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Epilepsy Research

Rika Bajorat, Katrin Porath, Johannes Kuhn, Elke Goßla, Doreen Goerss, Tina Sellmann, Rüdiger Köhling, Timo Kirschstein
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common epileptic syndrome in adults and often presents with seizures that prove intractable with currently available anticonvulsants. Thus, there is still a need for new anti-seizure drugs in this condition. Recently, we found that the casein kinase 2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBB) prevented the emergence of spontaneous epileptic discharges in an acute in vitro epilepsy model. This prompted us to study the anti-seizure effects of TBB in the pilocarpine model of chronic epilepsy in vivo...
September 8, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Shu-Hui Chuang, Dayton Hunn, Amy Z Crepeau, Rama Magant
Sleep plays an intricate role in epilepsy and can affect the frequency and occurrence of seizures. With nearly 35% of U.S. adults failing to obtain the recommended 7 h of sleep every night, understanding the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsy is of utmost relevance. Sleep deprivation is a common trigger of seizures in many persons with epilepsy and sleep patterns play a role in the occurrence of seizures. Some patients have their first seizure or repeated seizures after an "all-nighter" at college or after a long period of chronic sleep deprivation...
August 31, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Samara Damasceno, Nathália Bustamante de Menezes, Cristiane de Souza Rocha, Alexandre Hilário Berenguer de Matos, André Schwambach Vieira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes, Almir Souza Martins, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a model whose rats are predisposed to develop seizures following acoustic stimulation. We aimed to establish the transcriptional profile of the WAR model, searching for genes that help in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the predisposition and seizures expression of this strain. RNA-Seq of the corpora quadrigemina of WAR and Wistar rats subjected to acoustic stimulation revealed 64 genes differentially regulated in WAR. We validated twelve of these genes by qPCR in stimulated and naive (non-stimulated) WAR and Wistar rats...
August 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kazuhiro Haginoya, Noriko Togashi, Tomohiro Kaneta, Naomi Hino-Fukuyo, Mamiko Ishitobi, Yosuke Kakisaka, Mitsugu Uematsu, Takehiko Inui, Yukimune Okubo, Ryo Sato, Takuya Miyabayashi, Akira Arai, Ikuo Ogiwara, Emi Mazaki, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Kazuhie Iinuma, Shigeo Kure
OBJECTIVE: To understand cerebral brain dysfunction in patients with Dravet syndrome (DS), we conducted a [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in patients with DS whose SCN1A gene variant was confirmed. METHODS: FDG-PET was performed on eight patients with DS. A SCN1A mutation analysis revealed missense variants in four patients and truncation variants in four patients. The patients' ages at the time of the PET study were 2, 2, 2, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 29 years old, respectively...
August 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Radhakrishnan Ashalatha, Ramshekhar N Menon, Anuvitha Chandran, Sanjeev V Thomas, George Vilanilam, Mathew Abraham, Deepak Menon, V C Soumya, Bejoy Thomas, Chandrashekharan Kesavadas, Ajith Cherian, Sankara P Sarma
PURPOSE: The success of epilepsy surgery lies in identifying the ictal onset zone accurately. The significance of auras has little been explored on surgical outcome in drug-resistant epilepsy. This study focuses on the clinicopathological correlation of aura(s) and its role in predicting surgical outcome in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We compared surgical outcome in TLE between patients with and without aura and identified the clinico-pathological, radiological and surgical differences between the two groups...
August 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Min-Lan Tsai, Chi-Long Chen, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh, James S Miser, Hsi Chang, Yen-Lin Liu, Tai-Tong Wong
OBJECTIVES: Brain tumors are found in 1-3% of children with newly onset of seizures. Understanding the impact of seizures on pediatric brain tumors and factors between seizures and brain tumors are crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the association of pediatric brain tumors on seizure occurrence and the relationships between seizures and the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors. METHODS: In a cohort of 184 children with newly diagnosed brain tumors between August 2012 and September 2017, 56 patients with brain tumor-associated seizures were evaluated for their clinical characteristics, electroencephalography (EEG), tumor pathology, response to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and their seizure outcome...
