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Epidemiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903326/characterizing-areas-of-potential-human-exposure-to-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-using-serological-and-clinical-data-from-horses
#1
J-P Rocheleau, J Arsenault, N H Ogden, L R Lindsay, M Drebot, P Michel
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903324/epidemiological-and-serological-investigation-of-a-waterborne-campylobacter-jejuni-outbreak-in-a-danish-town
#2
K Gaardbo Kuhn, G Falkenhorst, H-D Emborg, T Ceper, M Torpdahl, K A Krogfelt, S Ethelberg, K Mølbak
Following an unusually heavy rainfall in June 2009, a community-wide outbreak of Campylobacter gastroenteritis occurred in a small Danish town. The outbreak investigation consisted of (1) a cohort study using an e-questionnaire of disease determinants, (2) microbiological study of stool samples, (3) serological study of blood samples from cases and asymptomatic members of case households, and (4) environmental analyses of the water distribution system. The questionnaire study identified 163 cases (respondent attack rate 16%)...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903317/laboratory-surveillance-of-arboviral-infections-in-a-southern-france-region-colonized-by-aedes-albopictus
#3
L Cadot, M Segondy, V Foulongne
The establishment of Aedes albopictus in southern France, a recognized competent vector for several arboviruses, represents a new threat for the local transmission and spread of what were until recently considered as tropical diseases. A preparedness and response plan, based on vigilance of both clinicians and laboratories, has introduced significant changes in guidelines and behaviour regarding patients' care specifically during the activity period of mosquitoes. In the present study, we report the results of a 1-year activity in arboviral infection diagnosis...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903309/the-rise-and-fall-of-hospitalizations-for-skin-infections-in-new-zealand-2004-2014-trends-by-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-deprivation
#4
A Lim, J Rumball-Smith, R Jones, I Kawachi
Since the 1990s, New Zealand (NZ) has seen an increasing incidence of paediatric skin infections leading to hospitalization. We sought to describe the epidemiology of these infections over time. Hospital discharge data were analysed for all children admitted to any NZ public hospital from 2004 to 2014. We found the age-standardized incidence of hospitalizations due to skin infections increased during this period from 522/100 000 in 2004 to a peak of 644/100 000 in 2011, after which it declined to 524/100 000 in 2014...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#5
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890043/epidemic-host-community-contribution-to-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission-ross-river-virus
#6
I S Koolhof, S Carver
Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890040/high-prevalence-of-legionella-in-non-passenger-merchant-vessels
#7
S L Collins, D Stevenson, M Mentasti, A Shaw, A Johnson, L Crossley, C Willis
There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890033/il-8-il-17-gene-variations-and-the-susceptibility-to-severe-viral-bronchiolitis
#8
L A Pinto, L A DE Azeredo Leitão, M Mocellin, P Acosta, M T Caballero, R Libster, J E Vargas, F Polack, T Comaru, R T Stein, A P DE Souza
Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876098/a-look-back-investigating-google-flu-trends-during-the-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-pandemic-in-canada-2009-2010
#9
L J Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873572/risk-assessment-of-dengue-fever-in-zhongshan-china-a-time-series-regression-tree-analysis
#10
K-K Liu, T Wang, X-D Huang, G-L Wang, Y Xia, Y-T Zhang, Q-L Jing, J-W Huang, X-X Liu, J-H Lu, W-B Hu
Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease globally. Control of DF is limited by barriers to vector control and integrated management approaches. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for autochthonous DF transmission and to estimate the threshold effects of high-order interactions among risk factors. A time-series regression tree model was applied to estimate the hierarchical relationship between reported autochthonous DF cases and the potential risk factors including the timeliness of DF surveillance systems (median time interval between symptom onset date and diagnosis date, MTIOD), mosquito density, imported cases and meteorological factors in Zhongshan, China from 2001 to 2013...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873565/patterns-of-virulence-factor-expression-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-and-achromobacter-ruhlandii-isolates-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
R H V Pereira, R S Leão, A P Carvalho-Assef, R M Albano, E R A Rodrigues, M C Firmida, T W Folescu, M C Plotkowski, V G Bernardo, E A Marques
Achromobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens increasingly recovered from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report the characterization of 122 Achromobacter spp. isolates recovered from 39 CF patients by multilocus sequence typing, virulence traits, and susceptibility to antimicrobials. Two species, A. xylosoxidans (77%) and A. ruhlandii (23%) were identified. All isolates showed a similar biofilm formation ability, and a positive swimming phenotype. By contrast, 4·3% and 44·4% of A. xylosoxidans and A...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873564/effect-of-enhanced-biosecurity-and-selected-on-farm-factors-on-campylobacter-colonization-of-chicken-broilers
#12
M Georgiev, W Beauvais, J Guitian
Human campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial infection in the EU; poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced biosecurity and other factors such as welfare status, breed, the practice of partial depopulation and number of empty days between flocks may prevent Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization of poultry batches at high levels (>123 000 c.f.u./g in pooled caecal samples). We analysed data from 2314 poultry batches sampled at slaughter in the UK in 2011-2013...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873563/comparative-dynamics-seasonality-in-transmission-and-predictability-of-childhood-infections-in-mexico
