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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288357/epilepsy-prevalence-and-severity-predictors-in-mri-identified-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#1
Lauren M Maynard, James L Leach, Paul S Horn, Christine G Spaeth, Francesco T Mangano, Katherine D Holland, Lili Miles, Robert Faist, Hansel M Greiner
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in pediatric patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine clinical and imaging differences between those with drug-resistant epilepsy, drug-responsive epilepsy, and no epilepsy among children with MRI-identified FCD. METHODS: A keyword search of a hospital radiology database identified 97 study participants for inclusion in this retrospective study...
March 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284051/amygdala-enlargement-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-subtype-or-nonspecific-finding
#2
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Carrie R McDonald, Graeme D Jackson, David N Vaughan, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. METHODS: We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284050/incomplete-circle-of-willis-a-risk-factor-for-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#3
Gokhan Kuyumcu, Richard W Byrne, Robert J Dawe, Mehmet Kocak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there may be a correlation between the anatomical variants of Circle of Willis (CoW) and presence/laterality of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We retrospectively identified the CoW variants on Wada angiograms in 71 patients with pathologically proven MTS. Angiograms were interpreted by two radiologists independently and blinded to clinical data. We divided the anterior and posterior components of the CoW into functionally complete and functionally incomplete groups...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282542/the-effect-of-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-in-combination-therapy
#4
Jussi Mäkinen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Jani Raitanen, Jukka Peltola
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of the new AEDs on overall outcome for patients with epilepsy. METHODS: In 2004, the effect of combination therapy on seizure frequency in adult patients with focal epilepsy was evaluated in a cross-sectional study in our center. We repeated this analysis ten years and eight new antiepileptic drugs (AED) later. RESULTS: In 2014, a higher percentage of patients with polytherapy (117 out of 396; 30%) were seizure-free compared with the original analysis (22%) (p=0...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279892/thin-isotropic-flair-mr-images-at-1-5t-increase-the-yield-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-transmantle-sign-detection-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Vasileios Kokkinos, Alexandros Kallifatidis, Eftychia Z Kapsalaki, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Kyriakos Garganis
OBJECTIVE: The transmantle sign is a distinctive imaging marker of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), which is revealed predominantly by fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Although the transmantle sign detection yield is high by routine imaging protocols for epilepsy at 3T, most centers around the world have access to 1.5T MR technology and FLE patients often receive negative imaging reports. This study investigates the optimization of transmantle detection yield at 1...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324681/morphometric-mri-features-are-associated-with-surgical-outcome-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assunção Leme, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324680/somatic-complications-of-epilepsy-surgery-over-25-years-at-a-single-center
#7
Inuka K Gooneratne, Shahidul Mannan, Jane de Tisi, Juan C Gonzalez, Andrew W McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Beate Diehl, Tim Wehner, Gail S Bell, Josemir W Sander, John S Duncan
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment for refractory focal epilepsy. Risks of surgery need to be considered when advising individuals of treatment options. We describe the frequency and nature of physical adverse events associated with epilepsy surgery in a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the prospectively maintained records of adults who underwent epilepsy surgery at our center between 1990 and 2014 to identify peri/postsurgical adverse events...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292736/increased-metalloproteinase-activity-in-the-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#8
Deepti Dubey, Paulette A McRae, Elyse K Rankin-Gee, Esther Baranov, Luke Wandrey, Stephanie Rogers, Brenda E Porter
Increased neuronal plasticity and neuronal cell loss has been implicated in the development of epilepsy following injury. Parvalbumin fast spiking inhibitory interneurons have a robust extracellular matrix coating their cell bodies and the proximal dendrites called the perineuronal net (PNN). The role of the PNN is not clear but it has been implicated in closing of the critical period, altering seizure thresholds and providing neuronal protection from oxidative stress. The PNN is susceptible to degradation following a prolonged seizure and there is an increase in proteolytic-fragments of the PNN enriched proteoglycan aggrecan (Dzwonek et al...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324682/gene-expression-analysis-in-untreated-absence-epilepsy-demonstrates-an-inconsistent-pattern
#9
Markus von Deimling, Robert Häsler, Verena Steinbach, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Sarah von Spiczak, Ulrich Stephani, Ingo Helbig, Hiltrud Muhle
OBJECTIVE: Childhood and Juvenile Absence Epilepsy account for 30% of all genetic generalized epilepsies with a strong genetic contribution. At the current state the genetic background remains to be resolved. The aim of this study was to identify disease associated transcripts pinpointing potential underlying disease mechanisms in patients with CAE and JAE. METHODS: We performed gene expression analysis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 30 patients with newly-diagnosed absence epilepsy prior to initiating treatment and 30 healthy age - and gender-matched pediatric controls...
