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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466189/a-review-of-the-environmental-degradation-ecotoxicity-and-bioaccumulation-potential-of-the-low-molecular-weight-polyether-polyol-substances
#1
Thomas Schupp, Tom Austin, Charles V Eadsforth, Bart Bossuyt, Summer M Shen, Robert J West
"Polyalkylene glycol" is the name given to a broad class of synthetic organic chemicals which are produced by polymerization of one or more alkylene oxide (epoxide) monomers, such as ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO), with various initiator substances which possess amine or alcohol groups. A generalization of this polymerization reaction is illustrated in Fig. 1.
May 3, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361472/a-global-perspective-of-fine-particulate-matter-pollution-and-its-health-effects
#2
Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2...
March 31, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204900/cadmium-bioaccumulation-in-aquatic-oligochaetes-using-a-biodynamic-model-a-review-of-values-of-physiological-parameters-and-model-validation-using-laboratory-and-field-bioaccumulation-data
#3
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Fernández, Pilar Rodriguez, Maite Martínez-Madrid
This study reviews certain physiological digestive parameters in the literature that could be used to predict tissue residues in aquatic oligochaetes using the biodynamic model. Predictions were evaluated with independently measured Cd bioaccumulation data in sediment bioassays and field oligochaetes. The parameter review focused on three species commonly used in ecotoxicity testing and bioaccumulation studies: Tubifex tubifex (Tt), Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Lh) and Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). Median Ingestion rates (g g(-1) d(-1), dw) at unpolluted conditions were 7...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028609/modelling-the-release-transport-and-fate-of-engineered-nanoparticles-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Adriaan A Markus, John R Parsons, Erwin W M Roex, Pim de Voogt, Remi W P M Laane
Engineered nanoparticles, that is, particles of up to 100 nm in at least one dimension, are used in many consumer products. Their release into the environment as a consequence of their production and use has raised concern about the possible consequences. While they are made of ordinary substances, their size gives them properties that are not manifest in larger particles. It is precisely these properties that make them useful. For instance titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in transparent sunscreens, because they are large enough to scatter ultraviolet light but too small to scatter visible light...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005215/arsenic-a-review-on-exposure-pathways-accumulation-mobility-and-transmission-into-the-human-food-chain
#5
REVIEW
Beste Arslan, Mustafa B A Djamgoz, Ertan Akün
This review deals with exposure pathways of arsenic (As), as well as its transfer and uptake processes from its source to the human body. It is proven fact that uptake of inorganic As for a long period can lead to chronic As poisoning and a variety of adverse health effects such as skin, lung and bladder cancer, in addition to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms. As exposure occurs primarily from consumption of potable water containing high amounts of inorganic As and also from consumption of crops cultivated in As contaminated agricultural fields-either naturally or anthropogenically through contaminated air or pesticides-or irrigated with As containing water...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005214/aluminium-toxicity-to-plants-as-influenced-by-the-properties-of-the-root-growth-environment-affected-by-other-co-stressors-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Siecińska, Artur Nosalewicz
Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005213/impact-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-on-the-agricultural-environment-a-re-inspection
#7
REVIEW
Paulina Łukaszewicz, Joanna Maszkowska, Ewa Mulkiewicz, Jolanta Kumirska, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) is a result of growing animal production. Manure, a great crop fertilizer, contains a significant amount of VPs. The investigation of VPs in manure is prevalent, because of the potential risk for environmental organisms, as well as human health. A re-evaluation of the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals on the agricultural environment is needed, even though several publications appear every year. The aim of this review was to collate the data from fields investigated for the presence of VPs as an inevitable component of manure...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807635/a-review-on-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-in-south-asia-with-a-focus-on-malaysia
#8
REVIEW
Han Yeong Kaw, Narayanan Kannan
Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734212/nitrate-and-nitrogen-oxides-sources-health-effects-and-their-remediation
#9
REVIEW
Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Mohd Sayeed Akhtar, Faridah Hanum Ibrahim, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad
Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718008/influence-of-nanotoxicity-on-human-health-and-environment-the-alternative-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718007/degradation-processes-of-pesticides-used-in-potato-cultivations
#11
REVIEW
M Kurek, H Barchańska, M Turek
Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide)...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464848/gene-expression-profiling-in-fish-toxicology-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Girish Kumar, Nancy D Denslow
