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Epilepsy Research

Achilleas Attilakos, Argirios Dinopoulos, Maria Paschalidou, Maria Tsirouda, Maria Karalexi, Alexia Prasouli, Anastasia Garoufi
Studies evaluating the effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Short-term effects on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy, at 2 and 6 months of LEV treatment, have been previously reported in the literature. Purpose of the current study was to further investigate the long-term changes on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy during LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 20 children (11 females, mean age 6,5 ± 4,4 years, range 2-15 years) with epilepsy, before and after 12 months of LEV monotherapy...
July 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Katsuya Suemaru, Misato Yoshikawa, Hiroaki Aso, Masahiko Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs. It has been reported that acetaminophen has anticonvulsant effects in several animal models of seizure. An active metabolite of acetaminophen, AM404, inhibits the uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide. However, the mechanism of the anticonvulsant effect of acetaminophen is unknown. METHODS: This study was performed to examine whether or not acetaminophen can protect against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice and to investigate the precise mechanisms of the anticonvulsant effect of acetaminophen using the fully kindled mouse models...
July 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Yunjian Zhang, Shuizhen Zhou, Yuanfeng Zhou, Lifei Yu, Linmei Zhang, Yi Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and composition of intestinal microbiota in children with refractory epilepsy after ketogenic diet (KD) therapy and to explore the bacterial biomarkers related to clinical efficacy. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 20 patients (14 males, 6 females) treated with KD. Clinical efficacy, electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, and laboratory tests were evaluated, and fecal specimens were obtained prior to and 6 months after therapy...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kevin R Duque, Alejandro L Escalaya, Willy Zapata, Jorge G Burneo, Javier A Bustos, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Hector H Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Discordances between imaging findings of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and seizure expression have been reported, and as such the possibility that neurocysticercosis and seizures may frequently coexist by chance has been raised. In this study, we evaluate the topographic relationship between seizure foci based on semiology and electroencephalography with the location of parenchymal neurocysticercotic lesions. METHODS: Seizure information, neuroimaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and electroencephalographic data from three randomized clinical trials of individuals with parenchymal neurocysticercosis and focal seizures were analyzed...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Sara Lukmanji, K Chelsea Altura, Bertil Rydenhag, Kristina Malmgren, Samuel Wiebe, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: The Canadian Appropriateness of Epilepsy Surgery (CASES) tool was developed to help physicians identify patients who should be referred for an epilepsy surgery evaluation. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of this tool using a population-based cohort registry (the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register) of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1990 and 2012. METHODS: Overall, 1044 patients met eligibility criteria for the study and were deemed to be surgical candidates by epilepsy experts...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Mari Wold Henriksen, Hilde Breck, Stephen von Tetzchner, Benedicte Paus, Ola H Skjeldal, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects females. Epilepsy is a major clinical feature, but its long-term course in RTT has not been sufficiently explored. This study addresses the development of the epilepsy in adults with RTT. METHODS: Available females diagnosed with RTT in Norway were asked to participate. Parents/caregivers were interviewed, the girls/women were examined and their medical records reviewed...
June 23, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ara Ko, Song Ee Youn, Hee Jung Chung, Se Hee Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Hoon-Chul Kang
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal therapy and vigabatrin are now accepted as the first-line or standard therapies for West syndrome (WS). However, the superiority of these drugs in terms of monotherapy or combination therapy is still in question. In this study, we designed a treatment protocol for WS and prospectively assessed the efficacy of these therapies in controlling spasms, stabilizing electroencephalography (EEG), and allowing for developmental catch-up. METHODS: In patients diagnosed with WS, vigabatrin was first administered alone for 2 weeks, and then prednisolone was administered in combination with vigabatrin if patients did not respond to vigabatrin...