February 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284049/significance-of-mdr1-gene-c3435t-polymorphism-in-predicting-childhood-refractory-epilepsy
#10
Rui-Juan Lv, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Tao Cui, Qun Wang
The association between the MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism and childhood intractable epilepsy remains controversial. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase and CNKI databases for studies published through October 2016 that evaluated the association between the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism and childhood refractory epilepsy. Eleven studies involving 863 cases in the group with drug-resistant epilepsy and 915 cases in the group with drug-responsive epilepsy were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis...
February 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262620/effects-of-jasminum-multiflorum-leaf-extract-on-rodent-models-of-epilepsy-motor-coordination-and-anxiety
#11
Jonas I Addae, Ramish Pingal, Kheston Walkins, Renee Cruickshank, Farid F Youssef, Shivananda B Nayak
Jasmine flowers and leaves are used extensively in folk medicine in different parts of the world to treat a variety of diseases. However, there are very few published reports on the neuropsychiatric effects of Jasmine extracts. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of an alcohol extract of Jasminum multiflorum leaves on topically-applied bicuculline (a model of acute simple partial epilepsy) and maximal electroshock (MES, a model of generalized tonic-clonic seizure) in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315807/association-of-cyp2c9-cyp2a6-acsm2a-and-cpt1a-gene-polymorphisms-with-adverse-effects-of-valproic-acid-in-chinese-patients-with-epilepsy
#12
Can Wang, Ping Wang, Li-Ping Yang, Jing Pan, Xue Yang, Hong-Ying Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, ACSM2A, CPT1A gene polymorphisms on valproic acid (VPA) and its role in metabolism-related liver dysfunction in order to guide the clinical safety and rational use of VPA. METHODS: One hundred two patients taking sodium valproate oral solution were genotyped. To assess the genotypes of relevant genes, the CYP2C9 gene was directly sequenced; for polymorphism classification, multiple Long-PCR electrophoresis was conducted for CYP2A6; and imLDR method was used for ACSM2A and CPT1A...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315806/paroxysmal-nonepileptic-events-in-children-with-epilepsy
#13
Yuji Ito, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tamiko Negoro, Masaharu Tanaka, Yu Okai, Yoko Sakaguchi, Chikako Ogawa, Tomoya Takeuchi, Atsuko Ohno, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tomohiko Nakata, Satoshi Maesawa, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNEs) suspected as being epileptic seizures by families of children with epilepsy. METHODS: The video-EEG (vEEG) recordings of habitual paroxysmal events in children with epilepsy at Nagoya University Hospital between October 2006 and January 2016 were reviewed. Based on the doctor's suspicion before the vEEG, the PNEs were divided into two groups that included PNEs suspected as epileptic seizures and PNEs suspected as PNEs...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279893/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-response-relationship-of-levetiracetam-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy
#14
Su-Jin Rhee, Jung-Won Shin, SeungHwan Lee, Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Ki-Young Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
Levetiracetam (LEV) is commonly used as a mono- or adjunctive therapy for treating patients with partial and generalized epilepsy. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model of LEV, based on sparse data, and to explore LEV efficacy relative to its PK properties in patients with epilepsy. We included 483 LEV concentrations from 425 patients with epilepsy that received multiple oral LEV doses. We performed a population PK analysis, implemented in NONMEM (version 7.2). In addition, we explored the relationships between seizure control and PK variables (i...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279891/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-brivaracetam-in-patients-with-prior-antiepileptic-drug-exposure-a-post-hoc-study
#15
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Michael R Sperling, Steve Chung, Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Sami Elmoufti, Jimmy Schiemann, John Whitesides
Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults with epilepsy. This post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of adjunctive BRV in patients with prior levetiracetam (LEV) exposure and whether changes in efficacy were related to the similar mechanism of action of these two drugs. Data were pooled from three Phase III studies (NCT00490035; NCT00464269; NCT01261325) of adults with focal seizures taking 1-2 AEDs who received placebo or BRV 50-200mg/day without titration over a 12-week treatment period...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273610/efficacy-of-a-ketogenic-diet-in-resistant-myoclono-astatic-epilepsy-a-french-multicenter-retrospective-study
#16
Elodie Stenger, Mickael Schaeffer, Claude Cances, Jacques Motte, Stéphane Auvin, Dorothée Ville, Hélène Maurey, Rima Nabbout, Anne de Saint-Martin
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that the early introduction of a ketogenic diet (KD) could improve seizure control in myoclono-astatic epilepsy (MAE). This multicenter study sought to identify the benefits of KD use on seizure control and epilepsy and on developmental outcomes in children with resistant MAE. METHODS: Fifty children who were diagnosed with severe MAE in the French network of Reference Centers for Rare Epilepsies and who were treated with KD between 2000 and 2013 were included in this study...
