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Epidemiology and Infection

Di Zhang, Kai Cui, Taotao Wang, Haiyan Dong, Weiyi Feng, Chen Ma, Yalin Dong
The overuse of antibiotics and the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance prompted the launch of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in 2011. This study aimed to investigate the trends and correlations between antibiotic consumption and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital of northwest China from 2010 to 2016. Trends were analysed by linear regression, and correlations were assessed by an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The total consumption of antibiotics halved during the 7-year study period, while the rates of resistance of S...
November 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S K Söbirk, M Inghammar, M Collin, L Davidsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K Chaisiri, C Jollivet, P Della Rossa, S Sanguankiat, D Wattanakulpanich, C Lajaunie, A Binot, M Tanita, S Rattanapikul, D Sutdan, S Morand, A Ribas
The present study integrates several aspects of a parasitological survey in a rural community village combining community knowledge of parasites, their potential transmission routes and health risk factors. A rural community located in Northern Thailand was surveyed for intestinal parasites, and an overall prevalence of 45.2% for helminths and 4.8% for protozoan infections was identified. Socio-demographic characteristics, customs and perceptions were compiled using individual questionnaires and interviews for participants surveyed for parasitic screening...
November 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
E MacDonald, R White, R Mexia, T Bruun, G Kapperud, L T Brandal, H Lange, K Nygård, L Vold
In Norway, incidence of sporadic domestically acquired salmonellosis is low, and most frequently due to Salmonalla Typhimurium. We investigated the risk factors for sporadic Salmonella infections in Norway to improve control and prevention measures. Surveillance data for all Salmonella infections from 2000 to 2015 were analysed for seasonality and proportion associated with domestic reservoirs, hedgehogs and wild birds. A prospective case-control study was conducted from 2010 to 2012 by recruiting cases from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and controls from the Norwegian Population Registry (389 cases and 1500 controls)...
November 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D M Berendes, C E O'Reilly, S Kim, R Omore, J B Ochieng, T Ayers, K Fagerli, T H Farag, D Nasrin, S Panchalingam, J P Nataro, K L Kotloff, M M Levine, J Oundo, K Laserson, R F Breiman, E D Mintz
Given the challenges in accurately identifying unexposed controls in case-control studies of diarrhoea, we examined diarrhoea incidence, subclinical enteric infections and growth stunting within a reference population in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, Kenya site. Within 'control' children (0-59 months old without diarrhoea in the 7 days before enrolment, n = 2384), we examined surveys at enrolment and 60-day follow-up, stool at enrolment and a 14-day post-enrolment memory aid for diarrhoea incidence...
November 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M F Kassir, T El Zarif, G Kassir, A Berry, U Musharrafieh, A R Bizri
The status of rabies as a neglected disease has made its eradication rather challenging in different parts of the world despite the availability of a successful vaccine. Lebanon, in particular, is a country endemic to the disease with several cases of rabies deaths reported over the past 30 years. The risk of rabies, however, has taken a new turn over the past few years in Lebanon with two emerging situations that have made the control of the disease rather challenging: the neighbouring Syrian war and the local garbage crisis...
November 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
G Ibáñez-Cervantes, G León-García, G Castro-Escarpulli, J Mancilla-Ramírez, G Victoria-Acosta, M A Cureño-Díaz, O Sosa-Hernández, J M Bello-López
Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007-2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons...
November 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J Xu, Z Xia, L Wang, B Yang, Y Zhu, X Zhu, L Xu
The distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must be understood for the control and prevention of cervical cancer. Community-based Papanicolaou and HPV DNA tests were performed on 41 578 women. The prevalences of HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 were assessed. In total, 10% women were infected/co-infected by these HPVs. The infection rate increased from 7.1% in women aged ⩽30 years to 10.4% in those aged 50-60 years, and then decreased slightly to 9.9% in those aged >60 years...
November 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
T Chen, M Xiao, J Yang, Y K Chen, T Bai, X J Tang, Y L Shu
In several lately published studies, the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs12252) of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza is inconsistent. To further understand the association between the SNP of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza, we searched related studies in five databases including PubMed published earlier than 9 November 2017. Ten sets of data from nine studies were included and data were analysed by Revman 5.0 and Stata 12.0 in our updated meta-analysis, which represented 1365 patients and 5425 no-influenza controls from four different ethnicities...
November 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Mark R Hobbs, Polly Atatoa Carr, Jacinta Fa'alili-Fidow, Avinesh Pillai, Susan M B Morton, Cameron C Grant
Significant ethnic and socio-economic disparities exist in infectious diseases (IDs) rates in New Zealand, so accurate measures of these characteristics are required. This study compared methods of ascribing ethnicity and socio-economic status. Children in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal cohort were ascribed to self-prioritised, total response and single-combined ethnic groups. Socio-economic status was measured using household income, and both census-derived and survey-derived deprivation indices...
