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Epidemiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521845/hiv-infected-individuals-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-are-at-higher-risk-for-ocular-disease
#1
E Schaftenaar, N S Khosa, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, J A McINTYRE, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans, R P H Peters
Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of infectious ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the effects of long-term ART and chronic HIV infection on the eye are ill-defined. This study determined the occurrence and severity of ocular diseases among 342 participants in a rural South African setting: HIV-naïve (n = 105), HIV-infected ART-naïve (n = 16), HIV-infected on ART for 36 months (long-term ART; n = 165). More HIV-infected participants presented with an external eye condition, in particular blepharitis, than HIV-naïve individuals (18% vs...
May 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516828/impact-on-the-medical-decision-making-process-of-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-respiratory-pathogens
#2
A Guillon, S Aymeric, C Gaudy-Graffin, J Sonke, M P Deblonde, J Capsec, P Diot, D Garot, A Goudeau, L Grammatico-Guillon
The objective of this study was to determine how clinicians make use of the modern multiplex PCR assays (MPAs) to manage patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We studied the use of MPAs in 1648 patients hospitalized for CAP over a 3-year period at the moment of the setup of the new PCR assay. We observed that the use of MPAs for the identification of multiple respiratory pathogens marks a radical change in the investigation of CAP etiology. Surprisingly, the contribution of MPAs to the medical decision-making process varies drastically according to the units of care...
May 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516818/the-changing-epidemiology-of-spinal-tuberculosis-the-influence-of-international-immigration-in-catalonia-1993-2014
#3
M Peghin, D Rodriguez-Pardo, A Sanchez-Montalva, F Pellisé, A Rivas, T Tortola, J Aguilar, B Almirante, C Pigrau
The overall incidence of spinal tuberculosis (TB) appears to be stable or declining in most European countries, but with an increasing proportion of cases in the foreign-born populations. We performed a retrospective observational study (1993-2014), including all cases of spinal TB diagnosed at a Barcelona hospital to assess the epidemiological changes. Fifty-four episodes (48·1% males, median age 52 years) of spinal TB were diagnosed. The percentage of foreign-born residents with spinal TB increased from 14% to 45·2% in the last 10 years (P = 0·017)...
May 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511741/influenza-detection-and-prediction-algorithms-comparative-accuracy-trial-in-%C3%A3-sterg%C3%A3-tland-county-sweden-2008-2012
#4
A Spreco, O Eriksson, Ö Dahlström, T Timpka
Methods for the detection of influenza epidemics and prediction of their progress have seldom been comparatively evaluated using prospective designs. This study aimed to perform a prospective comparative trial of algorithms for the detection and prediction of increased local influenza activity. Data on clinical influenza diagnoses recorded by physicians and syndromic data from a telenursing service were used. Five detection and three prediction algorithms previously evaluated in public health settings were calibrated and then evaluated over 3 years...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511732/outbreak-of-diarrhoea-among-participants-of-a-triathlon-and-a-duathlon-on-12-july-2015-in-utrecht-the-netherlands
#5
S Parkkali, R Joosten, E Fanoy, R Pijnacker, J VAN Beek, D Brandwagt, W VAN Pelt
On 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI)...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506332/correspondence-analysis-to-evaluate-the-transmission-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-two-new-york-state-maximum-security-prisons
#6
M Befus, D V Mukherjee, C T A Herzig, F D Lowy, E Larson
Prisons/jails are thought to amplify the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) particularly methicillin-resistant SA infection and colonisation. Two independently pooled cross-sectional samples of detainees being admitted or discharged from two New York State maximum-security prisons were used to explore this concept. Private interviews of participants were conducted, during which the anterior nares and oropharynx were sampled and assessed for SA colonisation. Log-binomial regression and correspondence analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the prevalence of colonisation at entry as compared with discharge...
