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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800427/sibling-response-to-initial-antiepileptic-medication-predicts-treatment-success
#1
Keisuke Ueda, Fatema Serajee, Jan Rajlich, Sharief Taraman, Lindsey Steckling, Ahm M Huq
OBJECTIVE: A recent study focusing on a response to antiepileptic drugs (AED) among siblings for epilepsy showed a similar response among epileptic siblings to specific AEDs or AED combinations. Currently, however, family history of treatment response to AEDs is not readily employed in deciding which initial medication to use when treating patients with epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that sibling response to initial AED predicts treatment success. METHODS: Presumed siblings were identified from a single-center database of patients diagnosed with epilepsy by matching last name, address, and name of parent(s)...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810185/outcome-of-treatment-changes-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-chronic-epilepsy-a-tertiary-center-experience
#2
E Martínez-Lizana, F Gil-Lopez, A Donaire, J Aparicio, A Brandt, M Carreño
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that changing patients' anti-epileptic drug regimen can reduce the frequency of seizures. The approval of new anti-epileptic drugs with different modes of action during the last decades has provided multiple options for the treatment of epilepsy, although the efficacy of these new drugs is controversial. We aimed to determine the effects of adding or changing to a previously untried anti-epileptic drug, including recently approved drugs, on the frequency of seizures in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy...
July 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802988/does-education-play-a-role-in-language-reorganization-after-surgery-in-drug-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-fmri-based-study
#3
Kapil Chaudhary, Bhargavi Ramanujam, S Senthil Kumaran, P Sarat Chandra, Ashima Nehra Wadhawan, Ajay Garg, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: Patients with drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) and a high level of education may differ in their language recovery after surgery. Our aim was to determine whether there were differences in the extent of improvement and pattern of reorganization of language functions on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after surgery to treat refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) between patients with more than 12 years of formal education versus those with a shorter period of regular schooling...
July 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778056/cognitive-predictors-of-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#4
Elizabeth N Kerr, Nora Fayed
The current study sought to understand the contribution of the attention and working memory challenges experienced by children with active epilepsy without an intellectual disability to adaptive functioning (AF) while taking into account intellectual ability, co-occurring brain-based psychosocial diagnoses, and epilepsy-related variables. METHODS: The relationship of attention and working memory with AF was examined in 76 children with active epilepsy with intellectual ability above the 2nd percentile recruited from a tertiary care center...
July 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780154/chemokines-as-new-inflammatory-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Chiara Cerri, Matteo Caleo, Yuri Bozzi
A large series of clinical and experimental studies supports a link between inflammation and epilepsy, indicating that inflammatory processes within the brain are important contributors to seizure recurrence and precipitation. Systemic inflammation can precipitate seizures in children suffering from epileptic encephalopathies, and hallmarks of a chronic inflammatory state have been found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Research performed on animal models of epilepsy further corroborates the idea that seizures upregulate inflammatory mediators, which in turn may enhance brain excitability and neuronal degeneration...
July 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778055/the-effect-of-the-ketogenic-diet-on-the-developing-skeleton
#6
Peter J Simm, Jillian Bicknell-Royle, Jock Lawrie, Judy Nation, Kellie Draffin, Karen G Stewart, Fergus J Cameron, Ingrid E Scheffer, Mark T Mackay
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a medically supervised, high fat, low carbohydrate and restricted protein diet which has been used successfully in patients with refractory epilepsy. Only one published report has explored its effect on the skeleton. We postulated that the KD impairs skeletal health parameters in patients on the KD. Patients commenced on the KD were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study, with monitoring of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone parameters including bone mineral content and density (BMD)...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781216/does-accounting-for-seizure-frequency-variability-increase-clinical-trial-power
#7
Daniel M Goldenholz, Shira R Goldenholz, Robert Moss, Jacqueline French, Daniel Lowenstein, Ruben Kuzniecky, Sheryl Haut, Sabrina Cristofaro, Kamil Detyniecki, John Hixson, Philippa Karoly, Mark Cook, Alex Strashny, William H Theodore, Carl Pieper
OBJECTIVE: Seizure frequency variability is associated with placebo responses in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Increased variability can result in drug misclassification and, hence, decreased statistical power. We investigated a new method that directly incorporated variability into RCT analysis, ZV. METHODS: Two models were assessed: the traditional 50%-responder rate (RR50), and the variability-corrected score, ZV. Each predicted seizure frequency upper and lower limits using prior seizures...
