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Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414384/reducing-overestimation-of-the-treatment-effect-by-interim-analysis-when-designing-clinical-trials
#1
Masashi Shimura
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Several researchers in the statistical and medical communities have noted the overestimation of the treatment effect when a trial is stopped early in the interim analysis for efficacy; however, methods to reduce this overestimation are rarely used because the overestimation mechanisms are not well understood by many in clinical trial practice. A trial design that leads to less overestimation is needed. METHODS: A computer simulation of hypothetical clinical trials is used to visually explain why the overestimation occurs...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411377/differences-between-activities-of-coagulation-factors-after-one-month-of-therapy-with-different-direct-oral-anticoagulant-in-pulmonary-embolism-patients
#2
Jelena Dzudovic, Boris Dzudovic, Vesna Subota, Marko Antunovic, Milena Stavric, Bojana Subotic, Slobodan Obradovic
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are frequently used for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE), but both clinical and laboratory data comparing their efficacy and safety are conflicting. This study investigated and compared the impact of three DOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran) on coagulation cascade in acute PE patients. METHODS: After the initial treatment, acute PE patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups, and treatment continued using one of the three DOACs...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367822/comparation-of-vancomycin-penetration-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-postoperative-intracranial-infection-and-community-acquired-meningitis-patients
#3
Yan Cai, Le Zhou, Huqing Wang, Li Zhang, Jinqiu Wang, Kanghuai Zhang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the penetration of vancomycin into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with postoperative intracranial infection and community-acquired meningitis, and to identify related factors influencing the penetration in these two diseases. METHODS: The concentrations of vancomycin in serum and CSF were determined by enzyme amplified immunoassay, and the CSF-to-serum ratios were calculated. The correlation between CSF-to-serum ratios of vancomycin and CSF elements was analyzed...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350418/clinical-outcomes-of-fidaxomicin-vs-oral-vancomycin-in-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Jennifer D Tieu, Riley J Williams, Grant H Skrepnek, Chris A Gentry
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs after initial treatment in approximately 20%-30% of patients, regardless of therapy chosen. The objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes of recurrent CDI treated with fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, propensity score-matched nationwide analysis of adult patients with first or second CDI recurrence prescribed fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin from any Veterans Affairs Medical Center between June 2011 and December 2015...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332507/use-of-gastric-acid-suppressants-may-be-a-risk-factor-for-enteric-peritonitis-in-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis-a-meta-analysis
#5
Hao-Jie Zhong, Da Lin, Zhi-Yong Lu, Wan-Ying Yang, Yu Chen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that long-term use of gastric-acid suppressants (GASs) may be associated with adverse effects. Whether GAS use increases the risk of enteric peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is not known. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between GAS use and enteric peritonitis in PD patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from inception to 23 January 2018 to identify eligible studies...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315583/anticholinergic-drug-use-and-its-association-with-self-reported-symptoms-among-older-persons-with-and-without-diabetes
#6
Niina-Mari Inkeri, Merja Karjalainen, Maija Haanpää, Hannu Kautiainen, Juha Saltevo, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Miia Tiihonen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic drug use has been associated with a risk of central and peripheral adverse effects. There is a lack of information on anticholinergic drug use in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate anticholinergic drug use and the association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. METHODS: The basic population was comprised of Finnish community-dwelling primary care patients aged 65 and older...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315580/genetic-and-pharmacogenetic-study-of-glutamate-transporter-slc1a1-in-iranian-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Setareh Abdolhosseinzadeh, Marzie Sina, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Sareh Asadi, Jamal Shams
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first line of medication for OCD treatment; however, 40%-60% of patients with OCD do not respond to SSRIs adequately. There are growing pieces of evidence which suggest a significant role for the glutamatergic system in the genesis of OCD and its consequent treatment. In the present study, we aimed to assess the association of SLC1A1 polymorphisms (rs301430, rs2228622 and rs3780413) with OCD and its clinical characteristics, as well as the importance of these SNPs in the response of OCD patients to SSRI pharmacotherapy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315577/ulnar-neuropathy-after-glatiramer-acetate-subcutaneous-injection-ultrasound-findings
#8
LETTER
Daniele Coraci, Silvia Giovannini, Claudia Loreti, Luca Padua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311250/metamizole-dipyrone-induced-agranulocytosis-does-the-risk-vary-according-to-ethnicity
#9
Rashmi R Shah
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Based on spontaneous reports from Spain, it is claimed that the British, Irish and Scandinavians are at a greater risk of dipyrone-induced agranulocytosis. This report examines the evidence. COMMENT: Although interethnic differences in drug response are well known, there are no reliable epidemiologic data to support the above claim. Available information on chlorpromazine suggests variable ethnic sensitivities to drug-induced agranulocytosis...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311244/drug-drug-interactions-among-drugs-prescribed-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-and-epilepsy-a-case-report
#10
Naoki Yoshikawa, Tomoya Tazaki, Mari Hatanaka, Yasuharu Oda, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Junichiro Sonoda, Ryuji Ikeda
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Multi-drug combinations often make chemotherapy difficult owing to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). We report a rare and difficult-to-treat case due to DDIs between drugs for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and antiepileptic drugs. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 70-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having pulmonary MAC disease. She had a history of symptomatic epilepsy, which was successfully treated with phenytoin and phenobarbital...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311242/evaluation-of-the-protective-effects-of-%C3%AE-blockers-in-the-management-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Cameron D Thomas, Lori H Dupree, Marci DeLosSantos, Jason A Ferreira
