Read by QxMD icon Read

Epidemiology and Infection

Y X Song, R L Xin, Z C Li, H W Yu, W H Lun, J Ye, A Liu, A X Li, J W Li, J Z Ye, M Q Hao, H Y Lu, L J Sun
To optimise patients' outcomes and gain insight into transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 treatment-naive patients in Beijing, the prevalence of TDR was assessed. Demographic and clinical data of 1241 treatment-naive patients diagnosed between April 2014 and February 2015 were collected. TDR was defined using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance mutations database. The risk factors were evaluated by multi-logistic regression analysis. Among 932 successfully amplified cases, most were male (96...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
E G Lopes, A P Sevá, F Ferreira, C M Nunes, L B Keid, R M Hiramoto, H L Ferreira, T M F S Oliveira, F G Ovallos, E A B Galati, T J Villegas, D V Bortoletto, S Y O B Valadas, R M Soares
Although a national programme for control of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is being run in Brazil, the disease continues to spread. This programme is essentially based on culling infected dogs from endemic regions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop other control measures against VL to deter its advance. Here, a subunit vaccine, a recombinant vaccine, an insecticide-impregnated collar and the associations between these measures were evaluated for reducing the incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs. This was through a cohort study conducted in an endemic region of Brazil, considering the incidence and time of total exposure over a period of 1 year...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Y A Melsew, T N Doan, M Gambhir, A C Cheng, E McBryde, J M Trauer
We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies assessing tuberculosis (TB) patient-related risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Meta-analyses were conducted for sputum smear-positivity, lung cavitation and HIV seropositivity of index patients with both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) pooled using random effect models. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review. We found that demographic characteristics such as age and sex were not significant risk factors, while behaviours such as smoking and alcohol intake were associated with infectiousness although inconsistently...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J Smith, S Banu, M Young, D Francis, K Langfeldt, K Jarvinen
This report describes the effective public health response to a measles outbreak involving a university campus in Brisbane, Australia. Eleven cases in total were notified, mostly university students. The public health response included targeted measles vaccination clinics which were established on campus and focused on student groups most likely to have been exposed. The size of the university population, social interaction between students on and off campus, as well as limited vaccination records for the university community presented challenges for the control of this extremely infectious illness...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Sheila Moura Pone, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Patricia Brasil, Cecília Carmen de Araújo Nicolai, Rogério Ferrari, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira
In 2007-2008, the city of Rio de Janeiro underwent an epidemiological change, with increases in the incidence in children and in severe forms of dengue. To describe the clinical profile and spatial distribution of dengue we performed an ecological study based on dengue surveillance data using the Brazilian classification (2005): dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue with complications. χ 2 test was used to describe the clinical and socio-demographic variables (P < 0.05). Spatial distribution of incidence and case-fatality was explored with thematic maps, Moran and Geary indices (P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
P Mook, J McCormick, S Kanagarajah, G K Adak, P Cleary, R Elson, M Gobin, J Hawker, T Inns, C Sinclair, S C M Trienekens, R Vivancos, N D McCarthy
Established methods of recruiting population controls for case-control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks can be time consuming, resulting in delays in identifying the source or vehicle of infection. After an initial evaluation of using online market research panel members as controls in a case-control study to investigate a Salmonella outbreak in 2013, this method was applied in four further studies in the UK between 2014 and 2016. We used data from all five studies and interviews with members of each outbreak control team and market research panel provider to review operational issues, evaluate risk of bias in this approach and consider methods to reduce confounding and bias...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M E Arnold, M J Slomka, A C Breed, C K Hjulsager, S Pritz-Verschuren, S Venema-Kemper, R J Bouwstra, R Trebbien, S Zohari, V Ceeraz, L E Larsen, R J Manvell, G Koch, I H Brown
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes...
January 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
F Latronico, S Mäki, H Rissanen, J Ollgren, O Lyytikäinen, O Vapalahti, J Sane
Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, that is an endemic disease in Finland. We estimated the seroprevalence of PUUV in Finland and explored risk factors and disease associations by using unique survey data with health register linkage. A total of 2000 sera from a nationwide health survey from 2011, representative of the adult population, were screened for PUUV IgG by immunofluorescence assay. We performed statistical analysis adjusting for stratified cluster design and taking into account sampling weights...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
P K Ndombo, V N Ndze, F D Mbarga, R Anderson, A Acho, J Ebua Chia, A K Njamnshi, P A Rota, D Waku-Kouomou
Measles is a highly infectious human viral disease caused by measles virus (MeV). An estimated 114 900 measles deaths occurred worldwide in 2014. There are currently eight clades (A-H) comprised 24 MeV genotypes. We sought to characterise MeVs among Central African Republic (CAR) refugees during the 2014 measles epidemic in Cameroon. Samples were collected from children <15 years with suspected measles infections in two refugee camps in the east region of Cameroon. Viral RNA was extracted directly from urine samples...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
H R Naderi, F Sheybani, S S Erfani
Infective endocarditis (IE) is now the third or fourth most common life-threatening infectious disease. The high morbidity and mortality rates in the absence of appropriate care necessitate a thorough understanding of the obstacles towards the early diagnosis and management of IE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of discrepancy in diagnosis (i.e. discrepancy between the reason for admission and discharge diagnosis) and associated factors in patients with IE. It was a retrospective review of hospital records of all adult patients admitted in a 1000-bed academic general hospital in Mashhad, Iran with the discharge diagnosis of IE...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J E Simmering, J E Cavanaugh, L A Polgreen, P M Polgreen
The incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is seasonal, and this seasonality may be explained by changes in weather, specifically, temperature. Using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified the geographic location for 581 813 hospital admissions with the primary diagnosis of a UTI and 56 630 773 non-UTI hospitalisations in the United States. Next, we used data from the National Climatic Data Center to estimate the monthly average temperature for each location. Using a case-control design, we modelled the odds of a hospital admission having a primary diagnosis of UTI as a function of demographics, payer, location, patient severity, admission month, year and the average temperature for the admission month...
