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Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770474/improving-medication-safety-for-home-nursing-clients-a-prospective-observational-study-of-a-novel-clinical-pharmacy-service-the-visiting-pharmacist-vip-study
#1
C Y Lee, C Beanland, D Goeman, N Petrie, B Petrie, F Vise, J Gray, R A Elliott
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Polypharmacy, medication errors and adverse events are common in older people receiving home nursing medication management support. Access to clinical pharmacists is limited. In Australia, few home nursing clients receive a general practitioner (GP)-initiated pharmacist-led Home Medicines Review, despite their eligibility and community nurses' (CN) efforts to facilitate this. An integrated home nursing clinical pharmacy service, in which CNs directly referred clients to a pharmacist, was therefore developed and piloted...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770467/anticholinergic-load-negatively-correlates-with-recovery-of-cognitive-activities-of-daily-living-for-geriatric-patients-after-stroke-in-the-convalescent-stage
#2
E Kose, T Hirai, T Seki, S Hidaka, T Hamamoto
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. METHOD: Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766530/population-pharmacokinetics-of-tacrolimus-in-paediatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-based-on-real-world-study
#3
D-D Wang, J-M Lu, Q Li, Z-P Li
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Different population pharmacokinetics (PPK) models of tacrolimus have been established in various populations. However, the tacrolimus PPK model in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (PSLE) is still undefined. This study aimed to establish the tacrolimus PPK model in Chinese PSLE. METHODS: A total of nineteen Chinese patients with PSLE from real-world study were characterized with nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM). The impact of demographic features, biological characteristics, and concomitant medications was evaluated...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737025/renal-safety-after-one-year-of-sofosbuvir-based-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-brazilian-real-life-study
#4
T Medeiros, N F Rosário, G N Saraiva, T G Andrade, A A Silva, J R Almeida
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Sofosbuvir(SOF)-based regimens have been administrated with excellent efficacy in chronic hepatitis C. Few uncontrolled ("real-life") studies consider the assessment of renal function when evaluating their post-treatment outcomes. This study aims to evaluate renal biomarkers in a "real-life" experience with chronic hepatitis C patients treated with SOF therapy in a long-term follow-up. METHODS: Serum and urinary biomarkers were analysed before, at the end of therapy (EoT), after 12 weeks (sustained virological response-SVR) and one year (1y) post-treatment...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733433/statin-therapy-on-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-network-meta-analysis
#5
J Y Cui, R R Zhou, S Han, T S Wang, L Q Wang, X H Xie
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Statins are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and are effective for the prevention of vascular events in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for CVDs .The majority of patients with diabetes mellitus benefits from statin therapy. According to the recent clinical guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, moderate-intensity or high-intensity statin therapy should be used as the primary prevention for individuals with diabetes mellitus, aged between 40 and 75 years and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from 70 to 189 mg/dL...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733119/correspondence-between-the-cyp2c19-and-cyp3a4-genotypes-with-the-inferred-metabolizer-phenotype-by-omeprazole-administration-in-mexican-healthy-children
#6
A F Favela-Mendoza, G Martínez-Cortes, M M Romero-Prado, E M Romero-Tejeda, M C Islas-Carbajal, M Sosa-Macias, I Lares-Asseff, H Rangel-Villalobos
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: CYP2C19 genotypes presumably allow the prediction of the metabolizer phenotypes: poor (PMs), extensive (EMs) and ultra-rapid (UMs). However, evidence from previous studies regarding this predictive power is unclear, which is important because the benefits expected by healthcare institutions and patients are based on this premise. Therefore, we aimed to complete a formal evaluation of the diagnostic value of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 genes for predicting metabolizer phenotypes established by omeprazole (OME) administration in 118 healthy children from Jalisco (western Mexico)...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733112/intentional-use-of-carbapenem-antibiotics-for-valproic-acid-toxicity-a-case-report
#7
M A Khobrani, S W Dudley, Y C Huckleberry, B J Kopp, A D Biggs, R N E French, F M Shirazi, B L Erstad
