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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2...
March 31, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Leire Méndez-Fernández, Pilar Rodriguez, Maite Martínez-Madrid
This study reviews certain physiological digestive parameters in the literature that could be used to predict tissue residues in aquatic oligochaetes using the biodynamic model. Predictions were evaluated with independently measured Cd bioaccumulation data in sediment bioassays and field oligochaetes. The parameter review focused on three species commonly used in ecotoxicity testing and bioaccumulation studies: Tubifex tubifex (Tt), Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Lh) and Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). Median Ingestion rates (g g(-1) d(-1), dw) at unpolluted conditions were 7...
February 16, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Han Yeong Kaw, Narayanan Kannan
Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M Kurek, H Barchańska, M Turek
Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide)...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Girish Kumar, Nancy D Denslow
In this review, we present an overview of transcriptomic responses to chemical exposures in a variety of fish species. We have discussed the use of several molecular approaches such as northern blotting, differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), microarrays, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) for measuring gene expression. These techniques have been mainly used to measure the toxic effects of single compounds or simple mixtures in laboratory conditions...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shakirullah Khan Shakir, Azizullah Azizullah, Waheed Murad, Muhammad K Daud, Farhat Nabeela, Hazir Rahman, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Donat-Peter Häder
Environmental pollution has increased many folds in recent years and in some places has reached levels that are toxic to living things. Among pollutant types, toxic heavy metals and metalloids are among the chemicals that pose the highest threat to biological systems (Jjemba 2004). Unlike organic pollutants, which are biodegradable, heavy metals are not degraded into less hazardous end products (Gupta et al. 2001). Low concentrations of some heavy metals are essential for life, but some of them like Hg, As, Pb and Cd are biologically non-essential and very toxic to living organisms...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Moustafa Gamal Snousy, M F Zawrah, Th Abdel-Moghny, M A Ebiad, A M Rashad, Mahmoud M Khalil, E M Abu El Ella, E El-Sayed, M A Tantawy
The northwestern part of Suez Gulf region is a strategic area in Egypt. It includes important sources of national income. To achieve the development goals, the government has established huge projects in this area (e.g. establishment and expanding of a large commercial port at Ain Sokhna, many industrial zones as well as tourism projects). The utilization of the Suez Gulf resources and their continuing development mainly depend on the creation of actual pollution control programs. The environmental quality control and pollution reduction activities are important ingredients of any economic development program...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Muhammad Shahid, Camille Dumat, Sana Khalid, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Paula M C Antunes
This review summarizes the findings of the most recent studies, published from 2000 to 2016, which focus on the biogeochemical behavior of Cd in soil-plant systems and its impact on the ecosystem. For animals and people not subjected to a Cd-contaminated environment, consumption of Cd contaminated food (vegetables, cereals, pulses and legumes) is the main source of Cd exposure. As Cd does not have any known biological function, and can further cause serious deleterious effects both in plants and mammalian consumers, cycling of Cd within the soil-plant system is of high global relevance...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
T Schupp, H Allmendinger, B T A Bossuyt, B Hidding, B Tury, R J West
Concerning chronic toxicity, D. magna is the most sensitive species tested against MDA aquatic exposures, with a 21 days-NOEC of 0.00525 mg/L. Exposure of daphnids takes place via the aquatic phase. Other species of the same phylum (Arthropoda) appear to be less sensitive albeit with exposures via soil or sediment, with a 28 days-NOEC of 562 mg/kg d. w. soil (F. candida) and 41.3 mg/kg d. w. sediment (Hyalella azteca), for reproductive and survival endpoints, respectively. Also for acute toxicity, D. magna is more sensitive than the other species, with an 48 h-EC50 that spreads over two orders of magnitude, ranging from 0...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
D K Gupta, S Chatterjee, S Datta, A V Voronina, C Walther
Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mirna Velki, Sandra Ečimović
The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John F Risher, Pamela Tucker
There are a number of mechanisms by which alkylmercury compounds cause toxic action in the body. Collectively, published studies reveal that there are some similarities between the mechanisms of the toxic action of the mono-alkyl mercury compounds methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg). This paper represents a summary of some of the studies regarding these mechanisms of action in order to facilitate the understanding of the many varied effects of alkylmercurials in the human body. The similarities in mechanisms of toxicity for MeHg and EtHg are presented and compared...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Milica Paut Kusturica, Ana Tomas, Ana Sabo
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the practice of medication disposal around the world and get insight into possible association between environmental awareness and people's behavior regarding this issue. A literature search (2005-2015) was performed to identify reports with quantitative data on disposal practices published in peer-reviewed literature. The most common method for disposal of unused medications in households is disposal in the garbage (Kuwait, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Qatar, Serbia, Ghana, Bangladesh, Malta and Saudi Arabia)...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, Marc De Ley
Human exposure to arsenic (As) can lead to oxidative stress that can become evident in organs such as the skin, liver, kidneys and lungs. Several intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms including glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) have been shown to minimize As cytotoxicity. The current review summarizes the involvement of MT as an intracellular defense mechanism against As cytotoxicity, mostly in blood. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplements are also proposed as a possible remediation of As cytotoxicity...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Małgorzata Szopińska, Jacek Namieśnik, Żaneta Polkowska
Despite the fact that Antarctica is a continent notably free from large negative impact of human activities, literature data can be the basis for concluding that this is not an area free from anthropogenic pollutants. Pollutants, which are identified in various elements of the environment of Antarctica, are mostly connected with long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and deposition in this area. The study presents: a historical overview of research pertaining to the presence of pollutants in entire Antarctica; a description of the development of research on pollutants in various environmental samples conducted in this area since 1960; a detailed description of contemporary analytical research (2000-2014); information on concentration levels of a broad range of pollutants present in various elements of the environment...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Naima Hamid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Atif Kamal, Faiqa Aziz, Sundas Tanveer, Usman Ali, Alessandra Cincinelli, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Jun Li, Riffat Naseem Malik, Gan Zhang
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are consistently posing high risks to human/biota in developing countries of South Asia where domestic areas are exposed to biomass burning and commercial/industrial activities. This review article summarized the available data on PAHs occurrence, distribution, potential sources and their possible risks in the key environmental matrices (i.e., Air, Soil/Sediments, Water) from South Asian Region (SAR). Available literature reviewed suggested that PAHs concentration levels were strongly influenced by the monsoonal rainfall system in the region and it has been supported by many studies that higher concentrations were measured during the winter season as compared to summer...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Gaurav Saxena, Ram Chandra, Ram Naresh Bharagava
Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Noël J Diepens, Albert A Koelmans, Hans Baveco, Paul J van den Brink, Martine J van den Heuvel-Greve, Theo C M Brock
A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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