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Parasitology Research

G S Castañeda-Ramírez, J F J Torres-Acosta, C A Sandoval-Castro, P G González-Pech, V P Parra-Tabla, C Mathieu
In vitro studies using plant extracts suggest a relationship between their polyphenol contents and their anthelmintic (AH) activity against Haemonchus contortus. High polyphenol content appears to increase the efficacy of plant extracts against H. contortus as assessed by the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) while appearing to reduce the AH efficacy measured using the egg hatch assay (EHA). In addition, some plants lack AH activity. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between the contents of condensed tannins (CT), total phenols (TP), and total tannins (TT) in methanol:water extracts (70:30) obtained from ten tropical plant species consumed by small ruminants as well as their AH activity against H...
October 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
Weisi Wang, Xia Zhang, Huaming Zhang, Hehua Hu, Shizhu Li, Xiong Liu, Liping Duan
The molluscicidal activity of a novel molluscicide (niclosamidate) was evaluated in field trials against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The environmental safety of niclosamidate for local fishes was also studied under field conditions. The results showed that, at the dosages of 8.0 g/m(2) and 4.0 g/m(3), niclosamidate exhibits highly potent molluscicidal activity in the spraying and immersion trials, resulting in mortality rates of up to 81.8 and 72.7%, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
Abdouslam Asnoussi, Ibukun E Aibinu, Robin B Gasser, Andreas L Lopata, Peter M Smooker
Tropomyosin (TM) is a major allergen in shellfish, known to cross-react with mite, cockroach and/or some roundworm (nematode) TM. In this study, we aimed to express and purify TM from the parasitic nematode Anisakis pegreffii and also to characterise its cross-reactivity with TM from shellfish. A. pegreffii was isolated from the flathead tiger fish (Neoplatycephalus richardsoni) and characterised using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA...
October 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
Anastasia Diakou, Dimitra Sofroniou, Angela Di Cesare, Panagiotis Kokkinos, Donato Traversa
The present study investigated for the first time the occurrence of pulmonary and intestinal parasites of cats in Cyprus. Cats from five districts of Cyprus (Lefkosia, Lemesos, Larnaka, Pafos and Ammochostos) were examined by classical parasitological methods and the identity of lungworm larvae, whenever present, was confirmed by PCR-coupled sequencing. A total of 185 cats, 48 living exclusively indoors and 137 with outdoor access, were included in the study. Parasites were found in 66 (35.7%) of the examined cats, i...
October 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
Li Hu, YuanJun Yang, YaE Zhao, DongLing Niu, Rui Yang, RuiLing Wang, Zhaohui Lu, XiaoQi Li
There has been no widely accepted DNA barcode for species identification of Demodex. In this study, we attempted to solve this issue. First, mitochondrial cox1-5' and 12S gene fragments of Demodex folloculorum, D. brevis, D. canis, and D. caprae were amplified, cloned, and sequenced for the first time; intra/interspecific divergences were computed and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed. Then, divergence frequency distribution plots of those two gene fragments were drawn together with mtDNA cox1-middle region and 16S obtained in previous studies...
October 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
Diego Henrique Mirandola Dias Vieira, Gema Alama-Bermejo, Jerri Lee Bartholomew, Vanessa Doro Abdallah, Rodney Kozlowiski de Azevedo
Plasmodia containing myxospores belonging to the genus Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 were found in the ovaries and liver of Salminus hilarii. Despite its economic value, this fish host has no previous reports of myxozoan infections. Herein, we describe Myxobolus batalhensis n. sp. using morphological and ultrastructural data, as well as histological and SSU rDNA molecular data. The mature myxospores were elongated, measuring in average 15.2 ± 0.8 μm in length, 8.4 ± 0.4 μm in width, and 5.1 ± 0.2 μm in thickness...
October 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
Helge Kampen, Astrid Schuhbauer, Doreen Walther
Globalisation and climate change are the main drivers of invasion of non-endemic regions by mosquitoes. Mass transportation of people, animals and goods facilitate accidental long-distance displacement while climate warming supports active spread and establishment of thermophilic species. In the framework of a mosquito-monitoring programme, eight non-indigenous culicid species have been registered in Germany since 2011, with four of them being more or less efficient vectors of disease agents and another four now considered established...
