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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#1
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414968/investigating-the-correlation-between-short-term-effectiveness-of-vns-therapy-in-reducing-the-severity-of-seizures-and-long-term-responsiveness
#2
Maryam Ravan
VNS (Vagus Nerve Stimulation) Therapy(®) is an adjunctive therapy for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The primary metric used to assess response to any treatment for epilepsy is seizure frequency reduction as measured using seizure diaries. In addition to seizure frequency, reduction in seizure severity is clinically meaningful to patients and can be measured objectively. Analysis of electro-encephalographic (EEG) signals has revealed that seizures are accompanied by spatial synchronization of EEG electrodes that may persist for several minutes after the seizure...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419980/evaluation-of-glut1-variation-in-non-acquired-focal-epilepsy
#3
Alexander Peeraer, John A Damiano, Susannah T Bellows, Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel F Berkovic, Saul A Mullen, Michael S Hildebrand
Brain glucose transport is dependent on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), encoded by the solute carrier family 2 member 1 (SLC2A1) gene. Mutations in SLC2A1 cause GLUT1 deficiency which is characterized by a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes including generalized epilepsy, motor disorders, developmental delay and microcephaly. Recent case reports suggest SLC2A1 mutations can contribute to non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) but interrogation of a large patient cohort has not been reported. We studied 200 patients with NAFE (126 with temporal lobe epilepsy) comprising 104 females and 96 males with a mean age of onset of 18 years...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407518/evaluating-executive-function-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-the-frontal-assessment-battery
#4
Elmira Agah, Nasima Asgari-Rad, Mona Ahmadi, Abbas Tafakhori, Vajiheh Aghamollaii
Previous studies have demonstrated executive dysfunction in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short neuropsychological tool that was developed for assessment of frontal lobe function in a clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical utility of FAB for detection of executive dysfunction in TLE patients. Forty-eight TLE patients and 48 sex and age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Compared to healthy participants, the total FAB score was significantly lower among the TLE patients...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#5
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411558/sporadic-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia-classification-phenotype-and-correlation-with-filamin-a-mutations
#6
Wenyu Liu, Bo Yan, Dongmei An, Jiahe Xiao, Fayun Hu, Dong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better delineate the clinical spectrum of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in a large patient population after long term follow up. Specifically, this study aimed to relate PNH subtypes to clinical or epileptic outcomes, epileptic discharges and underlying Filamin A (FLNA) mutations by analyzing anatomical features. METHODS: The study included 100 patients with radiologically confirmed nodular heterotopia. Patients' FLNA gene sequences and medical records were analyzed...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410487/structural-brain-changes-in-medically-refractory-focal-epilepsy-resemble-premature-brain-aging
#7
Heath R Pardoe, James H Cole, Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Ruben Kuzniecky
OBJECTIVE: We used whole brain T1-weighted MRI to estimate the age of individuals with medically refractory focal epilepsy, and compared with individuals with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy and healthy controls. The difference between neuroanatomical age and chronological age was compared between the three groups. METHODS: Neuroanatomical age was estimated using a machine learning-based method that was trained using structural MRI scans from a large independent healthy control sample (N=2001)...
April 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399413/personality-traits-of-children-before-and-after-epilepsy-surgery
#8
Olga Braams, Renske Schappin, Joost Meekes, Peter C van Rijen, Onno van Nieuwenhuizen, Kees P Braun, Aag Jennekens-Schinkel
We studied how children with epilepsy (CWE) who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, perceive themselves with respect to overarching personality traits and whether the traits change after surgery. We explored influences of demographic and illness variables. A total of 23 CWE [mean age at inclusion 12.8 (sd 2.3); 12 girls] participated. Using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire Juniors (DPQ-J), we assessed 20 of the CWE shortly before epilepsy surgery and compared the results to those of 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402834/long-term-outcome-of-refractory-status-epilepticus-in-adults-a-retrospective-population-based-study
#9
Anne-Mari Kantanen, Matti Reinikainen, Ilkka Parviainen, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcome of intensive care unit (ICU)-treated RSE and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) patients in a population based cohort. METHODS: A retrospective study of ICU- and anesthesia-treated RSE patients in Kuopio University Hospital's (KUH) special responsibility area hospitals in the central and eastern part of Finland from Jan...
April 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391029/decrease-of-global-current-source-density-predicts-successful-treatment-in-absence-and-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsies
#10
Johanna Dömötör, Béla Clemens, Szilvia Puskás, István Fekete
OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationship between treatment efficiency and EEG background activity changes in absence epilepsy (AE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: EEGs of 31 patients were analysed before treatment and after six months of treatment. Three minutes of artifact-free waking EEG background activity (without epileptiform potentials) were analysed for each patient in both conditions. All the EEG samples were processed to LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography)...
April 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414967/pharmacodynamics-of-remifentanil-induced-intracranial-spike-activity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Hans Hogenhaven, Andrea P Lee, Flemming Find Madsen, Bo Jespersen, Jannick Brennum, Lennart Derm, Finn Borgbjerg Moltke
Patients with medically refractory epilepsy may benefit from resective epilepsy surgery. However even the best centers experience surgical failures. It is therefore important to find techniques that may aid in neurosurgical planning of epileptic focus resection. Recordings of electrical brain activity with EEG during seizures reveal abnormal cortical hypersynchronization. Between seizures the EEG often shows interictal depolarizing phenomena such as spikes reflecting an irritable focus of the brain. In the present study we investigated the effect of intravenous remifentanil on the spike activity in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus...
