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Parasitology Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432479/pharmacokinetics-and-efficacy-of-an-ivermectin-implant-for-long-term-prevention-of-dirofilaria-immitis-infection-in-dogs
#1
Marco Genchi, Anne Geneteau, Patrick Forget, Romain Delcombel, Claudio Genchi
An exploratory study was carried out to assess the in vivo efficacy of different prototypes of subcutaneous implants containing ivermectin (IVM) for the prevention of canine Dirofilaria immitis infection. The implants consisted of an ethylcellulose matrix containing IVM (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 mg/implant; from 0.29 to 0.63 mg/kg bw) as active ingredient designed to release approximately 0.1 ng of IVM/mL in the plasma for at least 12 months. Six dogs were implanted on day -365. On day -12, three heartworm-free dogs were included in the study as a control group...
April 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391450/in-vitro-acaricidal-activity-of-crescentia-cujete-l-fruit-pulp-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#2
Sinval Garcia Pereira, Sandra Alves de Araújo, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon, Lourivaldo Silva Santos, Livio Martins Costa Junior
Cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) is an important constraint on livestock production, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Synthetic acaricides are the primary method of control this thick. Resistance of R. microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need of new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control it. The objective of this work was to conduct a chemical investigation of Crescentia cujete L. fruit pulp and to evaluate the acaricide effect on R. microplus larvae of extracts, fractions, and isolated substances from this species...
April 8, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389893/toxicity-of-herbal-extracts-used-in-ethno-veterinary-medicine-and-green-encapsulated-zno-nanoparticles-against-aedes-aegypti-and-microbial-pathogens
#3
Balan Banumathi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramachandran Ishwarya, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
Dengue and chikungunya are arboviral diseases mainly vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Presently, there is no treatment for these viral diseases and their prevention is still based on vector control measures. Nanopesticides fabricated using herbal extracts as reducing and capping agents currently represent an excellent platform for pest control. In this scenario, the present study assessed the acute toxicity of seven plants employed in ethno-veterinary medicine of southern India, as well as the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, on third-instar larvae of A...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389892/in-silico-identification-and-validation-of-a-novel-hypothetical-protein-in-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-virtual-screening-of-inhibitors-as-therapeutics
#4
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Computational approaches to predict structure/function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are ineffective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386680/consequences-of-eye-fluke-infection-on-anti-predator-behaviours-in-invasive-round-gobies-in-kalmar-sound
#5
Henrik Flink, Jane W Behrens, P Andreas Svensson
Larvae of the eye fluke, Diplostomum, emerge from snails and infect fish by penetrating skin or gills, then move to the lens where they may impair the vision of the fish. For the fluke to reproduce, a bird must eat the infected fish, and it has been suggested that they therefore actively manipulate the fish's behaviour to increase the risk of predation. We found that round gobies Neogobius melanostomus, a species that was recently introduced to the Kalmar Sound of the Baltic Sea, had an eye fluke prevalence of 90-100%...
April 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378196/eco-friendly-control-of-the-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-dermanyssidae-using-the-%C3%AE-thujone-rich-essential-oil-of-artemisia-sieberi-asteraceae-toxic-and-repellent-potential
#6
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Giovanni Benelli
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, represents a key threat for the poultry industry worldwide. The control of D. gallinae is mainly achieved by continuous applications of acaricides. However, the fast-growing development of resistance, and the strict laws concerning chemicals admitted for treatments on food animals, highlighted the importance of alternative control tools. Here, we explored the potential of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against D. gallinae. In this study, the A. sieberi essential oil was analyzed using GC and GC-MS...
April 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374109/description-of-four-new-species-of-coccidia-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-brown-kiwi-apteryx-mantelli-in-new-zealand
#7
K J Morgan, W E Pomroy, L Howe, M R Alley, I Castro
This study used morphological techniques to describe and name four new species of coccidia from the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Four distinct eimerian oocyst species were recovered that we describe as new species. The largest of these, Eimeria paraurii n. sp. measured 32.2 × 19.8 μm and is morphologically similar to gametocytes previously described histologically in colorectal polyps (Morgan et al. in Parasitol Res 111(4):1689-1699, 2012). Eimeria apteryxii n. sp. measured 23.9 × 14.9 μm and is similar to renal oocysts described histologically in brown, rowi (A...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365814/comparing-the-phenotypic-susceptibility-of-pelibuey-and-katahdin-female-lambs-against-natural-gastrointestinal-nematode-infections-under-hot-humid-tropical-conditions
#8
J G Palomo-Couoh, A J Aguilar-Caballero, J F J Torres-Acosta, R González-Garduño
This study compared the phenotypic susceptibility of Pelibuey and Katahdin female lambs against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) under grazing conditions in the hot humid tropics of Mexico. The study was performed during the rainy season (August to October, 2014). It included 27 Pelibuey and 12 Katahdin female lambs from 6 months of age and live weight of 21.0 ± 3.7 and 23.3 ± 3.6 kg, respectively. Lambs were reared free of GIN infection before the study. The study lasted 91 days. Animals were weighed and sampled (blood and feces) on days 0 and 28 and every 7 days onwards...