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between early β-blocker continuation and major inpatient events in patients hospitalized for an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: This single centre, retrospective, investigational review board approved cohort study evaluated patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of AECOPD. Patients were evaluated based on early continuation of a β-blocker whether a β-blocker was initiated within 24 hours of admission and continued for at least 72 hours...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306604/l-selenomethionine-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Ioannis Kyrgios, Styliani Giza, Eleni P Kotanidou, Angeliki Kleisarchaki, Vasiliki Rengina Tsinopoulou, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Anthi-Marina Markantonatou, Eleni Kanellidou, Anastasia Giannakou, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Although a beneficial effect of selenium (Se) administration has been proposed in adults with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), there is a paucity of similar data in children and adolescents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether administration of a high dose of organic Se (200 μg daily as l-selenomethionine) has an effect on antithyroid antibody titres in children and adolescents with AT. METHODS: Seventy-one (71) children and adolescents, with a mean age of 11...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296343/fluoxetine-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-liver-injury
#13
Rohit Agrawal, Anas Almoghrabi, Bashar M Attar, Seema Gandhi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) are overall rare and often associated with use of medications. Medications are also the most common aetiology of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), but SJS is seldom seen concomitantly with liver injury. Many common drugs can cause either one of these conditions; however, there are no reported cases of concomitant DILI and SJS secondary to fluoxetine. CASE SUMMARY: A 41-year-old female presented with a skin rash and abnormal liver function tests after the recent initiation of fluoxetine...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243033/linezolid-induced-thrombocytopenia-increases-mortality-risk-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#14
Hyung-Sook Kim, Eunsook Lee, Young-Jae Cho, Yeon Joo Lee, Sandy Jeong Rhie
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia is one of the many confounding conditions in critically ill patients. It is rare but prognostic importance of linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia in ICU population has not been well investigated. The study is to assess the incidence and risk factors of linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with ICU patients treated with linezolid between January 2005 and December 2015 at the adult medical, surgical, emergency, and neurological ICUs at 1500-bed tertiary university medical center...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229971/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-sodium-cantharidinate-plus-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-38-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Zheng Xiao, Chengqiong Wang, Zhouke Tan, Shanshan Hu, Yali Chen, Minghua Zhou, Jihong Feng, Shiyu Liu, Ling Chen, Jie Ding, Qihai Gong, Fushan Tang, Hui Liu, Xiaofei Li
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Sodium cantharidinate has been widely used in lung cancer treatment in China. To investigate whether sodium cantharidinate improves clinical effectiveness in non-small-cell lung cancer, we systematically re-evaluated all related studies. METHODS: All studies of cantharidinate for non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) were selected from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science (ISI), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP), Wanfang, China Biological Medicine Database (CBM), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese clinical trial registry (Chi-CTR), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO-ICTRP) and US-clinical trials databases (established to September 2017)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225937/effects-of-six-types-of-aspirin-combination-medications-for-treatment-of-acute-cerebral-infarction-in-china-a-network-meta-analysis
#16
Lairun Jin, Jun Zhou, Wei Shi, Liang Xu, Jun Sheng, Jingyi Fan, Yuting Yuan, Hui Yuan
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that various aspirin combinations might be beneficial for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of six aspirin combinations in the treatment of ACI using network meta-analysis (NMA). The performance of these combinations is then ranked according to results of this analysis. METHODS: Multiple databases were consulted to find randomized controlled trials (RCT) of six different aspirin combinations for the treatment of ACI...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218625/repurposing-old-drugs-in-oncology-opportunities-with-clinical-and-regulatory-challenges-ahead
#17
REVIEW
Rashmi R Shah, Peter D Stonier
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: In order to expedite the availability of drugs to treat cancers in a cost-effective manner, repurposing of old drugs for oncological indications is gathering momentum. Revolutionary advances in pharmacology and genomics have demonstrated many old drugs to have activity at novel antioncogenic pharmacological targets. We decided to investigate whether prospective studies support the promises of nonclinical and retrospective clinical studies on repurposing three old drugs, namely metformin, valproate and astemizole...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206951/nonmedical-prescriber-experiences-of-training-and-competence-to-report-adverse-drug-reactions-in-the-uk
#18
Andrew Thompson, Christine Randall, Justine Howard, Catrin Barker, Debbie Bowden, Paul Mooney, Agatha Munyika, Susan Smith, Munir Pirmohamed
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse drug reaction reporting in the UK is lower than expected based on epidemiological data. This study aims to explore (a) nonmedical prescribers' (NMP) confidence in identifying and reporting ADRs, (b) NMP prescribing habits and engagement with the Yellow Card Scheme (YCS) and (c) NMP desire for future training in the identification and reporting of ADRs. METHODS: A survey was distributed across NMP networks in the north-west of England using Survey Monkey...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171815/outcome-measures-for-adherence-data-from-a-medication-event-monitoring-system-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Linda Hartman, Willem F Lems, Maarten Boers
WHAT IS KNOWN: Currently, medication bottles with an electronic cap are frequently used to measure medication adherence. This system is termed medication event monitoring system (MEMS). To our knowledge, the optimal method to summarize data from MEMS has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: Look for best practices on how to quantify adherence data from MEMS. METHODS: Review of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases for the articles on medication adherence with MEMS...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144395/discovery-of-folded-dna-structures-in-human-cells-potential-drug-targets
#20
Robert B Raffa, Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Michael H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The double-helical conformation of human DNA (hDNA) is so axiomatic that it is called the "canonical" form. Recently, though, intrastrand folds ("I-motifs" and "G-quadruplexes") have been identified in hDNA. These could be targets for novel drug discovery. COMMENT: Any interruption of the canonical form of hDNA fundamentally impacts the normal progression of transduction and translation. In particular, the synthesis of receptors and cognate protein ligands would be affected, as well as their affinity for-and signal transduction of-pharmacotherapeutic agents...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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