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Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada

Dirk Erpenbeck, Markus Steiner, Astrid Schuster, Martin J Genner, Renata Manconi, Roberto Pronzato, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Didier Van den Spiegel, Rob Wm van Soest, Gert Wörheide
African sponges, particularly freshwater sponges, are understudied relative to demosponges in most other geographical regions. Freshwater sponges (Spongillida) likely share a common ancestor; however, their evolutionary history, particularly during their radiation into endemic and allegedly cosmopolitan groups, is unclear. Freshwater sponges of at least 58 species of 17 genera and four families are described from Central and Eastern Africa, but the diversity is underestimated due to limited distinguishable morphological features...
December 17, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Maxwell J Farrell, Danny Govender, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Michelle VAN DER Bank, T Jonathan Davies
Bacteria are essential components of natural environments. They contribute to ecosystem functioning through roles as mutualists and pathogens for larger species, and as key components of food webs and nutrient cycles. Bacterial communities respond to environmental disturbances, and the tracking of these communities across space and time may serve as indicators of ecosystem health in areas of conservation concern. Recent advances in DNA sequencing of environmental samples allow for rapid and culture-free characterization of bacterial communities...
November 29, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Alex MacKenzie
November 28, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Naiara Pereira de Araújo, Cibele Bonvicino, Marta Svartman
Thrichomys Trouessart, 1880 is a genus of echimyid rodents endemic to South America, distributed from northeastern Brazil to Paraguay and Bolivia. Although all the recognized species of this genus have already been karyotyped, detailed comparative cytogenetic analyses have not been performed yet. We karyologically analyzed four species of Thrichomys from different Brazilian states. Our analyses included GTG- and CBG-banding, silver-staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric and 45S rDNA probes...
November 27, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Christine E Edwards, Joel F Swift, Richard F Lance, Thomas A Minckley, Denise L Lindsay
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of sample collection approaches and DNA metabarcoding to identify plants utilized by nectivorous bats. Samples included guano collected from beneath bat roosts and pollen-swabs from bat fur, both of which were subjected to DNA metabarcoding and visual identification of pollen (microscopy) to measure plant diversity. Our objectives were to determine whether DNA metabarcoding could detect likely food plants of nectivorous bats, whether sample types would produce different estimates of plant diversity, and to compare results of DNA metabarcoding to visual identification...
November 27, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Wieland Meyer, Laszlo Irinyi, Minh Thuy Vi Hoang, Vincent Robert, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Chompoonek Yurayart, Chi-Ching Tsang, Chun-Yi Lee, Patrick C Y Woo, Ivan Mikhailovich Pchelin, Silke Uhrlas, Pietro Nenoff, Ariya Chindamporn, Sharon Chen, Paul D N Hebert, Tania C Sorrell
With new or emerging fungal infections, human/animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide. Current diagnostic tools are slow, non-specific at the species and subspecies levels, and require specific morphological expertise to accurately identify pathogens from pure cultures. DNA barcodes are easily amplified, universal, short species-specific DNA sequences, which enable rapid identification by comparison with a well-curated reference sequence collection. The primary fungal DNA barcode, ITS region, was introduced in 2012 and is now routinely used in diagnostic laboratories...
November 22, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Tzitziki Loeza-Quintana, Christina M Carr, Tooba Khan, Yash A Bhatt, Samantha P Lyon, Paul D N Hebert, Sarah J Adamowicz
Divergence times for species assemblages of Arctic marine invertebrates have often been estimated using a standard rate (1.4%/MY) of molecular evolution calibrated using a single sister pair of tropical crustaceans. Because rates of molecular evolution vary among taxa and environments, it is essential to obtain clock calibrations from northern lineages. The recurrent opening and closure of the Bering Strait provide an exceptional opportunity for clock calibration. Here, we apply the iterative calibration approach to investigate patterns of molecular divergence among lineages of northern marine molluscs and arthropods using publicly available sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and compare these results with previous estimates of trans-Bering divergences for echinoderms and polychaetes...
November 21, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Vera M A Zizka, Florian Leese, Bianca Peinert, Matthias F Geiger
Metabarcoding is a powerful, increasingly popular tool for biodiversity assessment, but still suffers from some drawbacks (specimen destruction, separation and size sorting). In the present study, we tested a non-destructive protocol that excludes any sample sorting, where the ethanol used for sample preserving is filtered and DNA is extracted from the filter for subsequent DNA metabarcoding. When tested on macroinvertebrate mock communities, the method was widely successful but was unable to reliably detect mollusc taxa...
November 20, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Caroline Cabreira-Cagliari, Nathalia de Cassia Dias, Bianca Bohn, David Gabriel Dos Santos Fagundes, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro, Maria Helena Bodanese Zanettini, Alexandro Cagliari
PLAC8 is a cysteine-rich protein described as a central mediator of tumor evolution in mammals, being a promising candidate for diagnostic and therapeutic targeting. The PLAC8 gene also acts in the contact hypersensitivity response and serves a role in psoriatic skin. In plants, PLAC8 motif-containing proteins are involved in determination of organ size, growth, response to infection, Ca2+ influx, Cd resistance, and zinc detoxification. In general, the PLAC8 motif-containing proteins present the conserved CCXXXXCPC or CLXXXXCPC region...
