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Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813631/rapid-and-targeted-introgression-of-fgr-gene-through-marker-assisted-backcrossing-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#1
Acga Cheng, Ismanizan Ismail, Mohamad Osman, Habibuddin Hashim, Nur Samahah Mohd Zainual
While it is crucial for developing countries like Malaysia to achieve self-sufficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.), it is equally critical to be able to produce high-quality rice, specifically fragrant rice, which demands are often met through importation. The present study was aimed at developing high-yielding fragrant rice, in a timely and cost-effective manner. A marker-assisted backcross (MABC) approach was optimised to introgress the fragrance gene (fgr) into two high-yielding Malaysian varieties; MR84 and MR219, within two years utilising less than fifty molecular markers...
August 16, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763624/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-porcine-peripheral-blood-reveals-differentially-expressed-genes-from-the-cytokine-cytokine-receptor-interaction-pathway-related-to-health-status
#2
M H Ye, H Bao, Y Meng, L L Guan, P Stothard, G Plastow
While some research has looked into the host genetic response in pigs challenged with specific viruses or bacteria, few studies have explored the expression changes of transcripts in the peripheral blood of sick pigs which may be infected with multiple pathogens on farms. In this study, peripheral blood transcriptome architecture in 64 Duroc sired commercial pigs, including 18 healthy animals at entry to a growing facility (set as a control) and 23 pairs of samples from healthy and sick pen mates, was generated using RNA-Seq technology...
August 1, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759728/molecular-cytogenetic-identification-of-wheat-thinopyrum-ponticum-substitution-line-with-stripe-rust-resistance
#3
Chen Zhu, Yanzhen Wang, Chunhuan Chen, Changyou Wang, Aicen Zhang, Nana Peng, Yajuan Wang, Hong Zhang, Xinlun Liu, Wanquan Ji
Thinopyrum ponticum (Th. ponticum) (2n = 10x = 70) is an important breeding material with excellent resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the derivative line CH1113-B13-1-1-2-1 (CH1113-B13) through cytological, morphological, Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), expressed sequence tag (EST), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) marker analysis. The GISH analysis revealed that CH1113-B13 contained 20 pairs of common wheat chromosomes and one pair of J<sup>St</sup> genomic chromosomes...
July 31, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753409/pcr-cycles-above-routine-numbers-do-not-compromise-high-throughput-dna-barcoding-results
#4
J Vierna, J Doña, A Vizcaíno, D Serrano, R Jovani
High-throughput DNA barcoding has become essential in ecology and evolution but some technical questions still remain. Increasing the number of PCR cycles above routine 20-30 cycles is a common practice when working with old-type specimens, with little amounts of DNA, or when facing annealing issues with the primers. However, increasing the number of cycles can raise the number of artificial mutations due to polymerase errors. In this work we sequenced 20 COI libraries in the Illumina MiSeq platform. Libraries were prepared with 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 PCR cycles from four individuals belonging to four species of four genera of cephalopods...
July 28, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750176/back-to-america-tracking-the-origin-of-european-introduced-populations-of-i-quercus-rubra-i-l
#5
Nastasia R Merceron, Thibault Leroy, Emilie Chancerel, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Daniel Borkowski, Alexis Ducousso, Arnaud Monty, Annabel J Porté, Antoine Kremer
Quercus rubra has been introduced in Europe since the end of the seventeenth century. It is widely distributed today across this continent and considered invasive in some countries. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations with the aim of tracing the origin of introduced populations. A large sampling of 883 individuals from 73 native and 38 European locations were genotyped at 69 SNPs. In the natural range, we found a continuous geographic gradient of variation with a predominant latitudinal component...
July 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742982/investigation-of-orthologous-pathogen-recognition-gene-rich-regions-in-solanaceous-species
#6
A Di Donato, Giuseppe Andolfo, A Ferrarini, M Delledonne, M R Ercolano
The genome architecture of pathogen receptor genes (PRGs) was extensively investigated in several plant species. However, we still know little about their elaborate reorganization arose during the plant speciation process. Using recently released pepper and eggplant genome sequences we were able to identify 1097 pathogen recognition genes in pepper Zunla-1 and 775 in eggplant Nakate-Shinkuro. The retrieved genes were analysed for their tendency to cluster, using different methods to infer the means of grouping...
