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Epidemiology and Infection

C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yasemin Cosgun, Dilek Guldemir, Aslihan Coskun, Sultan Yolbakan, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Gulay Korukluoglu, Riza Durmaz
Measles is an important childhood infection targeted to be eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Virus circulation has not been interrupted in the European Region because high vaccination rates could not be achieved among some countries of the WHO European Region including Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laboratory findings of measles cases confirmed in the last nine years, to assess the epidemiological data of the cases, to determine the molecular genotyping studies and to emphasise the importance of laboratory-based surveillance in measles...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Yagel, H Nativ, K Riesenberg, L Nesher, L Saidel-Odes, R Smolyakov
Infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) have become increasingly prevalent, posing a serious public threat worldwide. It is commonly believed that untreated urinary tract infections (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) during pregnancy are associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding the outcomes or risk factors of such ESBL-E infections in pregnant women. We conducted a retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study of hospitalised pregnant women with ESBL-E- vs...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M Chen, M H Jia, Y L Ma, H B Luo, H C Chen, C J Yang, J Dai, L Yang, L J Dong, R Lu, L J Song, Y Han, J Y Lu, A K L Cheung, Z W Chen, L Lu
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes in China were first discovered in Yunnan Province before disseminating throughout the country. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues to expand in Yunnan, genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) should be further investigated among the recently infected population. Among 2828 HIV-positive samples newly reported in the first quarter of 2014, 347 were identified as recent infections with BED-captured enzyme immunoassay (CEIA). Of them, 291 were successfully genotyped and identified as circulating recombinant form (CRF)08_BC (47...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Esteves, J Nordgren, C Tavares, F Fortes, R Dimbu, N Saraiva, C Istrate
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of NoV strains identified in children under 5 years of age with AGE in four provinces of Angola. Faecal samples from 343 children were screened for NoV by an in house real-time PCR assay and genotyping was performed by partial capsid gene sequencing. NoV was detected in 17.4% (58/334) of the samples, with high detection rates in children <6 months old (19%) and in children aged 12-24 months (23%)...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
L H Kang, Y J Won, A R Lee, S G Lee, H G Cho, Y J Park, J I Han, S Y Paik
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) have been detected in human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. In 2005, HBoV was also discovered in infants and children with infections of the lower respiratory tract. Recently, several genotypes of this parvovirus, including HBoV genotype 2 (HBoV2), genotype 3 (HBoV3) and genotype 4 (HBoV4), were discovered and found to be closely related to HBoV. HBoV2 was first detected in stool samples from children in Pakistan, followed by detection in other countries. HBoV3 was detected in Australia and HBoV4 was identified in stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia and the USA...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D M Jacobs, W-Y Leung, D Essi, W Park, A Shaver, J Claus, C Ruh, G G Rao
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programmes facilitate hospital discharge, but patients remain at risk of complications and consequent healthcare utilisation (HCU). Here we elucidated the incidence of and risk factors associated with HCU in OPAT patients. This was a retrospective, single-centre, case-control study of adult patients discharged on OPAT. Cases (n = 63) and controls (n = 126) were patients that did or did not utilise the healthcare system within 60 days. Characteristics associated with HCU in bivariate analysis (P ≤ 0...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M van Wijhe, A D Tulen, H Korthals Altes, S A McDonald, H E de Melker, M J Postma, J Wallinga
Vaccination programmes are considered a main contributor to the decline of infectious diseases over the 20th century. In recent years, the national vaccination coverage in the Netherlands has been declining, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation of vaccination programmes. Our aim was to quantify the impact of long-standing vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands. We collected and digitised previously unavailable monthly case notifications of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, mumps and rubella in the Netherlands over the period 1919-2015...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J M Colston, A M S Ahmed, S B Soofi, E Svensen, R Haque, J Shrestha, R Nshama, Z Bhutta, I F N Lima, A Samie, L Bodhidatta, A A M Lima, P Bessong, M Paredes Olortegui, A Turab, V R Mohan, L H Moulton, E N Naumova, G Kang, M N Kosek
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
I A Turiac, F Fortunato, M G Cappelli, A Morea, M Chironna, Rosa Prato, D Martinelli
This study aimed at evaluating the integrated measles and rubella surveillance system (IMRSS) in Apulia region, Italy, from its introduction in 2013 to 30 June 2016. Measles and rubella case reports were extracted from IMRSS. We estimated system sensitivity at the level of case reporting, using the capture-recapture method for three data sources. Data quality was described as the completeness of variables and timeliness of notification as the median-time interval from symptoms onset to initial alert. The proportion of suspected cases with laboratory investigation, the rate of discarded cases and the origin of infection were also computed...