April 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365813/long-term-stability-of-sphyrion-lumpi-abundance-in-beaked-redfish-sebastes-mentella-of-the-irminger-sea-and-its-use-as-biological-marker
#9
Regina Klapper, Matthias Bernreuther, Julia Wischnewski, Sven Klimpel
The main commercial fish species in the Irminger Sea, the beaked redfish Sebastes mentella, is commonly infected with the copepod Sphyrion lumpi. This ectoparasite is often used as a biological marker for stock discrimination to evaluate the still-debated metapopulation structure of beaked redfish. Nevertheless, it is still not understood whether parasite abundances and communities vary over longer time periods. In the present study, we investigated the abundance of S. lumpi in S. mentella of the pelagic zone of the Irminger Sea and adjacent waters...
April 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361273/widespread-5-methylcytosine-in-the-genomes-of-avian-coccidia-and-other-apicomplexan-parasites-detected-by-an-elisa-based-method
#10
Zhenxing Gong, Hao Yin, Xueting Ma, Baohong Liu, Zhenglan Han, Lingqiao Gou, Jianping Cai
To date, little is known about cytosine methylation in the genomic DNA of apicomplexan parasites, although it has been confirmed that this important epigenetic modification exists in many lower eukaryotes, plants, and animals. In the present study, ELISA-based detection demonstrated that low levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) are present in Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Neospora caninum. The proportions of 5-mC in genomic DNA were 0.18 ± 0.02% in E tenella sporulated oocysts, 0...
March 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361272/sterilization-of-blow-fly-eggs-chrysomya-megacephala-and-lucilia-cuprina-diptera-calliphoridae-for-maggot-debridement-therapy-application
#11
Kwankamol Limsopatham, Phadungkiat Khamnoi, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Dheerawan Boonyawan, Tarinee Chaiwong, Kom Sukontason
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an application of sterile laboratory-reared blow fly larvae to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds for medical conditions. For effective application, the blow fly larvae used in the wound treatment are required to be in aseptic condition. Here, we report the results of a detailed assessment of bacteria and fungi isolated from the eggs of two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) before and after sterilization by disinfectants Chlorhex-C, povidone-iodine, and sodium hypochlorite...
March 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378195/characterization-of-ostertagia-ostertagi-annexin-like-proteins-at-different-developmental-stages
#12
Pooja Sharma, Mark Jenkins, Dante Zarlenga, Ray Fetterer, Zhengguo Xiao, Wenbin Tuo
Ostertagiosis remains an economically important parasitic disease in cattle in the temperate regions of the world. Repeated exposures to Ostertagia ostertagi in calves cause significant pathology in the abomasum but elicit little protective immunity. The larvae use the host's gastric glands as a niche for development, where the parasite completes its parasitic stages, while in the gastric glands, the larvae must down-regulate the host inflammatory immune responses. Annexin (ANX) A1, commonly found in most eukaryotes, is heavily involved in controlling anti-inflammatory responses by binding receptors on leukocytes...
March 29, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357577/a-comparison-of-two-methods-for-quantifying-parasitic-nematode-fecundity
#13
Lauren V Austin, Sarah A Budischak, Jessica Ramadhin, Eric P Hoberg, Art Abrams, Anna E Jolles, Vanessa O Ezenwa
Accurate measures of nematode fecundity can provide important information for investigating parasite life history evolution, transmission potential, and effects on host health. Understanding differences among fecundity assessment protocols and standardizing methods, where possible, will enable comparisons across different studies and host and parasite species and systems. Using the trichostrongyle nematode Cooperia fuelleborni isolated from wild African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), we compared egg recovery and enumeration between two methods for measuring the fecundity of female worms...
March 29, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352944/quantitative-proteomic-studies-in-resistance-mechanisms-of-eimeria-tenella-against-polyether-ionophores
#14
Ahmed Thabet, Walther Honscha, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
Polyether ionophores are widely used to treat and control coccidiosis in chickens. Widespread use of anticoccidials resulted in worldwide resistance. Mechanisms of resistance development and expansion are complex and poorly understood. Relative proteomic quantification using LC-MS/MS was used to compare sensitive reference strains (Ref-1, Ref-2) with putatively resistant and moderately sensitive field strains (FS-R, FS-mS) of Eimeria tenella after isotopic labelling with tandem mass tags (TMT). Ninety-seven proteins were identified, and 25 of them were regulated...