July 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738163/a-local-duplication-of-the-i-melanocortin-receptor-1-i-locus-in-i-astyanax-i
#7
Joshua B Gross, James Weagley, Bethany A Stahl, Li Ma, Luis Espinasa, Suzanne E McGaugh
In this study, we report evidence of a novel duplication of <i>Melanocortin receptor 1 (Mc1r)</i> in the cavefish genome. This locus was discovered following the observation of excessive allelic diversity in a ~820 bp fragment of <i>Mc1r</i> amplified via degenerate PCR from a natural population of <i>Astyanax aeneus</i> fish from Guerrero, Mexico. The cavefish genome reveals the presence of two closely related <i>Mc1r</i> open reading frames separated by a 1...
July 24, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732175/genome-wide-identification-functional-prediction-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-r2r3-myb-superfamily-in-brassica-napus
#8
Ali Hajiebrahimi, Hajar Owji, Shiva Hemmati
R2R3-MYBs are important transcription factors (TFs) in planta, involved in development and various stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of 249 R2R3-MYB TFs in Brassica napus called BnaR2R3-MYBs, clustered into 38 clades. BnaR2R3-MYBs were distributed on 19 chromosomes of B. napus. Sixteen gene clusters were identified. BnaR2R3-MYBs were characterized by motif prediction, gene structure analysis and gene ontology. Evolutionary analysis revealed that BnaR2R3-MYBs are mainly formed as a result of whole genome duplication...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732174/spatial-organization-of-fibroblast-and-spermatocyte-nuclei-with-different-b-chromosome-content-in-korean-field-mouse-i-apodemus-peninsulae-i-rodentia-muridae
#9
Tatyana V Karamysheva, Anna A Torgasheva, Yaroslav R Yefremov, Anton G Bogomolov, Thomas Liehr, Pavel M Borodin, Nikolay B Rubtsov
Korean field mouse (<i>Apodemus peninsulae</i>) shows a wide variation in the number of B chromosomes composed of constitutive heterochromatin. For this reason, it provides a good model to study the influence of the number of centromeres and amount of heterochromatin on spatial organization of interphase nuclei. We analyzed the three-dimensional organization of fibroblast and spermatocyte nuclei of the field mice carrying different number of B chromosomes using laser scanning microscopy and 3D fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732173/exploring-the-potential-of-gametic-reconstruction-of-parental-genotypes-by-f-sub-1-sub-hybrids-as-a-bridge-for-rapid-introgression
#10
Charles H Cannon, C Lane Scher
Interspecific hybridization and genetic introgression are commonly observed in natural populations of many species, especially trees. Among oaks, gene flow between closely-related species has been well documented. And yet, hybridization does not lead to a 'melting pot', i.e. the homogenization of phenotypic traits. Here, we explore how the combination of several common reproductive traits and genomic biology could create an avenue for interspecific gene flow that partially explains this apparent paradox. During meiosis, F<sub>1</sub> hybrids will produce approximately (½)<sup>n</sup> 'reconstructed' parental gametes, where n equals the number of chromosomes...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732171/using-metagenomics-to-show-the-efficacy-of-forest-restoration-in-the-new-jersey-pine-barrens
#11
William D Eaton, Shadi Shokralla, Kathleen M McGee, Mehrdad Hajibabaei
The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5,000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic White Cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year old AWC stands-the latter two stands being restored from long-term cranberry bogs...
July 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727939/phytohormone-and-genome-variations-in-vitis-amurensis-resistant-to-downy-mildew
#12
Ling Yin, Junjie Qu, Shuhan Deng, Shaoli Liu, Jiang Lu, Yali Zhang
Downy mildew (DM) resistance is a highly desirable agronomic trait in grape breeding. High variation in Plasmopara viticola resistance was found in Vitis cultivars. Some accessions show high P. viticola resistance even under conditions highly conducive to DM. Here, leaf disc inoculation experiments revealed that Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshaner' exhibited DM resistance with necrotic spots, whereas the V. amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar 'Zuoyouhong' was susceptible. Changes in plant hormones accumulation profiles, differed between the cultivars...
July 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727934/phylogenomics-reveals-a-complex-evolutionary-history-of-lobed-leaf-white-oaks-in-western-north-america
#13
John D McVay, Duncan Hauser, Andrew L Hipp, Paul Manos
Quercus (oak) species hybridize in complex patterns that have yet to be fully explored with phylogenomic data. Analyses to date have recovered reasonable divergent patterns, suggesting that the impact of introgression may not always be obvious in inferred oak phylogenies. We explore this phenomenon using RADseq data for 136 samples representing 54 oak species by conducting phylogenetic analyses designed to distinguish signals of lineage diversification and hybridization, focusing on the lobed-leaf species Quercus gambelii, Q...
