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Epilepsy Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#1
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521116/efficacy-of-anticonvulsant-substances-in-the-6hz-seizure-test-comparison-of-two-rodent-species
#2
Elise Esneault, Guillaume Peyon, Vincent Castagné
Usually performed in the mouse, the 6Hz seizure test is used for screening potential new anticonvulsant substances against complex partial seizures. Nevertheless, advanced models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are more often performed in rats, so that possible species-related differences may complicate the development of anticonvulsant substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the 6Hz test in the rat. We first compared the effects of increasing current intensities for inducing seizures in the mouse and in the rat...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501260/erratum-to-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-brivaracetam-in-patients-with-prior-antiepileptic-drug-exposure-a-post-hoc-study-epilepsy-res-131-2017-70-75
#3
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Michael R Sperling, Steve Chung, Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Sami Elmoufti, Jimmy Schiemann, John Whitesides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527369/prolonged-epileptiform-eeg-runs-are-associated-with-persistent-seizures-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#4
Vibeke Arntsen, Trond Sand, Marte R Syvertsen, Eylert Brodtkorb
OBJECTIVE: In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), various EEG characteristics have been suggested as poor prognostic signs, but their significance is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of EEG variables on seizure and psychosocial outcome after a follow-up exceeding 20 years. METHODS: 396 EEG recordings were available for assessment in 40 patients (42 complete digital, 330 paper segments and 24 written reports only). Mean follow-up was 31 years (range 20-68)...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521115/anticonvulsant-profile-of-the-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-in-animal-models
#5
Rebecca S Hammond, Alison L Althaus, Michael A Ackley, Carla Maciag, Gabriel Martinez Botella, Francesco G Salituro, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Despite the availability of multiple antiepileptic drugs (AED), failure to adequately control seizures is a challenge for approximately one third of epilepsy patients, and new therapies with a differentiated mechanism of action are needed. The neuroactive steroid, SGE-516, is a positive allosteric modulator of both gamma- and delta-containing GABAA receptors. This broad GABAA receptor activity differentiates neuroactive steroids like SGE-516 from benzodiazepines, a class of anticonvulsants which have been shown in vitro to selectively target gamma-subunit containing GABAA receptors...
May 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505490/heat-induced-temperature-dysregulation-and-seizures-in-dravet-syndrome-gefs-gabrg2-q390x-mice
#6
Timothy A Warner, Zhong Liu, Robert L Macdonald, Jing-Qiong Kang
It has been established that febrile seizures and its extended syndromes like generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures (FS) plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome have been associated with mutations especially in SCN1A and GABRG2 genes. In patients, the onset of FS is likely due to the combined effect of temperature and inflammation in genetically vulnerable individuals because fever is often associated with infection. Much effort has been spent to understand the mechanisms underlying fever induction of seizures...
April 30, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475999/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-seizure-clusters-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy
#7
Baibing Chen, Hyunmi Choi, Lawrence J Hirsch, Austen Katz, Alexander Legge, Rebecca A Wong, Alfred Jiang, Kenneth Kato, Richard Buchsbaum, Kamil Detyniecki
PURPOSE: In the current study, we explored the prevalence of physician-confirmed seizure clusters. We also investigated potential clinical factors associated with the occurrence of seizure clusters overall and by epilepsy type. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 4116 adult (≥16years old) outpatients with epilepsy at our centers for documentation of seizure clusters. Variables including patient demographics, epilepsy details, medical and psychiatric history, AED history, and epilepsy risk factors were then tested against history of seizure clusters...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535410/effect-of-enzyme-inhibition-on-perampanel-pharmacokinetics-why-study-design-matters
#8
Barry E Gidal, Rama Maganti, Antonio Laurenza, Haichen Yang, David A Verbel, Edgar Schuck, Jim Ferry
OBJECTIVES: Perampanel, a selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist, is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy aged 12years and older. In vitro studies and Phase I trials indicate that perampanel is metabolized almost exclusively by CYP3A, with an elimination half-life (t1/2) averaging approximately 105h. Understanding of pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions-enzyme inhibition or induction-and anticipating their occurrence are important for management of patients with epilepsy...
April 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460334/maximal-exhaustive-treadmill-test-features-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-search-for-sudden-unexpected-death-biomarkers
#9
Guilherme L Fialho, Arthur G Pagani, Roger Walz, Peter Wolf, Katia Lin
Autonomic dysfunction may account for sudden unexpected death in patients with epilepsy (PWE). On the other hand, low cardiovascular fitness, which may affect autonomic function, is a risk factor for sudden death and all-cause mortality in the general population. Little is known about autonomic variables and cardiovascular response to exercise in PWE. We submitted thirty consecutive PWE with no known cardiovascular diseases to maximal treadmill test, comparing them with matched controls. All individuals were submitted to clinical assessment, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram to exclude cardiovascular disease...
April 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458103/changes-in-the-interictal-and-early-postictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-parameters-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#10
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions. METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs)...
