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Parasitology Research

Victor Otero Martinez, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça Lima, Chrissie Ferreira de Carvalho, José Antônio Menezes-Filho
Studies suggest that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can disturb human behavior. This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature on the possible associations between Toxoplasma gondii infection and neurobehavioral abnormalities in humans. We reviewed and summarized the studies published since 1990. The descriptors used were related to T. gondii infection and behavioral outcomes in humans; the main databases of the medical literature were accessed. The results of eight original articles published between 1994 and 2016 were evaluated and described...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Kumar Avishek, Kavita Ahuja, Dibyabhaba Pradhan, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, Hira L Nakhasi, Poonam Salotra
The morphological and biochemical alterations between the two life stages of Leishmania are governed by stage-regulated expression of several genes. Amastigote-specific genes are believed to have a role in the survival and replication of the parasite in the hostile environment of the mammalian host. Previously, we have reported the upregulated expression of A1 gene (LdA1) at the amastigote stage at RNA level. In the present study, we have further characterized LdA1, in order to understand its role in Leishmania...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Gong Chen, Zhilin Zhang, Ruisha Shang, Jingru Qi, Yiling Zhang, Shunming Tang, Zhongyuan Shen
Nosema bombycis contains functional aquaporins (NbAQPs), which are key targets for exploring the mechanism of N. bombycis infection; however, the regulation of these NbAQPs remains unknown. The two highly conserved asparagine-proline-alanine sequences (NPA motifs) play important roles in AQP biogenesis. As part of this study, we constructed a series of NbAQP mutants (NbAQP_NPA1, NbAQP_NPA2, and NbAQP_NPA1,2) and expressed them in BmN cells. The results showed that mutations in either NPA motif or in both NPA motifs did not affect NbAQP expression in vitro...
August 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Hossein Mirhendi, Mehdi Karamian, Walter R Taylor, Iraj Sharifi, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Zahra Kanannejad
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Iran and is caused predominantly by Leishmania infantum, but L. tropica is emerging as an important cause. We studied the intra-species population structure of Leishmania spp. causing VL in southwest Iran by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of DNA samples from 29 bone marrow aspiration smears. L. infantum (n = 25) and L. tropica (n = 4) were identified, consisting of 10 and three ITS1 sequence types (STs), respectively. Compared to GenBank ITS1 STs, our L...
August 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Maria Luiza Carneiro Buchele, Débora Borgert Wopereis, Fabiana Casara, Jefferson Peres de Macedo, Marilise Brittes Rott, Fabíola Branco Filippin Monteiro, Maria Luiza Bazzo, Fernando Dos Reis Spada, Jairo Ivo Dos Santos, Karin Silva Caumo
A 31-year-old female daily user of contact lenses sought medical attention, reporting blurred vision and irritation of the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed hyperemia and an irregular corneal epithelium surface, and empirical treatment was started. A corneal scrape was obtained and examined for the presence of fungi, bacteria, and Acanthamoeba spp. The results of the microbial culture revealed growth of Acanthamoeba spp. and Candida albicans. The Acanthamoeba isolate was characterized by cyst morphology as belonging to group II according to Pussard and Pons...
August 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
Carsten Balczun, Patrick L Scheid
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa ubiquitously found in nature. As some species or strains of these FLA are pathogenic for humans and animals, they represent objects of medical and parasitological research worldwide. Storage of valuable FLA strains in laboratories is often time- and energy-consuming and expensive. The shipment of such strains as frozen stocks is cumbersome and challenging in terms of cooling requirements as well as of transport regulations. To overcome these difficulties and challenges in maintenance and transport, we present a new method to generate lyophilised samples of non-cyst-forming FLA (Ripella (Vannella) spp...
August 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ashley N Mortensen, Cameron J Jack, James D Ellis
Varroa is an external parasitic mite of honey bees and is a vector of multiple viruses that can severely weaken or cause the failure of western honey bee colonies if untreated. Effective Varroa control is dependent upon a thorough understanding of Varroa biology, including how Varroa move between host colonies. Here, we highlight that drone (male) honey bees may also play a role in Varroa dispersal. Drones were collected and the number of Varroa per 100 drones was calculated for each of five drone congregation areas (mating sites)...