August 23, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Srinivasan Tupal, Carl L Faingold
Post-ictal cardiorespiratory failure is implicated as a major cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in patients. The DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP is abnormally susceptible to fatal seizure-induced cardiorespiratory failure (S-CRF) induced by convulsant drug, hyperthermia, electroshock, and acoustic stimulation. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated periaqueductal gray (PAG) abnormalities in SUDEP. Recent functional neuroimaging studies observed that S-CRF resulted in selective changes in PAG neuronal activity in DBA/1 mice...
August 19, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Kenneth A Myers, Susan M White, Shehla Mohammed, Kay A Metcalfe, Andrew E Fry, Elisabeth Wraige, Pradeep C Vasudevan, Meena Balasubramanian, Ingrid E Scheffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Emilio Perucca
In a study that applied a nonlinear mixed effect model to evaluate factors affecting steady-state serum carbamazepine concentrations in elderly nursing home residents, co-administration of iron supplements was reported to reduce serum carbamazepine concentrations by approximately one third. Although these findings suggest that iron ions reduce the oral bioavailability of carbamazepine, the influence of confounders cannot be excluded. Further studies are required to confirm this interaction.
August 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ching-Chang Kuo, Don M Tucker, Phan Luu, Kevin Jenson, Jeffrey J Tsai, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Mark D Holmes
Surgical resection of the seizure onset zone (SOZ) requires that this region of the cortex is accurately localized. The onset of a seizure may be marked by transient discharges, but it also may be accompanied by oscillatory, sinusoidal electrographic activity, such as the EEG theta rhythm. However, because of the superposition of the seizure signal with other electrical signals, including noise artifacts and non-seizure brain activity, noninvasive Electrical Source Imaging (ESI) of the ictal EEG activity at seizure onset remains a challenging task for surgical planning...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Zhao Yang, Hongyun Liu, Fangang Meng, Yuguang Guan, Mingming Zhao, Wei Qu, Hongwei Hao, Guoming Luan, Jianguo Zhang, Luming Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the variations and the circadian rhythm of multi-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Time domain HRV parameters of 24-hour data, frequency and non-linear domain HRV parameters were calculated using a 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) from subjects in a resting and awake state (5-min data from 9:00-10:00 a.m.). Circadian fluctuation (24 one-hour segments) and the night (00:00 - 05:00)/ day (07:30 - 09:30) ratio of each HRV parameter were measured in (i) refractory epilepsy (n = 51) and (ii) healthy, age and sex matched controls (n = 50)...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Debasmita Paul, Aparna Dixit, Arpna Srivastava, Manjari Tripathi, Deepak Prakash, Chitra Sarkar, Bhargavi Ramanujam, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, P Sarat Chandra
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling cascade has been implicated in enhancing neuronal excitability and excitatory synaptogenesis following blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and inflammation. We aimed to study if TGFβ signalling expression is altered in patients with Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS). We probed into the protein expression level of the ligand transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFβRII) and downstream signalling molecule SMAD3 and phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3) on surgically resected hippocampal samples of thirty-four patients with HS through immuno-blotting...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Mayara Lütchemeyer de Freitas, Fernanda Kulinski Mello, Thaíze Lopes de Souza, Ana Claudia Beck Grauncke, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
Increasing evidence suggests that prostanoid receptors and their ligands may constitute valuable tools for development of new antiepileptic drugs. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2 ) is a major eicosanoid in cardiovascular homeostasis. TXA2 exerts its action through the specific G protein-coupled TXA2 receptor (TP). In addition to its crucial role in the cardiovascular system, TXA2 and TPs play a role in the brain. Nevertheless, previously identified roles have been limited to cell protection of neurotoxicity, and the role of TPs on seizure activity was not investigated...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Yinhao Violet Wu, W McIntyre Burnham
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the anti-seizure effects of 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) in an animal model of human drug-resistant focal seizures with impaired awareness. DHP was administered via the intravenous (IV) route. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were implanted with an electrode in the right basolateral amygdala. They were then kindled to 15 stage 5 seizures, stability tested, and cannulated in the jugular vein. Multiple doses of IV DHP were tested against focal electrographic seizures and secondarily generalized convulsions...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Katharina Demin, Justus Berger, Martin Holtkamp, Thomas Bengner