July 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727488/microsatellites-mapping-for-non-model-species-with-chromosomal-rearrangement-a-case-study-in-the-frog-quasipaa-boulengeri-anura-dicroglossidae
#14
Xiuyun Yuan, Siqi Yuan, Ya Liu, Yun Xia, Xiaomao Zeng
Gene mapping is an important resource for understanding the evolution of genes and cytogenetics. Model species with a known genetic map or genome sequence allow for the selection of genetic markers on a desired chromosome, while it is hard to locate these markers on chromosomes of non-model species without such references. A frog species, Quasipaa boulengeri, shows chromosomal rearrangement polymorphisms, making itself a fascinating model for chromosomal speciation mediated by suppressed recombination. However, no markers have been located on its rearranged chromosomes...
July 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683204/balancing-selection-maintains-diversity-in-a-cold-tolerance-gene-in-broadly-distributed-live-oaks
#15
Jose Eduardo Meireles, Anne Beulke, Daniel S Borkowski, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
Cold poses major physiological challenges to plants, especially long-lived trees. In trees occurring along variable temperature clines, the expected direction and consequences of selection on cold acclimation ability and freezing tolerance are not straightforward. Here we estimated selection in cold acclimation genes at two evolutionary timescales in all seven species of the American live oaks (Quercus subsection Virentes). Two cold response candidate genes were chosen: ICE1, a key gene in the cold acclimation pathway, and HOS1, which modulates cold response by negatively regulating ICE1...
July 6, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679070/microsatellite-analysis-of-population-structure-in-eucalyptus-globulus
#16
Joana Seabra Costa, René Vaillancourt, Dorothy Steane, Rebecca Jones, Cristina Marques
Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus Labill (Tasmanian Blue Gum), native to southeast Australia, is a benchmark species for the pulp and paper industry. We genotyped 397 trees representing 16 populations of E. globulus native diversity in Australia with 24 microsatellite loci. Eight genetically distinct groups were detected, consistent with genetic groupings detected in previous quantitative and molecular studies. A sample of 29 Portuguese individuals was added to help clarify the origin of the Portuguese landrace...
July 5, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666092/characterization-of-genome-in-tetraploid-sty-species-of-elymus-triticeae-poaceae-using-sequential-fish-and-gish
#17
Ruijuan Liu, Richard R-C Wang, Feng Yu, Xingwang Lu, Quanwen Dou
Genomes of ten species of Elymus, either presumed or known as tetraploid StY, were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). These tetraploid species could be grouped into three categories. Type I included StY genome reported species-Roegneria pendulina, R. nutans, R. glaberrima, R. ciliaris, and Elymus nevskii, and StY genome presumed species-R. sinica, R. breviglumis, and R. dura, whose genome could be separated into two sets based on different GISH intensities...
June 30, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654760/gametocidal-genes-of-aegilops-segregation-distorters-in-wheat-aegilops-wide-hybridization
#18
M Niranjana
Aegilops is a genus belonging to the family Poaceace, which have played an indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary gene pool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These "selfish" genetic elements ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant, thereby causing a proportional reduction in fertility...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654758/looking-into-a-whale-s-heart-investigating-a-genetic-basis-for-cardiomyopathy-in-a-non-model-species
#19
Amélia Viricel, Patricia E Rosel
Understanding the pathogenesis of complex diseases can benefit from multi-species comparative studies. Yet these studies rarely include natural populations of non-model species. Here, we focused on the cause of a heart muscle disease, cardiomyopathy (CM), affecting multiple mammalian species including humans, cats, dogs, and certain species of whales. Mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins have been identified as a leading cause for CM in humans, and some were also revealed to be responsible for CM in cats...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636837/microrna-101-2-5p-targets-the-apob-gene-in-the-liver-of-chicken-gallus-gallus
#20
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Lijuan Jia, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a major protein component of plasma lipoproteins. It is involved in many important biological processes such as lipid transportation, enzyme activity regulation, and receptor recognition. Extensive studies have shown that the expression of ApoB is regulated at multiple levels. However, the regulation of ApoB expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) still remains unknown. In the present study, identified are miRNAs that are predicted to interact with ApoB in chicken. The predicted relationship between the identified miRNAs and ApoB was verified through dual luciferase reporter assay in chicken DF1 cells, and the effect of miRNAs on ApoB expression was analyzed in chicken embryo hepatocytes stimulated by 17β-estradiol...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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