August 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
Paula C Hernández, Moisés Wasserman, Jacqueline Chaparro-Olaya
Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum, are obligate intracellular organisms that utilize a strategy termed "gliding" to move and invade host cells, causing disease. Gliding is carried out by a protein complex known as the glideosome, which includes an actin-myosin motor. To date, six myosins have been identified in P. falciparum (PfMyoA, B, C, D, E, and F), but only the role of PfMyoA, the myosin of the glideosome that is involved in the process of red blood cell and mosquito cell invasion, has been established...
August 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Ricardo da Silva Raposo, Bianca Pelegi Zampieri, Letícia Maria de Lima Cerazo, Ludimilla Pereira, Vamilton Alvares Santarém
Toxocariasis is an important, but neglected, worldwide zoonosis. It is considered a primarily soil-transmitted disease, but food-borne transmission has been associated with the consumption either of raw or undercooked meat of paratenic hosts, including birds. Despite the number of experimental studies carried out to evaluate the behavior of Toxocara spp. larvae in birds, their role in the dispersion of eggs into the environment remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of broiler chickens to release Toxocara canis eggs into the environment, and the infectivity of eggs after passage through the intestine...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology Research
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Saeed Mehrzadi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Shayesteh Shahdin, Ahmad Daryani
Currently, there is no approved therapy that can eradicate Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts, which are responsible for chronic infection. This systematic review was performed to assess drugs or compounds that can be used as anti-T. gondii tissue cysts in vitro and in vivo. English electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) were systematically searched for articles published up to 2017. A total of 55 papers published from 1987 to 2017 were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology Research
Juliana Barbosa Nunes, Wendel Coura-Vital, Fabio Antônio Colombo, Frederico José Moreira Baêta, Aimara Costa Pinheiro, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Levi Eduardo Soares Reis, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Marcos José Marques
Dogs are important hosts and reservoirs of leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania, affecting ~12 million people worldwide. The detection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in dogs by real-time PCR (qPCR) may improve on diagnosis, but the different qPCR methods available for Leishmania DNA detection have not been established as routine in diagnostic tools and/or epidemiologic studies for canine VL. Here, we compared three qPCR assays (DNApol, Linj31, and LDON) in the detection of VL by Leishmania infantum in spleen (n = 48; 7), skin (n = 48; 7), and whole blood (n = 44; 7) samples from serologically positive and negative dogs, respectively...
August 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Mario A Rodríguez, Aarón Martínez-Higuera, Martha I Valle-Solis, Mario Hernandes-Alejandro, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Ana H Figueroa-Gutiérrez, Andrés Salas-Casas
Calcium regulates many cellular processes in protozoa, including growth, differentiation, programmed cell death, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, fusion of the endosomes of distinct stages with phagosomes, fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes, and recycling the membrane. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoa responsible for human amoebiasis, calcium ions are essential for signaling pathways that lead to growth and development. In addition, calcium is crucial in the modulation of gene expression in this microorganism...
August 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Fangyuan Yin, Junlong Liu, Shandian Gao, Aihong Liu, Shuaiyang Zhao, Sitong Li, Jinming Wang, Youquan Li, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin
Theileria annulata is the pathogen of bovine tropical theileriosis. It is extremely harmful to the cattle industry, with huge economic losses. The toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathways are crucial for resistance to infection of the protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the role of these immune-related pathways is unclear during T. annulata infection. In the present study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were separated from blood samples of calves infected with homogenized tick supernatants carrying T...
August 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Archana Chandran, P U Zacharia, T V Sathianandan, P Shamal, C P Binesh, Pinky Kaur, N K Sanil
The present paper describes a new species of Chloromyxum infecting the urinary bladder of the estuarine fish, Scatophagus argus, from the southwest coast of India. The parasite exhibited an overall prevalence of 41.93%; the prevalence is influenced by host size and seasons. Mature spores are subspherical, measure 9.40 ± 0.66 by 9.32 ± 0.87 μm, and are characterized by the presence of sutural and extra-sutural ridges, binucleated sporoplasm, and a pair of caudal extensions. Four pyriform, unequal polar capsules with raised polar filament discharge pores and ribbon-like polar filaments are present...