July 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774708/epileptologist-s-view-laser-interstitial-thermal-ablation-for-treatment-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Joon Y Kang, Michael R Sperling
A procedure called laser interstitial thermal ablation has been utilized to treat drug resistant epilepsy. With this technique, a probe is stereotactically inserted into a target structure responsible for seizures, such as mesial temporal lobe, hypothalamic hamartoma, or a small malformation of cortical development, and the tip is then heated by application of laser energy to ablate structures adjacent to the probe tip. This procedure has the advantage of selectively targeting small lesions responsible for seizures, and is far less invasive than open surgery with shorter hospitalization, less pain, and rapid return to normal activities...
July 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763722/glutamate-metabolism-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-as-revealed-by-dynamic-proton-mrs-following-the-infusion-of-u-13-c-glucose
#9
Brenda L Bartnik-Olson, Daniel Ding, John Howe, Amul Shah, Travis Losey
Focal metabolic dysfunction commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and is associated with the development of medical intractability and neurocognitive deficits. It has not been established if this dysfunction is due to cell loss or biochemical dysfunction in metabolic pathways. To explore this question, dynamic (1)H MRS following an infusion of [U(13)- C] glucose was performed to measure glutamate (Glu) metabolism. Subjects (n=6) showed reduced Glu levels (p<0.01) in the ipsilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) compared with controls (n=4)...
July 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772197/effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-in-the-light-phase-of-sleep-in-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Cristiano de Lima, Ricardo Mario Arida, Monica Levy Andersen, Daniel Ninello Polesel, Tathiana Aparecida Fernandes de Alvarenga, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Gabriela Matos, Sergio Tufik
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the influence of an acute exercise session on sleep pattern in rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (C); acute exercise (EX); epilepsy (E) and epilepsy acute exercise (EEX). Two sleep electrocorticography recordings were performed during the light phase [baseline and day 2 (after the acute physical exercise session)]. After baseline recording, the exercise groups (EX and EEX) were submitted to an exercise session on a motor-driven treadmill at 12m/min for 30min...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753498/the-impact-of-epilepsy-on-academic-achievement-in-children-with-normal-intelligence-and-without-major-comorbidities-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
S W Wo, L C Ong, W Y Low, P S M Lai
PURPOSE: To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. METHODS: A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English...
July 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734267/status-epilepticus-related-etiology-incidence-and-mortality-a-meta-analysis
#12
Rui-Juan Lv, Qun Wang, Tao Cui, Fei Zhu, Xiao-Qiu Shao
Status epilepticus (SE) is a severe medical condition. To determine its epidemiology and outcome of SE, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the etiology, incidence and mortality of SE. We searched PubMed and Embase between Jan 1, 2000, and Oct 31, 2016, with no regional restrictions, for observational studies of the etiology, incidence and mortality of SE. Forty-three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled crude annual incidence rate, the pooled case fatality rate and the pooled crude annual mortality rate of SE were 12...
July 15, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732239/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-mitochondrial-functions-morphology-kinetics-biogenesis-and-survival
#13
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A Scorza
OBJECTIVES: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit adverse and beneficial effects on mitochondria, which have a strong impact on the treatment of patients with a mitochondrial disorder (MID) with epilepsy (mitochondrial epilepsy). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent findings concerning the effect of AEDs on mitochondrial functions and the clinical consequences with regard to therapy of mitochondrial epilepsy and of MIDs in general. METHODS: Literature review...
