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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936562/the-environmental-behavior-of-methylene-4-4-dianiline
#1
Thomas Schupp, Hans Allmendinger, Christian Boegi, Bart T A Bossuyt, Bjoern Hidding, Summer Shen, Bernard Tury, Robert J West
Methylene-4,4'-dianiline (MDA, CAS-No. 101-77-9) is a high production volume intermediate that is mainly processed to diisocyanates and finally polyurethanes. This review summarizes available data concerning the environmental behavior. When released into the environment, MDA distributes into water and subsequently sediment and soil compartments; the air is of little relevance, owed to the low vapor pressure and short atmospheric half-life, which renders MDA non-critical for long-range transport. Biodegradation data present a diverged picture; in some tests, MDA is not readily biodegradable or even not inherent biodegradable; in other tests, MDA turned out to be readily biodegradable (but failing the 10-d window)...
June 24, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872923/distribution-of-microplastics-and-nanoplastics-in-aquatic-ecosystems-and-their-impacts-on-aquatic-organisms-with-emphasis-on-microalgae
#2
Jun-Kit Wan, Wan-Loy Chu, Yih-Yih Kok, Choy-Sin Lee
Plastics, with their many useful physical and chemical properties, are widely used in various industries and activities of daily living. Yet, the insidious effects of plastics, particularly long-term effects on aquatic organisms, are not properly understood. Plastics have been shown to degrade to micro- and nanosize particles known as microplastics and nanoplastics, respectively. These minute particles have been shown to cause various adverse effects on aquatic organisms, ranging from growth inhibition, developmental delay and altered feeding behaviour in aquatic animals to decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and induction of oxidative stress in microalgae...
June 6, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532252/a-nondestructive-method-to-identify-pop-contamination-sources-in-omnivorous-seabirds
#3
Rosanne J Michielsen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, John R Parsons, Michiel H S Kraak
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls...
March 13, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526018/a-review-of-the-chemistry-pesticide-use-and-environmental-fate-of-sulfur-dioxide-as-used-in-california
#4
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119384/tributyltin-advancing-the-science-on-assessing-endocrine-disruption-with-an-unconventional-endocrine-disrupting-compound
#5
REVIEW
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079931/a-global-overview-of-exposure-levels-and-biological-effects-of-trace-elements-in-penguins
#6
REVIEW
Winfred Espejo, José E Celis, Daniel GonzÃlez-Acuña, Andiranel Banegas, Ricardo Barra, Gustavo Chiang
Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038944/environmental-lead-and-wild-birds-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Williams, Steven D Holladay, Susan M Williams, Robert M Gogal
Lead is a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects humans and animals worldwide. Avian species are especially susceptible to lead exposure through consumption of lead ammunition, lead fishing tackle, and other contaminated food sources such as aquatic species ingesting lead contaminated sediments in mining areas. Even with government regulations on the use of lead ammunition in many countries, including the United States, terrestrial, aquatic, predatory, and scavenger avian species are still at risk of exposure to potentially lethal concentrations of lead...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032515/oxidative-stress-and-heavy-metals-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Radka Fryzova, Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Hana Cihlarova, Martin Brtnicky, Jan Hladky, Jindrich Kynicky
Oxidative stress is a pathological process related to not only animal kingdom but also plants. Regarding oxidative stress in plants, heavy metals are frequently discussed as causative stimuli with relevance to ecology. Because heavy metals have broad technological importance, they can easily contaminate the environment. Much of previous effort regarding the harmful impact of the heavy metals was given to their toxicology in the animals and humans. Their implication in plant pathogeneses is less known and remains underestimated...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856377/letter-to-the-editor
#9
REVIEW
James Fish
J. Fish.
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710647/impacts-of-sublethal-mercury-exposure-on-birds-a-detailed-review
#10
REVIEW
Margaret C Whitney, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466189/a-review-of-the-environmental-degradation-ecotoxicity-and-bioaccumulation-potential-of-the-low-molecular-weight-polyether-polyol-substances
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Schupp, Tom Austin, Charles V Eadsforth, Bart Bossuyt, Summer M Shen, Robert J West
"Polyalkylene glycol" is the name given to a broad class of synthetic organic chemicals which are produced by polymerization of one or more alkylene oxide (epoxide) monomers, such as ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO), with various initiator substances which possess amine or alcohol groups. A generalization of this polymerization reaction is illustrated in Fig. 1.
