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Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders

Jeremy J Pruzin, Julie A Schneider, Ana W Capuano, Sue E Leurgans, Lisa L Barnes, Rexford S Ahima, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis
We examined the relationship of diabetes and hemoglobin A1C (A1C) to 2 common causes of dementia. The study included 1228 subjects who underwent annual clinical evaluations and a brain autopsy at death, as part of a Rush longitudinal cohort study of aging. A total of 433 subjects had A1C data available. Neuropathologic evaluations documented the size and location of infarcts. Modified silver stain-based Alzheimer disease (AD) measures included global and regional scores. We used regression analyses to examine associations of diabetes and A1C with overall and regional neuropathology...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Chiara Zucchella, Michelangelo Bartolo, Sara Bernini, Marta Picascia, Paola Malinverni, Elena Sinforiani
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between cognitive and functional impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at the earliest stages of the disease is not well characterized. This study aimed at investigating such relationships along AD evolution by means of the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). METHODS: Consecutive pairs of AD outpatients and their primary informal caregivers were enrolled. Patients were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and neuropsychological tests...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Julien Lagarde, Marie Sarazin, Valérie Chauviré, Bruno Stankoff, Aurélie Kas, Lucette Lacomblez, Marie-Anne Peyronneau, Michel Bottlaender
The central cholinergic system undergoes changes during the physiological process of aging and the pathologic process of Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to analyze the impairment of cholinergic pathways by positron emission tomography using the [F]-F-A-85380 (FA85) tracer, which has a high affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Aging was assessed by comparing young (n=10) and elderly (n=4) healthy subjects, and the pathologic process of AD was assessed by comparing elderly controls and age-matched AD patients (n=8)...
September 27, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Clinton B Wright, Chuanhui Dong, Michelle R Caunca, Janet DeRosa, Ying Kuen Cheng, Tatjana Rundek, Mitchell S V Elkind, Charles DeCarli, Ralph L Sacco
BACKGROUND: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to observe structural pathology that may predict cognitive decline. Some populations are less accessible through traditional in-person visits, and may be under-represented in the literature. METHODS: We examined white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) and cerebral parenchymal fraction (CPF) as predictors of cognitive decline measured by a modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) in the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study, a racially and ethnically diverse cohort study...
July 27, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Marco Canevelli, Eirini Kelaiditi, Natalia Del Campo, Giuseppe Bruno, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
BACKGROUND: Different rates of cognitive progression have been observed among Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. The present study aimed at evaluating whether the rate of cognitive worsening in AD may be predicted by widely available and easy-to-assess factors. METHODS: Mild to moderate AD patients were recruited in the ICTUS study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the association between several sociodemographic and clinical variables and 3 different rates of cognitive decline defined by modifications (after 1 year of follow-up) of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score: (1) "slow" progression, as indicated by a decrease in the MMSE score ≤1 point; (2) "intermediate" progression, decrease in the MMSE score between 2 and 5 points; and (3) "rapid" progression, decrease in the MMSE score ≥6 points...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Daniel A Nation, Sarah R Preis, Alexa Beiser, Katherine J Bangen, Lisa Delano-Wood, Melissa Lamar, David J Libon, Sudha Seshadri, Philip A Wolf, Rhoda Au
We investigated whether midlife pulse pressure is associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether the association was modified by apolipoprotein-E ε4 (APOE-ε4) and hypertension. Participants (549 stroke-free and dementia-free Framingham Offspring Cohort Study participants, age range=55.0 to 64.9 y) underwent baseline neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging (subset, n=454) evaluations with 5- to 7-year follow-up. Regression analyses investigated associations between baseline pulse pressure (systolic-diastolic pressure) and cognition, total cerebral volume and temporal horn ventricular volume (as an index of smaller hippocampal volume) at follow-up, and longitudinal change in these measures...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Juliana N de Souza-Talarico, Anna P de Carvalho, Sonia M D Brucki, Ricardo Nitrini, Renata E de L Ferretti-Rebustini