June 23, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Eva Bain, Anne E Keller, Ho Jordan, Whitney Robyn, Michael S Pollanen, Andrew S Williams, Elizabeth J Donner
OBJECTIVES: The risk of drowning is reported to be 15-19 times greater in people with epilepsy compared to the general population. Despite this disproportionate burden, there is limited data about the circumstances surrounding drowning deaths in people with epilepsy. This population-based case series characterizes drowning deaths in people with epilepsy. METHODS: Postmortem data from coroner-ordered autopsies conducted in Ontario between 2014 and 2016 were screened for cases of drowning in people with a history of seizures...
June 20, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jarogniew J Luszczki, Lech P Mazurkiewicz, Paula Wroblewska-Luczka, Aleksandra Wlaz, Grazyna Ossowska, Monika Szpringer, Dorota Zolkowska, Magdalena Florek-Luszczki
AIMS: Despite many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are available to treat epilepsy, there is still about 30% of epilepsy patients inadequately treated with these AEDs. For these patients, polytherapy with two or three AEDs to fully control their seizure attacks is recommended. Unfortunately, polytherapy is always associated with drug interactions, whose nature may be beneficial, neutral or unfavorable. To determine a type of interaction for the combination of three AEDs (i.e., phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and pregabalin [PGB]) at the fixed-ratio of 1:1:1, we used a model of tonic-clonic seizures in male albino Swiss mice...
June 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nikita Nirwan, Fouzia Siraj, Divya Vohora
OBJECTIVE: Currently, lacosamide (LCM) is not approved for use in status epilepticus (SE) but several shreds of evidence are available to support its use. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the effect of LCM on pilocarpine (PILO) induced SE and neurodegeneration in C57BL/6 mice and to ascertain the involvement of CRMP-2 in mediating above effect. METHODS: Pilocarpine-induced SE model was developed to explore the effect of LCM 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg in mice...
June 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Edward J Romasko, Elizabeth T DeChene, Jorune Balciuniene, Gozde T Akgumus, Ingo Helbig, Jennifer M Tarpinian, Beth A Keena, Maria G Vogiatzi, Elaine H Zackai, Kosuke Izumi, Shavonne L Massey, Ahmad N Abou Tayoun
Heterozygous de novo or inherited pathogenic variants in the PCDH19 gene cause a spectrum of neurodevelopmental features including developmental delay and seizures. PCDH19 epilepsy was previously known as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females", since the condition almost exclusively affects females. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of two populations of neurons, some with and some without PCDH19 protein expression, results in pathologically abnormal interactions between these neurons, a mechanism also referred to as cellular interference...
June 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Dylan Durie, Tanya S McDonald, Karin Borges
A recent report has found that glucose oxidation and the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) are reduced in the chronic stage of the pilocarpine mouse epilepsy model. This is likely caused by increased phosphorylation by PDH kinase of the E1α subunit of PDH, downregulating its activity. Inhibition of this phosphorylation has not yet been explored as a possible approach to treat epilepsy. Chronic dichloroacetate (DCA, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) treatment was tested in acute seizure and the chronic pilocarpine models...
June 15, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ramesh Konanki, Sheffali Gulati, Kameshwar Prasad, Lokesh Saini, Ravindra Manohar Pandey, Vinod Kumar Paul
OBJECTIVES: There is significant scarcity of specialists to provide care for children with epilepsy in many parts of the world. Telemedicine is a potential future option. This study was planned to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of telephone consultation to identify Critical Clinical Events (breakthrough seizures, drug non-compliance, drug adverse events, features of raised intracranial pressure, and other disease-related events),compared to the Face-to-Face consultation (gold standard), in children with Neurocysticercosis (NCC) and symptomatic seizures, following the completion of cysticidal therapy...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Krutika Joshi, Lily Shen, Feng Cao, Susan Dong, Zhengping Jia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead
OBJECTIVE: Infantile spasms (IS) is a catastrophic childhood seizure disorder that is characterized by extensor and/or flexor spasms, cognitive deterioration and a characteristic EEG abnormality. The latter consists of a pattern of a spike-wave followed by an electrodecremental response (EDR), which is a flattening of the EEG waveform amplitude. The mechanism/circuitry that underpins IS is unknown. Children with Down Syndrome (DS) are particularly vulnerable to IS. The standard mouse model of DS is the Ts65Dn mutant mouse (Ts)...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Yosuke Kakisaka, Kazutaka Jin, Mayu Fujikawa, Yu Kitazawa, Nobukazu Nakasato
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether a teleconference-based lecture provides similar understanding of seizure semiology to a face-to-face lecture for physicians. METHODS: Subjects were 66 physicians consisting of adult and pediatric neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, and general practitioners. All attended the 30-minute lecture to introduce various types of seizure semiology using video-clips by one of the authors (Yo.K.) and then joined the comprehensive case conference which discussed three cases in 1...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Madeline Collette Evans, Kelly Ann Dougherty
Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE)-the most common form of focal epilepsy-is defined by recurrent partial seizures originating within the medial temporal lobe. Such seizures are commonly associated with the anterior hippocampus (as opposed to the posterior hippocampus), and refractory to the currently available anti-epileptic drugs (AED) for about one third of patients. Unfortunately, the mechanisms driving seizure generation and AED efficacy along the longitudinal hippocampal axis remain poorly understood...
