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Epilepsy Research

Zahra Esmaili, Azhdar Heydari
PURPOSE: Caffeine is a non-selective antagonist of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (ARs). In this regard, nitric oxide (NO) is partly involved in the central effects of caffeine. In this study, we examined the effect of acute caffeine administration on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold by focusing on A1 Rs, A2A Rs, and NO-cGMP signaling pathway. METHODS: NMRI male mice (25-30 g) received caffeine (5, 50, and 100 mg/kg) alone, whereas 8-CPT (1 and 5 mg/kg, a selective A1 Rs antagonist), SCH-442416 (5 and 10 mg/kg, a selective A2A Rs antagonist) or sildenafil (5 and 10 mg/kg, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor) were administrated alone or as pre-treatment before caffeine...
October 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Julia Winkler, Rik Schoemaker, Armel Stockis
A combined adult and pediatric population pharmacokinetic model including covariate effects was developed; simulations were subsequently performed to guide intravenous pediatric dosing adaptations. Two pharmacokinetic trials with sparse blood sampling were conducted in children with epilepsy and two trials in healthy adults with serial blood sampling. Lacosamide plasma concentration-time data were available from 43 healthy adults (18-45 years of age; body weight 50-101 kg; n = 1735 concentration vs time records), and from 79 children with epilepsy (6 months-17 years of age; body weight 6-76 kg; n = 402 concentration vs time records), with 14, 22, 25 and 18 participants in age groups <2 years, 2 to <6 years, 6 to <12 years and 12 to <18 years, respectively...
October 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Eric R Miller, Elena A Kharlamov, Zeyu Hu, Edwin C Klein, Deng-Shan Shiau, Kevin M Kelly
The pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis following ischemic stroke in the aged brain are not well understood, largely due to limited developments in animal modeling of poststroke epilepsy (PSE). A recent study in our laboratory (Kelly et al., 2018) using transient (3 h) unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion (MCA/CCAo) in 4- and 20-month-old Fischer (F344) rats resulted in epileptic seizures in both age groups; age and infarction factors independently had effects on seizure frequency...
October 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Usha K Misra, Mritunjai Kumar, Jayantee Kalita
OBJECTIVE: We report the frequency of seizure, its possible mechanisms and effect of seizure on the outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with TBM admitted during 2014-2017 were evaluated. The seizures were categorized as per International League Against Epilepsy as well as into early (within 1 month of meningitis) and late (>1 month) seizure. The possible association of seizures was recorded and the outcome was assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS ≤ 2 as good, and mRS > 2 as poor)...
October 25, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jabir Mohamed, Brian W Scott, Olivier David, W McIntyre Burnham
Patients with focal temporal lobe seizures often experience transient episodes of impaired awareness with behavioral arrest, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. The Network Inhibition Hypothesis attributes these deficits to a loss of cholinergic input to the cortex. This is presumed to result from increased activation of inhibitory regions that suppress subcortical arousal, giving rise to cortical delta wave activity. Recently, this hypothesis has been tested in animal experiments, where triggering dorsal hippocampal seizures is associated with behavioral arrest...
October 24, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Lin Zhang, Xiangmiao Qiu, Xi Zhu, Xiaoyi Zou, Lei Chen
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making (DM) is an essential ability in everyday life. Some studies have reported DM deficits in patients with epilepsy. However, the reliability of the conclusions was limited by small sample sizes and inconsistent results. This review evaluated the current evidence concerning DM ability in epilepsy to provide a more detailed understanding and reliable conclusions. METHODS: Seven databases were searched to collect studies about DM ability in epilepsy...
October 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kaijia Yu, Tao Yu, Liang Qiao, Chang Liu, Xueyuan Wang, Xiaoxia Zhou, Duanyu Ni, Guojun Zhang, Yongjie Li
PURPOSE: Using direct intracerebral electrical stimulation (ES) in epileptic patients to evoke symptoms to help identify the functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe and opercula. METHODS: We selected 43 patients who had at least 1 electrode inserted into the insula or opercula via an oblique approach among 135 patients with intractable epilepsy. Bipolar stimulation was chosen, and the stimulation parameters of the biphasic waves included a pulse width of 0.2 ms, a frequency of 50 Hz, a duration of 3 s, and an intensity gradually increasing from 0...
October 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Khai-Tuan Andrew Bui, Sandra Wahby, Nathalie Jetté, Alain Bouthillier, Walter J Hader, Mark R Keezer
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery is likely underutilised. Our goal was to study the utilisation of epilepsy surgery in the general population, using Canada as a model of a high-income country with universal medical coverage. METHODS: We systematically identified all epilepsy surgery centres in Canada that were active in 2015. A standardised questionnaire was completed by every centre. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparisons were made to a 2003 survey of paediatric epilepsy surgery...
