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American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Philipe de Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas, Yves Rolland
INTRODUCTION: The minimum frequency of physical activity associated with reduced risk for onset of several chronic diseases is not well established. Therefore, this study examined, in a large sample of citizens from 16 European countries, the predictive value of physical activity frequency and intensity on the incidence of heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer of any subtype, breast cancer, and colon/rectum cancer. METHODS: Using data from the longitudinal Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, the long-term associations of physical activity with incident diseases in people aged ≥50 years were investigated...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Bethany L Strong, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Wendy Braund
The American College of Preventive Medicine Policy Committee makes policy guidelines and recommendations on preventive medicine and public health topics for public health decision makers. After a review of the current evidence available in 2016, the College is providing a consensus-based set of policy recommendations designed to reduce firearm-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S. These guidelines address seven general areas pertaining to the public health threat posed by firearms: gun sales and background checks, assault weapons and high-capacity weapons, mental health, research funding, gun storage laws, and physician counseling...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dennis E Reidy, Joanne P Smith-Darden, Poco D Kernsmith
INTRODUCTION: Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Allison E Curry, Melissa R Pfeiffer, Michael R Elliott
INTRODUCTION: Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is the most effective strategy to reduce the burden of young driver crashes, but the extent to which young intermediate (newly licensed) drivers comply with, and police enforce, important GDL passenger and night-time restrictions is largely unknown. Population-level rates of intermediate drivers' compliance were estimated as well as police enforcement among crash-involved drivers who were noncompliant. METHODS: New Jersey's statewide driver licensing and crash databases were individually linked...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Devin K Loewenstein, Holly R Middlekauff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Rafael Harpaz
INTRODUCTION: Shingles (herpes zoster) causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The shingles vaccine has been recommended for people aged ≥60 years since 2006. This study assessed recent shingles vaccination at national and state levels among adults aged ≥60 years. METHODS: The 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed in 2015 to assess shingles vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years at national and state levels...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Alexis A Oetting, Nadia U Garvin, Michael R Boivin, David N Cowan
INTRODUCTION: Low levels of pre-accession physical fitness and activity are risk factors for stress fractures and other overuse musculoskeletal injuries among military trainees. One dimension in the Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS), a non-cognitive personality test given to Army applicants, specifically assesses propensity to engage in physical activity. This dimension may serve as a surrogate measure for activity or fitness. The study examines the associations between TAPAS dimension scores and risk of musculoskeletal injuries...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Cally A Jennings, Lira Yun, Christina C Loitz, Eun-Young Lee, W Kerry Mummery
CONTEXT: Stair climbing is an accessible activity that can be incorporated into one's daily lifestyle to increase physical activity levels and provide health benefits. This review summarizes the effectiveness of stair interventions and explores key differences that may influence intervention effectiveness. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Interventions to increase stair use published from January 1990 to July 2015 were identified in PubMed, Sport Discus, Web of Science, Environment Complete, CINAHL, Trial Register of Promoting Health Interventions, Embase, Scopus, and PsycINFO...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Huabin Luo, Bei Wu
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess dental service utilization across different Asian immigrant groups and to examine the relationship between acculturation and dental service utilization among Asian immigrants in the U.S. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between acculturation and having a dental visit in the previous 12 months, controlling for predisposing, enabling, and need factors...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Peter James, Jaime E Hart, Rachel F Banay, Francine Laden, Lisa B Signorello
INTRODUCTION: Urban environments are associated with a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes; however, it is unclear which specific components of the urban environment drive these associations. METHODS: Using data collected in 2002-2009 from 73,225 low-income, racially diverse individuals across the Southeastern U.S., analyses evaluated the cross-sectional relationship between a walkability index and depression. Walkability was calculated from population density, street connectivity, and destination count in the 1,200-meter area around participants' homes, and depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for depression symptomatology and questionnaire responses regarding doctor-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Erika S Trapl, Danielle O'Rourke-Suchoff, Laura D Yoder, Leslie E Cofie, Jean L Frank, Craig S Fryer
INTRODUCTION: Although adolescent use of cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars (CCLCs) has been increasing, little research has been conducted to understand how adolescents acquire CCLCs and the situations in which they smoke CCLCs. Thus, this study aims to understand how adolescent smokers acquire CCLCs and the situations in which they smoke them. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2011 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Current CCLC smoking was assessed; analysis was limited to current smokers (n=1,337)...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Daniel G Aaron, Michael B Siegel
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Andrew M Subica, Cheryl T Grills, Sandra Villanueva, Jason A Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jennifer L Pomeranz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Deborah I Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Emily M Bucholz, Adam L Beckman, Catarina I Kiefe, Harlan M Krumholz
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an opportune time to counsel smokers to quit. Studies have demonstrated lower short-term mortality for counseled versus non-counseled smokers; yet, little is known about the long-term survival benefits of post-AMI smoking-cessation counseling (SCC). METHODS: Data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with AMI between 1994 and 1996 with >17 years of follow-up, were used to evaluate the association of SCC with short- and long-term mortality in smokers with AMI...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Asal M Johnson, Joseph M Woodside, Allen Johnson, Jacqueline M Pollack
INTRODUCTION: Although spatial examination of mortality and morbidity is becoming more common in health studies, the investigation of suicide death clusters within the neighborhood context is underutilized. The purpose of this ecological study is to detect high- and low-risk clusters of suicide deaths in Florida and determine which neighborhood characteristics distinguish clusters from non-clusters. METHODS: The scan statistic method was used to detect overall clusters of completed suicides in Florida from 2001 to 2010...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Melina M Bersamin, Deborah A Fisher, Andrew J Gaidus, Paul J Gruenewald
INTRODUCTION: School-based health centers (SBHCs) offer an efficient mechanism for delivering health services to large numbers of underserved youth; however, their availability varies across communities. Data on sociocontextual variables were analyzed to investigate factors that inhibit and facilitate SBHCs. METHODS: Secondary data from 2012 to 2015 state databases were linked to examine the association between SBHCs' presence in California high schools and demand, resource, and political conservatism at the school and community levels that may influence where SBHCs are located and the number of provided health services...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Tali Elfassy, Stephen Sidney, David Jacobs, Eliseo J Pérez Stable, Kristine Yaffe
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between low income and worse health outcomes is evident, yet its association with cognitive outcomes is less explored. Most studies have measured income at one time and none have examined how sustained exposure to low income influences cognition in a relatively young cohort. This study examined the effect of sustained poverty and perceived financial difficulty on cognitive function in midlife. METHODS: Income data were collected six times between 1985 and 2010 for 3,383 adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults prospective cohort study...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Monika Mitra, Ilhom Akobirshoev, Michael M McKee, Lisa I Iezzoni
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to estimate the national occurrence of deliveries in women with hearing loss and to compare their birth outcomes to women without hearing loss. METHODS: This study examined the 2008-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in 2015 to compare birth outcomes in women with hearing loss and without. Birth outcomes included preterm birth and low birth weight. Multivariate regression analyses compared birth outcomes between women with and without hearing loss, controlling for maternal age, racial and ethnic identity, type of health insurance, comorbidity, region of hospital, location and teaching status of the hospital, ownership of the hospital, and median household income for mother's ZIP code...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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