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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199897/real-world-utility-of-whole-exome-sequencing-with-targeted-gene-analysis-for-focal-epilepsy
#2
Piero Perucca, Ingrid E Scheffer, A Simon Harvey, Paul A James, Sebastian Lunke, Natalie Thorne, Clara Gaff, Brigid M Regan, John A Damiano, Michael S Hildebrand, Samuel F Berkovic, Terence J O'Brien, Patrick Kwan
OBJECTIVE: Driven by advances in genomic technology and reduction in costs, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is venturing into routine clinical care. The 'real-world' clinical utility of NGS remains to be determined in focal epilepsies, which account for 60% of all epilepsies and for which the importance of genetic factors is just beginning to emerge. We investigated the diagnostic yield and management implications of whole exome sequencing (WES)-based screening of selected genes in the routine care of common focal epilepsies suspected to have a genetic basis...
February 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192756/scn1a-clinical-spectrum-includes-the-self-limited-focal-epilepsies-of-childhood
#3
Sara Kivity, Karen L Oliver, Zaid Afawi, John A Damiano, Todor Arsov, Melanie Bahlo, Samuel F Berkovic
INTRODUCTION: Amongst autosomal dominant genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) families, SCN1A variants are the most common genetic cause. Initially regarded as a generalized form of epilepsy, the GEFS+ spectrum is now known to include some focal epilepsies, but it is generally not conceptualized as extending to the self-limited focal epilepsies of childhood, such as Panayiotopoulos syndrome. There are, however, three reports of SCN1A variants in Panayiotopoulos syndrome...
February 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171851/utility-of-gray-matter-segmentation-of-ictal-interictal-perfusion-spect-and-interictal-18-f-fdg-pet-in-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#4
Kathryn C Elkins, Valeria M Moncayo, Hyunmi Kim, Larry D Olson
PURPOSE: We present a method of gray-matter segmentation of functional neuroimaging for localization of seizure onset zone (SOZ) in epilepsy surgery. (18)F-FDG-PET hypometabolism and ictal SPECT hyperperfusion may correspond to SOZ. We hypothesize that limiting functional images to gray matter improves identification of small, subtle, or obscure cortical volumes of (18)F-FDG-PET hypometabolism and eliminates hyperperfused seizure propagation pathways within white matter in ictal perfusion SPECT...
January 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157601/prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-refractory-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy
#5
A Gomez-Ibañez, R S McLachlan, S M Mirsattari, D C Diosy, J G Burneo
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is an epileptic condition with good response to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Major syndromes are epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) alone, absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. However, clinical practice shows drug-resistant patients. Endpoint is to identify clinical features related with refractoriness in IGE and in its each individual syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 279 consecutive patients with IGE assessed in the Epilepsy Clinic of our institution...
January 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160673/reduced-thalamic-volume-in-patients-with-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep
#6
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Jurriaan M Peters, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Jacquelyn Klehm, Simon K Warfield, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To test whether patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) and normal neuroimaging have a smaller thalamic volume than expected for age and for total brain volume. METHODS: Case-control study comparing three groups of subjects of 4-14 years of age and normal magnetic resonance imaging: 1) ESES patients, 2) patients with refractory epilepsy control group, and 3) healthy controls. Thalamic and total brain volumes were calculated using an algorithm for automatic segmentation and parcellation of magnetic resonance imaging...
January 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157600/development-and-validation-of-aiims-modified-inclen-diagnostic-instrument-for-epilepsy-in-children-aged-1-month-18-years
#7
Sheffali Gulati, Harsh Patel, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Rachana Dubey, N K Arora, R M Pandey, V K Paul, Konanki Ramesh, Vyshakh Anand, Ankit Meena
OBJECTIVES: There is shortage of specialists for the diagnosis of children with epilepsy, especially in resource limited settings. Existing INCLEN (International Clinical Epidemiology Network) instrument was validated for children aged 2-9 years. The current study validated modifications of the same including wider symptomatology and age group. METHODS: The Modified INCLEN tool was validated by a team of experts by modifying the existing tools (2-9 years) to widen the age range from 1 month to 18 years and include broader symptomatology in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North India between January and June 2015...