Population aging has been accompanied by worldwide growth in dementia. However, little is known about the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia in ethnically diverse populations, such as indigenous populations conceptualized as groups of persons who self-identify as indigenous and who are recognized as distinctive communities reproducing ancestral, historical, and territorial culture. This is particularly relevant in view of increasing life expectancy in indigenous populations and, consequently, in the number of elderly people, as well as the changes in their multimorbidity profile...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Magdalena I Tolea, James E Galvin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship and the directionality between mobility and cognitive performance. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 327 community-dwelling adults (mean age=68.9±9.9 y; range, 40 to 100 y) categorized as having no mobility dysfunction, upper-extremity (UE) impairment, lower-extremity (LE) impairment, or mobility limitation (both UE and LE impairments), and compared by global cognition with multiple hierarchical linear regression adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and mood factors...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Maciej J Lazarczyk, Sven Haller, Stefania Gimelli, Frédérique Bena, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Şenay Görücü Yilmaz, Mehmet E Erdal, Aynur Avci Özge, Mehmet A Sungur
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common complex neurodegenerative disorder accounting for nearly 50% to 70% of dementias worldwide. Yet the current diagnostic options for AD are limited. New diagnostic innovation strategies focusing on novel molecules and pathways are sorely needed. In this connection, microRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and are vital for neuronal development and its functional sustainability. Conceivably, biological pathways responsible for the biogenesis of miRNAs represent a veritable set of upstream candidate genes that can be potentially associated with the AD pathophysiology...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Jessica R Marden, Elizabeth R Mayeda, Stefan Walter, Alexandre Vivot, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Ichiro Kawachi, M Maria Glymour
Evidence on whether genetic predictors of Alzheimer disease (AD) also predict memory decline is inconsistent, and limited data are available for African ancestry populations. For 8253 non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) Health and Retirement Study participants with memory scores measured 1 to 8 times between 1998 and 2012 (average baseline age=62), we calculated weighted polygenic risk scores [AD Genetic Risk Score (AD-GRS)] using the top 22 AD-associated loci, and an alternative score excluding apolipoprotein E (APOE) (AD-GRSexAPOE)...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Brittany N Dugger, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Sarah E Monsell, Walter A Kukull, Bryan K Woodruff, Eric M Reiman, Thomas G Beach, Jeffrey Wilson
Studies have demonstrated associations between cardiovascular factors and Alzheimer disease (AD) with minimal focus on other neurodegenerative diseases. Utilizing cross-sectional data from 17,532 individuals in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, Uniform Data Set, we compared the presence of cardiovascular factors [body mass index (BMI), atrial fibrillation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes] in individuals carrying a diagnosis of Probable AD (ProbAD), Possible AD, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal degeneration, with that of normals...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Robert H Yolken, Tianxiu Wang, Chung-Chou H Chang, Lora McClain, Eric McDade, Beth E Snitz, Mary Ganguli
BACKGROUND: Numerous cross-sectional studies have related exposure to neurotropic infectious agents with cognitive dysfunction in older adults, however, the temporal sequence is uncertain. METHODS: In a representative, well-characterized, population-based aging cohort, we determined whether the temporal trajectories of multiple cognitive domains are associated with exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes Simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), Herpes Simplex virus, type 2 (HSV-2), or Toxoplasma gondii (TOX)...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Malcolm B Dick, Eric Doran, Michael Phelan, Ira T Lott