July 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753497/disease-modifying-effect-of-atipamezole-in-a-model-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy
#14
Jari Nissinen, Pedro Andrade, Teemu Natunen, Mikko Hiltunen, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen, Joana I Soares, Olena Shatillo, Jukka Sallinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Treatment of TBI remains a major unmet medical need, with 2.5 million new cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in Europe and 1.5 million in the USA. This single-center proof-of-concept preclinical study tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic neurostimulation with proconvulsants, either atipamezole, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist SR141716A, as monotherapy would improve functional recovery after TBI. A total of 404 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into two groups: sham-injured or lateral fluid-percussion-induced TBI...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719803/elevated-sterol-regulatory-elementary-binding-protein-1-and-glua2-levels-in-the-hippocampal-nuclear-fraction-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rats-from-strasbourg
#15
Sathiya Sekar, Entesar Omran, Venkat Gopalakrishnan, John G Howland, Terrance P Snutch, Changiz Taghibiglou
Studies in animal models and human tissues show that nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and glutamate A2 subunit (GluA2) of cell-surface AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trigger neuronal excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in stroke. However, it is not known whether a similar type of underlying pathophysiology occurs in absence epilepsy. To explore this issue, we examined the levels of mature SREBP1, GluA2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), p53, and activated to total caspase 3 ratio in nuclear fractions (NF) of hippocampal homogenate from 8 to 10 week old male Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and non-epileptic control (NEC) strains...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716297/on-the-relative-merits-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-pre-surgical-brain-mapping-new-tools-in-ablative-epilepsy-surgery
#16
Andrew C Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Asim F Choudhri, Abbas-Babajani-Feremi, Frederick A Boop, James W Wheless
Cortical Stimulation Mapping (CSM) and the Wada procedure have long been considered the gold standard for localizing motor and language-related cortical areas and for determining the language and memory-dominant hemisphere, respectively. In recent years, however, non-invasive methods such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have emerged as promising alternatives to the aforementioned procedures, particularly in cases where the invasive localization of eloquent cortex has proven to be challenging...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705474/rf-ablation-in-periventricular-heterotopia-related-epilepsy
#17
Massimo Cossu, Laura Mirandola, Laura Tassi
Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a common occurrence in patients with gray matter nodular heterotopia (NH), and surgical treatment is often considered in these cases. NH-related epileptogenicity is sustained by complex networks, which may involve the nodules and extralesional cortex in various combinations. Therefore, invasive EEG is usually required to identify the structures involved in seizure generation. It has been reported that surgery may be effective in cases with unilateral lesions, whereas bilateral cases are not optimal candidates for surgical success...
July 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697489/subjective-sleep-disturbance-in-chinese-adults-with-epilepsy-associations-with-affective-symptoms
#18
Yeru Shen, Mengmeng Zhang, Yu Wang, Lanlan Wang, Xiangjun Xu, Gairong Xiao, Jing Chen, Ting Zhang, Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: As well as being a very common neurological disease worldwide, epilepsy significantly impairs patients' emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent complaint in patients with epilepsy. The present study assesses the impact of a range of affective symptoms on subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances in Chinese adults with epilepsy. METHODS: Adults with epilepsy who visited our epilepsy clinic from July 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study...
July 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709079/breastfeeding-initiation-duration-and-exclusivity-in-mothers-with-epilepsy-from-south-west-china
#19
Nanya Hao, Han Jiang, Mengqian Wu, Tianying Pan, Bo Yan, Jie Liu, Jie Mu, Wenyu Liu, Jinmei Li, Terence J O'Brien, Zhibin Chen, Frank Vajda, Dong Zhou
PURPOSES: 1) To study the breastfeeding initiation, duration and exclusivity rates, and common reasons for early weaning in Chinese mothers with epilepsy (MWE); 2) To identify potential perinatal breastfeeding correlations with selected sociodemographic and clinical factors. METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 281 MWE attending hospitals in South-west China from February 2014 to July 2015. Data about breastfeeding behaviors, sociodemographic, obstetric, and epileptic variables were collected...
June 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692872/changes-in-the-content-of-fatty-acids-in-ca1-and-ca3-areas-of-the-hippocampus-of-krushinsky-molodkina-rats-after-single-and-fivefold-audiogenic-seizures
#20
Tatyana Savina, Alexander Aripovsky, Tatyana Kulagina
Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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