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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#1
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331846/functional-neuroimaging-in-rasmussen-syndrome
#2
Ichiro Kuki, Kazumi Matsuda, Yuko Kubota, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Haruo Shintaku
PURPOSE: For a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), clinical course together with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are considered important, but there are few reports on functional neuroimaging. This study investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR)-SPECT, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in RS patients, and correlated neuroimaging results with MRI and pathological findings...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329017/amiodarone-a-multi-channel-blocker-enhances-anticonvulsive-effect-of-carbamazepine-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#4
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
Cardiac arrhythmia may occur in the course of epilepsy. Simultaneous therapy of the two diseases might be complicated by drug interactions since antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic agents share some molecular targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug working as a multi-channel blocker, on the protective activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Amiodarone at doses up to 75 mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold in mice...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324357/a-pilot-study-of-the-role-of-the-claustrum-in-attention-and-seizures-in-rats
#5
Arezou Bayat, Sweta Joshi, Sahar Jahan, Phillip Connell, Komei Tsuchiya, David Chau, Tanvir Syed, Patrick Forcelli, Mohamad Z Koubeissi
OBJECTIVE: The claustrum has been implicated in consciousness, and MRIs of patients with status epilepticus have shown increased claustral signal intensity. In an attempt to investigate the role of claustrum in cognition and seizures, we (1) assessed the effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the claustrum on performance in the operant chamber; (2) studied interclaustral and claustrohippocampal connectivity through cerebro-cerebral evoked potentials (CCEPs); and (3) investigated the role of claustrum in kainate-induced (KA) seizures...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316502/beneficial-effect-of-lacosamide-for-mitochondrial-epilepsy
#6
LETTER
Josef Finsterer, Marlies Frank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310076/epilepsy-in-an-elderly-population-classification-etiology-and-drug-resistance
#7
Lizbeth Hernández-Ronquillo, Scott Adams, Stephanie Ballendine, Jose F Téllez-Zenteno
PURPOSE: To characterize epilepsy in an elderly population and describe the prevalence of drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) using recently validated International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria. METHODS: Using a case-control design, 72 patients aged 60 years and older (cases) and 223 patients under age 60 (controls) were identified from the Saskatchewan Epilepsy Program database. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables that were associated with epilepsy in elderly patients...
January 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305185/predictors-of-outcome-after-surgery-in-134-children-with-drug-resistant-tle
#8
Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar Menon, Mathew Abraham, George Vilanilam, Suvasini Sharma, Bejoy Thomas, Chandrashekharan Kesavadas, Ajith Cherian, Raviprasad Varma, Sanjeev V Thomas
PURPOSE: To determine the factors predicting seizure outcome in children who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Among the 664 patients who underwent ATL for TLE from 1995 to 2008, there were 134 children. "Excellent" outcome in them was defined as seizure freedom during the entire follow-up (Engel class I a); "good outcome", if in remission last 2 years, and the rest as "unfavorable outcome". To identify the potential predictors of seizure recurrence, the attributes of recurred and non-recurred groups was compared by univariate and multivariate analysis...
January 2, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#9
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288902/diagnostic-evaluation-and-surgical-management-of-pediatric-insular-epilepsy-utilizing-magnetoencephalography-and-invasive-eeg-monitoring
#10
Raheel Ahmed, Hiroshi Otsubo, Carter Snead, Elizabeth Donner, Elysa Widjaja, Ayako Ochi, James M Drake, James T Rutka
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis and surgical management of pediatric patients with insular epilepsy is challenging due to variable and indistinct seizure semiology arising within the insular cortex. In addition, surgical approaches are associated with potential morbidity given the regional neurosurgical and vascular anatomy. Our institutional experience in evaluation and surgical management of insular epilepsy patients is presented. Diagnostic evaluation, surgical treatment and seizures outcomes are highlighted...
December 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273340/corrigendum-to-the-expression-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-5-and-its-interaction-with-dendritic-marker-microtubule-associated-protein-2-after-status-epilepticus-epilepsy-res-138-2017-62-70
#11
Xiangchang Zeng, Siyu Chen, Qing Gao, Wenjing Zong, Dejian Jiang, Guirong Zeng, Luping Zhou, Lulu Chen, Wei Luo, Jian Xiao, Bo Xiao, Dongsheng-Ouyang, Kai Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289807/seizures-in-surgically-resected-atypical-and-malignant-meningiomas-long-term-outcome-analysis
#12
Yu-Chi Wang, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Po-Hsun Tu, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chi Lee, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Pin-Yuan Chen
PURPOSE: Seizures in rare atypical and malignant meningiomas were significantly under-studied. Our aim was to examine the rates, predictors, and seizure control in these meningiomas, and to analyze associations between clinical characteristics and seizure free survival (SFS) following surgical resection in an Asian population. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients with atypical or malignant meningiomas. Seizures occurring before and after the operation were reviewed...