October 21, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Christoph S Dietze, Lucy Ekosso-Ejangue, Carsten W Israel, Christian G Bien, Susanne Fauser
Additional cardiologic examination for syncope is used for patients admitted for diagnostic reasons in the Epilepsy Center Bethel if, after epileptologic examination, the etiology of seizures remains uncertain and a cardiologic etiology is suspected. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed all patient data from the diagnostic department between 02/2011 and 07/2015 to evaluate the benefits to patients of additional cardiologic examination for syncope. 78 out of 1567 patients underwent additional cardiologic examination for syncope...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Octavio Fabián Mercado-Gómez, Laura Córdova-Dávalos, Delfina García-Betanzo, Luisa Rocha, Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas, Jesús Cienfuegos, Rosalinda Guevara-Guzmán
Neuroinflammation has been shown to constitute a crucial mechanism in the pathophysiology of epileptic brain and several genes of inflammatory mediators have been detected in surgically resected hippocampus tissue but not in non-related seizure brain regions. Interestingly, it has been reported an olfactory dysfunction in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Our aim was to quantify the gene expression of inflammatory-related and nitric oxide synthase genes in olfactory bulbs (OB) tissue from FLE patients. RNA was isolated from OB resection of FLE patients and autopsy subjects without any neurological disease (n = 7, each)...
October 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ryan B Budde, Muhammad A Arafat, Daniel J Pederson, Thelma A Lovick, John G R Jefferys, Pedro P Irazoqui
OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that obstructive laryngospasm and consequent respiratory arrest may be a mechanism in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. We sought to test a new hypothesis that this laryngospasm is caused by seizures driving reflux of stomach acid into the larynx, rather than spontaneous pathological activity in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. APPROACH: We used an acute kainic acid model under urethane anesthesia to observe seizure activity in Long-Evans rats...
October 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Qiong Wu, Hua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatiotemporal expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats experiencing a status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: A total of 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats at three weeks of age, weighing 43 g-68.5 g, were used for this study. Rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 16) and an epilepsy a SE group. The epilepsy SE group was further divided into 6 sub-groups (2 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after status epilepticus (SE))...
October 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nirupama Yechoor, Amir Adeli, Shaheryar Hafeez
INTRODUCTION: Although overall mortality of status epilepticus is high, baseline patient characteristics and co-morbidities may be helpful to predict outcomes and shape treatment decisions. Two previously published scoring systems exist to predict outcomes: the Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and the Epidemiology-based Mortality Score in Status Epilepticus (EMSE). However, a comparison of the two scores has not previously been completed in an American intensive care unit. We hypothesize that both scores will adequately predict the primary outcome of in-hospital death, but that the EMSE may more accurately predict functional outcomes, and significantly impact treatment decisions for both clinicians and families...
October 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Shaun A Hussain, Ernst Schmid, Jurriaan M Peters, Monisha Goyal, E Martina Bebin, Hope Northrup, Mustafa Sahin, Darcy A Krueger, Joyce Y Wu
After initially successful treatment of infantile spasms, the long-term cumulative risk of relapse approaches 50%, and there is no established protocol to mitigate this risk. Although vigabatrin may be an effective means to prevent relapse, there is little guidance as to ideal duration and dosage. Using a cohort of children with infantile spasms and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), we evaluated the potential association of post-response VGB treatment and the rate of infantile spasms relapse. Patients with infantile spasms and clinical response to vigabatrin were identified among a multicenter prospective observational cohort of children with TSC...
October 2, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Medine I Gulcebi, Tansel Kendirli, Zehra Asik Turgan, Philip N Patsalos, Filiz Yilmaz Onat
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the relevance between serum drug concentration to its therapeutic response is a valid monitoring strategy for the clinical efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad spectrum AED with a possible anti-inflammatory effect. We aimed to determine the relationship between LEV concentrations and its therapeutic response, and the effect of LEV on IL1-beta concentrations in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients on monotherapy (n = 7) or polytherapy (n = 15) with LEV for their seizures management were included...
September 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Roy G Beran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Liliana Czornyj, Paulo Cáceres Guido, Guillermo Bramuglia, Alejandra Rodiño, Iris Feria-Romero, Alberto Lazarowski
BACKGROUND: Low levels of AEDs can be secondary drug-drug interactions or related to irregular intake due to poor treatment adherence. This latter behavior is highly suspected in ambulatory pediatric epileptic patients when controls of AEDs are subtherapeutic. However, it cannot be considered for inpatients during long periods of hospitalization. A few isolated case reports have documented persistent low levels (PLL) of AEDs in hospitalized epileptic children, but no population study has currently been reported...
September 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Eveline Teresa Hidalgo, Hyman Gregory Frankel, Crystalann Rodriguez, Cordelia Orillac, Sophie Phillips, Neel Patel, Orrin Devinsky, Daniel Friedman, Howard L Weiner
OBJECTIVE: Incomplete resection of neocortical epileptogenic foci correlates with failed epilepsy surgery in children. We often treat patients with neocortical epilepsy with a staged approach using invasive monitoring to localize the focus, resect the seizure onset zone, and, in select cases, post-resection invasive monitoring (PRM). We report the technique and the outcomes of children treated with staged surgery including PRM. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with neocortical epilepsy who underwent resective surgery with PRM...
September 19, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Achilleas Attilakos, Maria Tsirouda, Argiris Dinopoulos, Anastasia Garoufi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Epilepsy Research
Jae Eun Ahn, Sai Praneeth R Bathena, Richard C Brundage, Jeannine M Conway, Ilo E Leppik, Angela K Birnbaum
Persons in nursing homes receive a number of medications that may interfere with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ). The aim of our study was to determine factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of CBZ in elderly nursing home patients. METHODS: CBZ concentration data collected from 60 nursing homes across the US were evaluated. Inclusion criteria included residency in a nursing home for at least 2 months, age 65 years or older, a stable dosing regimen of CBZ for at least 4 weeks (considered steady state), available CBZ concentration, and complete information regarding all co-medications...
November 2018: Epilepsy Research
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