#13
A S Mahmud, C J E Metcalf, B T Grenfell
The seasonality and periodicity of infections, and the mechanisms underlying observed dynamics, can have implications for control efforts. This is particularly true for acute childhood infections. Among these, the dynamics of measles is the best understood and has been extensively studied, most notably in the UK prior to the start of vaccination. Less is known about the dynamics of other childhood diseases, particularly outside Europe and the United States. In this paper, we leverage a unique dataset to examine the epidemiology of six childhood infections - measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, scarlet fever and pertussis - across 32 states in Mexico from 1985 to 2007...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866494/brucellosis-as-a-neglected-disease-in-a-neglected-population-a-seroepidemiological-study-of-migratory-nomads-in-the-fars-province-of-iran
#14
B Honarvar, M Moghadami, K B Lankarani, M A Davarpanah, M Ataolahi, A Farbod, E Eskandari, M Panahi, A Ghorbani, Z Zahiri, R Tabrizi, M Pourjafar, S M M Heidari
This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT <1:80 combined with a positive Coombs Wright test (CWT) at a titre of at least threefold higher than SAT titre results...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866492/predictive-modelling-of-ross-river-virus-notifications-in-southeastern-australia
#15
Z Cutcher, E Williamson, S E Lynch, S Rowe, H J Clothier, S M Firestone
Ross River virus (RRV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to Australia. The disease, marked by arthritis, myalgia and rash, has a complex epidemiology involving several mosquito species and wildlife reservoirs. Outbreak years coincide with climatic conditions conducive to mosquito population growth. We developed regression models for human RRV notifications in the Mildura Local Government Area, Victoria, Australia with the objective of increasing understanding of the relationships in this complex system, providing trigger points for intervention and developing a forecast model...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866489/exploring-genotype-concordance-in-epidemiologically-linked-cases-of-tuberculosis-in-new-york-city
#16
R S Robbins, B R Perri, S D Ahuja, H A Anger, J Sullivan Meissner, E Shashkina, B N Kreiswirth, D C Proops
Comparing genotype results of tuberculosis (TB) isolates from individuals diagnosed with TB can support or refute transmission; however, these conclusions are based upon the criteria used to define a genotype match. We used a genotype-match definition which allowed for variation in IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to support transmission between epidemiologically linked persons. Contacts of individuals with infectious TB (index cases) diagnosed in New York City from 1997 to 2003 who subsequently developed TB (contact cases) from 1997 to 2007 were identified...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866487/tuberculosis-infection-testing-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-xi-an-china
#17
H N Xin, X W Li, L Zhang, Z Li, H R Zhang, Y Yang, M F Li, B X Feng, H J Li, L Gao
In individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had a 20-37 times higher risk of developing active TB compared to those without HIV infection. Systematic testing and treatment of latent TB infection are priorities in HIV-infected persons. In China, the prevalence of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) has gradually increased in the past decade. However, the prevalence of TB infection has been studied sparsely in HIV-infected MSM. Hence, we conducted a pilot study in MSM living with HIV infection in Xi'an city to evaluate TB infection status by means of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA)...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866483/wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-circulation-and-implications-for-polio-eradication
#18
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852346/evaluation-of-chest-radiography-lyta-real-time-pcr-and-other-routine-tests-for-diagnosis-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-estimation-of-possible-attributable-fraction-of-pneumococcus-in-northern-togo
#19
A Blake, B M Njanpop-Lafourcade, J N Telles, A Rajoharison, M S Makawa, K Agbenoko, S Tamekloe, J E Mueller, H Tall, B D Gessner, G Paranhos-Baccalà, J C Moïsi
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet existing diagnostic tools remain inadequate. We aimed to evaluate laboratory and radiological methods for detecting pneumococcal aetiology in CAP patients and to estimate Spn prevalence in this group. All-aged patients hospitalized with clinically defined CAP in northern Togo were enrolled during 2010-2013. Latent class analysis pooled results of semi-automated blood culture (SABC), whole blood lytA real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest radiography (CXR) and categorized patients as likely pneumococcal or non-pneumococcal CAP...
November 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834167/spatial-distribution-and-risk-factors-associated-with-salmonella-enterica-in-pigs
#20
J Parada, A Carranza, J Alvarez, M Pichel, P Tamiozzo, J Busso, A Ambrogi
The importance of pork in the transmission of Salmonella spp. to humans has led to the development of control programmes worldwide. For this, knowledge on the epidemiology of the infection in the production system is fundamental to the efficacy of the regulations. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of Salmonella-infected farms in the central region of Argentina, and to identify the predominant serotypes and epidemiological factors associated with an increased risk of infection...
November 11, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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