December 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272743/racial-disparities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Samantha E Allen, Nita Limdi, Ashly C Westrick, Lawrence W Ver Hoef, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Robert C Knowlton
OBJECTIVE: This study reports on epilepsy type period prevalence and black-white racial differences in a large patient population in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: For all patients visiting the University of Alabama at Birmingham's seizure monitoring unit between 2000 and 2011 (n = 3240), video EEG diagnosis was recorded along with basic demographic information. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) diagnosis...
December 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287185/insufficient-efficacy-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-epileptic-spasms-and-tonic-spasms-in-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#14
Tohru Okanishi, Ayataka Fujimoto, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Hirotaka Motoi, Yoichiro Homma, Hideo Enoki
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) leads to palliation of refractory seizures. Epileptic spasms (ES) and tonic spasms (TS) appear in children with West syndrome and symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Both types of spasms are often characterized by truncal muscular contractions and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings comprising the contiguous phases: phase 1) 15-20 Hz, spindle-like fast activity (occur in 70%), 2) diffuse polyphasic δ/θ waves (100%), and 3) electrodecremental activity (70%)...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276970/cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-in-non-infectious-status-epilepticus
#15
M P Malter, S Choi, G R Fink
OBJECTIVE: Ictal activity itself can cause pathological cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. However, data regarding pathological CSF findings caused by SE itself to date remain scarce. We here evaluated the frequency and specificity of pathological CSF findings in non-infectious SE. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of CSF samples in adult patients with episodes of non-infectious SE, who had been admitted to the Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne...
December 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224956/bidirectional-shift-of-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-synaptic-depression-in-the-epileptic-hippocampus
#16
Fabian Dammann, Timo Kirschstein, Xiati Guli, Steffen Müller, Katrin Porath, Marco Rohde, Tursonjan Tokay, Rüdiger Köhling
A common function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) located at the presynaptic site of a glutamatergic synapse is synaptic depression. Here, we studied synaptic depression mediated by group III mGluR activation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapses and associational-commissural-CA3 (AC-CA3) synapses by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the in vitro brain slice preparation. In order to gauge the impact of synaptic depression in chronically epileptic tissue, we compared rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (post-SE) with control animals...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223780/drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-melas-safety-and-potential-efficacy-of-lacosamide
#17
LETTER
Guido Primiano, Catello Vollono, Fedele Dono, Serenella Servidei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247822/treatment-for-patients-with-recurrent-intractable-epilepsy-after-primary-hemispherectomy
#18
Sichang Chen, Yuguang Guan, Changqing Liu, Xiuyu Du, Yao Zhang, Shuai Chen, Jie Wang, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan
BACKGROUND: Hemispherectomy is useful for treating patients with intractable epilepsy caused by diffuse unilateral hemispheric disease. Few patients develop recurrent seizures after hemispherectomy, but managing epilepsy by medical means alone is challenging for these patients, and it is also difficult to determine the treatment options and assess the need for reoperation. OBJECTIVE: To present the treatment strategies and outcomes of patients who developed recurrent intractable epilepsy after initial hemispherectomies that were performed at a single institution by a single surgeon between 2004 and 2014...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232569/source-analysis-of-epileptiform-discharges-in-absence-epilepsy-using-magnetoencephalography-meg
#19
Veeranna Gadad, Sanjib Sinha, Narayanan Mariyappa, Jayabal Velmurugan, G Chaitanya, Jitender Saini, Kandivel Thennarasu, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
PURPOSE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record and localize the sources of the epileptiform discharges, in absence epilepsy, at three different time intervals to infer the sources of involvement during generation and propagation. METHODS: Twenty patients with absence epilepsy (M:F=1:1; age: 10.2±3.4years), which included 12 patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and 8 patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), were recruited in this prospective MEG based study...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227797/anticonvulsant-effects-of-acetaminophen-in-mice-comparison-with-the-effects-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#20
Katsuya Suemaru, Misato Yoshikawa, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki, Hiroaki Aso, Masahiko Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: The appropriate use of analgesic drugs based on their degree of analgesia and adverse effects is important for pain management. Although it has been reported that AM404, a metabolite of acetaminophen, has anticonvulsant effects in several animal seizure models, little is known about the relation between acetaminophen and seizures. We therefore investigated the effects of acetaminophen on seizure susceptibility in several mouse seizure and epilepsy models and compared the effects with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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