April 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458102/ivabradine-attenuates-the-anticonvulsant-potency-of-lamotrigine-but-not-that-of-lacosamide-pregabalin-and-topiramate-in-the-tonic-clonic-seizure-model-in-mice
#11
Katarzyna M Sawicka, Katarzyna Załuska, Agnieszka Wawryniuk, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Michał Szczyrek, Bartłomiej Drop, Jadwiga Daniluk, Monika Szpringer, Dorota Żółkowska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are involved not only in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability under physiological conditions, but also in seizure activity. To determine the influence of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the anticonvulsant potency of four novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lacosamide, lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Adult male albino Swiss mice were challenged with maximal electroconvulsions (electric current of 25mA delivered via auricular electrodes)...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456095/a-survey-of-medical-examiner-death-certification-of-vignettes-on-death-in-epilepsy-gaps-in-identifying-sudep
#12
Daniel S Atherton, Gregory G Davis, Cyndi Wright, Orrin Devinsky, Dale Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: Lack of standardized terminology on death certificates (DCs) of SUDEP type cases may obscure the presence of epilepsy in these deaths. Most DCs for individuals dying unexpectedly with epilepsy are certified by medical examiners (MEs). The purpose of this study was to gauge death certification practices of MEs when interpreting SUDEP cases and assess implications for valid surveillance of SUDEP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey consisting of clinical vignettes describing deaths in individuals with epilepsy was sent to medical examiners...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477458/surgical-outcome-of-mri-negative-refractory-extratemporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Jianguo Shi, Nuria Lacuey, Samden Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in MRI-negative extratemporal lobe epilepsy (MNETLE) patients who underwent invasive evaluations and to determine factors governing outcome. METHODS: We studied 28 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery for MNETLE from August 2006 to November 2015, in whom complete follow-up information was available. Electro-clinical, pathological and surgical data were evaluated. 24 patients (82...
April 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472735/p38-mapk-pathway-mediates-cognitive-damage-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-via-apoptosis-cascade
#14
Qi Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuan Wu, Yuhan Liao, Yiqing Huang, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our group has previously reported the role of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the memory impairment of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats. However, any contribution of p38 MAPK pathways to the cognitive dysfunction of PTZ-kindled rats remains unclear. The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between p38 MAPK pathway and cognitive function of epileptic rats, and discuss probable mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into three groups, namely, PTZ, inhibitor, and sham groups...
April 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#15
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414968/investigating-the-correlation-between-short-term-effectiveness-of-vns-therapy-in-reducing-the-severity-of-seizures-and-long-term-responsiveness
#16
Maryam Ravan
VNS (Vagus Nerve Stimulation) Therapy(®) is an adjunctive therapy for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The primary metric used to assess response to any treatment for epilepsy is seizure frequency reduction as measured using seizure diaries. In addition to seizure frequency, reduction in seizure severity is clinically meaningful to patients and can be measured objectively. Analysis of electro-encephalographic (EEG) signals has revealed that seizures are accompanied by spatial synchronization of EEG electrodes that may persist for several minutes after the seizure...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475998/refractory-focal-motor-seizures-controlled-with-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin
#17
Wei-I Lee, Patrick W Carney, Andrew J Hughes, John S Archer
Patients with recurrent focal motor seizures present a management dilemma, as anti-convulsants are often ineffective, and resective surgery poses a high risk of motor deficit. We describe three patients with recurrent focal motor seizures that remained refractory despite numerous anti-convulsant trials. All patients showed either hyperperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) or hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in primary motor cortex during periods of sustained jerking, although EEG abnormalities were uncommon...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419980/evaluation-of-glut1-variation-in-non-acquired-focal-epilepsy
#18
Alexander Peeraer, John A Damiano, Susannah T Bellows, Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel F Berkovic, Saul A Mullen, Michael S Hildebrand
Brain glucose transport is dependent on glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), encoded by the solute carrier family 2 member 1 (SLC2A1) gene. Mutations in SLC2A1 cause GLUT1 deficiency which is characterized by a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes including generalized epilepsy, motor disorders, developmental delay and microcephaly. Recent case reports suggest SLC2A1 mutations can contribute to non-acquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) but interrogation of a large patient cohort has not been reported. We studied 200 patients with NAFE (126 with temporal lobe epilepsy) comprising 104 females and 96 males with a mean age of onset of 18 years...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407518/evaluating-executive-function-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-the-frontal-assessment-battery
#19
Elmira Agah, Nasima Asgari-Rad, Mona Ahmadi, Abbas Tafakhori, Vajiheh Aghamollaii
Previous studies have demonstrated executive dysfunction in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a short neuropsychological tool that was developed for assessment of frontal lobe function in a clinical setting. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical utility of FAB for detection of executive dysfunction in TLE patients. Forty-eight TLE patients and 48 sex and age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Compared to healthy participants, the total FAB score was significantly lower among the TLE patients...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#20
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
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