January 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126647/movement-activated-cortical-myoclonus-in-dravet-syndrome
#8
Laura Canafoglia, Francesca Ragona, Ferruccio Panzica, Elena Piazza, Elena Freri, Simona Binelli, Vidmer Scaioli, Giuliano Avanzini, Tiziana Granata, Silvana Franceschetti
PURPOSE: we characterized multifocal myoclonus in Dravet syndrome (DS) that was never systematically typified before. METHODS: we studied EEG-EMG recordings of 19 consecutive patients, aged 2-29 years, with DS associated with SCN1A gene mutations to detect and evaluate myoclonus based on the spectrum of EMG activity on antagonist muscle pairs and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC). RESULTS: multifocal action myoclonus was detected in all patients corresponding to brief EMG bursts, which occurred synchronously on antagonist muscles at a frequency peaking in beta band...
January 19, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126646/central-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-functional-results-and-how-to-evaluate-them
#9
Melissa van Offen, Peter C van Rijen, Frans S Leijten
OBJECT: To evaluate whether central lobe epilepsy (CLE) surgery in the pericentral area implies inevitable function loss and to determine how postsurgical functional outcomes are perceived by the patient. METHODS: We included all 22 people with epilepsy (PWE) who received central lobe epilepsy (CLE) surgery in the pre- and postcentral gyri between 1995 and 2015 in the University Medical Center Utrecht. We determined function loss and followed-up on quality of life (AQoL-8D), mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index RMI) and self-evaluation of the surgery...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152425/stimulation-of-the-medial-septum-improves-performance-in-spatial-learning-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#10
Darrin J Lee, Ali Izadi, Mikhail Melnik, Stacey Seidl, Angela Echeverri, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Temporal lobe epilepsy often leads to hippocampal sclerosis and persistent cognitive deficits, including difficulty with learning and memory. Hippocampal theta oscillations are critical in optimizing hippocampal function and facilitating plasticity. We hypothesized that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus would disrupt oscillations and behavioral performance and that electrical neuromodulation to entrain theta would improve cognition specifically in injured rats. Rats received a pilocarpine (n=30) or saline injection (n=27) and unilateral bi-polar electrodes were implanted into the medial septum and hippocampus the following day...
January 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113141/seizure-detection-and-neuromodulation-a-summary-of-data-presented-at-the-xiii-conference-on-new-antiepileptic-drug-and-devices-eilat-xiii
#11
REVIEW
Meir Bialer, Svein I Johannessen, René H Levy, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, H Steve White, Matthias J Koepp
The Thirteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIII) took place in Madrid, Spain from June 26th to 29th 2016. For the first time, the last day of the conference focused solely on new medical devices and neuromodulation. The current article summarises the presentations of that day, focusing first on EEG- and ECG based methods and devices for seizure detection. These methodologies form the basis for novel cardiac-based methods of vagal nerve and responsive deep brain stimulation that rely on the prediction or early detection of seizures and that are also included in this article...
January 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187363/epilepsy-birth-weight-and-academic-school-readiness-in-canadian-children-data-from-the-national-longitudinal-study-of-children-and-youth
#12
A N Prasad, B Corbett
PURPOSE: Birth weight is an important indicator of prenatal/in-utero environment. Variations in birth weight have been reportedly associated with risks for cognitive problems. The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) dataset was explored to examine relationships between birth weight, academic school readiness and epilepsy. METHODS: A population based sample of 32,900 children of the NLSCY were analyzed to examine associations between birth weight, and school readiness scores in 4-5-year-old children...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167431/adeno-associated-viral-vector-mediated-preprosomatostatin-expression-suppresses-induced-seizures-in-kindled-rats
#13
Gowri Natarajan, Jeffrey A Leibowitz, Junli Zhou, Yang Zhao, Jessica A McElroy, Michael A King, Brandi K Ormerod, Paul R Carney
Somatostatin is expressed widely in the hippocampus and notably in hilar GABAergic neurons that are vulnerable to seizure neuropathology in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that sustained bilateral preprosomatostatin (preproSST) expression in the hippocampus prevents the development of generalized seizures in the amygdala kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we tested whether sustained preproSST expression is anticonvulsant in rats already kindled to high-grade seizures. Rats were kindled until they exhibited 3 consecutive Racine Grade 5 seizures before adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector driving either eGFP (AAV5-CBa-eGFP) or preproSST and eGFP (AAV5-CBa-preproSST-eGFP) expression was injected bilaterally into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 region...
