Read by QxMD icon Read

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

James E Woodrow, Kate A Gibson, James N Seiber
Pesticides and other toxicants released into the environment can contaminate air, water, soil, and biota. This review focuses on sources, exposures, fate, analysis, and trends. The potential for exposures due to atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides and related contaminants may pose risks to humans and wildlife. Emissions of chemicals to air are related to physicochemical properties (e.g., vapor pressure and chemical stability). Experimental design and computer-based modeling, as related to emissions and dispersion of pesticides along transects downwind from release sources, will be discussed using the example of pesticide volatilization and drift in California agriculture that results in the transport and deposition downwind to the Sierra Nevada mountains, where much work has been done to refine exposure data for use in risk assessment and management...
December 8, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lamidi W B Olaniyan, Omobola O Okoh, Noxolo T Mkwetshana, Anthony I Okoh
4-tert-Octylphenol is a degradation product of non-ionic surfactants alkylphenol polyethoxylates as well as raw material for a number of industrial applications. It is a multimedia compound having been detected in all environmental compartments such as indoor air and surface waters. The pollutant is biodegradable, but certain degradation products are more toxic than the parent compound. Newer removal techniques from environmental waters have been presented, but they still require development for large-scale applications...
November 21, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sam Lekamge, Andrew S Ball, Ravi Shukla, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry yielding many benefits to society. However, aquatic environments are at risk as increasing amounts of nanoparticles (NPs) are contaminating waterbodies causing adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this review, the impacts of environmental exposure to NPs, the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of NPs and the surrounding environment on toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity together with NP bioaccumulation and trophic transfer are assessed with a focus on their impacts on bacteria, algae and daphnids...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jorge Vizuete, Marcos Pérez-López, María Prado Míguez-Santiyán, David Hernández-Moreno
Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and arsenic (As) are metals or metalloids of high concern because of their effects on the environment and, specially, their potential toxicity on the animals inhabiting there. Due to their relevance, these elements have been object of several biomonitoring studies in different animal species around the world. Birds are widespread and, as species, are able to supply specific and relevant information about the regions where they live, being useful as bioindicators, as long as they are not birds with a strong migratory character...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Asok K Dasmahapatra, Thabitha P S Dasari, Paul B Tchounwou
Due to their unique physicochemical properties, graphene-based nanoparticles (GPNs) constitute one of the most promising types of nanomaterials used in biomedical research. GPNs have been used as polymeric conduits for nerve regeneration and carriers for targeted drug delivery and in the treatment of cancer via photothermal therapy. Moreover, they have been used as tracers to study the distribution of bioactive compounds used in healthcare. Due to their extensive use, GPN released into s environment would probably pose a threat to living organisms and ultimately to human health...
November 10, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Svetlana V Azarovа, Tatiana V Usmanova, Antonina M Mezhibor
The exploitation of mineral deposits is followed by the formation of huge amounts of wastes, which have strong negative impacts on the surrounding environment. This paper presents the results of the compilation of data on general environmental problems in sites of waste disposal from mining and ore processing in Russia, based on the analysis of published data and own research. The own research of the authors relates to the estimation of the environmental hazards of mining waste using geochemical investigations and biotesting, as well as the development of the classification of technogenic mineral resources counting the reasons of the accumulation of precious components in them and findings on their environmental impact...
November 8, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Thomas Schupp, Hans Allmendinger, Christian Boegi, Bart T A Bossuyt, Bjoern Hidding, Summer Shen, Bernard Tury, Robert J West
Methylene-4,4'-dianiline (MDA, CAS-No. 101-77-9) is a high production volume intermediate that is mainly processed to diisocyanates and finally polyurethanes. This review summarizes available data concerning the environmental behavior. When released into the environment, MDA distributes into water and subsequently sediment and soil compartments; the air is of little relevance, owed to the low vapor pressure and short atmospheric half-life, which renders MDA non-critical for long-range transport. Biodegradation data present a diverged picture; in some tests, MDA is not readily biodegradable or even not inherent biodegradable; in other tests, MDA turned out to be readily biodegradable (but failing the 10-d window)...
June 24, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jun-Kit Wan, Wan-Loy Chu, Yih-Yih Kok, Choy-Sin Lee
Plastics, with their many useful physical and chemical properties, are widely used in various industries and activities of daily living. Yet, the insidious effects of plastics, particularly long-term effects on aquatic organisms, are not properly understood. Plastics have been shown to degrade to micro- and nanosize particles known as microplastics and nanoplastics, respectively. These minute particles have been shown to cause various adverse effects on aquatic organisms, ranging from growth inhibition, developmental delay and altered feeding behaviour in aquatic animals to decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and induction of oxidative stress in microalgae...
June 6, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rosanne J Michielsen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, John R Parsons, Michiel H S Kraak
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls...
March 13, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Winfred Espejo, José E Celis, Daniel GonzÃlez-Acuña, Andiranel Banegas, Ricardo Barra, Gustavo Chiang
Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Robert J Williams, Steven D Holladay, Susan M Williams, Robert M Gogal
Lead is a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects humans and animals worldwide. Avian species are especially susceptible to lead exposure through consumption of lead ammunition, lead fishing tackle, and other contaminated food sources such as aquatic species ingesting lead contaminated sediments in mining areas. Even with government regulations on the use of lead ammunition in many countries, including the United States, terrestrial, aquatic, predatory, and scavenger avian species are still at risk of exposure to potentially lethal concentrations of lead...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Radka Fryzova, Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Hana Cihlarova, Martin Brtnicky, Jan Hladky, Jindrich Kynicky
Oxidative stress is a pathological process related to not only animal kingdom but also plants. Regarding oxidative stress in plants, heavy metals are frequently discussed as causative stimuli with relevance to ecology. Because heavy metals have broad technological importance, they can easily contaminate the environment. Much of previous effort regarding the harmful impact of the heavy metals was given to their toxicology in the animals and humans. Their implication in plant pathogeneses is less known and remains underestimated...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
James Fish
J. Fish.
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Margaret C Whitney, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant known to accumulate in, and negatively affect, fish-eating and oceanic bird species, and recently demonstrated to impact some terrestrial songbirds to a comparable extent. It can bioaccumulate to concentrations of >1 μg/g in tissues of prey organisms such as fish and insects. At high enough concentrations, exposure to mercury is lethal to birds. However, environmental exposures are usually far below the lethal concentrations established by dosing studies...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Thomas Schupp, Tom Austin, Charles V Eadsforth, Bart Bossuyt, Summer M Shen, Robert J West
"Polyalkylene glycol" is the name given to a broad class of synthetic organic chemicals which are produced by polymerization of one or more alkylene oxide (epoxide) monomers, such as ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO), with various initiator substances which possess amine or alcohol groups. A generalization of this polymerization reaction is illustrated in Fig. 1.
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2...
2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ann-Hélène Faber, Mark Annevelink, Herman Kasper Gilissen, Paul Schot, Marleen van Rijswick, Pim de Voogt, Annemarie van Wezel
We identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps of chemical risk assessment related to unconventional drillings and propose adaptations. We discuss how chemical risk assessment in the context of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) activities differs from conventional chemical risk assessment and the implications for existing legislation. A UO&G suspect list of 1,386 chemicals that might be expected in the UO&G water samples was prepared which can be used for LC-HRMS suspect screening. We actualize information on reported concentrations in UO&G-related water...
December 27, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"