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Epidemiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918772/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-dengue-virus-denv-infection-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-in-a-brazilian-prospective-birth-cohort
#1
P M S Castanha, U R Montarroyos, S M M Silveira, G D M Albuquerque, M J G Mello, K G S Lopes, M T Cordeiro, E T A Marques, C M T Martelli, C Braga
This study assessed the incidence and risk factors for dengue virus (DENV) infection among children in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the city of Recife, a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil. Healthy pregnant women (n = 415) residing in Recife who agreed to have their children followed were enrolled. Children were followed during their first 24 months of age (May/2011-June/2014), before the 2015 Zika virus outbreak. DENV infection was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and/or serology (anti-DENV IgM/IgG)...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#2
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903797/prevalence-of-anti-hepatitis-b-surface-antibodies-among-children-and-adolescents-vaccinated-in-infancy-and-effect-of-booster-dose-administered-within-a-pilot-study
#3
R Bassal, M P Markovich, M Weil, E Shinar, Y Carmeli, M Dan, D Sofer, E Mendelson, D Cohen, T Shohat
We determined the prevalence of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs) among children and adolescents vaccinated for hepatitis B virus in infancy as part of the routine vaccination programme. A representative serum sample of the Israeli population age 0-19 was tested. In a separate pilot study, a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine was administered to 31 candidates for national service, who were fully vaccinated in infancy and tested negative for hepatitis B surface antibodies at age 17-19 years and anti-HBs antibodies were assessed 8 weeks later...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903791/an-outbreak-of-mumps-with-genetic-strain-variation-in-a-highly-vaccinated-student-population-in-scotland
#4
L J Willocks, D Guerendiain, H I Austin, K E Morrison, R L Cameron, K E Templeton, V R F DE Lima, R Ewing, W Donovan, K G J Pollock
An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903788/vitamin-d-serostatus-and-dengue-fever-progression-to-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-dengue-shock-syndrome
#5
E Villamor, L A Villar, A Lozano, V M Herrera, O F Herrán
Vitamin D could modulate pathways leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). We examined the associations of serum total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations in patients with uncomplicated dengue fever (DF) with risk of progression to DHF/DSS. In a case-control study nested in a cohort of DF patients who were followed during the acute episode in Bucaramanga, Colombia, we compared 25(OH)D and VDBP at onset of fever between 110 cases who progressed to DHF/DSS and 235 DF controls who did not progress...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903784/outbreaks-attributed-to-pork-in-the-united-states-1998-2015
#6
J L Self, R E Luna-Gierke, A Fothergill, K G Holt, A R Vieira
Each year in the United States, an estimated 525 000 infections, 2900 hospitalizations, and 82 deaths are attributed to consumption of pork. We analyzed the epidemiology of outbreaks attributed to pork in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1998-2015. During that period, 288 outbreaks were attributed to pork, resulting in 6372 illnesses, 443 hospitalizations, and four deaths. The frequency of outbreaks attributed to pork decreased by 37% during this period, consistent with a decline in total foodborne outbreaks...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891463/epidemiology-of-seasonal-influenza-infection-in-pregnant-women-and-its-impact-on-birth-outcomes
#7
A K Regan, H C Moore, S G Sullivan, N DE Klerk, P V Effler
Seasonal influenza can cause significant morbidity in pregnant women. Much of the existing epidemiological evidence on influenza during pregnancy has focused on the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To measure the epidemiological characteristics of seasonal influenza infection among pregnant women and the impact on infant health, a cohort of 86 779 pregnancies during the influenza season (2012-2014) was established using probabilistic linkage of notifiable infectious disease, hospital admission, and birth information. A total of 192 laboratory-confirmed influenza infections were identified (2·2 per 1000 pregnancies), 14·6% of which were admitted to hospital...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891459/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-colonization-in-a-tertiary-hospital-and-elderly-community-of-north-eastern-peninsular-malaysia
#8
N H Zainul, Z F Ma, A Besari, H Siti Asma, R A Rahman, D A Collins, N Hamid, T V Riley, Y Y Lee
Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891458/ppgpp-and-cytotoxicity-diversity-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-isolates-corrigendum
#9
A E Stella, D Luz, R M F Piazza, B Spira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891457/current-prevalence-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-in-the-general-population-blood-donors-and-pregnant-women-in-the-eu-eea-a-systematic-review
#10
S H I Hofstraat, A M Falla, E F Duffell, S J M Hahné, A J Amato-Gauci, I K Veldhuijzen, L Tavoschi
This systematic review aimed at estimating chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) prevalence in the European Union (EU) and Economic Area (EEA) countries in the general population, blood donors and pregnant women. We searched PubMed©, Embase© and Cochrane Library databases for reports on HBV and HCV prevalence in the general population and pregnant women in EU/EEA countries published between 2005 and 2015. Council of Europe data were used for HBV and HCV blood donor prevalence. HBV general population estimates were available for 13 countries, ranging from 0·1% to 4·4%...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891456/spatiotemporal-risk-mapping-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-its-association-with-meteorological-variables-in-children-under-5-years
#11
C D Xu, G X Xiao
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. The highest risk period was in the summer, with an average monthly incidence of 4·17/103, whereas the index in wintertime was 0·16/103...