March 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376388/voxel-based-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Patrícia Sanches, Elaine Keiko Fujisao, Aline M S Braga, Nathalia Raquel Cristaldo, Roberto Dos Reis, Seizo Yamashita, Luiz Eduardo Betting
PURPOSE: Quantitative techniques of diffusion analysis allow for an in-vivo investigation of the physiopathology of epilepsies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of the main diffusion parameters and explore differences between two methodologies of voxel-wise analysis comparing a group of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with controls. METHODS: 24 patients with a diagnosis of MTLE were selected. All patients and a control group of 36 individuals were submitted to 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
March 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399506/timing-and-type-of-hemispherectomy-for-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-analysis-of-45-patients
#13
Yuguang Guan, Sichang Chen, Changqing Liu, Xiuyu Du, Yao Zhang, Shuai Chen, Jie Wang, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan
OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgery outcomes of RE patients in one centerto identify the indication for surgical treatment that results in the most favorable outcome. METHOD: Forty-five RE patients from a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative evaluations included assessments of clinical manifestations, cognitive status, a physical examination, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364726/long-term-clinical-outcomes-and-economic-evaluation-of-the-ketogenic-diet-versus-care-as-usual-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intractable-epilepsy
#14
Ben F M Wijnen, Reina J A de Kinderen, Danielle A J E Lambrechts, Debby Postulart, Albert P Aldenkamp, Marian H J M Majoie, Silvia M A A Evers
OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term retention rate, clinical outcomes, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness of the Ketogenic Diet (KD) compared with care as usual (CAU) in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy from a societal perspective. METHODS: Participants were randomized into a KD or CAU group. Seizure frequency, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), side-effects, seizure severity, health care costs, production losses, patient and family costs were assessed at baseline and during 16-months of follow-up...
March 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288357/epilepsy-prevalence-and-severity-predictors-in-mri-identified-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#15
Lauren M Maynard, James L Leach, Paul S Horn, Christine G Spaeth, Francesco T Mangano, Katherine D Holland, Lili Miles, Robert Faist, Hansel M Greiner
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in pediatric patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine clinical and imaging differences between those with drug-resistant epilepsy, drug-responsive epilepsy, and no epilepsy among children with MRI-identified FCD. METHODS: A keyword search of a hospital radiology database identified 97 study participants for inclusion in this retrospective study...
March 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284051/amygdala-enlargement-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-subtype-or-nonspecific-finding
#16
Anny Reyes, Thomas Thesen, Ruben Kuzniecky, Orrin Devinsky, Carrie R McDonald, Graeme D Jackson, David N Vaughan, Karen Blackmon
OBJECTIVE: Amygdala enlargement (AE) is observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which has led to the suggestion that it represents a distinct TLE subtype; however, it is unclear whether AE is found at similar rates in other epilepsy syndromes or in healthy controls, which would limit its value as a marker for focal epileptogenicity. METHODS: We compared rates of AE, defined quantitatively from high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, in a large multi-site sample of 136 patients with nonlesional localization related epilepsy (LRE), including TLE and extratemporal (exTLE) focal epilepsy, 34 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 233 healthy controls (HCs)...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284050/incomplete-circle-of-willis-a-risk-factor-for-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#17
Gokhan Kuyumcu, Richard W Byrne, Robert J Dawe, Mehmet Kocak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there may be a correlation between the anatomical variants of Circle of Willis (CoW) and presence/laterality of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We retrospectively identified the CoW variants on Wada angiograms in 71 patients with pathologically proven MTS. Angiograms were interpreted by two radiologists independently and blinded to clinical data. We divided the anterior and posterior components of the CoW into functionally complete and functionally incomplete groups...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282542/the-effect-of-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-in-combination-therapy
#18
Jussi Mäkinen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Jani Raitanen, Jukka Peltola
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of the new AEDs on overall outcome for patients with epilepsy. METHODS: In 2004, the effect of combination therapy on seizure frequency in adult patients with focal epilepsy was evaluated in a cross-sectional study in our center. We repeated this analysis ten years and eight new antiepileptic drugs (AED) later. RESULTS: In 2014, a higher percentage of patients with polytherapy (117 out of 396; 30%) were seizure-free compared with the original analysis (22%) (p=0...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279892/thin-isotropic-flair-mr-images-at-1-5t-increase-the-yield-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-transmantle-sign-detection-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Vasileios Kokkinos, Alexandros Kallifatidis, Eftychia Z Kapsalaki, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Kyriakos Garganis
OBJECTIVE: The transmantle sign is a distinctive imaging marker of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), which is revealed predominantly by fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Although the transmantle sign detection yield is high by routine imaging protocols for epilepsy at 3T, most centers around the world have access to 1.5T MR technology and FLE patients often receive negative imaging reports. This study investigates the optimization of transmantle detection yield at 1...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324681/morphometric-mri-features-are-associated-with-surgical-outcome-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assunção Leme, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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