November 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
H Hagiya, T Koyama, Y Zamami, Y Minato, Y Tatebe, N Mikami, Y Teratani, A Ohshima, K Shinomiya, Y Kitamura, T Sendo, S Hinotsu, K Tomono, M R Kano
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes...
November 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A C Prins-van Ginkel, P C J Bruijning-Verhagen, A H Wijga, M L Bots, U Gehring, W van der Hoek, G H Koppelman, L van Rossem, C S P M Uiterwaal, H A Smit, M A B van der Sande
Atherosclerotic changes can be measured as changes in common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). It is hypothesised that repeated infection-associated inflammatory responses in childhood contribute to the atherosclerotic process. We set out to determine whether the frequency of infectious diseases in childhood is associated with CIMT in adolescence. The study is part of the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) population-based birth cohort. At age 16 years, common CIMT was measured...
November 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S A Hosseini, A Amouei, M Sharif, Sh Sarvi, L Galal, J Javidnia, A S Pagheh, S Gholami, A Mizani, A Daryani
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) as an obligate intracellular protozoan with a worldwide distribution can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals and humans. This study aims to provide a summary of the available data on genotypes of T. gondii in human. Five databases including MEDLINE in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched for the T. gondii genotyping in human during 1995-August 2017. Next, we screened all the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
November 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
F Y Alqahtani, F S Aleanizy, R Ali El Hadi Mohamed, M S Alanazi, N Mohamed, M M Alrasheed, N Abanmy, T Alhawassi
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a life-threatening respiratory disease with a high case fatality rate; however, its risk factors remain unclear. We aimed to explore the influence of demographic factors, clinical manifestations and underlying comorbidities on mortality in MERS-CoV patients. Retrospective chart reviews were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-COV infection in Saudi Arabia that were reported to the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia between 23 April 2014 and 7 June 2016...
November 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M U G Kraemer, D A T Cummings, S Funk, R C Reiner, N R Faria, O G Pybus, S Cauchemez
A growing number of infectious pathogens are spreading among geographic regions. Some pathogens that were previously not considered to pose a general threat to human health have emerged at regional and global scales, such as Zika and Ebola Virus Disease. Other pathogens, such as yellow fever virus, were previously thought to be under control but have recently re-emerged, causing new challenges to public health organisations. A wide array of new modelling techniques, aided by increased computing capabilities, novel diagnostic tools, and the increased speed and availability of genomic sequencing allow researchers to identify new pathogens more rapidly, assess the likelihood of geographic spread, and quantify the speed of human-to-human transmission...
November 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Aswi, S M Cramb, P Moraga, K Mengersen
Dengue fever (DF) is one of the world's most disabling mosquito-borne diseases, with a variety of approaches available to model its spatial and temporal dynamics. This paper aims to identify and compare the different spatial and spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling methods that have been applied to DF and examine influential covariates that have been reportedly associated with the risk of DF. A systematic search was performed in December 2017, using Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, ProQuest and Medline (via Ebscohost) electronic databases...
October 29, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Lingcai Kong, Chengdong Xu, Pengfei Mu, Jialiang Li, Senyue Qiu, Haixia Wu
Dengue fever (DF) has been a growing public-health concern in China since its emergence in Guangdong Province in 1978. Of all the regions that have experienced dengue outbreaks in mainland China, the city of Guangzhou is the most affected. This study aims to investigate the potential risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) transmission in Guangzhou, China, from 2006 to 2014. The impact of risk factors on DENV transmission was qualified by the q-values calculated using a novel spatial-temporal method, the GeoDetector model...
October 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yi-Le Wu, Xi-Yao Yang, Meng-Shu Pan, Ruo-Jie Li, Xiao-Qian Hu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Li-Qi Yang
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4...
October 25, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A C Teirlinck, B de Gier, A Meijer, G Donker, M de Lange, C Koppeschaar, W van der Hoek, M E Kretzschmar, S A McDonald
Due to differences in the circulation of influenza viruses, distribution and antigenic drift of A subtypes and B lineages, and susceptibility to infection in the population, the incidence of symptomatic influenza infection can vary widely between seasons and age-groups. Our goal was to estimate the symptomatic infection incidence in the Netherlands for the six seasons 2011/2012 through 2016/2017, using Bayesian evidence synthesis methodology to combine season-specific sentinel surveillance data on influenza-like illness (ILI), virus detections in sampled ILI cases and data on healthcare-seeking behaviour...
October 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
L T Orkis, E R Peterson, M M Brooks, K J Mertz, L H Harrison, J E Stout, S K Greene
Legionnaires' disease (LD) incidence in the USA has quadrupled since 2000. Health departments must detect LD outbreaks quickly to identify and remediate sources. We tested the performance of a system to prospectively detect simulated LD outbreaks in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. We generated three simulated LD outbreaks based on published outbreaks. After verifying no significant clusters existed in surveillance data during 2014-2016, we embedded simulated outbreak-associated cases into 2016, assigning simulated residences and report dates...
October 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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