March 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D Y W Chan, W J Edmunds, H L Chan, V Chan, Y C K Lam, S L Thomas, A J van Hoek, S Flasche
In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. We estimated varicella vaccination coverage through surveys in preschool children. We estimated the burden of varicella and zoster with varicella notifications from 1999/00 to 2013/14, Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) attendance and inpatient admissions to public hospitals from 2004/05 to 2013/14...
March 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S D Yang, P Q Li, Y G Huang, W Li, L Z Ma, L Wu, N Wang, J M Lu, W Q Chen, Guang-Ming Liu, Y M Xiong, Y L Chen, Ying Zhang
Enterovirus A-71 (EV-A71) may be fatal, but the natural history, symptoms, and signs are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the natural history of fatal EV-A71 infection and to identify the symptoms and signs of early warning of deterioration. This was a clinical observational study of fatal cases of EV-A71 infection treated at five Chinese hospitals between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. We recorded and analysed 91 manifestations of EV-A71 infection in order to identify early prognosis indicators...
March 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yvan J-F Hutin, Hande Harmanci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Gryczyńska, T Gortat, M Kowalec
The anticipated worldwide surge in urban environments is generating ever-greater interest in the study of host-pathogen interactions in this specific type of habitat. We investigated the potential of city-inhabiting rodents to serve as the main Lyme borreliosis agents (Borrelia spp.) reservoir. We also tried to verify if anthropogenic disturbances changing the vertebrate species community composition may also alter the scheme of Borrelia spp. circulation. A total of 252 Apodemus mice (A. agrarius, A. flavicollis, A...
March 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S J Jin, K H Seo, Y M Wi
Management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) involves discontinuation of the offending antibiotic agent as soon as possible. However, the ongoing infection does not allow discontinuation of the offending antibiotic. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the predictors of treatment failure and impact of the concomitant use of systemic antibiotics in patients receiving metronidazole therapy. This study was conducted among patients hospitalised at a second care academic hospital from January 2013 to December 2014...
March 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Roberta Prinapori, Barbara Giannini, Niccolò Riccardi, Francesca Bovis, Mauro Giacomini, Maurizio Setti, Claudio Viscoli, Stefania Artioli, Antonio Di Biagio
Retention in care is a key feature of the cascade of continuum of care, playing an important role in achieving therapeutic success and being crucial for reduction of HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of retention in care in a large referral centre in the North of Italy and to identify predictors associated with failed retention. All new HIV-infected subjects were consecutive enrolled from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2014. Demographics, immune-virological status, hepatitis co-infection and timing of initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) data were collected at baseline and at the time of last observation...
February 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Xiaoguang Wu, Yu Pang, Yanhua Song, Wenzhu Dong, Tingting Zhang, Shuan Wen, Hairong Huang, Mengqiu Gao
In this study, we identified a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreak in a high school in northern China. The aim of this work was to describe TB transmission, drug resistance and treatment outcomes for this patient cluster. In January 2017, pulmonary TB was identified in a 17-year-old boy in northern China. Subsequently, a total of 11 TB cases were identified during 6-month follow-up of attendees of the same school. Of five students with latent TB infection (LTBI) receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), two pulmonary TB cases (40...
February 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Duvignaud, A Fianu, A Bertolotti, J Jaubert, A Michault, P Poubeau, A Fred, M Méchain, B-A Gaüzère, F Favier, D Malvy, P Gérardin
Prolonged fatigue is increasingly reported among chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-infected populations. We investigated the relationships between CHIKV exposure, long-lasting rheumatic musculoskeletal pain (LRMSP) and chronic fatigue. 1094 participants (512 CHIKV seropositive and 582 seronegative) of the TELECHIK population-based cohort were analysed considering the duration of the manifestations throughout an average 2-year follow-up. Weighted prevalence rates and prevalence ratios for LRMSP, idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like illness, both latter syndromes adapted from Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-1994/Fukuda criteria, were compared...
February 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K M Schlinkmann, A Bakuli, A Karch, F Meyer, J Dreesman, M Monazahian, R Mikolajczyk
Transmission of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) often occurs in households. The aim of this study was to assess which proportion of ARI and AGE is introduced and transmitted by children in German households with children attending child care. We recruited families with children aged 0-6 years in Braunschweig (Germany), for a 4 months prospective cohort study in the winter period 2014/2015. Every household member was included in a health diary and used nasal swabs for pathogen identification in case of ARI...
February 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Polkowska, S Räsänen, H Al-Hello, M Bojang, O Lyytikäinen, J P Nuorti, K Jalava
In July 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among visitors to lakes in Tampere, Finland. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using an internet-based survey, solicited by public announcement, to identify source of infection and to implement control measures. Of 1453 persons enrolled in the study, 244 met the case definition (attack rate, 17%). In the pooled univariate analysis, risk factors for gastroenteritis included getting water in the mouth while swimming (Risk ratio (RR) 3.32; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 2...
February 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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