November 14, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Baojin Yao, Mei Zhang, Meixin Liu, Yuxin Liu, Yaozhong Hu, Yu Zhao
Deer antlers are amazing appendages with the fastest growth rate among mammalian organs. Antler growth is driven by the growth center through a modified endochondral ossification process. Thus, identification of signaling pathways functioning in antler growth center would help us to uncover the underlying molecular mechanism of rapid antler growth. Furthermore, exploring and dissecting the molecular mechanism that regulates antler growth is extremely important and helpful for identifying methods to enhance long bone growth and treat cartilage- and bone-related diseases...
November 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Chayapol Tungphatthong, Jutharat Somnuek, Thatree Phadungcharoen, Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Jessada Denduangboripant, Suchada Sukrong
In Thailand, there are three species of<i> Bacopa</i>, namely, <i>B. monnieri</i>, <i>B. caroliniana</i> and <i>B. floribunda</i>. Among these <i>Bacopa</i> species, <i>B. monnieri</i> is the only medicinal species used for the treatment of cognitive impairment and improvement of cognitive abilities because of its bioactive constituents, bacoside A and B. However, due to the similar characteristics of plants, it is difficult to differentiate among related species, resulting in confusion during identification...
November 2, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Chanté Powell, Virgilio Caleca, Martina Sinno, Michaela van Staden, Simon van Noort, Clint Rhode, Elleunorah Allsopp, Barbara van Asch
Wild and cultivated olives harbor and share a diversity of insects, some of which are considered agricultural pests, such as the olive fruit fly. The assemblage of olive-associated parasitoids and seed wasps is rich and specialized in sub-Saharan Africa, with native species possibly coevolving with their hosts. Although historical entomological surveys reported on the diversity of olive wasp species in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, no comprehensive study has been performed in the region in the molecular era...
October 26, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Qian Cong, Nick Grishin
Genetic determinants of speciation in closely related species are poorly understood. We sequenced and analyzed transcriptomes of swallowtail butterflies Heraclides cresphontes (northeastern species) and Heraclides rumiko (southwestern species), a pair of mostly allopatric sister species whose distribution ranges overlap narrowly in central Texas. We found that the two swallowtails confidently differ (Fst > 0.5 for both species) in about 5% of genes, similarly to the divergence in another pair of swallowtail species Pterourus glaucus (southern species) and Pterourus canadensis (northern species)...
October 26, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Kowiyou Yessoufou, Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Orou Gaoue, Thato Silindile Bengu, Michelle VAN DER Bank
Alien invasive species are problematic both economically and ecologically, particularly on islands. As such, understanding how they interact with their environment is necessary to inform invasive species management. Here, we ask the following questions: What are the main functional traits that correlate with invasion success of alien plants on Robben Island? How does phylogenetic structure shape biotic interactions on the island? Using multiple approaches to explore these questions, we found that alien invasive species flower later during the year and for longer period, although flowering phenology was sensitive to alternative starting date...
October 22, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Lu Liu, Zixiao Guo, Cairong Zhong, Suhua Shi
Insect diversity is an indicator of environmental conditions. Frequent outbreaks of mangrove pests have threatened the fragile mangrove ecosystem in China and the sustainable utilization of mangrove resources. The understanding of mangrove pests, as well as a fundamental knowledge of insect diversity, in mangrove forests in China has been hindered by the difficulty of morphological species delimitation because captured insect specimens are either larvae or incompletely preserved adults. DNA barcoding technology uses only a small amount of DNA to conduct species identification...
November 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Torbjørn Ekrem, Elisabeth Stur, Matthew G Orton, Sarah J Adamowicz
Chironomid flies (non-biting midges) are among the most abundant and diverse animals in Arctic regions, but detailed analyses of species distributions and biogeographical patterns are hampered by challenging taxonomy and reliance on morphology for species-level identification. Here we take advantage of available DNA barcode data of Arctic Chironomidae in BOLD to analyse similarities in species distributions across a northern Nearctic - West Palearctic gradient. Using more than 260 000 barcodes representing 4666 BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) and 826 named species (some with interim names) from a combination of public and novel data, we show that the Greenland chironomid fauna shows affinities to both the Nearctic and the West Palearctic regions...
November 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Boby Vattekkattu Unnikrishnan, Gurumurthy Demlapura Shankaranarayana
SWEET proteins are essential for the maintenance of nectar production, as well as seed and pollen development, in plants. A search within the Eucalyptus genome identified 52 putative genes belonging to the SWEET gene family based on sequence similarity. The expression of two of these genes, EcSWEET2 and EcSWEET5, was analyzed in vegetative and reproductive tissues of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The expression of EcSWEET5 was specific to male reproductive tissues, and transcripts were detected only at certain stages of flower development...
November 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Bastian Egeter, Sara Peixoto, José C Brito, Simon Jarman, Pamela Puppo, Guillermo Velo-Antón
The Sahara desert is the largest warm desert in the world and a poorly explored area. Small water-bodies occur across the desert and are crucial habitats for vertebrate biodiversity. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful tool for species detection and is being increasingly used to conduct biodiversity assessments. However, there are a number of difficulties with sampling eDNA from such turbid water-bodies and it is often not feasible to rely on electrical tools in remote desert environments. We trialled a manually powered filtering method in Mauritania, using pre-filtration to circumvent problems posed by turbid water in remote arid areas...
November 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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