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American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Liang Wei, Susan O Griffin, Valerie A Robison
INTRODUCTION: Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing use of preventive dental care among children from low-income families. The services used to define preventive care are evidence-based services (i.e., dental sealants and professionally applied topical fluoride) and professional dental cleaning, which lacks evidence of effectiveness in preventing caries. This study examined how increasing preventive dental care use and reducing disparities by race/ethnicity among children from low-income families varied by the services included in case definitions of preventive dental care use...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Arch G Mainous, Rebecca J Tanner, Ara Jo, Ki Park, V Madsen Beau De Rochars
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. and national prevalence of the proportion of individuals at high risk is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and trends in high cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the U.S. METHODS: In 2017, the authors performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2014 for adults aged 40-79 years without a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (unweighted n=18,269, weighted n=96,512,989)...
June 26, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Janani Krishnaswami, Paresh A Jaini, Raymond Howard, Suad Ghaddar
Vulnerable populations in the U.S. experience persistent disparities in chronic disease and associated lifestyle-based risk factors. Because of environmental, cultural, and health systems barriers affecting vulnerable populations, lifestyle medicine interventions may miss those at highest risk for chronic disease. Numerous reports suggest that graduate medical education (GME) inadequately prepares physicians to promote healthy lifestyles and health equity in vulnerable groups. General Preventive Medicine/Public Health (GPM/PH), the medical specialty dedicated to health promotion and disease prevention in populations, can fill this gap...
June 25, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Eliza D Whiteman, Benjamin W Chrisinger, Amy Hillier
INTRODUCTION: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, which are distributed monthly, help low-income families put food on their tables. Both food spending and caloric intake among recipients decrease over the month following benefit receipt. This pattern, termed the "SNAP-cycle," has serious implications for health and food security of low-income households. To understand better the SNAP-cycle, this study explored (1) differences in diet quality between SNAP and non-SNAP households and (2) the association between the SNAP-cycle and diet quality...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jiho Cha, Pamela J Surkan, Jaeshin Kim, Isabel A Yoon, Courtland Robinson, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Hayoung Lee
INTRODUCTION: The gravity, scale, and nature of human rights violations are severe in North Korea. Little is known about the mental health consequences of the lifelong exposures to these violations. METHODS: In 2014-2015, a retrospective study was conducted among 383 North Korean refugees in South Korea using respondent-driven sampling to access this hidden population. This study collected information on the full range of political and economic rights violations and measured post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms, and social functioning by standard instruments...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Hongying Dai, Mark Clements
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement to recommend screening all adolescents for tobacco and other drug use in 2011. This study sought to evaluate the trends of health professional screening and advice on youth tobacco use since then. METHODS: Data from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to report the changes in tobacco screening and advice among 46,554 U.S. middle and high school students. Logistic regressions were used to assess trends and factors associated with screening or advice on tobacco use and to examine whether screening or advice on tobacco use was associated with quit behaviors...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Kunthea Nhim, Tamkeen Khan, Stephanie M Gruss, Gregory Wozniak, Kate Kirley, Patricia Schumacher, Elizabeth T Luman, Ann Albright
INTRODUCTION: Intensive behavioral counseling is effective in preventing type 2 diabetes, and insurance coverage for such interventions is increasing. Although primary care provider referrals are not required for entry to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-recognized National Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle change program, referral rates remain suboptimal. This study aims to assess the association between primary care provider behaviors regarding prediabetes screening, testing, and referral and awareness of the CDC-recognized lifestyle change program and the Prevent Diabetes STAT: Screen, Test, and Act Today™ toolkit...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Brian Mustanski, Jeffrey T Parsons, Patrick S Sullivan, Krystal Madkins, Eli Rosenberg, Gregory Swann
INTRODUCTION: HIV diagnoses among young men who have sex with men are increasing, but few effective HIV prevention interventions exist for this population. An RCT was conducted of the online Keep It Up! intervention to determine if it significantly reduced condomless anal sex and sexually transmitted infections compared with an HIV knowledge condition. STUDY DESIGN: From May 2013 to March 2017, a total of 901 participants were enrolled in a double-blinded RCT of Keep It Up! with 1-year follow-up...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Melanie M Wall, Chen Chen, Nicole I Larson, Mary J Christoph, Nancy E Sherwood
INTRODUCTION: Determining the population-based scope and stability of eating, activity, and weight-related problems is critical to inform interventions. This study examines: (1) the prevalence of eating, activity, and weight-related problems likely to influence health; and (2) the trajectories for having at least one of these problems during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: Project EAT I-IV (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) collected longitudinal survey data from 858 females and 597 males at four waves, approximately every 5 years, from 1998 to 2016, during the transition from adolescence to adulthood...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Laura P Hurley, Brenda Beaty, Steven Lockhart, Dennis Gurfinkel, Kristin Breslin, Miriam Dickinson, Melanie D Whittington, Heather Roth, Allison Kempe
