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Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654760/gametocidal-genes-of-aegilops-segregation-distorters-in-wheat-aegilops-wide-hybridization
#1
M Niranjana
Aegilops is a genus belonging to the Poaceace family which have played indispensible role in the evolution of bread wheat and continues to do so by transferring genes by wide hybridization. Being the secondary genepool of wheat, gene transfer from Aegilops poses difficulties and segregation distortion is common. Gametocidal genes are the most well characterized class of segregation distorters reported in interspecific crosses of wheat with Aegilops. These are selfish genetic elements which ensure their preferential transmission to progeny at the cost of gametes lacking them without providing any phenotypic benefits to the plant causing a proportional reduction in fertility...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654758/looking-into-a-whale-s-heart-investigating-a-genetic-basis-for-cardiomyopathy-in-a-non-model-species
#2
Amelia Viricel, Patricia E Rosel
Understanding the pathogenesis of complex diseases can benefit from multi-species comparative studies. Yet these studies rarely include natural populations of non-model species. Here, we focused on the cause of a heart muscle disease, cardiomyopathy (CM), affecting multiple mammalian species including humans, cats, dogs, and certain species of whales. Mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins have been identified as a leading cause for CM in humans, and some were also revealed to be responsible for CM in cats...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636837/microrna-101-2-5p-targets-the-apob-gene-in-liver-of-chicken-gallus-gallus
#3
Zheng Ma, Hong Li, Hang Zheng, Keren Jiang, Lijuan Jia, Fengbin Yan, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a major protein component of plasma lipoproteins, which have been involved in many important biological processes such as lipid transportation, enzyme activity regulation and receptor recognition. Extensive studies have showed that the expression of the ApoB was regulated at multiple levels. However, the regulation of ApoB expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) still remains unknown. In present studies, miRNAs that interact with ApoB have been predicted in chicken. The targeted relationship between the predicated miRNAs and ApoB was verified through dual luciferase reporter assay in chicken DF1 cells, and the effect of miRNAs on ApoB expression was analyzed in chicken embryo hepatocytes stimulated by 17β-estradiol...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636827/chromosome-identification-by-new-molecular-markers-and-genomic-in-situ-hybridization-in-the-i-triticum-secale-thinopyrum-i-trigeneric-hybrids
#4
Yi Dai, Yamei Duan, Dawn Chi, Huiping Liu, Shuai Huang, Wenguang Cao, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
It is very important to use chromosome-specific markers for identifying alien chromosomes in filial generation of distant hybridization. The chromosome-specific markers of rye and <i>Th. elongatum</i> as well as genomic <i>in situ</i> hybridization were used to identify the alien chromosomes and to know chromosome composition in eight lines which derived from the crossing between Triticum trititrigia (AABBEE) and tricitale (AABBRR). The results shown four lines contained of all rye chromosomes but no Th...
June 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514600/evaluating-five-different-loci-rbcl-rpob-rpoc1-matk-and-its-for-dna-barcoding-of-indian-orchids
#5
Iffat Parveen, Hemant Kumar Singh, Saloni Malik, Saurabh Raghuvanshi, Shashi Bhushan Babbar
Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms, is represented in India by 1600 species distributed in diverse habitats. Orchids are in high demand due to their beautiful flowers and therapeutic properties. Overexploitation and habitat destruction have made many orchid species endangered. In the absence of effective identification methods, illicit trade of orchids continues unabated. Considering DNA barcoding as a potential identification tool, species discrimination capability of five loci, ITS matK, rbcL, rpoB and rpoC1, was tested in 393 accessions of 94 Indian orchid species belonging to 47 genera, including one listed in Appendix I of CITES and 26 medicinal species...
May 17, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472606/a-simple-and-efficient-non-denaturing-fish-method-for-maize-chromosome-differentiation-using-single-strand-oligonucleotide-probes
#6
Minqiu Zhu, Pei du, Lifang Zhuang, Chenggen Chu, Han Zhao, Zengjun Qi
Single-strand oligonucleotides (SSONs hereafter) as probes are becoming a powerful method of chromosome painting in many species. In this study, nine SSONs ((ACT)10, (ACT)19, Knob-1 ~ 3, CentC69-1, MR68-3, K10-72-1 and TR1-357-2) were developed and used for chromosome identification in 16 maize (Zea mays L., 2n = 20) inbred lines and hybrids by non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH). Each SSON produced clear signals on 2 ~ 10 chromosomes of inbred lines B73 and Mo17. A multiplex probe set containing four SSONs ((ACT)10, Knob-2, CentC69-1 and MR68-3) clearly characterized all maize chromosomes in the 16 lines by a single round of ND-FISH and revealed genetic variation at a chromosome level...