October 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
Marwan Osman, Dima El Safadi, Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste, Amandine Cian, Romain Moriniere, Nausicaa Gantois, Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi, Karine Guyot, Stéphanie Bosc, Magali Chabé, Thierry Petit, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium represents a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals including domestic, wild, and in captivity animals, and more than 30 validated species of Cryptosporidium are recognized as infectious to different hosts such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted worldwide in order to shed light on the epidemiology of this parasite and to explore its potential reservoirs. Few surveys, targeting humans and animals have been carried out regarding the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
Katharina Raue, Lea Heuer, Claudia Böhm, Sonja Wolken, Christian Epe, Christina Strube
The results of coproscopical examinations in domestic animals and hedgehogs carried out as routine diagnostics in the years 2003 to 2012 at the Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany, are presented. Of 3475 horse faecal samples, 30.1% contained stages of strongyles and 1.3% eggs of Strongyloides westeri and Parascaris equorum, respectively. The most frequently observed parasite stages in 1416 cattle faecal samples were Eimeria oocysts (21.3%) and strongyle eggs or larvae (15...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
Odelta Dos Santos, Graziela Vargas Rigo, Alexandre José Macedo, Tiana Tasca
The parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part is mediated by cytoadherence accomplished via five surface proteins named adhesins and a glycoconjugate called lipophosphoglycan (TvLPG). In this study, we evaluated the ability of T. vaginalis isolates to adhere to cells, plastic (polystyrene microplates), intrauterine device (IUD), and vaginal ring. Of 32 T. vaginalis isolates, 4 (12.5%) were strong adherent. The T. vaginalis isolates TV-LACM6 and TV-LACM14 (strong polystyrene-adherent) were also able to adhere to IUD and vaginal ring...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
Adebayo J Molehin, Souad R Sennoune, Weidong Zhang, Juan U Rojo, Arif J Siddiqui, Karlie A Herrera, Laura Johnson, Justin Sudduth, Jordan May, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis remains a major global health problem. Despite large-scale schistosomiasis control efforts, clear limitations such as possible emergence of drug resistance and reinfection rates highlight the need for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine. Schistosoma mansoni large subunit of calpain (Sm-p80)-based vaccine formulations have shown remarkable efficacy in protecting against S. mansoni challenge infections in mice and baboons. In this study, we evaluated the cross-species protective efficacy of Sm-p80 vaccine against S...
October 12, 2017: Parasitology Research
Iveta A Kyriánová, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Oldřich Kopecký, Iva Langrová
This study evaluated patterns and species composition of parasitic infections detected over a 1-year period at an organic goat farm. As a result of coprological examination, the overall prevalence of observed strongylids (99%), coccidia of the genus Eimeria (98%), and Muellerius capillaris lungworms (93%) was calculated. The most prevalent strongylids recovered from incubated fecal samples were Haemonchus contortus (42%), genera Trichostrongylus (23%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (13%), and Teladorsagia circumcincta (11%)...
October 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
Rafael Martínez-Girón, Cristina Martínez-Torre, Hugo Cornelis van Woerden
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
Lidia Chitimia-Dobler, Gerhard Dobler, Sabine Schaper, Thomas Küpper, Simone Kattner, Silke Wölfel
Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
Terunori Koreeda, Tomo Kawakami, Ayako Okada, Yoshimasa Hirashima, Naoto Imai, Kazumi Sasai, Shogo Tanaka, Makoto Matsubayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Bovine intranuclear coccidiosis is caused by the protozoans Eimeria alabamensis and Cyclospora spp. Here, we characterized the disease and genetically identified the causative species in Japanese black calves with chronic and refractory watery diarrhea. Histologic examinations revealed atrophy of the jejunal villi and numerous parasites in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the jejunum. Based on molecular analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers that we designed, the parasites were found to be formed in the same cluster as Eimeria subspherica in the phylogenetic tree, which was separated from those of other related Eimeria spp...
October 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
Lysanne Hiob, M Koethe, G Schares, T Goroll, A Daugschies, B Bangoura
The widespread apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) are important pathogens with high prevalence in poultry. The aim of our study was the investigation of mutual influences in co-infected chickens, focusing on immune response and course of infection. Two separate trials were performed using in total 96 1-day-old chickens, divided into four study groups: group NC (negative control, uninfected), group PC-T (oral or intramuscular infection with T. gondii oocysts (trial 1) or tachyzoites (trial 2), respectively), group PC-E (oral infection with E...
October 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
Emily Grzeda, Taylor Maurer, Clara Dannemann, Lemaly Ole Kibiriti, John Kioko, Christian Kiffner
Ticks and associated pathogens pose serious threats to the health of livestock. To assess the efficacy of acaricide dip treatment (cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxide, citronella), we assessed post-treatment tick acquisition and tick mortality of free-ranging Boran cattle inhabiting a wildlife-cattle ranch in Northern Tanzania. Because host intrinsic variables and exposure to ticks may substantially affect tick acquisition, we incorporated host sex, body mass, health condition, and distance traveled in models of tick acquisition...
October 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
Maria Isabel N Di Azevedo, Vitor L Carvalho, Alena M Iñiguez
Anisakidae are represented mainly by species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, Pseudoterranova Krabbe, 1878, and Contracaecum Railliet and Henry, 1913. Integrative taxonomy, based on morphological and genetic approaches, can provide a precise identification of species, increasing the knowledge of their systematics, biology, and evolution. In this study, integrative taxonomy was applied in order to identify, at generic and/or specific taxonomic level, 245 anisakids from 63 cetaceans of 12 different species, which stranded in the Brazilian coast...
October 3, 2017: Parasitology Research
Eva Špitalská, Lenka Minichová, Elena Kocianová, Ľudovít Škultéty, Lenka Mahríková, Zuzana Hamšíková, Mirko Slovák, Mária Kazimírová
Wild-living rodents are important hosts for zoonotic pathogens. Bartonella infections are widespread in rodents; however, in Slovakia, knowledge on the prevalence of these bacteria in small mammals is limited. We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella species in the spleens of 640 rodents of six species (Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Microtus subterraneus, and Micromys minutus) and in the European mole (Talpa europaea) from three different habitat types in south-western and central Slovakia...
October 3, 2017: Parasitology Research
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