January 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
E Pagani, F Folli, S Tofani, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello, I Di Bartolo
In this study, we describe the results of virological investigations carried out on cases of gastroenteritis reported in different communities within a 2-year pilot surveillance programme (January 2012 to December 2013) in the autonomous province of Bolzano (Northern Italy). Among the 162 norovirus (NoV)-positive cases out of 702 cases investigated, 76 were grouped in nine suspected outbreaks, 37 were hospital-acquired and 49 were community-acquired sporadic cases. NoV infections were found in all age groups in outbreak and community-acquired cases, while the highest peak of hospital-acquired infections occurred in the elderly...
January 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
M Salama, Z Amitai, A V Ezernitchi, R Sheffer, J Jaffe, S Rahmani, E Leshem, L Valinsky
This study analyses the epidemiologic, clinical and molecular findings of all culture-confirmed cases of listeriosis notified from 2010 to 2015 in the Tel Aviv District, which is known to have high rates of listeriosis. All clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes were subtyped using two-enzyme pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. During the studied period, 102 cases of listeriosis were notified, including 23 pregnancy-associated cases (23%). Among 79 non-pregnancy-associated cases, 18 had neuro-invasive disease (21%)...
January 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J A Hutchinson, C Wheeler, J C Mohle-Boetani
A salmonellosis outbreak occurred at a California prison in April and May 2016. In a cohort study of 371 inmates, persons who consumed dishes from the prison kitchen made from ground meat had a higher attack rate (15%) than those who did not (4%) (risk ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.6). The ground meat product was composed exclusively of beef, mechanically separated chicken (MSC) and textured vegetable protein; eight of eight lots of the product collected from the prison and processing facility were contaminated with Salmonella enterica of eight serotypes and 17 distinct PFGE patterns, including multidrug-resistant S...
January 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
G A Rocha, D F Lima, E R Rodrigues, R S Leão, T W Folescu, M C Firmida, R W F Cohen, R M Albano, E A Marques
Acinetobacter spp. are important healthcare pathogens, being closely linked to antibiotic resistance and outbreaks worldwide. Although such species are rarely observed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we describe the characteristics of 53 strains of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the sputum of 39 Brazilian patients with CF. The species distribution was A. baumannii (n = 29), A. pittii (n = 13), A. nosocomialis (n = 8), A. seifertii (n = 1), A. soli (n = 1) and A. variabilis (n = 1) determined by partial rpoB gene sequencing...
December 28, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Anwar E Ahmed
Although Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has a recorded 5 years of circulation in 27 countries worldwide, there is no international study to assess whether there is variation in mortality by region. Neither has there been a comprehensive study detailing how the disease characteristics of MERS-CoV influence mortality in patients presenting symptoms. This study aimed to assess how region, patient and disease characteristics influence 14- and 45-day mortality in MERS patients. The author utilised publically available data on MERS-CoV...
December 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
I P Chatziprodromidou, T Apostolou
The aim of the study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot (IB) for detecting antibodies of Neospora caninum in dairy cows, in the absence of a gold standard. The study complies with STRADAS-paratuberculosis guidelines for reporting the accuracy of the test. We tried to apply Bayesian models that do not require conditional independence of the tests under evaluation, but as convergence problems appeared, we used Bayesian methodology, that does not assume conditional dependence of the tests...
December 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
E Hasanov, S Zeynalova, M Geleishvili, E Maes, E Tongren, E Marshall, A Banyard, L M McElhinney, A M Whatmore, A R Fooks, D L Horton
Effective methods to increase awareness of preventable infectious diseases are key components of successful control programmes. Rabies is an example of a disease with significant impact, where public awareness is variable. A recent awareness campaign in a rabies endemic region of Azerbaijan provided a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of such campaigns. A cluster cross-sectional survey concerning rabies was undertaken following the awareness campaign in 600 households in 38 randomly selected towns, in districts covered by the campaign and matched control regions...
December 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Feng Zang, Ming Yue, Yinan Yao, Mei Liu, Haozhi Fan, Yue Feng, Xueshan Xia, Peng Huang, Rongbin Yu
The high rate of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) was one of the key issues of global public health concern. Interferon (IFN)-λ relevant genes were in the antiviral treatment pathway, not only influenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) spontaneous clearance, but also affected the IFN-mediated viral clearance. The aim of this study was to identify the association of interleukin 28B (IL28B), myxovirus resistance A (MxA) gene polymorphisms with HCV spontaneous clearance and therapeutic response in Chinese CHC patients. IL28B and MxA gene genotypes were detected among 231 CHC carriers, 428 subjects with HCV spontaneous clearance and 662 CHC patients with pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (pegIFN-α/RBV) treatment...
December 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"