May 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472589/patterns-of-genomic-diversification-reflect-differences-in-life-history-and-reproductive-biology-between-figs-ficus-and-the-stone-oaks-lithocarpus
#7
Chai-Shian Kua, Charles Cannon
One of the remarkable aspects of the tremendous biodiversity found in tropical forests is the wide range of evolutionary strategies that have produced this diversity, indicating many paths to diversification. We compare two diverse groups of trees with profoundly different biologies to discover whether these differences are reflected in their genomes. Ficus (Moraceae), with its complex co-evolutionary relationship with obligate pollinating wasps, produces copious tiny seeds which are widely dispersed. Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), with generalized insect pollination, produces large seeds that are poorly dispersed...
May 4, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445658/a-time-and-a-place-for-everything-phylogenetic-history-and-geography-as-joint-predictors-of-oak-plastome-phylogeny
#8
Kasey Khanh Pham, Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos, Richard C Cronn
Due to high rates of introgressive hybridization, the plastid genome is poorly suited to fine-scale DNA barcoding and phylogenetic studies of the oak genus (Quercus, Fagaceae). At the tips of the oak plastome phylogeny, recent gene migration and reticulation generally cause topology to reflect geographic structure, while deeper branches reflect lineage divergence. In this study, we quantify the simple and partial effects of geographic proximity and nucleome-inferred phylogenetic history on oak plastome phylogeny at different evolutionary scales...
April 26, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445652/identification-of-quantitative-trait-loci-underlying-seed-protein-content-of-soybean-including-main-epistatic-and-qtl-%C3%A3-environment-effects-in-different-regions-of-northeast-china
#9
Weili Teng, Wen Li, Qi Zhang, Depeng Wu, Xue Zhao, Haiyan Li, Yingpeng Han, Wenbin Li
The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments...
April 26, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445651/herbicide-targets-and-detoxification-proteins-in-sugarcane-from-gene-assembly-to-structure-modelling
#10
Dyfed Lloyd Evans, Shailesh Vinay Joshi
In a genome context, sugarcane is a classic orphan crop, in that no genome and only very few genes have been assembled. We have devised a novel exome assembly methodology that has allowed us to assemble and characterize 49 genes that serve as herbicide targets, safener interacting proteins and members of herbicide detoxification pathways within the sugarcane genome. We have structurally modelled the products of each of these genes, as well as determining allelic, genomic and RNA-Seq based polymorphisms for each gene...
April 26, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431212/dna-barcoding-and-traditional-taxonomy-an-integrated-approach-for-biodiversity-conservation
#11
Bhavisha P Sheth, Vrinda S Thaker
Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks...
April 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177846/nuclear-dna-content-correlates-with-depth-body-size-and-diversification-rate-in-amphipod-crustaceans-from-ancient-lake-baikal-russia
#12
Nicholas W Jeffery, Lev Yampolsky, T Ryan Gregory
Lake Baikal in Russia is a large, ancient lake that has been the site of a major radiation of amphipod crustaceans. Nearly 400 named species are known in this single lake, and it is thought that many more await description. The size and depth of Lake Baikal, in particular, may have contributed to the radiation of endemic amphipods by providing a large number of microhabitats for species to invade and subsequently experience reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the possibility that large-scale genomic changes have also accompanied diversification in these crustaceans...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177845/analysis-of-the-oligopeptide-transporter-gene-family-in-ganoderma-lucidum-structure-phylogeny-and-expression-patterns
#13
Quanju Xiang, Keyu Shen, Xiumei Yu, Ke Zhao, Yunfu Gu, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaoqiong Chen, Qiang Chen
Oligopeptide transporters (OPTs) are believed to transport broad ranges of substrates across the plasma membrane from the extracellular environment into the cell and are thought to contribute to various biological processes. In the present study, 13 putative OPTs (Gl-OPT1 to Gl-OPT13) were identified through extensive search of Ganoderma lucidum genome database. Phylogenetic analysis with OPTs from other fungi and plants indicates that these genes can be further divided into five groups. Motif compositions of OPT members are highly conserved in each group, indicative of functional conservation...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177844/genome-wide-analysis-and-expression-characteristics-of-small-auxin-up-rna-saur-genes-in-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis
#14
