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Parasitology Research

Hui-Xia Chen, Lu-Ping Zhang, Minoru Nakao, Liang Li
A new cosmocercid species, Cosmocercoides qingtianensis sp. n., collected from the intestine of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans Cantor (Amphibia: Anura) is described using integrated approaches, including light and scanning electron microscopy, and sequencing and analyzing the ribosomal [small ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions, respectively. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following morphological characters, including the large body size, the presence of lateral alae and somatic papillae in both sexes, the length of spicules, the particular morphology and length of gubernaculum, the number, arrangement and morphology of caudal rosettes, the presence of large medioventral precloacal papilla and the long tail...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
I A Soares, A L Lanfranchi, J L Luque, M Haimovici, J T Timi
Metazoan parasite assemblages of Pagrus pagrus inhabiting the southwestern Atlantic were analysed with the aim of identifying the existence of different stocks and to comparatively assess the value of different parasite guilds as indicators of zoogeographical regions. A total of 186 fish was examined. Samples were obtained from three Brazilian and one Argentine localities, distributed in three different biogeographic districts of the Argentine Zoogeographical Province. Pagrus pagrus harboured 26 metazoan parasite species distributed in three guilds, ectoparasites (10 species), long-lived larval endoparasites and short-lived gastrointestinal endoparasites (eight species each)...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Geping Wang, Guanghua Wang, Xiuping Li, Xueyong Zhang, Gabriele Karanis, Yingna Jian, Liqing Ma, Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ubiquitous parasites that infect humans and animals. Few reports are available on the prevalence of these two protozoan parasites in yaks (Bos grunniens). In this study, 344 faecal samples were collected from yaks with diarrhoea in the Chenduo and Nangqian counties of Qinghai Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were detected by light and immunofluorescence microscopy and nested PCR (nPCR). Fifteen samples were positive (4.5%) by Kinyoun staining, 40 (11...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Victor Menezes Tunholi, Juberlan Garcia, Esther Maria Mota, Rosane Nora Castro, Emerson Guedes Pontes, Jairo Pinheiro
For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ana Vasić, Marion Nieder, Nemanja Zdravković, Jovan Bojkovski, Dejan Bugarski, Ivan Pavlović, Cornelia Silaghi
Ticks transmit important pathogens affecting cattle such as intracellular bacteria of the genus Anaplasma or protozoa of the order Piroplasmida. This study aimed at assessing tick species present on pastures and cattle and determining occurrence of the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in cattle. During May and June 2013, ticks and EDTA blood were collected from 185 dairy cows at six locations in Serbia. Ticks were also collected directly from the pastures at four of these locations...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
Shobana Gabriel, Abdul Khaliq Rasheed, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi, Leo Bey Fen, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce severe human and animal infections involving the brain. Early detection is a pre-requisite in successful prognosis. Here, we developed a nanoPCR assay for the rapid detection of brain-eating amoebae using various nanoparticles. Graphene oxide, copper and alumina nanoparticles used in this study were characterized using Raman spectroscopy measurements through excitation with a He-Ne laser, while powder X-ray diffraction patterns were taken on a PANanalytical, X'Pert HighScore diffractometer and the morphology of the materials was confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ludiele Souza Castro, Adriana de Oliveira França, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima Júnior, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity. Involving a variety of agents, reservoirs, and vectors, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presents different transmission patterns, which makes its control especially difficult. Epidemiological characterization with identification of existing Leishmania species in a particular region is essential for understanding this parasitosis epidemiology. Because similar results may be observed in places with overlapping transmission of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, contributing to knowledge about the epidemiological cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis is of global interest...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ana Paula Prudente Jacintho, Guilherme D Melo, Gisele F Machado, Paulo Henrique Leal Bertolo, Pamela Rodrigues Reina Moreira, Claudia Momo, Thiago A Souza, Rosemeri de Oliveira Vasconcelos
The skin is the first organ to be infected by the parasite in canine visceral leishmaniasis. The enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) acts towards degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulation of the inflammatory response against many kinds of injuries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through immunohistochemistry and zymography on the skin (muzzle, ears, and abdomen) of dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and to compare these results with immunodetection of the parasite and with alterations to the dermal ECM...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Davide Pintus, Antonio Varcasia, Giorgia Dessì, Claudia Tamponi, Maria Lucia Manunta, Giovanni Antonio Carboni, Maria Giovanna Cancedda, Ciriaco Ligios, Antonio Scala
Herein, we examined the brain of adult ewes and lambs less than 30 days old which were found affected by neurological signs in a flock located in Sardinia (Italy). Gross anatomo-pathological examination of all brains of the animals revealed multiple linear reddish-yellow foci of necrotic purulent inflammation due to oncosphere migration. Histologically, we confirmed a multifocal pyo-granulomatous meningo-encephalitis both in ewes and in lambs, confirming acute coenurosis. Morphological examination and DNA sequencing identified the Taenia multiceps we isolated as Tm1 strain...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Eman M H Méabed, Alaa I B Abou-Sreea, Mohamed H H Roby
Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. METHODS: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Matthew Z Brym, Cassandra Henry, Ronald J Kendall
Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) are a highly sought-after game bird in the Rolling Plains of West Texas. Unfortunately, bobwhite populations in this area are subject to dramatic fluctuations and have been steadily decreasing over the past several decades. While many factors have been investigated as potential mechanisms of cyclic and declining bobwhite numbers, the effect of parasites on bobwhite populations has historically been undervalued. Between December 2017 and February 2018, we received 21 hunter-shot bobwhite from Garza and Mitchell counties in Texas and found peak caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) and eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) burdens averaging 599 and 44, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Javier Del-Angel-Caraza, Israel Alejandro Quijano-Hernández, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas, Marco Antonio Barbosa-Mireles, José Simón Martínez-Castañeda
Urinary bladder worm infection is relatively uncommon in pet dogs and cats in the Americas. This report describes the diagnosis of lower urinary tract infection by Pearsonema plica in two asymptomatic dogs and P. feliscati in a cat with lower urinary tract clinical signs diagnosed between 2002 and 2015, and the first report of this type of parasitism in domestic small animals in Mexico at an altitude above 2600 m above sea level. The studied cases demonstrate the need to consider a urinary bladder worm infection in domestic small animals, both stray animals and those with controlled access to the streets...
