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Epilepsy Research

Lidia M V R Moura, Emad N Eskandar, Mursal Hassan, Joel Salinas, Andrew J Cole, Daniel B Hoch, Sydney S Cash, John Hsu
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative seizure-free survival between older and younger adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 107 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) received anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) between 1993 and 2014. We divided the lower three quartiles (younger) and top quartile (older, all 47+ years) of patients, then reviewed patient registry and electronic medical records to determine time to first self-reported seizure after ATL, the primary outcome (mean=3...
September 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Xiao-Ying Liu, Tao Shi, Wei-Na Yin, Zhen-Yu Ren, Yu-Lei Deng, Sheng-Di Chen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the major consequences of epilepsy and has been shown to reduce quality of life. Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were associated with poorer cognitive performance in children, and the aim of this study was to determine whether there was a similar association in adults. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 167 seizure-free adult patients underwent EEG recording and extensive cognitive evaluations. Global cognition was evaluated using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while sub-dimensions of cognition were evaluated using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Trial Making Test (TMT)-A and -B, and the 5 constitutive subscales of ACE-R...
September 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Dariusz Andrzejczak, Agata Woldan-Tambor, Katarzyna Bednarska, Jolanta B Zawilska
A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammatory processes and activation of glial cells could contribute to seizures and epileptogenesis. In various animal studies on epilepsy, proinflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated to exert a proconvulsive activity. On the other hand, it is suggested that antiepileptic drugs could modulate immune system activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether topiramate, a new generation antiepileptic drug with a complex mechanism of action, could affect the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from primary rat microglial cell cultures...
September 28, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Ning An, Wei Zhao, Yancui Liu, Xiaofan Yang, Pei Chen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurring seizures. Although scalp electroencephalograms (EEG) and neuroimaging have been used in clinical diagnosis of epilepsy, the more economical, rapid and non-invasive biomarker is still desirable, contributing to the accurate clinical diagnosis and facilitating the appropriate treatment. METHODS: The expression of four epilepsy-associated miRNAs (miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-194-5p and miR-301a) was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in the serum of 90 epilepsy patients and control populations...
September 26, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Fast ripples (FR, 250-500Hz) are proposed biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone on the basis of several retrospective reports linking postoperative seizure freedom to their complete resection. There are no clinical trials or prospective reports validating the use of FR as characterized by electrocorticography (ECoG), to guide the scope of epilepsy surgery, and to inform prognosis thereafter. We set out to prospectively evaluate the utility of FR resection to predict postoperative epilepsy outcomes, and examine the feasibility of "live" intraoperative FR ascertainment...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Sarah Aminoff Kelley, Eric Heath Kossoff
Electrical status epilepticus of sleep (ESES), with the activation of profuse amounts of epileptiform discharges in sleep, may lead to intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive decline in children. Numerous varied treatments including antiseizure medications, steroids, and surgery have been investigated as possible treatment options. The ketogenic diet (KD) is an additional treatment option which may add to our treatment armamentarium for ESES. The KD may theoretically improve ESES by affecting GABA systems and reducing inflammation...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Rizwana Rehman, Amanda Everhart, Alfred T Frontera, Pamela R Kelly, Maria Lopez, Denise Riley, Sheela Sajan, David M Schooff, Tung T Tran, Aatif M Husain
Identification of epilepsy patients from administrative data in large managed healthcare organizations is a challenging task. The objectives of this report are to describe the implementation of an established algorithm and different modifications for the estimation of epilepsy prevalence in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). For the prevalence estimation during a given time period patients prescribed anti-epileptic drugs and having seizure diagnoses on clinical encounters were identified. In contrast to the established algorithm, which required inclusion of diagnoses data from the time period of interest only, variants were tested by considering diagnoses data beyond prevalence period for improving sensitivity...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Yuqiang Sun, Xiaofeng Wang, Zeyang Wang, Yuanyang Zhang, Ningwei Che, Xiadong Luo, Zeshi Tan, Xu Sun, Xinyu Li, Kang Yang, Guanyu Wang, Lan Luan, Yaoling Liu, Xiao Zheng, Minghai Wei, Huakun Cheng, Jian Yin
OBJECTIVE: Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in specific diseases, suggesting possible use as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression levels of miR-129-2-3p and miR-935 in cortical brain tissue and plasma samples from controls and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients to evaluate the utility of these measures as diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: The study was divided into three phases...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Daniel M Goldenholz, Alexander Jow, Omar I Khan, Anto Bagić, Susumu Sato, Sungyoung Auh, Conrad Kufta, Sara Inati, William H Theodore
PURPOSE: There is controversy about relative contributions of ictal scalp video EEG recording (vEEG), routine scalp outpatient interictal EEG (rEEG), intracranial EEG (iEEG) and MRI for predicting seizure-free outcomes after temporal lobectomy. We reviewed NIH experience to determine contributions at specific time points as well as long-term predictive value of standard pre-surgical investigations. METHODS: Raw data was obtained via retrospective chart review of 151 patients...