June 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Vahab Youssofzadeh, William Agler, Jeffrey R Tenney, Darren S Kadis
Absence seizures are thought to be linked to abnormal interplays between regions of a thalamocortical network. However, the complexity of this widespread network makes characterizing the functional interactions among various brain regions challenging. Using whole-brain functional connectivity and network analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we explored pre-treatment brain hubs ("highly connected nodes") of patients aged 6 to 12 years with childhood absence epilepsy. We analyzed ictal MEG data of 74 seizures from 16 patients...
June 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Martin J Brodie, Toufic Fakhoury, Belinda McDonough, Anny-Odile Colson, Armel Stockis, Sami Elmoufti, John Whitesides
To assess the association, if any, between brivaracetam (BRV)-induced elevated carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and toxicity and efficacy in patients with epilepsy. Data were pooled from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies of adjunctive BRV in adults with uncontrolled focal seizures (N01252/NCT00490035, N01253/NCT00464269, N01358/NCT01261325). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of interest (ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, nystagmus, somnolence, accidental overdose or poisoning, and toxicity), discontinuations due to TEAEs, and serious TEAEs (SAEs) were assessed in subgroups who did/did not receive carbamazepine (CBZ) at study entry (CBZ+ and CBZ-)...
June 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Amaia Muñoz-Lopetegi, Francisco Javier López-González, Xiana Rodríguez-Osorio, Antonio Pato Pato, Paula Bellas Lamas, Javier Abella-Corral, María Dolores Castro Vilanova, María José Garea, Juan Antonio Gil López, Javier Ruiz-Martínez, Juan José Poza
RATIONALE: Many patients with epilepsy need a second antiepileptic drug (AED), due either to inefficacy or side effects of the first tried one. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of lacosamide (LCM) as first add-on therapy in the real-life setting. METHODS: LACONORTE is a multicenter, retrospective, one-year study. Patients with focal epilepsy on monotherapy with another AED who were started on lacosamide as first add-on therapy were included. Clinical data was obtained at 3, 6 and 12 months and then analyzed...
May 31, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Péter Papp, Zsolt Kovács, Péter Szocsics, Gábor Juhász, Zsófia Maglóczky
Recent data from absence epileptic patients and animal models provide evidence for significant impairments of attention, memory, and psychosocial functioning. Here, we outline aspects of the electrophysiological and structural background of these dysfunctions by investigating changes in hippocampal and cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in two genetically absence epileptic rat strains: the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. Using simultaneously recorded field potentials from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 cortex, seizure focus) and the hippocampal hilus, we demonstrated that typical frequencies of spike-wave discharges (SWDs; 7-8 Hz, GAERS; 7-9 Hz, WAG/Rij) and their harmonics appeared and their EEG spectral power markedly increased on recordings not only from the S1 cortex, but also from the hilus in both GAERS and WAG/Rij rats during SWDs...
May 31, 2018: Epilepsy Research
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