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Epidemiology and Infection

J I Degiuseppe, J A Stupka
Argentina incorporated rotavirus massive vaccination in 2015. No specific strategy has been designed to accurately measure the impact of this recent introduction on the diarrhoeal disease burden in our country. We assessed post-vaccine introduction data (all-cause acute diarrhoea and rotavirus laboratory-confirmed cases, and genotype distribution), compared with pre-vaccination period in children under 5 years of age in Argentina. Cross-sectional ecologic analysis was conducted with data from the Argentine Surveillance Health System...
July 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
N Zhou, X Y Zhang, Y X Li, L Wang, L L Wang, W Cong
Over the recent years, potential associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and cancer risk have attracted a lot of attention. Nevertheless, the association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer remains relatively unexplored. We performed a case-control study of 861 oral cancer patients and 861 control subjects from eastern China with the aim to detect antibodies to T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in these patients. The results showed that oral cancer patients (21...
July 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K Morikane
Surgical site infection (SSI) following cardiovascular surgery has been well documented, possibly owing to its highly invasive nature, but SSI following surgery on the thoracic aorta has not. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and assess risk factors associated with the latter in Japan using a national database for SSI. Data on surgery on thoracic aorta performed between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) database. Risk factors were assessed initially by univariate analysis, and then entered into a logistic regression model for final evaluation...
July 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Ali Haghighi, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ali Taghipour, Adel Spotin, Mostafa Javanian, Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Esmaeili Dooki, Ali Rostami
A comprehensive meta-analysis study was performed to estimate the reliable national prevalence and molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Iran. Nine English and Persian databases were searched to achieve the relevant studies. Pooled estimates were generated and meta-regression was performed. We identified 71 eligible articles involving 330 930 subjects from 25 provinces to be included in the final analysis. Moreover, 17 studies compromising 462 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive isolates performed molecular analysis to inter-species differentiation...
July 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
D T Santos, C Nunes, L S Alves, A A R Queiroz, M J Miranda, L H Arroyo, M Yamamura, A S Belchior, M P Popolin, M A M Arcoverde, T Z Berra, A C V Ramos, I C Pinto, P F Palha, B M A Gabardo, E M Dessunti, R A Arcêncio
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008-2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters...
July 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Raffaella Romeo, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Eve Isabel Pecheur, Floriana Facchetti, Riccardo Perbellini, Enrico Galmozzi, Najeeb Ullah Khan, Lucia Di Capua, Rocco Sabatino, Gerardo Botti, Giovanna Loquercio
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that depends on the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for the creation of new virions and propagation of the infection to hepatocytes. Chronic infection with HDV is usually associated with a worsening of HBV infection, leading more frequently to cirrhosis, increased risk of liver decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence. In spite of a progressive declining prevalence of both acute and chronic HDV infection observed over several years, mainly due to increased global health policies and mass vaccination against HBV, several European countries have more recently observed stable HDV prevalence mainly due to migrants from non-European countries...
July 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
N Kennerknecht, M Riffelmann, U Voelker, C H Wirsing von König
Serosurveys have established data about the distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in various populations. We tried to detect whether small serosurveys in blood donors could serve as a simple and inexpensive means to collect information about the circulation of Bordetella pertussis. We screened every donation in 307 adult blood donors aged 19-69 years for IgG-anti-PT by standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and the donors were followed between 2014 and 2016 for a total of 426 person-years...
July 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M Hisamuddin, A Tazeen, M Abdullah, M Islamuddin, N Parveen, A Islam, M I Faizan, A Hamza, I H Naqvi, H N Verma, A Malik, A Ahmed, S Parveen
Co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viral infections (CHIKV and DENV) have been reported mainly due to transmission by common Aedes vector. The purpose of the study was to identify and characterise the circulating strains of CHIKV and DENV in DENV endemic region of New Delhi during 2016. CHIKV and DENV were identified in the blood samples (n = 130) collected from suspected patients by RT-PCR. CHIKV was identified in 26 of 65 samples (40%). Similarly, DENV was detected in 48 of 120 samples (40%). Co-infection with both the viruses was identified in five (9%) of the samples...
July 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Laufer Halpin, W Gu, M E Wise, J J Sejvar, R M Hoekstra, B E Mahon
Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), which is triggered by autoantibodies produced in response to antigenic stimuli such as certain infections and vaccinations, is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Campylobacter, the most common bacterial enteric infection in the USA, is reported to be the most commonly diagnosed antecedent of GBS, yet little information is available about the risk of post-Campylobacter GBS. Data collected through active, population-based surveillance in the Emerging Infections Program during the 2009-2010 novel Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaign allowed us to compare confirmed and probable GBS cases to non-cases to determine whether antecedent Campylobacter infection (or a diarrhoeal illness consistent with campylobacteriosis) was more common among cases and to assess the risk of GBS following Campylobacter infection...