March 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352943/function-of-nanos1-gene-in-the-development-of-reproductive-organs-of-schistosoma-japonicum
#15
Quan Liu, Lulu Zhu, Fengchun Liu, Mengqing Hua, Han Ding, Siyu He, Cuiping Ren, Miao Liu, Jijia Shen
Nanos is a necessary factor in the differentiation and migration of primordial germ cells. It is closely associated with the development of genitalia in a wide range of species. We questioned whether Nanos was involved in the reproductive organ development of Schistosoma japonicum. Firstly, by in situ hybridization, S. japonicum Nanos1 (SjNanos1) gene was expressed mainly in reproductive organs of S. japonicum. Then, the paired schistosome of 28 days post-infection (dpi) was transfected with SjNanos1 small interfering RNA three times and cultured in vitro for 10 days...
March 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342040/ancient-parasites-from-endemic-deer-from-cueva-parque-diana-archeological-site-patagonia-argentina
#16
María Ornela Beltrame, Eleonor Tietze, Alberto Enrique Pérez, Agustín Bellusci, Norma Haydée Sardella
The narrow Andean-Patagonian temperate rainforest strip in the west of southern South America is inhabited by two endemic species of cervids, the southern pudu (Pudu puda) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), both cataloged as near threatened and threatened species, respectively. One of the possible causes of their declined number is the susceptibility to livestock diseases. Significant zooarchaeological records of both deer have been found throughout the Holocene from Patagonia. The present contribution reports the first paleoparasitological results obtained from coprolites of endemic deer from the archeological site "Cueva Parque Diana," Neuquén Province, Argentina, and discusses the possible diseases found in ancient times...
March 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337538/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-free-range-chickens-from-grocery-stores-and-farms-in-maryland-ohio-and-massachusetts-usa
#17
Yuqing Ying, Shiv K Verma, Oliver C H Kwok, Fatima Alibana, Rima Mcleod, Chunlei Su, Jitender P Dubey, Abani K Pradhan
Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats...
March 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331963/study-of-loma-acerinae-microsporidia-detected-from-three-ponto-caspian-gobies-gobiidae-in-ukraine
#18
Mykola Ovcharenko, Piotr Wróblewski, Yuriy Kvach, Oleksandra Drobiniak
A previously recognized Glugea-belonging Microsporidia (G. melanostomi, G. markievichi, G. naidenovi) were found in the intestinal mucosa of Neogobius melanostomus, N. fluviatilis, and Proterorhinchus semilunaris (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from lower Dnieper River and Black Sea coastal inlets, Ukraine. Light microscope observations demonstrated small spherical xenomes about 0.35 mm in diameter filled by developmental stages of parasites. Mature spores were ellipsoidal, slightly narrowed at anterior pole, sometimes ovoid or elongate in shape approximately 3...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324166/redescription-of-chloromyxum-ellipticum-li-nie-1973-myxosporea-chloromyxidae-infecting-the-gall-bladder-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-valenciennes-1844-supplemented-by-morphological-and-molecular-characteristics
#19
J Y Zhang, Y L Zhao, M D Batueva, D Luo, Z F Xing, Q Q Zhang, X H Liu
The traditional taxonomy of the genus Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 has been intensively challenged to be paraphyletic by recent ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based phylogenetic analysis. Undersampling to get rich sequence data to infer more scientific phylogenetic relationships makes scientists conservatively assign all non-marine elasmobranch-infecting species as Chloromyxum sensu lato. Although complex ridge pattern on the spore surface observed by scanning electron microscopy was thought to be critical for the identification of Chloromyxum species, insufficient data also prevent this ultrastructural data to be a valid taxonomic feature for this genus...
March 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315013/protective-vaccination-and-blood-stage-malaria-modify-dna-methylation-of-gene-promoters-in-the-liver-of-balb-c-mice
#20
Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed A Dkhil, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki, Foued Ghanjati, Lars Erichsen, Simeon Santourlidis, Frank Wunderlich, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are increasingly recognized to be critical for vaccination efficacy and outcome of different infectious diseases, but corresponding information is scarcely available for host defense against malaria. In the experimental blood-stage malaria Plasmodium chabaudi, we investigate the possible effects of a blood-stage vaccine on DNA methylation of gene promoters in the liver, known as effector against blood-stage malaria, using DNA methylation microarrays. Naturally susceptible Balb/c mice acquire, by protective vaccination, the potency to survive P...
March 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
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