April 16, 2018: Parasitology Research
Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira, Cristiane de Castro Pernet Hara, Rubian Trindade Silva Fernandes, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Aline do Carmo França-Botelho, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Eduardo Luzía França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França
Children are more susceptible to Giardia lamblia infection. Cells and hormones contained in human colostrum have an immunoprotective action against giardiasis, but the effects of advanced maternal age on these components are poorly understood. This study analyzed the colostrum of older women to determine melatonin and cortisol levels besides the participation of these hormones on the functional activity of phagocytes against G. lamblia. Colostrum samples were collected from younger (18 to 35 years old) and older (over 36 years old) lactating women...
April 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yoon-Joo Lee, Du-Gyeong Han, Ji-Hyoung Ryu, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Joon-Seok Chae, Do-Hyeon Yu, Jinho Park, Bae-Keun Park, Hyeon-Cheol Kim, Kyoung-Seong Choi
Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and other animals. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of G. duodenalis infection in the feces of normal and diarrheic pre-weaned calves aged 1-60 days. Fecal samples were collected from 90 Korean native calves in 7 different regions in the central region of the Republic of Korea (ROK). Of the 90 fecal samples, 9 (10%, 9/90) were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR using the β-giardin gene...
April 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Lili Hao, Aiguo Yang, Dongbo Yuan, Li Guo, Wei Hou, Qian Mo, Zhiping Lu, Chunying Nie
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most serious parasitic zoonosis in Asia. Shiqu County is the most important endemic area of AE in China. Our primary objective is to find out the risk factors for Echinococcus multilocularis infection in domestic dogs in Shiqu County during the summer herding period. A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from 60 ranchers in October 2016. Nested PCR (nPCR) was performed to amplify regions of the mitochondrial12S rRNA gene of E. multilocularis. The results showed that the infection rates of AE in dogs from Qiwu, Yiniu, Changshaganma, Derongma, Mengyi, and Xiazha villages were 5, 5, 10, 20, 10, and 5%, respectively...
April 11, 2018: Parasitology Research
S M Rosanowski, M Banica, E Ellis, E Farrow, C Harwood, B Jordan, C James, D McKenna, M Fox, D P Blake
Surveillance was conducted to investigate the occurrence of protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium in dogs newly admitted to a dog rehoming charity in London, Great Britain. Voided faecal samples were collected from all new admissions between 2011 and 2012 during six separate 4-week sampling periods. Information on host signalment, including age, breed and reason for submission and faecal consistency, was collected. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, confirmed by sequencing, was conducted on the faecal samples to detect Cryptosporidium genomic DNA and determine Cryptosporidium identity...
April 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
D M Atopkin, S G Sokolov, M B Shedko, K S Vainutis, O M Orlovskaya
Phylogenetic relationship reconstruction and taxonomical analysis of trematodes of the genus Bunodera was carried out using 28S rDNA partial sequences along with a description and molecular characterisation of a new species, B. vytautasi sp. nov. A new species is reported from the intestine of Pungitius pungitius (Linnaeus, 1758), collected from Magadan Region, Russia. The diagnostic characters of B. vytautasi sp. nov. are the extension of vitelline fields from the oral sucker or posterior edge of the pharynx to the posterior extremity of the body, the confluence of vitelline fields within the forebody, the extension of the cirrus-sac to the posterior third of ventral sucker or further backwards with an outlet beyond the posterior edge of the sucker, and the presence of a unipartite internal seminal vesicle...
April 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
Rihab Ali Omer, Arwid Daugschies, Sandra Gawlowska, Ayman Elnahas, Peter Kern, Sofia Bashir, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim Ali, Amin Osman, Thomas Romig
Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000...
April 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
Roberta Carvalho Ferreira, Cínthia Firmo Teixeira, Vinícius Fernandes A de Sousa, Alessandra A Guarneri
Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite that infects mammals and triatomines, causing different levels of pathogenicity in its invertebrate vectors, particularly those from the genus Rhodnius. We have recently shown that temperature can modulate T. rangeli growth during in vitro culture, as well as its in vivo pathogenicity to R. prolixus. In the present study, we investigated colonization of R. prolixus by T. rangeli and assessed the role of temperature and vector nutrition on parasite development and multiplication...
April 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
R S Julius, E V Schwan, C T Chimimba
Concurrent studies of helminth parasites of introduced and native rodent species are few and miss the opportunity to identify potential co-invasive parasite species. This study employed molecular tools to infer the phylogeny and elucidate the origin of potentially co-invasive parasites of commensal, murid rodents by assessing introduced Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Rattus tanezumi, and native Mastomys coucha in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Genotypes of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis recovered from R. norvegicus are nearly identical to those recovered from elsewhere in the world...
April 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
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