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Epidemiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629484/outbreak-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-skin-or-soft-tissue-infections-associated-with-handling-fish-new-york-city-2013-2014
#1
K Yacisin, J L Hsieh, D Weiss, J Ackelsberg, E Lee, L Jones, Y L Leung, L Li, J Yung, S Slavinski, H Hanson, A Ridpath, J Kornblum, Y Lin, S Robbe-Austerman, J Rakeman, U Siemetzki-Kapoor, T Stuber, S K Greene
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013-March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female...
June 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625225/legionella-longbeachae-detected-in-an-industrial-cooling-tower-linked-to-a-legionellosis-outbreak-new-zealand-2015-possible-waterborne-transmission
#2
C N Thornley, D J Harte, R P Weir, L J Allen, K J Knightbridge, P R T Wood
A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires' disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625193/place-based-social-contact-and-mixing-a-typology-of-generic-meeting-places-of-relevance-for-infectious-disease-transmission
#3
M Strömgren, E Holm, Ö Dahlström, J Ekberg, H Eriksson, A Spreco, T Timpka
This study aims to develop a typology of generic meeting places based on social contact and mixing of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Data were collected by means of a contact diary survey conducted on a representative sample of the Swedish population. The typology is derived from a cluster analysis accounting for four dimensions associated with transmission risk: visit propensity and its characteristics in terms of duration, number of other persons present and likelihood of physical contact...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625169/is-there-a-decline-in-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-cases-born-after-reinforced-feed-bans-a-modelling-study-in-eu-member-states
#4
M E Arnold, R R L Simons, J Hope, N Gibbens, A L Adkin
Occasional cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) still continue to occur within the European Union (EU) for animals born after reinforced feed bans (BARBs), which should in theory have eliminated all risk of infection. The study aimed to determine (i) whether a common rate of decline of BSE infection was evident across EU member states, i.e. to determine whether control measures have been equally effective in all member states, (ii) whether there was any evidence of spontaneous occurrence of BSE in the data and (iii) the expected date for the last BSE case in UK...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610640/multi-country-outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-infection-linked-to-the-international-ice-hockey-tournament
#5
T Pärn, V Dahl, T Lienemann, J Perevosčikovs, B DE Jong
In April 2015, Finnish public health authorities alerted European Union member states of a possible multi-country Salmonella enteritidis outbreak linked to an international youth ice-hockey tournament in Latvia. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Finnish and Latvian authorities initiated an outbreak investigation to identify the source. The investigation included a description of the outbreak, retrospective cohort study, microbiological investigation and trace-back. We identified 154 suspected and 96 confirmed cases from seven countries...
June 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597809/discontinuation-of-contact-precautions-with-the-introduction-of-universal-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing
#6
J A McKinnell, S J Eells, E Clark, D D Rand, G T Kiet, R Macias-Gil, J M Mendez, S S Huang, E N Milefchik, L G Miller
Contact precautions are a traditional strategy to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Chlorhexidine bathing is increasingly used to decrease MRSA burden and transmission in intensive care units (ICUs). We sought to evaluate a hospital policy change from routine contact precautions for MRSA compared with universal chlorhexidine bathing, without contact precautions. We measured new MRSA acquisition in ICU patients and surveyed for MRSA environmental contamination in common areas and non-MRSA patient rooms before and after the policy change...
June 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595669/surges-of-advanced-medical-support-associated-with-influenza-outbreaks
#7
J C King, J E Schweinle, R J Hatchett, Y Gao, R Lichenstein, J Zhou
We utilized de-identified data to evaluate increases in four outcomes during influenza outbreak periods (IOPs) including: hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation or death for adults aged 18 years or older with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses (MAARI) admitted to any of Maryland's 50 acute-care hospitals over 12 years. Weekly numbers of positive influenza tests in the Maryland area were obtained from the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention interactive website...
