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Epidemiology and Infection

L J Burnsed, L D Kovar, K M Angelo, E K Trees, J Concepción-Acevedo, M D McDermott, D Wagner, K K Bradley
Typhoid fever is an illness caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. In developing regions, it affects an estimated 20 million people annually, causing 200 000 deaths. Although uncommon, cases occur in the USA each year, predominantly due to international travel. During February 2015, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) detected an outbreak of typhoid fever among residents of northwestern Oklahoma. OSDH conducted case-patient interviews to identify the source and symptomatic contacts. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to characterise the genetic relatedness of isolates among the four outbreak-associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns...
September 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
G Gioia, R L Vinueza, M Cruz, M Jay, Y Corde, M Marsot, G Zanella
Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that still burdens several countries in the Mediterranean, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Although the disease is present in Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands seem to be free from the disease based on a survey conducted in 1997 where all tested animals showed negative results. This study aimed at estimating the probability of freedom from brucellosis in this Ecuadorian province in 2014. A survey was implemented on the three main cattle-producing islands of the province: Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristóbal...
September 19, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Olumide Faniyan, Simi Akintorin, Kevin Regis, Andre Brissett, Kenneth Soyemi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
E L Ori, E H Takagi, T S Andrade, B T Miguel, M C Cergole-Novella, B E C Guth, R T Hernandes, R C B Dias, S R S Pinheiro, C H Camargo, E C Romero, L F Dos Santos
Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide. In recent years, Escherichia albertii has also been implicated as a cause of human enteric diseases. This study describes the occurrence of E. coli pathotypes and serotypes associated with enteric illness and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) isolated in Brazil from 2011 to 2016. Pathotypes isolated included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E...
September 19, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Chen, C Y Chong, A R Cook, N T W Sim, P Horby, H H La
Febrile seizure (FS) in children is a common complication of infections with respiratory viruses and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We conducted a retrospective ecological time-series analysis to determine the temporal relationship between hospital attendances for FS and HFMD or respiratory virus infections. Epilepsy attendance was used as a control. Data from 2004 to 2012 FS and epilepsy hospital attendance, HFMD notifications to the Ministry of Health and from laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections among KK Women's and Children's Hospital inpatients were used...
September 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Richard Elson, Katherine Grace, Roberto Vivancos, Claire Jenkins, Goutam K Adak, Sarah J O'Brien, Iain R Lake
Infection with STEC O157 is relatively rare but has potentially serious sequelae, particularly for children. Large outbreaks have prompted considerable efforts designed to reduce transmission primarily from food and direct animal contact. Despite these interventions, numbers of infections have remained constant for many years and the mechanisms leading to many sporadic infections remain unclear.Here, we show that two-thirds of all cases reported in England between 2009 and 2015 were sporadic. Crude rates of infection differed geographically and were highest in rural areas during the summer months...
September 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
H Kato, K Kanou, Y Arima, F Ando, S Matsuoka, K Yoshimura, T Matano, T Matsui, T Sunagawa, K Oishi
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007-2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity)...
September 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
G Lengyel, A Marossy, N Ánosi, S L Farkas, B Kele, É Nemes-Nikodém, V Szentgyörgyi, I Kopcsó, M Mátyus
Due to the European measles epidemic and the increased number of imported cases, it can be theorised that the risk of exposure among Hungarian healthcare workers (HCWs) has increased. In 2017, the increased measles circulation in the region led to the emergence of smaller local and hospital epidemics. Therefore, our objective was to determine the herd immunity in the high-risk group of HCWs. A hospital-based study of detecting anti-measles IgG activity was performed in 2017 and included 2167 employees of the Military Medical Centre (Hungary)...
September 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M N Niang, M A Barry, C Talla, A Mbengue, F D Sarr, I O Ba, B G Hedible, B Ndoye, M Vray, N Dia
Knowing the burden of influenza is helpful for policy decisions. Here we estimated the contribution of influenza-like illness (ILI) visits associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza among all clinic visits in a Senegal sentinel network. ILI data from ten sentinel sites were collected from January 2013 to December 2015. ILI was defined as an axillary measured fever of more than 37.5 °C with a cough or a sore throat. Collected nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza viruses by rRT-PCR. Influenza-associated ILI was defined as ILI with laboratory-confirmed influenza...
September 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K De Rauw, R Buyl, S Jacquinet, D Piérard
In Belgium, it is mandatory to report Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections to the health inspection authorities. To facilitate the decision making regarding infection control measures, information about the risk factors for the development of the haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can be helpful. We performed statistical analyses on a dataset of 411 Belgian STEC strains. Demographic and clinical patient characteristics as well as phenotypical and genotypical STEC strain characteristics were taken into account...