August 4, 2018: Parasitology Research
Valentina Chisu, Cipriano Foxi, Giovanna Masala
Tick-borne rickettsioses are recognized as emerging vector-borne infections capable of infecting both human and animal hosts worldwide. This study focuses on the detection and molecular identification of species belonging to the genus Rickettsia in ticks sampled from human, vegetation, and domestic and wild vertebrates in Sardinia. Ticks were tested by PCR targeting gltA, ompA, and ompB genes, followed by sequencing analysis. The results provide evidences of a great variety of Rickettsia species of the Spotted fever group in Ixodid ticks and allow establishing for the first time the presence of R...
August 4, 2018: Parasitology Research
Handriani Kristanti, Fransiska Meyanti, Mahardika Agus Wijayanti, Yodi Mahendradhata, Katja Polman, François Chappuis, Jürg Utzinger, Sören L Becker, E Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati
Human infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, which may have a life-threatening course, primarily occurs in tropical settings. Epidemiological data on the occurrence of strongyloidiasis are scarce, and microscopic stool-based detection methods are insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been developed, yet conflicting results have been reported. Our goal was to determine whether there was diagnostic agreement between an in-house PCR and two microscopic techniques, the Baermann funnel (BM) and the Koga agar plate culture (KAP) for the detection of S...
August 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Mariana Panayotova-Pencheva, Vassilena Dakova, Anetka Trifonova
A nematode species from the Protostrongylidae family, unknown in the parasite fauna of Bulgaria until now, was found in the bronchi of a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 L.) from a southwestern region of the country. At first the systematic identification of the found specimens was attributed to two possibilities-Protostrongylus terminalis Passerini (1884) Schulz, Orlow & Kutass, 1933 and Protostrongylus cuniculorum (Joyeux & Gaud, 1946) Schulz & Kadenazii, 1949. The autonomy of these two species was discussed based on data available in the literature...
August 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Rayanna Hellem Santos Bezerra, Adriana Bocchiglieri
In Brazil, 124 species of ectoparasites of bats are known from the families Streblidae, Nycteribiidae, and Spinturnicidae. This study aimed to characterize the ectoparasites associated with bats in a restinga habitat in Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. Sampling occurred between October 2016 and September 2017 in the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural do Caju through the capture of bats, using 10 mist nets. The ectoparasites collected were stored in 70% alcohol and subsequently identified. For the hosts, the parasitological indexes were calculated and, for the most abundant ones, the influences of the sex of the host and of seasonality on these indexes were evaluated...
August 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
S I Arce, D E Manzoli, M J Saravia-Pietropaolo, M A Quiroga, L R Antoniazzi, M Lareschi, Pablo M Beldomenico
The tropical fowl mite, Ornithonyssus bursa, is a common avian parasite found on diverse bird species worldwide. In the Neotropical region, O. bursa is present in wild birds, but it may also infect poultry and bite humans. Little is known about the ecology and epidemiology of this parasite. We conducted a thorough longitudinal study in passerine assemblages from central Argentina, gathering data from six reproductive seasons, with the aim of identifying factors that have a role in driving the occurrence and distribution of O...
August 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Fabiano de Oliveira Frazilio, Fernando de Almeida Borges, Alda Izabel de Souza, Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Diogo Helney Freire, André Luiz Baptista Galvão, Mariana Green de Freitas, Fernanda Battistotti Barbosa
Canine visceral leishmaniasis frequently causes glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephropathies for which diagnosis has been limited by the low sensitivity of traditional tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum cystatin C and urinary gamma-glutamyltransferase (uGGT) levels and the urinary GGT/urinary creatinine ratio (uGGT/uCR) and to measure the renal arterial resistive index (RARI) in dogs with leishmaniasis with varying degrees of renal injury based on the urine protein: creatinine ratio (UP/C) and serum creatinine (SCr) level...
August 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
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