Qingsong Bai, Dan Hou, Long Li, Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Jun Liu, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is well known for its rapid shoot growth. Auxin exerts pleiotropic effects on plant growth. The small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are early auxin-responsive genes involved in plant growth. In total, 38 SAUR genes were identified in P. edulis (PheSAUR). A comprehensive overview of the PheSAUR gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, and subcellular location predictions. A transcriptome analysis indicated that 37 (except PheSAUR18) of the PheSAUR genes were expressed during shoot growth process and that the PheSAUR genes were differentially expressed...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177843/estimation-of-long-terminal-repeat-element-content-in-the-helicoverpa-zea-genome-from-high-throughput-sequencing-of-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-pools
#15
Brad S Coates, Craig A Abel, Omaththage P Perera
The lepidopteran pest insect Helicoverpa zea feeds on cultivated corn and cotton across the Americas where control remains challenging owing to the evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic insecticidal toxins, yet genomic resources remain scarce for this species. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library having a mean genomic insert size of 145 ± 20 kbp was created from a laboratory strain of H. zea, which provides ∼12.9-fold coverage of a 362.8 ± 8.8 Mbp (0.37 ± 0.09 pg) flow cytometry estimated haploid genome size...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177841/dna-barcoding-as-an-aid-for-species-identification-in-austral-black-flies-insecta-diptera-simuliidae
#16
Luis M Hernández-Triana, Fernanda Montes De Oca, Sean W J Prosser, Paul D N Hebert, T Ryan Gregory, Shelley McMurtrie
In this paper, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies in the austral region was assessed. Twenty-eight morphospecies were analyzed: eight of the genus Austrosimulium (four species in the subgenus Austrosimulium s. str., three species in the subgenus Novaustrosimulium, and one species unassigned to subgenus), two of the genus Cnesia, eight of Gigantodax, three of Paracnephia, one of Paraustrosimulium, and six of Simulium (subgenera Morops, Nevermannia, and Pternaspatha)...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177838/testing-the-reliability-of-standard-and-complementary-dna-barcodes-for-the-monocot-subfamily-alooideae-from-south-africa
#17
Barnabas H Daru, Michelle van der Bank, Abubakar Bello, Kowiyou Yessoufou
Although a standard DNA barcode has been identified for plants, it does not always provide species-level specimen identifications for investigating important ecological questions. In this study, we assessed the species-level discriminatory power of standard (rbcLa + matK) and complementary barcodes (ITS1 and trnH-psbA) within the subfamily Alooideae (Asphodelaceae), a large and recent plant radiation, whose species are important in horticulture yet are threatened. Alooideae has its centre of endemism in southern Africa, with some outlier species occurring elsewhere in Africa and Madagascar...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177833/the-importance-of-molecular-markers-and-primer-design-when-characterizing-biodiversity-from-environmental-dna
#18
Joanna R Freeland
Environmental DNA (eDNA) comprises DNA fragments that have been shed into the environment by organisms, and which can be extracted from environmental samples such as water or soil. Characterization of eDNA can allow researchers to infer the presence or absence of species from a particular site without the need to locate and identify individuals, and therefore may provide an extremely valuable tool for quantifying biodiversity. However, as is often the case with relatively new protocols, methodological challenges remain...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121461/the-dynamic-evolutionary-history-of-genome-size-in-north-american-woodland-salamanders
#19
Catherine E Newman, T Ryan Gregory, Christopher C Austin
The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55)...
April 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355497/molecular-characterization-of-dihydroneopterin-aldolase-and-aminodeoxychorismate-synthase-in-common-bean-genes-coding-for-enzymes-in-the-folate-synthesis-pathway
#20
Weilong Xie, Gregory Perry, Christopher Joe Martin, Youn-Seb Shim, Alireza Navabi, Karl Peter Pauls
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are excellent sources of dietary folates, but different varieties contain different amounts of these compounds. Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) and aminodeoxychorismate synthase (ADCS) genes in the folate synthesis pathway, were characterized by PCR amplification, BAC clone sequencing, and whole genome sequencing. All DHNA and ADCS genes in the Mesoamerican cultivar OAC Rex were isolated and compared with those genes in the genome of Andean genotype G19833. Both genotypes have two functional DHNA genes and one pseudo gene...
March 29, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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