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment and depression often co-exist among patients with epilepsy. However, there is still debate whether depression and cognition are related in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Even if they were related, it is still unclear whether symptoms of depression specifically, or rather symptoms of mental distress in general, have a negative impact on cognition in patients with TLE. In the present study, we examined whether self-rated symptoms of mental distress and of depression are related to different cognitive functions in unilateral TLE...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ajay Asranna, Manna Jose, Rini M Philip, Prabhakaran S Sarma, Sanjeev V Thomas
OBJECTIVE: The management of Women With Epilepsy (WWE) in pregnancy is a challenge that demands balancing the risks of Major Congenital Malformation (MCM) on one hand with adequate seizure control on the other. While most studies have analysed the risks of Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) exposure in the first trimester, AED changes during the second and third trimester and their effects on fetal outcome has not been studied adequately. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of WWE who were prospectively followed up and completed pregnancy with live birth under the Kerala registry of epilepsy and pregnancy (KREP) between 1998 and 2014 were analysed...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Guohui Jiang, Tianqiang Pu, Zhimin Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Ruijiao Zhou, Xing Cao, Juming Yu, Xiaoming Wang
Lithium, a classic mood stabilizer, prevents apoptosis-dependent cellular death and has garnered considerable interest as a neuroprotective agent that is efficacious in the treatment of many neurological diseases. However, the effects of lithium in epilepsy remain controversial. We found that different doses of lithium affect epileptic seizure activity and bidirectionally modulate the susceptibility to and severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine in rats. Recently, it has been demonstrated that systematically administered lithium affects the powers of hippocampal gamma and theta oscillations in baseline electroencephalograms...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Rita Citraro, Caterina De Sarro, Antonio Leo, Eugenio Donato di Paola, Ernesto Palma, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
Tolerance to some therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs may account for the development of pharmacoresistance in patients with epilepsy. In the present study, following oral acute pretreatment with the new antiepileptic drug perampanel (0.1, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg), we observed that the drug significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the seizure phases (clonus and tonus) of audiogenic seizures in genetically epilepsy prone rats (GEPR-9 s), a genetic model of reflex generalized epilepsy. In addition, the GEPR-9 s were administered orally with perampanel (1 or 3 mg/kg) once daily for 10 weeks in order to study the possible development of tolerance, and when animals were subjected to auditory stimulation we observed that the ED50 values against clonus or tonus were not significantly different from those observed after single administration...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Li-Li Li, Ya-Chao Li, Dong-Jing Zhao, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
Metabolic disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. Recent evidence suggests that leptin levels in peripheral blood and brain are lower in patients with epilepsy. Leptin is an energy-regulating hormone that plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and brain trauma. However, little is known about the effects and molecular mechanisms of leptin treatment on long-term neurobehavioral impairment caused by developmental seizures. The present study evaluated whether chronic leptin treatment protected against neurobehavioral impairments induced by recurrent seizures in newborns treated with flurothyl...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ben F M Wijnen, Scarlett L Schat, Reina J A de Kinderen, Albert J Colon, Pauly P W Ossenblok, Silvia M A A Evers
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing epilepsy can be lengthy and stressful, potentially leading to increased use of healthcare resources and a reduction in quality of life. AIM: This study aims to determine cost and quality of life before and after an optimized diagnostic procedure for people suspected of having epilepsy from a societal perspective with a follow-up of 12 months. In addition, this study aims to differentiate between people diagnosed with epilepsy during the follow-up of the study and the people who are diagnosed as not having epilepsy or for whom diagnosis is still uncertain...
October 2018: Epilepsy Research
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