In this review, we present an overview of transcriptomic responses to chemical exposures in a variety of fish species. We have discussed the use of several molecular approaches such as northern blotting, differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), microarrays, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) for measuring gene expression. These techniques have been mainly used to measure the toxic effects of single compounds or simple mixtures in laboratory conditions...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464847/toxic-metal-pollution-in-pakistan-and-its-possible-risks-to-public-health
#13
REVIEW
Shakirullah Khan Shakir, Azizullah Azizullah, Waheed Murad, Muhammad K Daud, Farhat Nabeela, Hazir Rahman, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Donat-Peter Häder
Environmental pollution has increased many folds in recent years and in some places has reached levels that are toxic to living things. Among pollutant types, toxic heavy metals and metalloids are among the chemicals that pose the highest threat to biological systems (Jjemba 2004). Unlike organic pollutants, which are biodegradable, heavy metals are not degraded into less hazardous end products (Gupta et al. 2001). Low concentrations of some heavy metals are essential for life, but some of them like Hg, As, Pb and Cd are biologically non-essential and very toxic to living organisms...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300015/mobility-and-fate-of-pollutants-in-the-aquifer-system-of-the-northwestern-suez-gulf-egypt
#14
REVIEW
Moustafa Gamal Snousy, M F Zawrah, Th Abdel-Moghny, M A Ebiad, A M Rashad, Mahmoud M Khalil, E M Abu El Ella, E El-Sayed, M A Tantawy
The northwestern part of Suez Gulf region is a strategic area in Egypt. It includes important sources of national income. To achieve the development goals, the government has established huge projects in this area (e.g. establishment and expanding of a large commercial port at Ain Sokhna, many industrial zones as well as tourism projects). The utilization of the Suez Gulf resources and their continuing development mainly depend on the creation of actual pollution control programs. The environmental quality control and pollution reduction activities are important ingredients of any economic development program...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300014/cadmium-bioavailability-uptake-toxicity-and-detoxification-in-soil-plant-system
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid, Camille Dumat, Sana Khalid, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Paula M C Antunes
This review summarizes the findings of the most recent studies, published from 2000 to 2016, which focus on the biogeochemical behavior of Cd in soil-plant systems and its impact on the ecosystem. For animals and people not subjected to a Cd-contaminated environment, consumption of Cd contaminated food (vegetables, cereals, pulses and legumes) is the main source of Cd exposure. As Cd does not have any known biological function, and can further cause serious deleterious effects both in plants and mammalian consumers, cycling of Cd within the soil-plant system is of high global relevance...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300013/review-of-the-ecotoxicological-properties-of-the-methylenedianiline-substances
#16
REVIEW
T Schupp, H Allmendinger, B T A Bossuyt, B Hidding, B Tury, R J West
Concerning chronic toxicity, D. magna is the most sensitive species tested against MDA aquatic exposures, with a 21 days-NOEC of 0.00525 mg/L. Exposure of daphnids takes place via the aquatic phase. Other species of the same phylum (Arthropoda) appear to be less sensitive albeit with exposures via soil or sediment, with a 28 days-NOEC of 562 mg/kg d. w. soil (F. candida) and 41.3 mg/kg d. w. sediment (Hyalella azteca), for reproductive and survival endpoints, respectively. Also for acute toxicity, D. magna is more sensitive than the other species, with an 48 h-EC50 that spreads over two orders of magnitude, ranging from 0...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300012/radionuclides-accumulation-and-transport-in-plants
#17
REVIEW
D K Gupta, S Chatterjee, S Datta, A V Voronina, C Walther
Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161559/important-issues-in-ecotoxicological-investigations-using-earthworms
#18
Mirna Velki, Sandra Ečimović
The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161558/alkyl-mercury-induced-toxicity-multiple-mechanisms-of-action
#19
REVIEW
John F Risher, Pamela Tucker
There are a number of mechanisms by which alkylmercury compounds cause toxic action in the body. Collectively, published studies reveal that there are some similarities between the mechanisms of the toxic action of the mono-alkyl mercury compounds methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg). This paper represents a summary of some of the studies regarding these mechanisms of action in order to facilitate the understanding of the many varied effects of alkylmercurials in the human body. The similarities in mechanisms of toxicity for MeHg and EtHg are presented and compared...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115675/disposal-of-unused-drugs-knowledge-and-behavior-among-people-around-the-world
#20
REVIEW
Milica Paut Kusturica, Ana Tomas, Ana Sabo
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the practice of medication disposal around the world and get insight into possible association between environmental awareness and people's behavior regarding this issue. A literature search (2005-2015) was performed to identify reports with quantitative data on disposal practices published in peer-reviewed literature. The most common method for disposal of unused medications in households is disposal in the garbage (Kuwait, United Kingdom, Lithuania, Qatar, Serbia, Ghana, Bangladesh, Malta and Saudi Arabia)...
2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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