January 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107659/high-frequency-oscillations-and-seizure-like-discharges-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-of-the-in-vitro-isolated-guinea-pig-brain
#14
Laura Uva, Davide Boido, Massimo Avoli, Marco de Curtis, Maxime Lévesque
We analyzed the patterns of seizure-like activity and associated high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) induced by the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 50μM) or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 50μM) in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Extracellular field recordings were obtained from the medial entorhinal cortex (EC) using glass pipettes or silicon probes; 4AP or BMI were applied through the basilar artery. Ripples (80-200Hz) or fast ripples (250-500Hz) occurred at higher rates shortly before ictal events induced by 4AP or BMI, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073096/high-density-scalp-eeg-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Anteneh M Feyissa, Jeffrey W Britton, Jamie Van Gompel, Terrance L Lagerlund, Elson So, Lilly C Wong-Kisiel, Gregory C Cascino, Benjamin H Brinkman, Cindy L Nelson, Robert Watson, Gregory A Worrell
PURPOSE: Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG)...
January 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086164/lacosamide-for-uncontrolled-primary-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures-an-open-label-pilot-study-with-59-week-extension
#16
Robert T Wechsler, Stephen L Yates, John Messenheimer, Robert Leroy, Cynthia Beller, Pamela Doty
OBJECTIVE: Assess the safety of adjunctive lacosamide for the treatment of uncontrolled primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients (16-65 years) with primary generalized (genetic) epilepsy (PGE). METHODS: An open-label pilot safety study (SP0961; NCT01118949), comprising 12 weeks' historical baseline, 4 weeks' prospective baseline, 3 weeks' titration (target: 400mg/day adjunctive lacosamide) and 6 weeks' maintenance. Patients who continued to the extension study (SP0962; NCT01118962) then received ≤59 weeks of flexible treatment (100-800mg/day lacosamide with flexible dosing of concomitant antiepileptic drugs)...
December 29, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081475/add-on-stiripentol-elevates-serum-valproate-levels-in-patients-with-or-without-concomitant-topiramate-therapy
#17
Toshihiro Jogamoto, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Mitsumasa Fukuda, Yuka Suzuki, Katsumi Imai, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Yoko Ohtsuka
OBJECTIVE: Stiripentol (STP), valproate (VPA) and topiramate (TPM) are reported to have efficacy for Dravet syndrome. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased serum VPA concentrations following STP adjunctive therapy in patients with Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with Dravet syndrome (age range, 1-35 years) undergoing combination therapy with VPA and STP were included in this study. We evaluated VPA and clobazam (CLB) serum concentrations before and after add-on STP...
December 26, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073027/epileptic-features-and-survival-in-glioblastomas-presenting-with-seizures
#18
Manuel Toledo, Silvana Sarria-Estrada, Manuel Quintana, Xavier Maldonado, Francisco Martinez-Ricarte, Jordi Rodon, Cristina Auger, Miren Aizpurua, Javier Salas-Puig, Estevo Santamarina, Elena Martinez-Saez
INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of seizures in patients with glioblastoma is currently under discussion. The objective of this research was to study the risk factors associated with seizures occurring at the diagnosis of glioblastoma and the role of seizures as a predictive factor for survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the clinical data over the course of the disease, baseline MR imaging, and histological characteristics (p53 overexpression, the Ki67 proliferation index, and presence of the IDH1 R132H mutation), in glioblastomas treated in a single hospital from November 2012 to July 2014...
December 26, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017504/erratum-to-safety-efficacy-and-outcome-related-factors-of-perampanel-over-12months-in-a-real-world-setting-the-fydata-study-epilepsy-res-126-2016-201-210
#19
V Villanueva, M Garcés, F J López-González, X Rodriguez-Osorio, M Toledo, J Salas-Puig, M González-Cuevas, D Campos, J M Serratosa, B González-Giráldez, J A Mauri, J L Camacho, A Suller, M Carreño, J B Gómez, J Montoya, J Rodríguez-Uranga, R Saiz-Diaz, J González-de la Aleja, A Castillo, J López-Trigo, J J Poza, J Flores, R Querol, J Ojeda, P Giner, A Molins, P Esteve, J J Baigesr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#20
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
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