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Epidemiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792586/the-incubation-period-of-hepatitis-e-genotype-1-insights-from-pooled-analyses-of-travellers
#1
A S Azman, I Ciglenecki, C Oeser, B Said, R S Tedder, S Ijaz
Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 (HEV G1) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa and Asia. HEV G1's natural history, including the incubation period, remains poorly understood, hindering surveillance efforts and effective control. Using individual-level data from 85 travel-related HEV G1 cases in England and Wales, we estimate the incubation period distribution using survival analysis methods, which allow for appropriate inference when only time ranges, rather than exact times are known for the exposure to HEV and symptom onset...
May 24, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789035/the-effect-of-transportation-and-lairage-on-faecal-shedding-and-carcass-contamination-with-escherichia-coli-o157-and-o26-in-very-young-calves-in-new-zealand
#2
P Jaros, A L Cookson, A Reynolds, H Withers, R Clemens, G Brightwell, J Mills, J Marshall, D J Prattley, D M Campbell, S Hathaway, N P French
The effect of transportation and lairage on the faecal shedding and post-slaughter contamination of carcasses with Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in young calves (4-7-day-old) was assessed in a cohort study at a regional calf-processing plant in the North Island of New Zealand, following 60 calves as cohorts from six dairy farms to slaughter. Multiple samples from each animal at pre-slaughter (recto-anal mucosal swab) and carcass at post-slaughter (sponge swab) were collected and screened using real-time PCR and culture isolation methods for the presence of E...
May 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785893/evaluating-vaccination-strategies-to-control-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-country-comparison-study
#3
T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781425/clinical-predictors-of-methicillin-resistance-and-their-impact-on-mortality-associated-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#4
Y M Wi, J Y Rhee, C I Kang, D R Chung, J H Song, K R Peck
We investigated the clinical predictors of methicillin-resistance and their impact on mortality in 371 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia identified from two prospective multi-centre studies. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 42.2% of community-onset and 74.5% of hospital-onset cases. No significant clinical difference was found between patients infected with MRSA vs. methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), except that the former were more likely to have had hospital-onset bacteraemia and received antibiotics in the preceding 90 days...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781424/review-analysis-and-impact-of-co-circulating-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-bangladesh
#5
Rokshana Parvin, Jahan Ara Begum, Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781418/waterborne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-on-the-kwazulu-natal-coast-south-africa-december-2016-january-2017
#6
P G Sekwadi, K G Ravhuhali, A Mosam, V Essel, G M Ntshoe, A M Shonhiwa, K McCarthy, J Mans, M B Taylor, N A Page, N Govender
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781416/the-risk-of-rabies-spread-in-japan-a-mathematical-modelling-assessment
#7
H Kadowaki, K Hampson, K Tojinbara, A Yamada, K Makita
Rabies was eliminated from Japan in 1957. In the 60 years since elimination, vaccination coverage has declined and dog ownership habits have changed. The purpose of this study was to assess the current risk of rabies spread in Japan. A spatially explicit transmission model was developed at the 1 km2 grid scale for Hokkaido and Ibaraki Prefectures. Parameters associated with dog movement and bite injuries were estimated using historical records from Japan, and were used with previously published epidemiological parameters...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781414/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-types-associated-with-cervical-lesions-in-sergipe-state-northeastern-brazil-high-frequency-of-a-possibly-carcinogenic-type
#8
I G S S Serra, E D Araujo, G S Barros, F L S G Santos, R Q Gurgel, M V A Batista
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and the prevalence of HPV types varies depending on the geographic region. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of HPV types in women with cervical lesions from Sergipe state, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in women with cervical lesions from March to December 2014. These lesions were investigated by PCR and HPV types were identified by DNA sequencing. 432 patients were included, of which 337 patients tested positive for HPV...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781412/imported-cases-and-minimum-temperature-drive-dengue-transmission-in-guangzhou-china-evidence-from-arimax-model
#9
Q L Jing, Q Cheng, J M Marshall, W B Hu, Z C Yang, J H Lu
Dengue is the fastest spreading mosquito-transmitted disease in the world. In China, Guangzhou City is believed to be the most important epicenter of dengue outbreaks although the transmission patterns are still poorly understood. We developed an autoregressive integrated moving average model incorporating external regressors to examine the association between the monthly number of locally acquired dengue infections and imported cases, mosquito densities, temperature and precipitation in Guangzhou. In multivariate analysis, imported cases and minimum temperature (both at lag 0) were both associated with the number of locally acquired infections (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764527/an-outbreak-of-haemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-linked-with-mountain-recreational-activities-in-zagreb-croatia-2017
#10
Z Lovrić, B Kolarić, M L Kosanović Ličina, M Tomljenović, O Đaković Rode, K Danis, B Kaić, V Tešić
In 2017 Zagreb faced the largest outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) to date. We investigated to describe the extent of the outbreak and identify risk factors for infection. We compared laboratory-confirmed cases of Hantavirus infection in Zagreb residents with the onset of illness after 1 January 2017, with individually matched controls from the same household or neighbourhood. We calculated adjusted matched odds ratios (amOR) using conditional logistic regression. During 2017, 104 cases were reported: 11-81 years old (median 37) and 71% (73) male...