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361472/a-global-perspective-of-fine-particulate-matter-pollution-and-its-health-effects
#12
REVIEW
Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280081/how-to-adapt-chemical-risk-assessment-for-unconventional-hydrocarbon-extraction-related-to-the-water-system
#13
Ann-Hélène Faber, Mark Annevelink, Herman Kasper Gilissen, Paul Schot, Marleen van Rijswick, Pim de Voogt, Annemarie van Wezel
We identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps of chemical risk assessment related to unconventional drillings and propose adaptations. We discuss how chemical risk assessment in the context of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) activities differs from conventional chemical risk assessment and the implications for existing legislation. A UO&G suspect list of 1,386 chemicals that might be expected in the UO&G water samples was prepared which can be used for LC-HRMS suspect screening. We actualize information on reported concentrations in UO&G-related water...
December 27, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026926/erratum-to-nitrate-and-nitrogen-oxides-sources-health-effects-and-their-remediation
#14
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204900/cadmium-bioaccumulation-in-aquatic-oligochaetes-using-a-biodynamic-model-a-review-of-values-of-physiological-parameters-and-model-validation-using-laboratory-and-field-bioaccumulation-data
#15
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Fernández, Pilar Rodriguez, Maite Martínez-Madrid
This study reviews certain physiological digestive parameters in the literature that could be used to predict tissue residues in aquatic oligochaetes using the biodynamic model. Predictions were evaluated with independently measured Cd bioaccumulation data in sediment bioassays and field oligochaetes. The parameter review focused on three species commonly used in ecotoxicity testing and bioaccumulation studies: Tubifex tubifex (Tt), Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Lh) and Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). Median Ingestion rates (g g(-1) d(-1), dw) at unpolluted conditions were 7...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028609/modelling-the-release-transport-and-fate-of-engineered-nanoparticles-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Adriaan A Markus, John R Parsons, Erwin W M Roex, Pim de Voogt, Remi W P M Laane
Engineered nanoparticles, that is, particles of up to 100 nm in at least one dimension, are used in many consumer products. Their release into the environment as a consequence of their production and use has raised concern about the possible consequences. While they are made of ordinary substances, their size gives them properties that are not manifest in larger particles. It is precisely these properties that make them useful. For instance titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in transparent sunscreens, because they are large enough to scatter ultraviolet light but too small to scatter visible light...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005215/arsenic-a-review-on-exposure-pathways-accumulation-mobility-and-transmission-into-the-human-food-chain
#17
REVIEW
Beste Arslan, Mustafa B A Djamgoz, Ertan Akün
This review deals with exposure pathways of arsenic (As), as well as its transfer and uptake processes from its source to the human body. It is proven fact that uptake of inorganic As for a long period can lead to chronic As poisoning and a variety of adverse health effects such as skin, lung and bladder cancer, in addition to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms. As exposure occurs primarily from consumption of potable water containing high amounts of inorganic As and also from consumption of crops cultivated in As contaminated agricultural fields-either naturally or anthropogenically through contaminated air or pesticides-or irrigated with As containing water...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005214/aluminium-toxicity-to-plants-as-influenced-by-the-properties-of-the-root-growth-environment-affected-by-other-co-stressors-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Joanna Siecińska, Artur Nosalewicz
Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005213/impact-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-on-the-agricultural-environment-a-re-inspection
#19
REVIEW
Paulina Łukaszewicz, Joanna Maszkowska, Ewa Mulkiewicz, Jolanta Kumirska, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) is a result of growing animal production. Manure, a great crop fertilizer, contains a significant amount of VPs. The investigation of VPs in manure is prevalent, because of the potential risk for environmental organisms, as well as human health. A re-evaluation of the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals on the agricultural environment is needed, even though several publications appear every year. The aim of this review was to collate the data from fields investigated for the presence of VPs as an inevitable component of manure...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807635/a-review-on-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-in-south-asia-with-a-focus-on-malaysia
#20
REVIEW
Han Yeong Kaw, Narayanan Kannan
Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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