September 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
C Lessa-Aquino, K S Trinta, C P Pestana, M O Ribeiro, M V F Sucupira, M N Boia, P A Baptista, R V Cunha, M A Medeiros
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that was first identified in Brazil in 2014. It causes a febrile illness characterised by severe arthralgia and rash. Our group investigated a suspected CHIKV outbreak in Governador Valadares, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and from 25 acute-phase patients, 10 had qRT-PCR positive sera samples and had E1 partial sequence amplified and Sanger sequenced. Samples were identified as East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype by phylogenetic analysis and clustered with CHIKV sequences isolated in the neighbour state of Bahia...
September 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
C Kenyon, J Buyze, M Klebanoff, R M Brotman
Prior studies have demonstrated that both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are strong independent risk factors for subsequent STI. In observational studies of this biological enhancement (BE) hypothesis, it is important to adjust for the risk of STI exposure so that the independent effect of BE can be assessed. We sought to model if two markers of local sexual network (partner concurrency and cumulative number of STIs) represented residual confounding in the models of risk for subsequent infection in a study that screened 3620 women for STIs every 3 months for a year...
September 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
L Correia, A P Loureiro, W Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease determined by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The control of bovine leptospirosis involves several measures including antibiotic treatment of carriers. Despite its importance, few studies regarding antimicrobial susceptibility of strains from bovine origin have been conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, against the main antibiotics used in bovine veterinary practice...
September 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Cavalli, M Marinaro, C Desario, M Corrente, M Camero, C Buonavoglia
Canine parvovirosis is a very contagious, severe and often lethal infectious disease of dogs caused by canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). Parvoviruses are very resistant to several disinfectants while are sensitive to halogens such as sodium hypochlorite which is often used for decontamination of veterinary clinics and animal housing facilities due to its broad spectrum of activity. If compliance with vaccination programmes and with proper disinfection plans is ensured, there should be no continuous, nor frequent, CPV-2 outbreaks in kennels and veterinary clinics...
September 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Chow, P Y Hon, G Tin, W Zhang, B F Poh, B Ang
Intranasal octenidine, an antiseptic alternative to mupirocin, can be used for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation in the prevention of nosocomial transmission. A controlled before-after study was conducted in three extended-care hospitals in Singapore. All inpatients with >48 h stay were screened for MRSA colonisation in mid-2015(pre-intervention) and mid-2016(post-intervention). Hospital A: universal daily chlorhexidine bathing throughout 2015 and 2016, with intranasal octenidine for MRSA-colonisers in 2016...
September 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
H G Ternavasio-de la Vega, F Castaño-Romero, S Ragozzino, R Sánchez González, M P Vaquero-Herrero, M Siller-Ruiz, G Spalter-Glicberg, C Ramírez-Baum, S Rodríguez-Rodríguez, J E García-Sánchez, I García-García, M Marcos
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models...
September 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
T Matsumura, M Nagao, S Nakano, M Yamamoto, Y Matsumura, S Ichiyama
To identify the predictive and prognostic factors associated with ampicillin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia, we retrospectively reviewed demographic, microbiological and clinical data of patients attending the Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, between 2009 and 2015. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive and prognostic factors, respectively. In total, 235 episodes of enterococcal bacteraemia were identified. As ampicillin susceptibility was uniform for Enterococcus faecalis isolates and almost all ampicillin-resistant isolates were E...
August 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Lina Jaber, Mahmod Amro, Hadeel Abu Tair, Shereen A Bahader, Hanna Alalam, Suha Butmeh, Dalia Abu Hilal, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Dina M Bitar
Legionella pneumophila genotyping is important for epidemiological investigation of nosocomial and community-acquired outbreaks of legionellosis. The prevalence of legionellosis in pneumonia patients in the West Bank was monitored for the first time, and the sequence types (STs) from respiratory samples were compared with STs of environmental samples from different wards of the hospital. Sputum (n = 121) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (n = 74) specimens were cultured for L. pneumophila; genomic DNA was tested by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification...
August 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yun-Ju Lai, Yu-Yen Chen, Hsin-Hui Huang, Ming-Chung Ko, Chu-Chieh Chen, Yung-Feng Yen
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART...
August 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y Yue, Y Tang, J Tang, J Shi, T Zhu, J Huang, X Qiu, Y Zeng, W Li, Y Qu, D Mu
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations...
August 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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