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Parasitology Research

Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahdi Sharif, Saeid Abediankenari, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Reza Valadan, Mahdi Fasihi- Ramandie, Seyed-Abdollah Hosseini, Ahmad Daryani
Many recent studies have been conducted to evaluate protective immunity mediated by DNA vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Cocktail DNA vaccines showed better immune responses compared to single vaccines. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of rhomboid 4 (ROM4) and cocktail DNA vaccines (ROM4 + GRA14) of the Toxoplasma gondii RH strain with or without coated calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNs) as the adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity against the T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice...
December 2, 2016: Parasitology Research
Hefei Cha, Wenjuan Qin, Quan Yang, Hongyan Xie, Jiale Qu, Mei Wang, Daixiong Chen, Fang Wang, Nuo Dong, Longhua Chen, Jun Huang
Natural killer cells (NK cells) and natural killer T cells (NKT cells) play a role in anti-infection, anti-tumor, transplantation immunity, and autoimmune regulation. However, the role of NK and NKT cells during Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection has not been widely reported, especially regarding lung infections. The aim of this study was to research the NK and NKT cell response to S. japonicum infection in the lungs of mice. Using immunofluorescent histological analysis, NK and NKT cells were found near pulmonary granulomas...
November 30, 2016: Parasitology Research
Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Luther Van Der Mescht, Boris R Krasnov
Parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. Parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. However, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. We investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial Meriones crassus and social precocial Acomys cahirinus, exposed to parasitism by fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Parapulex chephrenis...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology Research
Mellesia F Lee, Paul Cadogan, Sarah Eytle, Sonia Copeland, Julia Walochnik, John F Lindo
Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
Mellesia F Lee, Herbert Auer, John F Lindo, Julia Walochnik
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite causing intestinal infections in a wide range of mammals. Two distinct assemblages, A and B, infect humans predominantly; however, both are believed to be generally zoonotic. Giardia strains associated with infections in Austria have not been investigated at the molecular level. In this study, 65 human stool samples microscopically positive for Giardia spp. were subjected to DNA isolation and nested PCR targeting fragments of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and beta-gardin (bg) genes...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
A Rodríguez-González, R Míguez-Lozano, V Sarabeev, J A Balbuena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
N K Sanil, Archana Chandran, P Shamal, C P Binesh
Two novel species of Ceratomyxa infecting marine ornamental fishes from Indian waters are described. Marine ornamentals, Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus, collected from Vizhinjam, along the southwest coast of India and Acanthurus leucosternon collected from Lakshadweep islands of Arabian Sea revealed Ceratomyxa infections in their gall bladders. Mature spores of Ceratomyxa from Chaetodon collare and Chaetodon decussatus were elongate and slightly crescentic, with rounded ends, and measured 5.20 ± 0...
November 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Yupin Manpratum, Wanlop Kaewkes, Pierre Echaubard, Banchob Sripa, Sasithorn Kaewkes
Metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic liver fluke, and Haplorchoides sp., a trematode maturing in catfish, are commonly found in cyprinid fish, the second intermediate hosts of both flukes. However, the specific identity of Haplorchoides sp. in Thailand and a precise assessment of the effects of co-infections with O. viverrini have never been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to identify the species of Haplorchoides and to investigate possible interactions of the two trematode species in cyprinid fishes...
November 23, 2016: Parasitology Research
Juliane Hintzen, Jens Thielebein, Arwid Daugschies, Ronald Schmäschke
Seventy-five previously frozen Northern Lapwings, Vanellus vanellus (Linnaeus, 1758) were dissected and examined for trematodes. The available birds were euthanized after suffering severe injuries from a hail storm. Trematode specimens were found in the air sacs, body cavities and kidneys. They were cleared, stained in Alaun-Carmine and examined via light microscopy. Trematodes were assigned to two different families and three different species: Uvitellina vanelli and Selfcoelum sp. from the family Cyclocoelidae and Tanaisia valida of the family Eucotylidae...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Zhen Liu, Yu Wu, Ying Feng, Feng Wu, Rui-Feng Liu, Li-Fu Wang, Jin-Yi Liang, Jia-Hua Liu, Xi Sun, Zhong-Dao Wu
The spleen is one of the most important peripheral immune organs, which is frequently affected in infectious diseases. Infectious diseases can induce splenic alterations including splenic atrophy and functional alteration, while splenic atrophy may in turn interferes with recovery of infectious diseases. Angiostrongyliasis is an infectious disease by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), which invade non-permissive hosts, such as humans and mice, to cause severe damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and acute inflammatory response...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
D d'Ovidio, N Pantchev, E Noviello, L Del Prete, M P Maurelli, G Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
Skunks are popular carnivore species kept both in zoological institutions and in households where they are hand raised as exotic pets. These small carnivores are considered the main definitive hosts of the roundworm Baylisascaris columnaris. The purpose of this survey was to investigate the occurrence of Baylisascaris spp. in striped skunks kept as pets or in private zoo collections in some European areas. Copromicroscopic data from two laboratories, one in Italy and one in Germany, were used. A total of 60 cases positive to Baylisascaris spp...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Qing Liu, Si-Yang Huang, Dong-Mei Yue, Jin-Lei Wang, Yujian Wang, Xiangrui Li, Xing-Quan Zhu
Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia duodenalis is a parasite that colonises the intestines of humans and other vertebrates, causing diarrhoea and poor nutrient absorption. G. duodenalis is sometimes considered an early diverging eukaryote, and its genome exhibits simplified molecular machinery for many cellular processes, which makes it an interesting model to study. The spliceosome, one of the most complex molecular machines in the eukaryotic cell, is responsible for intron excision and exon splicing. Just over a decade ago, it was believed that the G...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
Jia-Yun Yao, Yang Xu, Xue-Mei Yuan, Wen-Lin Yin, Gui-Lian Yang, Ling-Yun Lin, Xiao-Yi Pan, Chun-Feng Wang, Jin-Yu Shen
Ichthyophthirius is a severe disease of farmed freshwater fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but the protein profiles in different developmental stages of the parasite remain unknown. In the present study, proteins from trophonts and theronts of Ich were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). A total of 2300 proteins were identified in the two developmental stages, of which 1520 proteins were differentially expressed...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
J van Schaik, G Kerth
For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season...