July 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
S Chadsuthi, B M Althouse, S Iamsirithaworn, W Triampo, K H Grantz, D A T Cummings
Human movement contributes to the probability that pathogens will be introduced to new geographic locations. Here we investigate the impact of human movement on the spatial spread of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Southern Thailand during a recent re-emergence. We hypothesised that human movement, population density, the presence of habitat conducive to vectors, rainfall and temperature affect the transmission of CHIKV and the spatiotemporal pattern of cases seen during the emergence. We fit metapopulation transmission models to CHIKV incidence data...
July 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Villedieu, E Papesh, S E Weinberg, L Teare, J Radhakrishnan, W F Elamin
Otitis externa is the inflammation of the external auditory canal. The disease is common and shows a seasonal variation with a greater incidence in warmer months. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in otitis externa and in this retrospective study, we show a corresponding seasonal variation in the proportional incidence of P. aeruginosa isolates from otitis externa in South East England. In total 7770 patients were diagnosed with otitis externa over a period of 9 years from January 2008 to December 2016...
July 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A M F Matos, A C O Coelho, L P T Araújo, M J M Alves, O S Baquero, M S Duthie, H C Teixeira
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases...
July 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Qinqin Xu, Runzi Li, Shannon Rutherford, Cheng Luo, Yafei Liu, Zhiqiang Wang, Xiujun Li
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is transmitted to humans mainly by rodents and this transmission could be easily influenced by meteorological factors. Given the long-term changes in climate associated with global climate change, it is important to better identify the effects of meteorological factors of HFRS in epidemic areas. Shandong province is one of the most seriously suffered provinces of HFRS in China. Daily HFRS data and meteorological data from 2007 to 2012 in Shandong province were applied...
July 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K Chaintarli, S Jackson, S Cotter, J O'Donnell
We evaluated and compared the completeness, timeliness, simplicity, usefulness and flexibility between the former National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance System (NTBSS) and the newer Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting System (CIDR). Completeness was assessed by examining the field completion of key variables and median time from diagnosis to notification was calculated to evaluate timeliness. Differences between the two systems on completeness and timeliness were statistically assessed using χ2 and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, respectively...
July 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Smith-Palmer, G Hawkins, L Browning, L Allison, M Hanson, R Bruce, J McElhiney, J Horne
In September 2015, an outbreak of Escherichia coli Phage Type 32 with an indistinguishable multi locus variable number tandem repeat analysis profile was identified in Scotland. Twelve cases were identified; nine primary cases, two secondary and one asymptomatic case. Extensive food history investigations identified venison products containing wild venison produced by a single food business operator as the most likely source of the outbreak. Of the nine primary cases, eight had consumed venison products, and one case had not eaten venison themselves but had handled and cooked raw venison in the household...
July 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Jacob D Ball, Mattia A Prosperi, Alfonza Brown, Xinguang Chen, Eben Kenah, Yang Yang, Derek A T Cummings, Caitlin M Rivers
The adenovirus vaccine and benzathine penicillin G (BPG) have been used by the US military to prevent acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in trainees, though these interventions have had documented manufacturing problems. We fit Poisson regression and random forest models (RF) to 26 years of weekly ARD incidence data to explore the impact of the adenovirus vaccine and BPG prophylaxis on respiratory disease burden. Adenovirus vaccine availability was among the most important predictors of ARD in the RF, while BPG was the ninth most important...
July 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Ε Sinakos, G Gioula, Ch Liava, A Papa, E Papadopoulou, E Tsakni, I Fouzas, E Akriviadis
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a well-known cause of acute hepatitis. Immunocompromised subjects, including liver transplant recipients, are considered to be at risk for HEV infection, which occasionally follows a chronic course. The diagnosis of HEV infection in these patients must be based on HEV RNA testing, as serology has variable performance. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV infection in liver transplant recipients in Greece by means of HEV RNA testing. Liver transplant recipients followed in the sole transplant centre in Greece were prospectively included...
July 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J S Y Ng-Hublin, B Combs, S Reid, U Ryan
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes the diarrhoeal disease, cryptosporidiosis. Although many species have been identified, the majority of human disease worldwide is caused by two species; Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. In Australia, data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) show that cryptosporidiosis outbreaks occur every few years. To better understand the transmission, trends and nature of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Western Australia, epidemiological and genomic data from three cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in 2003, 2007 and 2011 were reviewed...
July 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
R A Morbey, A J Elliot, S Harcourt, S Smith, S de Lusignan, R Pebody, A Yeates, M Zambon, G E Smith
Understanding the burden of respiratory pathogens on health care is key to improving public health emergency response and interventions. In temperate regions, there is a large seasonal rise in influenza and other respiratory pathogens. We have examined the associations between individual pathogens and reported respiratory tract infections to estimate attributable burden. We used multiple linear regression to model the relationship between doctor consultation data and laboratory samples from week 3 2011 until week 37 2015...
July 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Daniela Longo, Donatella Narese, Giuseppe Fariello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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