February 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259032/decreased-health-care-utilization-and-health-care-costs-in-the-inpatient-and-emergency-department-setting-following-initiation-of-ketogenic-diet-in-pediatric-patients-the-experience-in-ontario-canada
#17
Sharon Whiting, Elizabeth Donner, Rajesh RamachandranNair, Jennifer Grabowski, Nathalie Jetté, Daniel Rodriguez Duque
OBJECTIVE: To assess the change in inpatient and emergency department utilization and health care costs in children on the ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy. METHODS: Data on children with epilepsy initiated on the ketogenic diet (KD) Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2010 at Ontario pediatric hospitals were linked to province wide inpatient, emergency department (ED) data at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. ED and inpatient visits and costs for this cohort were compared for a maximum of 2 years (730days) prior to diet initiation and for a maximum of 2 years (730days) following diet initiation...
February 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236737/panayiotopoulos-syndrome-with-a-special-emphasis-of-ictal-semiologic-features
#18
A Destina Yalçın, Hülya Ertaşoğlu Toydemir
PURPOSE: The aim was to identify the demographic, electroencephalographic findings, clinical features, especially ictal semiological symptoms of patients diagnosed with Panayiotopoulos Syndrome. METHOD: The semiologic and EEG findings of 42 patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was used to determine the frequencies of semiologic features and to define the symptom clusters. RESULTS: The most common clinical features were nausea (54.8%), vomiting (50...
February 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242520/clinical-correlation-and-prognostic-implication-of-periodic-eeg-patterns-a-cohort-study
#19
Han-Tao Li, Tony Wu, Wey-Ran Lin, Wei-En Johnny Tseng, Chun-Wei Chang, Mei-Yun Cheng, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Hsing-I Chiang, Chih-Hong Lee, Bao-Luen Chang, Siew-Na Lim
OBJECTIVE: Despite increasing amounts of research on periodic discharges (PDs), large clinical studies regarding their prognostic value are lacking. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical implications and prognostic value of PDs. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we included patients who underwent electroencephalographic recording either during hospitalization or from our outpatient clinics. Demographic data, associated seizure events, use of antiepileptic drugs, and outcomes at discharge were analyzed...
February 14, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236736/magnetic-facial-nerve-stimulation-in-animal-models-of-active-seizure
#20
Mark K Borsody, Andrea Garcia, Dawn M Bielawski, Chisa Yamada, Emilio Sacristan
PURPOSE: As part of our efforts to develop a non-invasive facial nerve stimulator as an emergency treatment for ischemic stroke, we considered possible safety consequences if the technology was misapplied to stroke mimics, e.g., seizure. We hypothesized that magnetic facial nerve stimulation would worsen epileptiform activity in two animal models of active seizures. The rat intraperitoneal kainate model and pig intracortical penicillin model were employed. Magnetic facial nerve stimulation was delivered unilaterally at a variety of stimulation parameters, and the effect on ictal epileptiform activity measured by electroencephalography was determined according to an established categorical scale...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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