September 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Christian Samsonsen, Trond Sand, Geir Bråthen, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep and seizures is intricate. The aim of this study was to assess whether sleep loss is an independent seizure precipitant in a clinical setting. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cross-over study, 179 consecutive hospital admissions for epileptic seizures were included. A semi-structured interview regarding several seizure precipitants was performed. The sleep pattern prior to the seizure, as well as alcohol, caffeine and drug use, were recorded...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Jianping Li, Xuemei Chen, Wei Ye, Wenyu Jiang, Huihua Liu, Jinou Zheng
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate alterations in the alertness-related network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) and explore the functional mechanisms of impaired alertness. METHODS: We recruited twenty patients with rTLE and eighteen matched healthy controls. All participants took a neuropsychological attention network test (ANT) and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning. We extracted the alertness-related network using multiple independent component analysis (MICA)...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Sarah A Vinette, Shahleen Premji, Craig A Beers, Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Daniel J Pittman, Edward G Slone, Bradley G Goodyear, Paolo Federico
The pre-ictal state is of interest for better understanding pathophysiological processes leading up to seizures and for identifying potential biomarkers for the prediction of these events. We present two cases of patients with focal epilepsy (occipital, insular) who had seizures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Interictal (>30min pre-seizure) control data was available for one participant. The location and timing of pre-ictal blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal alterations were examined along with changes in pre-ictal functional connectivity...
September 8, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Tohru Okanishi, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Ellen Mayo, Yasunori Honda, Chihiro Ueda-Kawada, Midori Nakajima, Yoichiro Homma, Ayako Ochi, Cristina Go, Elysa Widjaja, Sylvester H Chuang, James T Rutka, James Drake, O Carter Snead, Hiroshi Otsubo
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the extensive epileptic network in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) manifests as clustered and scattered distributions of magnetoencephalography spike sources (MEGSS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed pre-surgical MEG in 15 patients with TSC. We performed single moving dipole analysis to localize and classify clustered and scattered MEGSS. We compared the number of electrodes within the resected area (RA) and the proportions of clustered and scattered MEGSS within RA with the seizure outcome...
September 6, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Oscar Brenes, Valentina Carabelli, Sara Gosso, Adarli Romero, Emilio Carbone, Pier Giorgio Montarolo, Mirella Ghirardi
Synapsins are a family of presynaptic proteins related to several processes of synaptic functioning. A variety of reports have linked mutations in synapsin genes with the development of epilepsy. Among the proposed mechanisms, a main one is based on the synapsin-mediated imbalance towards network hyperexcitability due to differential effects on neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. Along this line, a non-synaptic effect of synapsin depletion increasing neuronal excitability has recently been described in Helix neurons...
September 6, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Taissa Ferrari-Marinho, Piero Perucca, Francois Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: High-frequency oscillations (80-500Hz; HFOs) have been shown to be a specific biomarker of the seizure-onset zone. The relationship of HFOs with seizures having different intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) morphological onsets, however, has shown significant relationships in experimental animals but has not been studied in humans. We investigated how interictal and ictal HFOs relate to different seizure-onset morphological patterns. METHODS: We analyzed the most representative seizure type of 37 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent iEEG for diagnostic evaluation...
September 6, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Chunyan Liu, Ruihua Zhang, Guojun Zhang, Tao Yu, Junli Tai, Wei Du, Liping Li, Yuping Wang
OBJECTIVE: In some cases of single focus epilepsy, conventional video electroencephalography (EEG) cannot reveal the epileptogenic focus even when intracranial electrodes are used. Here, we tested whether analyzing high frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be used to determine the ictal onset zone in suspected bitemporal epilepsy and improve seizure outcome. METHODS: We prospectively studied 13 patients with refractory temporal seizures who were treated over a 4-year period and underwent bilateral placement of intracranial electrodes...
September 5, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Nilesh Kurwale, Kanwaljeet Garg, Amit Arora, Poodipedi Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
Valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with coagulation factors deficiency, platelet dysfunction and hemorrhagic complications. We investigated 169 patients with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE), who underwent surgery, to look for clinical implications of VPA associated bleeding problems. All patients had normal preoperative coagulation profile. VPA was a part of polytherapy in 54% of patients (Group A), however 46% patients were not on VPA (Group B). The groups were comparable with mean age of 17.3±10.3years...
September 4, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Thomas Wychowski, Ali Hussain, Madalina E Tivarus, Gretchen L Birbeck, Michel J Berg, Michael Potchen
PURPOSE: To determine whether Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) on 3T MRI can enhance detection of epileptogenic lesions Methods: 29 adult patients with DRE were enrolled in a prospective pilot study. Brain MRIs were obtained using a specialized protocol that included: (1) Fast-Spin EchoT2, (2) T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and (3) DIR sequences. Two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical information independently reviewed each sequence in the order listed above for T2-hyperintense lesions...
September 3, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Brian D Moseley, Michael R Sperling, Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Anyzeila Diaz, Sami Elmouft, Jimmy Schiemann, John Whitesides
PURPOSE: Secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS) are among the most devastating types of seizures, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A), has been shown to be useful for the adjunctive treatment of focal seizures. We sought to determine its specific efficacy in treating SGTCS. METHODS: Data were pooled from three Phase III studies (NCT00490035; NCT00464269; NCT01261325) of adults with focal seizures taking 1-2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) who received placebo or BRV 50-200mg/day without titration over a 12-week treatment period...
September 3, 2016: Epilepsy Research
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