June 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595668/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-tuberculosis-incidence-and-its-associated-factors-in-mainland-china
#8
C Guo, Y DU, S Q Shen, X Q Lao, J Qian, C Q Ou
Spatiotemporal analysis is an important tool to monitor changes of tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology, identify high-risk regions and guide resource allocation. However, there are limited data on the contributing factors of TB incidence. This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of TB incidence and its associated factors in mainland China during 2005-2013. Global Moran's I test, Getis-Ord Gi index and heat maps were used to examine the spatial clustering and seasonal patterns. Generalized Linear Mixed Model was applied to identify factors associated with TB incidence...
June 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587697/ppgpp-and-cytotoxicity-diversity-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-isolates
#9
A E Stella, D Luz Hessel DA Cunha, R M F Piazza, B Spira
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a known food pathogen, which main reservoir is the intestine of ruminants. The abundance of different STEC lineages in nature reflect a heterogeneity that is characterised by the differential expression of certain genotypic characteristics, which in turn are influenced by the environmental conditions to which the microorganism is exposed. Bacterial homeostasis and stress response are under the control of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which intrinsic levels varies across the E...
June 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578749/differential-prevalence-and-correlates-of-whole-blood-epstein-barr-virus-dna-between-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shanghai-china
#10
R Pan, X Liu, S Zhou, Z Ning, H Zheng, M Gao, Y Ding, W Yao, X Liao, N He
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine and compare prevalence and correlates of whole blood Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). Five hundred and four HIV-positive MSM and 504 age-matched HIV-negative MSM were recruited from an HIV counseling and testing clinic in Shanghai, China from November 2014 to November 2015 and were administered with a face-to-face questionnaire interview. Whole blood EBV DNA was tested by nested polymerase chain reaction assays on EBNA-1, EBNA-2, and LMP-1 genes...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578732/thirty-years-of-human-infections-caused-by-yersinia-enterocolitica-in-northern-spain-1985-2014
#11
J M Marimon, R Figueroa, P Idigoras, M Gomariz, M Alkorta, G Cilla, E Pérez-Trallero
Yersinia enterocolitica infection is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, gastroenteritis being by far the most common clinical manifestation of human infection. In Gipuzkoa, northern Spain, human Y. enterocolitica infections increased from the mid-1980s to the beginning of the 21st century (from 7·9 to 23·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population) to decrease to 7·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population in the last years of the study. The hospital admission rate due to yersiniosis during the last 15 years of the study was 7·3%...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578723/pertussis-diagnosis-in-belgium-results-of-the-national-reference-centre-for-bordetella-anno-2015
#12
H Martini, C Rodeghiero, C VAN DEN Poel, M Vincent, D Pierard, K Huygen
In 2015, the Belgian National Reference Centre for Bordetella analyzed 4110 respiratory samples by qPCR and 4877 serum samples by serology. Whereas about 50% of respiratory samples were from infants and children below the age of five, serum samples were distributed among all age categories. A total of 394 (9·6%) cases was diagnosed as positive for Bordetella pertussis by qPCR and 844 (17·3%) cases were diagnosed as acute infection by serology (anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG > 125 IU/ml). Another 1042 (21·4%) sera had anti-PT IgG between 55 and 125 IU/ml reflecting a vaccination or pertussis infection during the last 1-2 years...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578710/compliance-with-clostridium-difficile-treatment-guidelines-effect-on-patient-outcomes
#13
K T Crowell, K G Julian, M Katzman, A S Berg, A Tinsley, E D Williams, W A Koltun, E Messaris
Guidelines for the severity classification and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were published by Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) in 2010; however, compliance and efficacy of these guidelines has not been widely investigated. This present study assessed compliance with guidelines and its effect on CDI patient outcomes as compared with before these recommendations. A retrospective study included all adult inpatients with an initial episode of CDI treated in a single academic center from January 2009 to August 2014...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566102/real-time-parameter-estimation-of-zika-outbreaks-using-model-averaging
#14
C R Sebrango-Rodríguez, D A Martínez-Bello, L Sánchez-Valdés, P J Thilakarathne, E Del Fava, P VAN DER Stuyft, A López-Quílez, Z Shkedy
Early prediction of the final size of any epidemic and in particular for Zika disease outbreaks can be useful for health authorities in order to plan the response to the outbreak. The Richards model is often been used to estimate epidemiological parameters for arboviral diseases based on the reported cumulative cases in single- and multi-wave outbreaks. However, other non-linear models can also fit the data as well. Typically, one follows the so called post selection estimation procedure, i.e., selects the best fitting model out of the set of candidate models and ignores the model uncertainty in both estimation and inference since these procedures are based on a single model...
