wrist during camp hours for up to 4 non-consecutive days over the summer of 2015 (July)...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214250/colorectal-cancer-screening-adherence-in-selected-disabilities-over-10-years
#8
Chelsea B Deroche, Suzanne W McDermott, Joshua R Mann, James W Hardin
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S.; however, if the population aged 50 years or older received routine screening, approximately 60% of these deaths could be eliminated. This study investigates whether adults, aged 50-75 years, with one of three disabilities (blind/low vision [BLV], intellectual disability [ID], spinal cord injury [SCI]) receive CRC screening at rates equivalent to adults without the three disabilities, by accounting for combinations of recommended CRC screenings during a 10-year period (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, fecal occult blood test)...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214249/perceived-neighborhood-social-cohesion-and-preventive-healthcare-use
#9
Eric S Kim, Ichiro Kawachi
INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood social cohesion has been linked with better health and health behaviors, but its association with patterns of preventive healthcare use remains understudied. The hypothesis was that people with higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion would display increased use of preventive healthcare services. METHODS: Participants (N=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study-a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults aged >50 years-and tracked for one wave (2 years)...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214248/fruit-promoting-smarter-lunchrooms-interventions-results-from-a-cluster-rct
#10
Katherine N Greene, Gnel Gabrielyan, David R Just, Brian Wansink
INTRODUCTION: The Smarter Lunchrooms Movement was developed to provide schools with simple, low-cost solutions to encourage students to make healthier food choices at school. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fruit-promoting Smarter Lunchroom interventions on middle school students' selection and consumption of fruits. DESIGN: A 9-week cluster RCT was conducted using a pre-test/post-test control group design in upstate New York in February-April 2014...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209283/community-audit-of-social-civil-and-activity-domains-in-diverse-environments-cascadde
#11
Emily A Knapp, Claudia Nau, Sy Brandau, Joseph DeWalle, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Brian S Schwartz, Thomas A Glass
There are currently no direct observation environmental audit tools that measure diverse aspects of the obesity-related environment efficiently and reliably in a variety of geographic settings. The goal was to develop a new instrument to reliably characterize the overall properties and features of rural, suburban, and urban settings along multiple dimensions. The Community Audit of Social, Civil, and Activity Domains in Diverse Environments (CASCADDE) is an iPad-based instrument that incorporates GPS coordinates and photography and comprises 214 items yielding seven summary indices...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209282/intimate-partner-violence-screening-in-the-veterans-health-administration-demographic-and-military-service-characteristics
#12
Melissa E Dichter, Terri N Haywood, Anneliese E Butler, Scarlett L Bellamy, Katherine M Iverson
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes psychological, physical, or sexual aggression by a current or former intimate partner and is associated with a wide range of health and social impacts, especially for women. Women veterans may be at increased risk for experiencing IPV, and some Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities have initiated routine screening of female patients for past-year IPV. This study presents the first examination of clinical IPV screening responses recorded from female VHA patients across 13 facilities nationwide, and identifies associations with patient demographic and military service characteristics...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209281/association-among-father-involvement-partner-violence-and-paternal-health-un-multi-country-cross-sectional-study-on-men-and-violence
#13
Ko Ling Chan, Clifton R Emery, Emma Fulu, Richard M Tolman, Patrick Ip
INTRODUCTION: The influence of father involvement on intimate partner violence (IPV) and men's health is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of six aspects of father involvement in delivery and child care, and to explore their individual associations with IPV against women and paternal health in an Asia-Pacific context. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the 2011-2012 UN Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study on Men and Violence, which surveyed >10,000 men from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209280/community-level-inequalities-in-concussion-education-of-youth-football-coaches
#14
Emily Kroshus, Zachary Y Kerr, Joseph G L Lee
INTRODUCTION: USA Football has made the Heads Up Football (HUF) concussion education program available for coaches of youth football players. Existing evidence about the effectiveness of the HUF coach education program is equivocal. For HUF and other programs, there is growing concern that even effective interventions can increase inequalities if there is different uptake or impact by SES or other demographic factors. Understanding how adoption is patterned along these lines is important for understanding equity issues in youth football...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190692/cut-points-for-clinical-muscle-weakness-among-older-americans
#15
Kate A Duchowny, Mark D Peterson, Philippa J Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Muscle weakness is an important indicator of disability, chronic disease, and early mortality. Grip strength is a simple, cost-effective measure of overall muscle strength. The Foundation of the National Institutes of Health recently proposed sex-specific grip strength cut points for clinical muscle weakness. However, these criteria were established using non-nationally representative data. This study used nationally representative data on Americans aged ≥65 years to identify race- and sex-specific cut points for clinical muscle weakness and quantify prevalence among older blacks and whites by sex...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190691/lack-of-lipid-screening-disparities-in-obese-latino-adults-at-health-centers
#16
John D Heintzman, Steffani R Bailey, John Muench, Marie Killerby, Stuart Cowburn, Miguel Marino
INTRODUCTION: In cross-sectional survey studies, obese Latinos are less likely to be screened for elevated serum cholesterol, despite their higher risk for hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. This study evaluated insurance and racial/ethnic disparities in lipid screening receipt between obese Latino and non-Hispanic white patients in Oregon community health centers (CHCs) over 5 years, using electronic health record data. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated obese (BMI ≥30), low-income, adult patients (aged 21-79 years) with at least one visit at an Oregon CHC during 2009-2013 (n=11,095)...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190690/changes-in-veteran-tobacco-use-identified-in-electronic-medical-records
#17
Paul G Barnett, Adam Chow, Nicole E Flores, Scott E Sherman, Sonia A Duffy
INTRODUCTION: Electronic medical records represent a new source of longitudinal data on tobacco use. METHODS: Electronic medical records of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs were extracted to find patients' tobacco use status in 2009 and at another assessment 12-24 months later. Records from the year prior to the first assessment were used to determine patient demographics and comorbidities. These data were analyzed in 2015. RESULTS: An annual quit rate of 12...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169019/correlates-of-patient-intent-and-preference-on-colorectal-cancer-screening
#18
Masahito Jimbo, Ananda Sen, Melissa A Plegue, Sarah T Hawley, Karen Kelly-Blake, Mary Rapai, Minling Zhang, Yuhong Zhang, Mack T Ruffin
INTRODUCTION: Information is limited on patient characteristics that influence their preference among screening options and intent to be screened for colorectal cancer (CRC). A mechanistic pathway to intent and preference was examined through a formal mediation analysis. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, a total of 570 adults aged 50-75 years were recruited from 15 primary care practices in Metro Detroit for a trial on decision aids for CRC screening. Confirmatory factor, regression, and mediation analyses were performed in 2015-2016 on baseline cross-sectional data...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169018/impact-of-age-at-smoking-initiation-on-smoking-related-morbidity-and-all-cause-mortality
#19
Seung Hee Choi, Manfred Stommel
INTRODUCTION: Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. METHODS: National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190689/trends-in-automobile-travel-motor-vehicle-fatalities-and-physical-activity-2003-2015
#20
Noreen C McDonald
INTRODUCTION: Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. METHODS: Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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