Previous research has revealed similarities in the neuropathology, clinical presentation, and risk factors between persons with Alzheimer disease from the general population (GP-AD) and those with Down syndrome (DS-AD). Less is known, however, about the extent of similarities and differences in the cognitive profiles of these 2 populations. Fifty-one moderate to severely demented GP-AD and 59 DS-AD individuals participated in this study which compared the cognitive profiles of these 2 populations on the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), controlling for sex as well as level of functional ability using a modified version of the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Ines A Heber, Ana S Costa, Cornelius J Werner, Ulrike Schöne, Arno Reich, Jörg B Schulz, Kathrin Reetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Karolina G César, Sonia M D Brucki, Leonel T Takada, Luiz F C Nascimento, Camila M S Gomes, Milena C S Almeida, Maira O Oliveira, Fábio H G Porto, Mirna L H Senaha, Valéria S Bahia, Thaís B L Silva, Jéssica N Ianof, Lívia Spíndola, Magali T Schmidt, Mário S Jorge, Patrícia H F Vale, Mário A Cecchini, Luciana Cassimiro, Roger T Soares, Márcia R Gonçalves, Ana C S Martins, Patrícia Daré, Jerusa Smid, Claudia S Porto, Maria T Carthery-Goulart, Mônica S Yassuda, Letícia L Mansur, Ricardo Nitrini
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cognitive impairment is insufficiently determined in developing countries. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia and dementia in community-dwelling elderly in Brazil. METHODS: This was a single-phase cross-sectional survey of the elderly (aged 60 years and above) living in the municipality of Tremembé, Brazil. Twenty percent of the households with elderly persons were randomly selected from urban and rural areas, to obtain a homogenous representation of all socioeconomic and cultural levels...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Kristy K L Coleman, Brenda L Coleman, Julia D MacKinley, Stephen H Pasternak, Elizabeth C Finger
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening tool used by practitioners worldwide. The efficacy of the MoCA for screening frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and related disorders is unknown. The objectives were: (1) to determine whether the MoCA detects cognitive impairment (CI) in FTD subjects; (2) to determine whether Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD subtypes and related disorders can be parsed using the MoCA; and (3) describe longitudinal MoCA performance by subtype. We extracted demographic and testing data from a database of patients referred to a cognitive neurology clinic who met criteria for probable AD or FTD (N=192)...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Fabricio F Oliveira, Elizabeth S Chen, Marilia C Smith, Paulo H F Bertolucci
Little is known on how risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia affect disease progression, much less for populations with low mean schooling, whereas the transcription of APOE may be regulated by nongenetic factors. In this 44-month cohort study, 214 consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were assessed for rates of cognitive and functional decline by way of Clinical Dementia Rating and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, keeping blinded assessment of APOE haplotypes. Subjects were evaluated for sex, schooling, age of dementia onset, and cerebrovascular risk factors (including Framingham risk scores)...
July 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Mary C Tierney, Jocelyn Charles, Gary Naglie, Liisa Jaakkimainen, Rahim Moineddin
BACKGROUND: We evaluated effects of providing primary care physicians (PCPs) with reports of their patients' results on the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI) by examining their documented care approaches after receipt of the report. METHODS: Patients were 65 years and above, without a diagnosis or previous workup for dementia, seen consecutively over 2 months by one of 13 PCPs. PCPs indicated whether they, patients, or families had concerns about patients' cognition...
June 23, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Kristin M Galetta, Kimberly R Chapman, Maritza D Essis, Michael L Alosco, Danielle Gillard, Eric Steinberg, Diane Dixon, Brett Martin, Christine E Chaisson, Neil W Kowall, Yorghos Tripodis, Laura J Balcer, Robert A Stern
The King-Devick (K-D) test is a 1 to 2 minute, rapid number naming test, often used to assist with detection of concussion, but also has clinical utility in other neurological conditions (eg, Parkinson disease). The K-D involves saccadic eye and other eye movements, and abnormalities thereof may be an early indicator of Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated cognitive impairment. No study has tested the utility of the K-D in AD and we sought to do so. The sample included 206 [135 controls, 39 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 32 AD dementia] consecutive subjects from the Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center registry undergoing their initial annual evaluation between March 2013 and July 2015...
June 13, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
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