May 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759089/thrombocytopenia-in-bacteraemia-and-association-with-bacterial-species
#11
D Johansson, M Rasmussen, M Inghammar
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with invasive bacterial infections. Bacteria can activate platelets, but it is unclear if this affects platelet count. The aim of this study was to examine whether bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus, which readily activate human platelets, was more likely to be complicated by thrombocytopenia than bacteraemia with Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae with different abilities to activate platelets.We compared information from 600 adult patients with community-acquired bacteraemia with S...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759086/comprehensive-nationwide-analysis-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-finland-from-1983-to-2013
#12
I Aho, P Kivelä, M Kaijomaa, H-M Surcel, M Ristola, O Heikinheimo, J Sutinen
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745351/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-latrine-intervention-in-the-reduction-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-health-in-nyando-district-kisumu-county-kenya
#13
C Babb, N Makotsi, I Heimler, R C Bailey, R C Hershow, P Masanga, S D Mehta
Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is an intervention that strives to end the practice of open defaecation. This study measured the effectiveness of CLTS in Nyando District by examining the association between community open defaecation-free (ODF) status and childhood diarrhoeal illness. A cross-sectional study design was used among households with children ⩽5 years old to ascertain information on acute diarrhoea in the past year (outcome), sanitation and health behaviours. Water testing was conducted to determine Escherichia coli and turbidity levels for 55 water sources...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743125/significant-spike-in-excess-mortality-in-england-in-winter-2014-15-influenza-the-likely-culprit
#14
R G Pebody, H K Green, F Warburton, M Sinnathamby, J Ellis, K Mølbak, J Nielsen, S de Lusignan, N Andrews
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008-2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301-27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834-2052) in 15-64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739487/risk-factors-for-veterinary-hospital-environmental-contamination-with-salmonella-enterica
#15
B A Burgess, P S Morley
Healthcare-associated infections in veterinary hospitals are commonly attributed to Salmonella enterica, particularly in large animal facilities, and are characteristically associated with widespread environmental contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate factors influencing the likelihood of identifying environmental contamination of a veterinary hospital with S. enterica, while exploring different analytic methods to model complex factors that may influence this ecology. Environmental surveillance samples were collected in a large veterinary hospital as part of a long-term infection control programme...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739486/outcomes-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#16
Kierra M Dotson, Samuel L Aitken, Amelia K Sofjan, Dhara N Shah, Rajender R Aparasu, Kevin W Garey
Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have frequent exposure to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) risk factors but the incidence and aetiology of CDI on this population is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, disease presentation and outcomes of CDI in patients with underlying CLD. The Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) 2009 dataset was used to identify patients with CLD who developed CDI along with matched non-CLD patients with CDI...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739483/risk-factors-for-sporadic-giardia-infection-in-the-usa-a-case-control-study-in-colorado-and-minnesota
#17
H E Reses, J W Gargano, J L Liang, A Cronquist, K Smith, S A Collier, S L Roy, J Vanden Eng, A Bogard, B Lee, M C Hlavsa, E S Rosenberg, K E Fullerton, M J Beach, J S Yoder
Giardia duodenalis is the most common intestinal parasite of humans in the USA, but the risk factors for sporadic (non-outbreak) giardiasis are not well described. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Colorado and Minnesota public health departments conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors for sporadic giardiasis in the USA. Cases (N = 199) were patients with non-outbreak-associated laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection in Colorado and Minnesota, and controls (N = 381) were matched by age and site...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739482/serum-anti-tetanus-and-measles-antibody-titres-in-ugandan-children-aged-4-months-to-6-years-implications-for-vaccine-programme
#18
Lenesha Warrener, Josephine Bwogi, Nick Andrews, Dhanraj Samuel, Theopista Kabaliisa, Henry Bukenya, Kevin Brown, Martha H Roper, David A Featherstone, David Brown
To study the antibody response to tetanus toxoid and measles by age following vaccination in children aged 4 months to 6 years in Entebbe, Uganda. Serum samples were obtained from 113 children aged 4-15 months, at the Mother-Child Health Clinic (MCHC), Entebbe Hospital and from 203 of the 206 children aged between 12 and 75 months recruited through the Outpatients Department (OPD). Antibodies to measles were quantified by plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and with Siemens IgG EIA. VaccZyme IgG EIA was used to quantify anti-tetanus antibodies...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739474/social-contact-patterns-of-infants-in-deciding-vaccination-strategy-a-prospective-cross-sectional-single-centre-study
#19
M M Oguz, A D Camurdan, F N Aksakal, M Akcaboy, E Altinel Acoglu
Social contact between individuals is believed to be a fundamental cause in the transmission of many respiratory tract infections. Because they have not yet been fully vaccinated, infants are at high risk for contracting whooping cough, influenza and their serious complications. Therefore, determining infant social contact patterns is an important step in protecting them from respiratory tract infection. This study included 1200 healthy infants (<12 months of age). Social contact diaries were used to estimate the frequency and nature of the infants' social contacts...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734964/best-practice-assessment-of-disease-modelling-for-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#20
Z F Dembek, T Chekol, A Wu
During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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