September 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885136/contacts-of-healthcare-workers-patients-and-visitors-in-general-wards-in-singapore
#12
L Jiang, H L Ng, H J Ho, Y S Leo, K Prem, A R Cook, M I Chen
To characterize contacts in general wards, a prospective survey of healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and visitors was conducted using self-reported diary, direct observation and telephone interviews. Nurses, doctors and assorted HCWs reported a median of 14, 18 and 15 contact persons over one work shift, respectively. Within 1 h, we observed 3·5 episodes with 25·6 min of cumulative contact time for nurses, 2·9 episodes and 22·1 min for doctors and 5·0 episodes with 44·3 min for assorted-HCWs. In interactions with patients, nurses had multiple brief episodes of contact; doctors had fewer episodes and less cumulative contact time; assorted-HCWs had fewer contact episodes of longer durations (than for nurses and doctors)...
September 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879829/five-year-surveillance-of-human-tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-bovis-in-bologna-italy-an-underestimated-problem
#13
G Lombardi, I Botti, M L Pacciarini, M B Boniotti, G Roncarati, P Dal Monte
Human tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis surveillance is affected by a lack of data. The aims of the present study were: (i) to estimate the proportion of human TB caused by M. bovis over a period of 5 years in Bologna, Northern Italy, which, like most Western European countries, has been declared bovine TB-free; (ii) to compare the genetic profiles of M. bovis strains identified in humans with those circulating in cattle in the last 15 years in Italy. Among 511 TB patients, the proportion of human TB caused by M...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879824/under-reporting-giardiasis-time-to-consider-the-public-health-implications
#14
S L Currie, N Stephenson, A S Palmer, B L Jones, C L Alexander
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879822/the-impact-of-pathogen-burden-on-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#15
A E Aiello, B Jayabalasingham, A M Simanek, A Diez-Roux, L Feinstein, H C S Meier, B L Needham, J B Dowd
Several infections have been linked to telomere shortening and in some cases these associations have varied by sex. We assessed the association between seropositivity to four persistent pathogens (cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae), and total pathogen burden on leukocyte telomere length in a diverse US sample. Data came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based cohort study. We utilized cross-sectional survey data, and biological samples from participants tested for pathogens and telomere length (N = 163)...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868995/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-australian-icus-evaluating-modifiable-and-non-modifiable-risks-in-victorian-healthcare-facilities
#16
T Spelman, D V Pilcher, A C Cheng, A L Bull, M J Richards, L J Worth
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) result in poor clinical outcomes and increased costs. Although frequently regarded as preventable, infection risk may be influenced by non-modifiable factors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate organisational factors associated with CLABSI in Victorian ICUs to determine the nature and relative contribution of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Data captured by the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society regarding ICU-admitted patients and resources were linked to CLABSI surveillance data collated by the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013...
September 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868994/fine-temporal-forecasting-of-outbreak-probability-and-severity-ross-river-virus-in-western-australia
#17
I S Koolhof, S Bettiol, S Carver
Health warnings of mosquito-borne disease risk require forecasts that are accurate at fine-temporal resolutions (weekly scales); however, most forecasting is coarse (monthly). We use environmental and Ross River virus (RRV) surveillance to predict weekly outbreak probabilities and incidence spanning tropical, semi-arid, and Mediterranean regions of Western Australia (1991-2014). Hurdle and linear models were used to predict outbreak probabilities and incidence respectively, using time-lagged environmental variables...
September 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854991/validation-and-incidence-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-bifap-database
#18
L C Saiz, J Garjón, J Gorricho, J Erviti, M J Gil-García, E Martín-Merino
Oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) have been associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to validate the recording of CAP in the Spanish Database for Pharmacoepidemiological Research in Primary Care (BIFAP) for the future evaluation of OAD-CAP association. The incidence rate (IR/1000 person-years) of CAP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was also determined. In total, 2966 pneumonia records (2040 listed as diagnosis and 926 as identified from comments added by physicians) were identified from 76 009 patients with T2DM after the first OAD in 2002-2013...
August 31, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853391/trends-in-the-burden-of-varicella-in-uk-general-practice
#19
J L Walker, N J Andrews, R Mathur, L Smeeth, S L Thomas
Childhood varicella vaccination has not yet been introduced in the UK. To inform decision-making about future vaccine programmes, data on the burden of varicella in general practice over a 10-year period (01/01/2005-31/12/2014) was calculated by age and ethnicity, using anonymised data from >8 million individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Varicella consultations peaked at 20 603 in 2007, then decreased annually in all age groups to 11 243 in 2014. Each year, consultation rates were common among infants, were highest among 1-3 year olds (61·2 consultations/1000 person-years in 2007, 39·7/1000 person-years in 2014) and then fell with increasing age to <1·0/1000 person-years at ages ⩾20 years...
August 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847331/consequences-of-organ-choice-in-describing-bacterial-pathogen-assemblages-in-a-rodent-population
#20
P Villette, E Afonso, G Couval, A Levret, M Galan, C Tatard, J F Cosson, P Giraudoux
High-throughput sequencing technologies now allow for rapid cost-effective surveys of multiple pathogens in many host species including rodents, but it is currently unclear if the organ chosen for screening influences the number and identity of bacteria detected. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial pathogens in the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys and spleen of 13 water voles (Arvicola terrestris) collected in Franche-Comté, France. We asked if bacterial pathogen assemblages within organs are similar and if all five organs are necessary to detect all of the bacteria present in an individual animal...
August 29, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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