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The interaction between valproic acid (VPA) and carbapenem antibiotics is well described with previous reports suggesting a reduction in VPA half-life between 47% and 90%. As described in this case, this interaction might be beneficial in the setting of toxic VPA ingestion. CASE DESCRIPTION: An intubated, unresponsive patient arrived via emergency medical services after toxic VPA ingestion. Meropenem was prescribed for a suspected pneumonia and to take advantage of the VPA interaction...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733108/reliability-of-serum-creatinine-based-formulae-estimating-renal-function-in-non-critically-ill-surgery-patients-focus-on-augmented-renal-clearance
#8
Peter Declercq, Matthias Gijsen, Björn Meijers, Marie Schetz, Stefaan Nijs, André D'Hoore, Joost Wauters, Isabel Spriet
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Formulae estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are frequently used to guide drug dosing. The objectives of this prospective single-center study were to evaluate agreement between these equations and measured creatinine clearance (CrCl) in non-critically ill surgery patients with normal kidney function and augmented renal clearance (ARC, CrCl ≥ 130 mL/min/1.73 m²), to determine predictors for disagreement, define a GFR estimator cut-off value identifying ARC and determine the ARC prevalence and duration in non-critically ill surgical patients...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729025/anticholinergic-medications-in-patients-admitted-with-cognitive-impairment-or-falls-amici-the-impact-of-hospital-admission-on-anticholinergic-cognitive-medication-burden-results-of-a-multicentre-observational-study
#9
I Weichert, R Romero-Ortuno, J Tolonen, T Soe, C Lebus, S Choudhury, C V Nadarajah, P Nanayakkara, M Orrù, S Di Somma
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drugs with anticholinergic properties increase the risk of falls, delirium, chronic cognitive impairment, and mortality and counteract procholinergic medications used in the treatment of dementia. Medication review and optimisation to reduce anticholinergic burden in patients at risk is recommended by specialist bodies. Little is known how effective this review is in patients who present acutely and how often drugs with anticholinergic properties are used temporarily during an admission...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722052/the-methodological-quality-of-guidelines-for-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
R Ambaras Khan, Z Aziz
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines serve as a framework for physicians to make decisions and to support best practice for optimizing patient care. However, if the guidelines do not address all the important components of optimal care sufficiently, the quality and validity of the guidelines can be reduced. The objectives of this study were to systematically review current guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), evaluate their methodological quality and highlight the similarities and differences in their recommendations for empirical antibiotic and antibiotic de-escalation strategies...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722046/pharmacogenomic-biomarkers-interpretation-of-information-included-in-united-states-and-japanese-drug-labels
#11
R Shimazawa, M Ikeda
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Many drug labels contain information on pharmacogenomic biomarkers (PGBMs), but the information is not necessarily actionable. Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) aims to clarify the level of action for PGBMs (PGx levels) implied in each label as issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. We wished to evaluate the association between the PGx level for US and Japanese drug labels and the insurance coverage for PGBM testing or approval for in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) in each country...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722042/bicarbonate-refractory-qrs-prolongation-and-left-bundle-branch-block-following-escitalopram-and-lamotrigine-overdose-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-toxic-left-bundle-branch-block
#12
A N Farkas, M Marcott, J H Yanta, A F Pizon
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Toxic prolongation of the QRS interval most often results from blockade of cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels and manifests on electrocardiogram with a right bundle-branch block-like morphology. Rarely, a left bundle-branch block (LBBB) morphology has been reported. CASE REPORT: We report a case of transient LBBB resultant from ingestion of lamotrigine and citalopram which was refractory to sodium bicarbonate therapy and eventually resolved spontaneously...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722039/mortality-from-adverse-drug-reaction-related-hospitalizations-in-south-west-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
M T Angamo, L Chalmers, C M Curtain, D Yilma, L Bereznicki
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of mortality during medical care. To our knowledge, no Ethiopian studies have reported on mortality due to ADRs in patients presenting to hospital from the community setting. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate attributable to ADRs in patients presenting to hospital, identify drugs implicated in the ADR-related deaths and identify factors contributing to ADR-related mortality at Jimma University Specialised Hospital (JUSH), south-west Ethiopia METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1001 patients aged ≥18 years consecutively admitted to medical wards from May 2015 to August 2016...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722038/long-term-abiraterone-withdrawal-syndrome
