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Human Psychopharmacology

Sidney H Kennedy, Jean-Marie Grouin, Stéphanie Cadour, Véronique Robert, Françoise Picarel-Blanchot
Agomelatine and vortioxetine are antidepressants with different mechanisms of action compared to other pharmaceutical treatment options. The objective of this present analysis is to determine the relative efficacy and acceptability of agomelatine (25-50 mg) compared to vortioxetine (10-15-20 mg) in adult patients with major depressive disorder. We performed an adjusted indirect comparison using placebo as a common control. The main outcomes were efficacy (response to treatment by Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale/Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) and acceptability (withdrawal rate for any reason or due to adverse events)...
January 12, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Min Jhon, Taeyoung Yoo, Ju-Yeon Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Lana Williams, Michael Berk, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study examined clinical and gender-specific risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in adult patients with psychotic disorders. METHODS: The study included 285 community-dwelling patients with psychotic disorders. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMD. Clinical characteristics associated with low BMD were identified with logistic regression analysis in total population and each gender. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (20...
January 8, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Adam W Carrico, Violeta J Rodriguez, Deborah L Jones, Mahendra Kumar
OBJECTIVE: This study examined if methamphetamine use alone (METH + HIV-) and methamphetamine use in combination with HIV (METH + HIV+) were associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation as well as insulin resistance relative to a nonmethamphetamine-using, HIV-negative comparison group (METH-HIV-). METHODS: Using an intact groups design, serum levels of HPA axis hormones in 46 METH + HIV- and 127 METH + HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) were compared to 136 METH-HIV- men...
December 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Milan Latas, Goran Trajković, Dimitar Bonevski, Andromahi Naumovska, Dušanka Vučinić Latas, Zoran Bukumirić, Vladan Starčević
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to ascertain psychiatrists' treatment preferences for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and compare them to the same psychiatrists' treatment preferences in the hypothetical scenario that treatment is to be administered to themselves as patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 221 psychiatrists from 3 Balkan countries. They were asked to indicate their treatment preferences for patients with GAD and for themselves as patients...
December 20, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Georgios Papazisis, Antonios Goulas, Alexios Sarrigiannidis, Stavroula Bargiota, Diomidis Antoniadis, Nikolaos Raikos, Emmanouela Basgiouraki, Vasileios P Bozikas, Georgios Garyfallos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to examine the association between ABCB1 polymorphisms G2677T/A (rs2032582) and C3435T (rs1045642) and common CYP2D6 variants, with the response to antipsychotic treatment of psychotic patients, in a naturalistic setting, in Greece. METHODS: One hundred patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders were included in the study. Dosages were normalized to chlorpromazine equivalents. Response following 1 month of treatment was assessed as either a continuous variable, using the distribution of the corrected Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale percent change, or as a dichotomous variable defined as the number of patients scoring ≥30% from the corrected baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score...
December 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Junhee Lee, Bo-Hyung Kim, Euitae Kim, Oliver D Howes, Kang Ik Kevin Cho, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (EOCD) and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (LOCD) are distinct subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD patients are treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but the difference in serotonin transporter (SERT) availability between medicated EOCD and LOCD is unexplored yet. METHODS: Six EOCD and 6 LOCD patients were enrolled. They underwent serial [11 C]DASB positron emission tomography scans during maintenance therapy with escitalopram, and their plasma concentration of escitalopram was measured simultaneously with the scan...
December 6, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Antonio Tundo, Francesco Cuniberti, Giuseppe Maina, Ilenia Moroni, Beatrice Benatti, Federico Mucci, Gabriele Massimetti, Armando Piccinni, Vlasios Brakoulias
The aim of the present study was to investigate psychopharmacological prescribing patterns in a large sample (n = 1815) of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recruited in 4 Italian centers specialized in OCD, in comparison to available national and international guidelines. The centers were asked to complete a specific data sheet questionnaire on patients' therapeutic status. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS. The results showed that almost all patients referred to the centers of Milan, Pisa and Rome received psychotropic medications, whereas only 59...
November 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Wan-Ju Cheng, Chun-Cheng Lin, Yawen Cheng, Ming-Chyi Huang
OBJECTIVE: In Taiwan, caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs), with high caffeine but low alcohol concentrations compared to those sold in Western countries, are commonly consumed at work and have been associated with work-related injuries. However, the effects on cognitive and motor functions and self-perception have not been examined. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers (mean age: 32.6 ± 2.7) participated in the study. Each participant visited our laboratory 4 times at intervals of at least 1 week and was assigned to one of 4 trials in a counterbalanced order at each visit: placebo, alcohol, caffeinated energy drink, and CAB...