November 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
Flávio Augusto Sanches Politi, Juliana Damieli Nascimento, Alexander Alves da Silva, Isabela Jacob Moro, Mariana Lopes Garcia, Rafael Victório Carvalho Guido, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro, Antônio Francisco Godinho, Maysa Furlan
Emerging resistance to insecticides has influenced pharmaceutical research and the search for alternatives to control the common bed bug Cimex lectularius. In this sense, natural products can play a major role. Tagetes patula, popularly known as dwarf marigold, is a plant native to North America with biocide potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological activity of T. patula essential oil (EO) against adult common bed bugs via exposure to dry residues by the Impregnated Paper Disk Test (IPDT) using cypermethrin as a positive control...
November 12, 2016: Parasitology Research
Huan Ding, Da-Bing Lu, Yu-Meng Gao, Yao Deng, Ying Li
Schistosomiasis is caused by the genus Schistosoma and affected more than 250 million people worldwide. Schistosoma japonicum was once seriously endemic in China and nearly 60 years of efforts has seen great success in disease control. However, due to its zoonotic nature and complex life cycle, the schistosomiasis transmission control and final elimination would require, besides an intersectoral approach, deep understanding of population genetics of the parasite. We therefore performed a snail survey in two marshland villages of Anhui province of China and collected S...
November 12, 2016: Parasitology Research
Carla Maia, María Casero, Giada Annoscia, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Vito Colella, André Pereira, Fábia Azevedo, Domenico Otranto
Cercopithifilaria bainae and Cercopithifilaria grassii (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are filarioids inhabiting the skin of dogs worldwide. The microfilariae of a third species namely, Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al. 2013, have been morphologically and molecularly characterized but scientific knowledge of this parasite is minimal. The first case of infection of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with the filarioid Cercopithifilaria sp. II is herein described in Castro Marim, Portugal. Microfilariae from skin sediment of the fox's ear were morphological characterized, and the identification was confirmed molecularly in samples from skin sediment, skin samples, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks collected from the animal (99% homology with Cercopithifilaria sp...
November 12, 2016: Parasitology Research
Daniele Corsaro, Claudia Wylezich, Julia Walochnik, Danielle Venditti, Rolf Michel
The genus Sappinia comprises free-living amoebae occurring worldwide in a variety of habitats such as soils, plant matter and freshwater ponds, but also animal faeces, and includes at present three species, S. pedata, S. diploidea and S. platani. The genus is potentially pathogenic, as indicated by the identification of S. pedata in a case of human amoebic encephalitis. Electron microscopy studies on some strains already revealed intracellular bacteria in Sappinia. In the current study, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) analysis of these bacterial endosymbionts...
November 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ondřej Balvín, Tomáš Bartonička, Kateřina Pilařová, Zachary DeVries, Coby Schal
The common bed bug Cimex lectularius, has been recently shown to constitute two host races, which are likely in the course of incipient speciation. The human-associated lineage splits from the ancestral bat-associated species deep in the history of modern humans, likely even prior to the Neolithic Period and establishment of the first permanent human settlements. Hybridization experiments between these two lineages show that post-mating reproductive barriers are incomplete due to local variation. As mating takes place in off-host refugia marked by aggregation semiochemicals, the present investigation tested the hypothesis that bed bugs use these semiochemicals to differentiate between refugia marked by bat- and human-associated bed bugs; this would constitute a pre-copulation isolation mechanism...
November 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
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