#14
S Marin, R Querol, L Campins, M Miarons, A Font, P Lianes
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an androgen receptor axis inhibitor, indicated together with prednisone, for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Withdrawal syndrome for classical antiandrogen treatments is well known, but not so known for AA. Abiraterone withdrawal syndrome (AWS) could be related to simultaneous prednisone discontinuation or to an androgenic effect of AA metabolites. CASE DESCRIPTION: A case is described of a patient with long-term AWS without prednisone discontinuation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722037/electroencephalography-in-the-monitoring-of-lithium-toxicity-a-case-report
#15
T Omi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: If lithium toxicity occurs during treatment by lithium, treatment is performed while monitoring serum lithium levels. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of lithium toxicity in a patient with bipolar affective disorder who developed neurotoxic symptoms associated with elevated serum lithium level and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) changes. The elevated serum lithium level decreased before EEG normalization, which was associated with disappearance of all neurotoxic symptoms...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722036/curcumin-in-turmeric-basic-and-clinical-evidence-for-a-potential-role-in-analgesia
#16
REVIEW
U J Eke-Okoro, R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, F Breve, R Taylor
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Current analgesic pharmacotherapy-opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen (paracetamol) and related drugs-is effective for acute pain, but their use is limited by adverse effects on the renal, hepatic, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal systems, or they have potential for abuse. Therefore, alternative options are desired. Compounds used in traditional medicine might offer such alternatives, but the evidence must be based on pharmacologic properties and on clinical trial data...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722031/indirect-acting-strategy-of-opioid-action-instead-of-direct-receptor-activation-dual-acting-enkephalinase-inhibitors-denkis
#17
REVIEW
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Although pain is one of the most common afflictions, it is often inadequately managed because the available analgesic options are relatively limited due to insufficient efficacy, unacceptable adverse effects or the potential for misuse or abuse. However, recent publications suggest that an alternative approach-indirect enhancement of endogenous pain-relieving pathways-might be desirable. We review this approach, in particular the dual enkephalinase inhibitors (DENKIs)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696669/cost-effectiveness-of-multidisciplinary-collaborative-care-versus-usual-care-in-the-management-of-high-risk-patients-with-diabetes-in-singapore-short-term-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
M Y L Siaw, D C Malone, Y Ko, J Y-C Lee
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Economic evidence of multidisciplinary collaborative care on glycaemic improvement in uncontrolled diabetic patients is limited. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary collaborative care versus usual care and the secondary objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these two care approaches in relation to varying glycaemic control of patients. METHODS: An economic evaluation based on a six-month randomized controlled trial involving high-risk uncontrolled diabetic Asian patients with polypharmacy and multiple comorbidities was conducted from a healthcare institution perspective...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682780/pharmacogenomic-information-in-the-warning-section-of-drug-labels-a-comparison-between-labels-in-the-united-states-and-those-in-five-other-countries-regions
#19
T Imatoh, K Sai, Y Saito
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Clinically validated pharmacogenomic information useful for patient selection and/or dose adjustment is included in drug labels. However, the label information may differ among countries. This commentary summarizes the pharmacogenomic information on drug labels in different countries. COMMENT: We selected six drugs, namely, clopidogrel, atomoxetine, irinotecan, mercaptopurine, abacavir and carbamazepine and compared the pharmacogenomic information in the "Warning" section of these drug labels in the United States and 5 other countries/regions...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682764/how-confident-are-physicians-in-deprescribing-for-the-elderly-and-what-barriers-prevent-deprescribing
#20
L Djatche, S Lee, D Singer, S E Hegarty, M Lombardi, V Maio
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Deprescribing is the process of discontinuing or reducing the dosage of medications that are no longer appropriate or aligned with goals of care, which is paramount in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of primary care physicians on deprescribing for elderly patients and potential barriers to deprescribing that physicians experience in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
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