October 6, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Renee-Marie Ragguett, Margaret Hahn, Giovanni Messina, Sergio Chieffi, Marcellino Monda, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotics (APs) are associated with metabolic syndrome, with increases in leptin proposed as an underlying mechanism of AP-induced weight gain. Currently available meta-analyses on this topic have limited their populations of interest to those diagnosed with schizophrenia. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to explore the relationship between leptin levels and AP use across multiple psychiatric diagnoses, and also in healthy controls. METHOD: Systematic electronic searches were conducted using PubMed and OVID: Medline...
October 5, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Sean A Rasmussen, Patricia I Rosebush, Michael F Mazurek
OBJECTIVE: Early antipsychotic response within the first 2-3 weeks of treatment can predict short-term outcomes after several months. We conducted the current study to determine whether the predictive value of early antipsychotic response persists throughout long-term treatment over multiple years. METHODS: In this observational study, we conducted follow-up assessments of 64 patients with first-episode psychosis an average of 25 months after they began antipsychotic treatment...
September 26, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Theresa Wimberley, Michael Eriksen Benros, Christiane Gasse
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory markers are associated with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based follow-up study among individuals with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis and a baseline C-reactive protein measurement (a commonly available marker of systemic inflammation) from 2000 to 2012. We defined treatment resistance as the earliest observed instance of either clozapine initiation or hospital admission due to schizophrenia after having received at least 2 prior antipsychotic monotherapy trials of adequate duration...
September 26, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Aya Goto, Akira Yoshimi, Tomoko Nagai, Mako Ukigai, Akihiro Mouri, Norio Ozaki, Yukihiro Noda
OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients, but treatment with clozapine is strictly limited because it can induce lethal-hematologic side effects. We investigated the effects of short- and long-term exposure of human neutrophils derived from healthy subjects to clozapine and compared them with the effects of reactive metabolite of clozapine, olanzapine, and doxorubicin. METHODS: Neutrophils were exposed to clozapine and olanzapine (1, 10, 50, or 100 μM), reactive metabolite of clozapine (50 or 100 μM), or doxorubicin (0...
September 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Giuseppe Carrà, Gabriella Nicolini, Annamaria Lax, Francesco Bartoli, Filippo Castellano, Alessia Chiorazzi, Giulia Gamba, Mattia Bava, Cristina Crocamo, Costanza Papagno
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether facial emotion recognition (FER), impaired in both schizophrenia and alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs), is additionally compromised among comorbid subjects, also considering the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly recruiting 67 subjects with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia, and rigorously assessing AUDs/SUDs and COMT Val158Met polymorphism...
September 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
September 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Sally Adams, Angela S Attwood, Marcus R Munafò
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). METHODS: Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting...
September 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Marith van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marlou Mackus, Aurora J A E van de Loo, Joris C Verster
Hangover research often records the presence and severity of symptoms experienced the day after heavy alcohol consumption. However, usually no information is gathered on the impact of experiencing these symptoms on mood, cognition, and physical activities. An online survey was held among Dutch students, aged 18-30 years, who recently had a hangover. Overall hangover severity (i.e., a single 1-item rating) and the severity of 22 individual symptoms were rated on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme)...
September 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Marlou Mackus, Aurora J A E van de Loo, S Jorinde Raasveld, Anna Hogewoning, Javier Sastre Toraño, Frits M Flesch, Gerdien A H Korte-Bouws, Renier H P van Neer, Xiaochun Wang, Thomas T Nguyen, Karel A Brookhuis, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) as biomarkers of the hangover state. METHODS: Thirty-sixhealthy social drinkers participated in this study, being of naturalistic design. Eighteen participants experience regular hangovers (the hangover group), whereas the other 18 claim to not experience a hangover (the hangover-immune group). On a control day (alcohol-free) day and a post-alcohol day, urine EtG and EtS concentrations were determined and hangover severity assessed...
September 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Alex Doruyter, Nynke A Groenewold, Patrick Dupont, Dan J Stein, James M Warwick
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing...
August 1, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West, Emily M Jutkiewicz, Carol J Boyd
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to determine the lifetime and past-year prevalence estimates of multiple Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) among U.S. adults. METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions featured in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 and older. RESULTS: The majority of past-year nonalcohol DSM-5 SUDs had at least 1 other co-occurring past-year SUD, ranging from 56...
July 27, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
Jessica E Manousakis, Clare Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological and laboratory-based driving simulator studies have shown the detrimental impact of moderate, legal levels of alcohol consumption on driving performance in sleepy drivers. As less is known about the time course of decaying alcohol alongside performance impairment, our study examined impairment and recovery of performance alongside decaying levels of alcohol, with and without sleep restriction. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young males (18-27 years) underwent 4 counterbalanced conditions: Baseline, Alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] < 0...
July 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
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