INTRODUCTION: A proven, but underutilized, method to increase current low vaccination rates is reminder/recall. Centralized reminder/recall using an Immunization Information System reduces the burden of an individual practice conducting reminder/recall. The objectives were to assess the effectiveness of centralized vaccine reminder/recall on improving adult vaccination rates using Colorado's Immunization Information System. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a pragmatic RCT...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Pearl L H Mok, Aske Astrup, Matthew J Carr, Sussie Antonsen, Roger T Webb, Carsten B Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Separation from a parent during childhood has been linked with heightened longer-term violence risk, but it remains unclear how this relationship varies by gender, separation subgroup, and age at separation. This phenomenon was investigated by examining a wide array of child-parent separation scenarios. METHODS: National cohort study including individuals born in Denmark, 1971-1997 (N=1,346,772). Child-parent separation status was ascertained each year from birth to 15th birthday, using residential addresses from the Danish register...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Anna H Grummon, Donna R Miles
INTRODUCTION: Policymakers have focused on the food retail environment for improving the dietary quality for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Yet little is known about where SNAP households make food and beverage purchases or how purchases may vary by store type, SNAP participation, and income level. The objective of this study was to examine the association between SNAP-income status (participant, income-eligible non-participant, higher-income non-participant) and healthfulness of household purchases across store types...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Fatma Romeh M Ali, Xin Xu, Michael A Tynan, Brian A King
INTRODUCTION: Sales of electronic vapor products have increased in recent years. This increase in use may be related to manufacturer price promotions. This study assessed the use of price-related promotions among current electronic vapor product users. METHODS: Data from the 2015 and 2016 Summer Styles, an Internet survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2017. Current electronic vapor product users (n=300) were those who reported past 30-day electronic vapor product use...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Anne M Butler, Leah J McGrath, Kim A Boggess, David J Weber, Dongmei Li, Michael G Hudgens, J Bradley Layton
INTRODUCTION: It is recommended that all pregnant women in the U.S. receive tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization to prevent infant pertussis. This study's objective was to examine the clinical effectiveness of prenatal Tdap, and whether effectiveness varies by gestational age at immunization. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study of pregnant women with deliveries in 2010-2014 and their infants was performed. Commercial insurance claims data were analyzed in 2016-2017 to identify Tdap receipt by the pregnant women, and hospitalizations and outpatient visits for pertussis in their infants until the infants reached 18 months of age...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Gibril J Njie, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Ruth N Moro, Andrew A Vernon, Andrey S Borisov
CONTEXT: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients' preference for self-administered therapy, providers' lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Jason L Seitchik, Dong Hum Yoon, Luisa E Sperry, Clyde B Schechter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neighborhood food environments typically focus on select stores (especially supermarkets) and/or restaurants (especially fast-food outlets), make presumptions about healthfulness without assessing actual items for sale, and ignore other kinds of businesses offering foods/drinks. The current study assessed availability of select healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks from all storefront businesses in an urban environment and considered implications for food-environment research and community health...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ayesha Ali, Cameron M Kaplan, Karen J Derefinko, Robert C Klesges
CONTEXT: To provide a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis on smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit, a population that makes up approximately 32% of current smokers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Twenty-two studies on pharmacological, behavioral, and combination smoking-cessation interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit (defined as those who reported they were not ready to quit at the time of the study) published between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Alyssa J Moran, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: Noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas are increasingly promoted to and consumed by youth. These beverages may be perceived as healthier options than soda. To educate consumers about beverages high in added sugar, several cities and states have proposed policies mandating health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages. METHODS: In 2015, a total of 2,381 parents were randomized to a no label, calorie label, or warning label condition...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Maria C Mirabelli, Scott A Damon, Suzanne F Beavers, Kanta D Sircar
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to air pollution negatively affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which health professionals report talking about how to limit exposure to air pollution during periods of poor air quality with their at-risk patients. METHODS: In 2015, a total of 1,751 health professionals completed an online survey and reported whether they talk with their patients about limiting their exposure to air pollution...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Fangjian Guo, Leslie E Cofie, Abbey B Berenson
INTRODUCTION: Since 2006, human papillomavirus vaccine has been recommended for young females in the U.S. This study aimed to compare cervical cancer incidence among young women before and after the human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Program for Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Incidence-U.S. Cancer Statistics 2001-2014 database for U.S. females aged 15-34 years...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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