May 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502279/evidence-and-molecular-characterization-of-bartonella-spp-and-hemoplasmas-in-neotropical-bats-in-brazil
#7
P Ikeda, M C Seki, A O T Carrasco, L V Rudiak, J M D Miranda, S M M Gonçalves, E G L Hoppe, A C A Albuquerque, M M G Teixeira, C E Passos, K Werther, R Z Machado, M R André
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals' species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502264/study-of-the-impact-on-salmonella-of-moving-outdoor-pigs-to-fresh-land
#8
R P Smith, V Andres, L Dormer, R Gosling, C Oastler, R H Davies
Anecdotal evidence has suggested that outdoor-kept pigs show an improvement to health and productivity after being moved to a new site. This study explores whether Salmonella occurrence reduced and was sustained after moving to a new site. Nine farms were followed for a year in which four sampling visits were completed. The highest detection of Salmonella was from pooled faecal dropping from pigs, run-off/ pooled water, rodents and wild birds. Descriptive summaries showed that the prevalence of both all Salmonella and serovars of public health importance were lower at all visits after the move...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502260/the-first-study-on-opportunistic-intestinal-microsporidiosis-in-ibd-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-medications-in-iran
#9
Z Hasani, H Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H Balaii, M Azimirad, E S Mirsamadi, H Mirjalali, M R Zali
Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478789/spatial-distribution-of-mumps-in-south-korea-2001-2015-identifying-clusters-and-population-risk-factors
#10
Y-J Choe, K Min, S-I Cho
In South Korea, the resurgence of mumps was noted primarily among school-aged children and adolescents since 2000. We analyzed spatial patterns in mumps incidence to give an indication to the geographical risk. We used National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System data from 2001 to 2015, classifying into three periods according to the level of endemicity. A geographic-weighted regression analysis was performed to find demographic predictors of mumps incidence according to district level. We assessed the association between the total population size, population density, percentage of children (age 0-19 years), timely vaccination rate of measles-mumps-rubella vaccines and the higher incidence rate of mumps...
May 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478776/an-isolated-outbreak-of-diphtheria-in-south-africa-2015
#11
S Mahomed, M Archary, P Mutevedzi, Y Mahabeer, P Govender, G Ntshoe, W Kuhn, J Thomas, A Olowolagba, L Blumberg, K McCarthy, K Mlisana, M DU Plessis, A VON Gottberg, P Moodley
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection...
May 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478775/serological-evidence-of-coronavirus-infections-in-native-hamadryas-baboons-papio-hamadryas-hamadryas-of-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#12
A O Olarinmoye, B O Olugasa, H Niphuis, R V Herwijnen, E Verschoor, A Boug, O O Ishola, H Buitendijk, Z Fagrouch, K Al-Hezaimi
The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) is the only indigenous species of non-human primates (NHP) found in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). There are no peer-reviewed publications on viral infections of the baboons of KSA. Apart from camels, other animals are likely sources of the novel Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV) for humans. We investigated evidence of highly pathogenic coronavirus infections including MERSCoV in a large group of commensal baboons accompanied by feral dogs, on the outskirts of Ta'if city, KSA, in February 2013...
May 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478773/clinical-presentation-of-invasive-disease-caused-by-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-y-in-sweden-1995-to-2012
#13
O Säll, B Stenmark, M Glimåker, S Jacobsson, P Mölling, P Olcén, H Fredlund
Over the period 1995-2012, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y (NmY) increased significantly in Sweden. This is mainly due to the emergence of a predominant cluster named strain type YI subtype 1, belonging to the ST-23 clonal complex (cc). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical picture of patients with invasive disease caused by NmY and to analyse whether the predominant cluster exhibits certain clinical characteristics that might explain the increased incidence...