June 1, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554339/intersectoral-action-for-health-preventing-psittacosis-spread-after-one-reported-case
#15
V L Ferreira, M V Silva, B R Bassetti, A C G Pellini, T F Raso
Zoonotic diseases are a significant health threat for humans and animals. To better understand the epidemiology, etiology, and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals combined approaches are needed. Here we describe an epidemiological investigation conducted by physicians and veterinarians after a reported case of psittacosis. Upon admission suffering from respiratory distress syndrome in a hospital and with a history of bird contact, a female patient was serologically diagnosed with psittacosis...
May 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545598/indonesian-dengue-burden-estimates-review-of-evidence-by-an-expert-panel
#16
T Y M Wahyono, J Nealon, S Beucher, A Prayitno, A Moureau, S Nawawi, H Thabrany, M Nadjib
Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Following presentation of medical and epidemiological data and subsequent discussions, the panel made iterative estimates from which expansion factors (EF), the ratio of total:reported cases, were calculated...
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535823/first-report-of-the-qnra-determinant-in-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-china
#17
H M Qian, T T Qin, G Y Liu, J Li, P Ma, X X Kong, B Gu, C J Bao
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
May 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528588/anorectal-swabs-as-a-marker-of-male-to-male-sexual-exposure-in-sti-surveillance-systems
#18
F H Ampt, C El Hayek, P A Agius, A L Bowring, N Bartnik, C VAN Gemert, C K Fairley, E P F Chow, C S Bradshaw, N Stephens, M S C Lim, M E Hellard
Identification of priority populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) is important in surveillance systems to monitor trends of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We explored using routinely collected non-behavioural data as a means to establish MSM status in surveillance by assessing anorectal swab as a marker of male-to-male sexual exposure. We used chlamydia testing data from a sexual health clinic, 2007-2012. Men reporting any male sexual partner(s) in the previous 12 months were considered MSM...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528587/persistent-infections-support-maintenance-of-a-coronavirus-in-a-population-of-australian-bats-myotis-macropus
#19
J Jeong, C S Smith, A J Peel, R K Plowright, D H Kerlin, J McBroom, H McCallum
Understanding viral transmission dynamics within populations of reservoir hosts can facilitate greater knowledge of the spillover of emerging infectious diseases. While bat-borne viruses are of concern to public health, investigations into their dynamics have been limited by a lack of longitudinal data from individual bats. Here, we examine capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data from a species of Australian bat (Myotis macropus) infected with a putative novel Alphacoronavirus within a Bayesian framework. Then, we developed epidemic models to estimate the effect of persistently infectious individuals (which shed viruses for extensive periods) on the probability of viral maintenance within the study population...
May 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521845/hiv-infected-individuals-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-are-at-higher-risk-for-ocular-disease
#20
E Schaftenaar, N S Khosa, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, J A McINTYRE, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans, R P H Peters
Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of infectious ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the effects of long-term ART and chronic HIV infection on the eye are ill-defined. This study determined the occurrence and severity of ocular diseases among 342 participants in a rural South African setting: HIV-naïve (n = 105), HIV-infected ART-naïve (n = 16), HIV-infected on ART for 36 months (long-term ART; n = 165). More HIV-infected participants presented with an external eye condition, in particular blepharitis, than HIV-naïve individuals (18% vs...
May 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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