May 8, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462763/economic-burden-of-diagnosed-pertussis-among-individuals-with-asthma-or-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-usa-an-analysis-of-administrative-claims
#14
P O Buck, J L Meyers, L-D Gordon, R Parikh, S K Kurosky, K L Davis
Individuals with chronic respiratory conditions may be at increased risk for pertussis. We conducted a retrospective administrative claims analysis to examine the incidence and economic burden of diagnosed pertussis among adolescents and adults in the USA with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Patients aged ⩾11 years with diagnosed pertussis and pre-existing COPD (n = 343) or asthma (n = 1041) were matched 1:1 to patients with diagnosed pertussis but without COPD or asthma. Differences in all-cause costs ('excess' costs) during the 45-day and 3-month and 6-month periods before and after the pertussis index date were calculated; adjusted excess costs were estimated via multivariate regressions...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462753/the-passive-surveillance-of-ticks-using-companion-animal-electronic-health-records
#15
J S P Tulloch, L McGinley, F Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M Medlock, A D Radford
Ticks represent a large global reservoir of zoonotic disease. Current surveillance systems can be time and labour intensive. We propose that the passive surveillance of companion animal electronic health records (EHRs) could provide a novel methodology for describing temporal and spatial tick activity. A total of 16 58 857 EHRs were collected over a 2-year period (31 March 2014 and 29 May 2016) from companion animals attending a large sentinel network of 192 veterinary clinics across Great Britain (the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network - SAVSNET)...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462740/what-happened-at-vienna-s-allgemeines-krankenhaus-after-semmelweis-s-contract-as-assistant-in-the-first-maternity-division-was-terminated
#16
P P Jadraque, K C Carter
Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis is famous for dramatically reducing puerperal mortality while he was an Assistant in Vienna's largest hospital, the Allgemeines Krankenhaus; he did this, mainly, by requiring medical personnel to disinfect their hands by washing in a chlorine solution. But Semmelweis was soon removed from his post as assistant. The conventional view, which is suggested by Semmelweis's own account, is that his contemporaries were skeptical of his results, that he was marginalized and that once he was no longer directly responsible for caring for maternity patients, puerperal mortality returned to its former high levels...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462738/models-of-antimicrobial-pressure-on-intestinal-bacteria-of-the-treated-host-populations
#17
V V Volkova, C L Cazer, Y T Gröhn
Antimicrobial drugs are used to treat pathogenic bacterial infections in animals and humans. The by-stander enteric bacteria of the treated host's intestine can become exposed to the drug or its metabolites reaching the intestine in antimicrobially active form. We consider which processes and variables need to be accounted for to project the antimicrobial concentrations in the host's intestine. Those include: the drug's fraction (inclusive of any active metabolites) excreted in bile; the drug's fractions and intestinal segments of excretion via other mechanisms; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's absorption and re-absorption; the rates and intestinal segments of the drug's abiotic and biotic degradation in the intestine; the digesta passage time through the intestinal segments; the rates, mechanisms, and reversibility of the drug's sorption to the digesta and enteric microbiome; and the volume of luminal contents in the intestinal segments...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462735/esbl-carriage-in-pig-slaughterhouse-workers-is-associated-with-occupational-exposure
#18
W Dohmen, L VAN Gompel, H Schmitt, A Liakopoulos, L Heres, B A Urlings, D Mevius, M J M Bonten, D J J Heederik
We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462733/epidemiology-and-whole-genome-sequencing-of-an-ongoing-point-source-salmonella-agona-outbreak-associated-with-sushi-consumption-in-western-sydney-australia-2015
#19
C K Thompson, Q Wang, S K Bag, N Franklin, C T Shadbolt, P Howard, E J Fearnley, H E Quinn, V Sintchenko, K G Hope
During May 2015, an increase in Salmonella Agona cases was reported from western Sydney, Australia. We examine the public health actions used to investigate and control this increase. A descriptive case-series investigation was conducted. Six outbreak cases were identified; all had consumed cooked tuna sushi rolls purchased within a western Sydney shopping complex. Onset of illness for outbreak cases occurred between 7 April and 24 May 2015. Salmonella was isolated from food samples collected from the implicated premise and a prohibition order issued...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462731/constructing-ebola-transmission-chains-from-west-africa-and-estimating-model-parameters-using-internet-sources
#20
W B P Pettey, M E Carter, D J A Toth, M H Samore, A V Gundlapalli
During the recent Ebola crisis in West Africa, individual person-level details of disease onset, transmissions, and outcomes such as survival or death were reported in online news media. We set out to document disease transmission chains for Ebola, with the goal of generating a timely account that could be used for surveillance, mathematical modeling, and public health decision-making. By accessing public web pages only, such as locally produced newspapers and blogs, we created a transmission chain involving two Ebola clusters in West Africa that compared favorably with other published transmission chains, and derived parameters for a mathematical model of Ebola disease transmission that were not statistically different from those derived from published sources...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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