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Human Psychopharmacology

Regina V Guarnieri, Luciano G Buratto, Carlos F A Gomes, Rafaela L Ribeiro, Altay A Lino de Souza, Lilian M Stein, José C Galduróz, Orlando F A Bueno
Dopamine can modulate long-term episodic memory. Its potential role on the generation of false memories, however, is less well known. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, 24 young healthy volunteers ingested a 4-mg oral dose of haloperidol, a dopamine D2 -receptor antagonist, or placebo, before taking part in a recognition memory task. Haloperidol was active during both study and test phases of the experiment. Participants in the haloperidol group produced more false recognition responses than those in the placebo group, despite similar levels of correct recognition...
December 7, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
David H Morris, Michael T Amlung, Chia-Lin Tsai, Denis M McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: The magnitude of acute tolerance is a strong predictor of the development of longer-term chronic tolerance and plays a decisive role in risky decisions (e.g., driving after drinking). Therefore, it is important to identify factors that increase the magnitude of this adaptive process. This study explored whether acute tolerance magnitude varied as a function of the overall rate of increase in breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). METHODS: Twenty-nine young adult social drinkers (M age = 22...
December 7, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Pedro Damian Gargoloff, Ricardo Corral, Luis Herbst, Miguel Marquez, Giovanni Martinotti, Pedro Rafael Gargoloff
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this real-world study was to evaluate the effect of agomelatine on anhedonia as primary endpoint in outpatients under treatment of major depressive episodes. METHODS: The study was an open-label, multicenter, 8-week phase IV trial. Two hundred fifty-seven (257) patients were recruited, and 143 patients were included in the analysis. Agomelatine was administered orally as a 25-mg tablet. The dose could be increased to 50 mg after 2 weeks of treatment...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Hirofumi Yoshimuta, Masayuki Nakamura, Eisuke Kanda, Seigo Fujita, Kouzou Takeuchi, Toshiro Fujimoto, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Yasuaki Akasaki, Akira Sano
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined metabolic alterations associated with a positive response to olanzapine and identified brain regions associated with treatment-related improvement of symptoms in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients using [(18) F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography analysis. METHODS: Neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients who showed good or poor clinical responses to olanzapine were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
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November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Jeong Ha Park, Young Sik Lee, Ji Hyun Sohn, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVE: There is a high prevalence of problematic online gaming in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the current study, we compared the effectiveness of atomoxetine (ATM) and methylphenidate (MPH) on problematic online gaming in adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: We recruited 86 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD together with Internet gaming disorder. These participants were divided into two treatment groups: 44 participants were treated with MPH for 12 weeks, and 42 participants were treated with ATM for 12 weeks...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Julia M A Sinclair, Matthew Garner, Sonja C Pasche, Thomas B Wood, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: The effects of coexisting psychopathology on disorder-specific attentional biases in patients with alcohol dependence are uncertain. We undertook a cross-sectional study assessing attentional biases to alcohol-, depression-, and anxiety- related stimuli using the visual probe task in patients with alcohol dependence, attending a community alcohol service. METHODS: Using the visual probe task, we presented disorder-specific words (relating to alcohol, anxiety, and depression) for 500 ms and measured reaction times...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Emma Barkus, Paul Morrison, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray
: Not all individuals who smoke cannabis report psychotic-like experiences. Given that risk factors for psychotic disorders are multifaceted, precipitating factors to psychotic-like experiences after cannabis are likely to be equally complex. Reduced neurocognitive performance is associated with both psychosis risk and cannabis use. Therefore, it is possible cognitive performance may differentiate those who report psychotic-like experiences after cannabis from those who do not. We determined whether those reporting psychotic/dysphoric experiences after cannabis had reduced neurocognitive performance compared to those reporting primarily euphoric experiences...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Thomas J Blom, Paul E Keck, Stephanie L Williams, Jeffrey A Welge, Susan L McElroy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: Fifty participants with BED received LDX (20-70 mg/day) (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for up to 12 weeks in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, and flexible-dose trial. The primary outcome measure was binge eating (BE) days/week. RESULTS: In the primary longitudinal analysis, compared with placebo, LDX was not associated with a significantly greater rate of reduction in BE days/week, as well as BE episodes/week, and scores on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity or Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for binge eating scales...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Michael S Breen, Dan J Stein, David S Baldwin
INTRODUCTION: The utility of blood for genome-wide gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery has received much attention in patients diagnosed with major neuropsychiatric disorders. While numerous studies have been conducted, statistical rigor and clarity in terms of blood-based biomarker discovery, validation, and testing are needed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to investigate methodological approaches and to assess the value of blood transcriptome profiling in research on mental disorders...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
José Carlos Bouso, Eduardo José Pedrero-Pérez, Sam Gandy, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). METHODS: These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Chiara Rovera, Massimo Carlo Mauri, Elena Bertin, Chiara Di Pace, Silvia Paletta, Alessandra Reggiori, Ilaria Francesca De Gaspari, Dario Cattaneo, Daniela Mari, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this open-label naturalistic study was to assess clinical outcomes and the predictive value of duloxetine plasma levels in major depressive disorder in the elderly. METHODS: This naturalistic, open-label design involved 35 outpatients aged between 65 and 87 years. Duloxetine plasma levels were collected in 24 patients after the first month. Patients were evaluated using 21-item Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, Mini Mental State Examination, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, Barthel Index and Beck's Depression Inventory...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Isaac N Kwakye, Matthew Garner, David S Baldwin, Susan Bamford, Verity Pinkney, Felicity L Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. METHODS: A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Wei Zheng, Ying-Qiang Xiang, Xian-Bin Li, Gabor S Ungvari, Helen F K Chiu, Feng Sun, Carl D'Arcy, Xiangfei Meng, Yu-Tao Xiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of huperzine A (HupA), an isolate of Huperzine serrata, in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, WanFang, Chinese Biomedical, and China Journal Net databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English or Chinese of HupA augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy versus placebo or ongoing antipsychotic treatment...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Massimiliano Buoli, René S Kahn, Marta Serati, A Carlo Altamura, Wiepke Cahn
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare antipsychotic monotherapies in terms of time to discontinuation in a sample of schizophrenia patients followed-up for 36 months. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty schizophrenia patients, treated with antipsychotic monotherapy and followed-up in psychiatric outpatient clinics of Universities of Milan and Utrecht were included in the study. A survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) of the 36-month follow-up period was performed to compare the single treatment groups...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Edith M Heintjes, Jetty A Overbeek, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Gunnar Brobert, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of specific adverse outcomes between patients starting quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone use in the Netherlands. METHODS: Observational study using the PHARMO Database Network, including patients starting quetiapine (4658), olanzapine (5856), or risperidone (7229) in 2000-2009, comparing rates of all-cause mortality, failed suicide attempts, extrapyrimidal symptoms (EPS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypothyroidism, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Elisa Conti, Lucio Tremolizzo, Marta Elena Santarone, Marco Tironi, Isabella Radice, Chiara Paola Zoia, Angelo Aliprandi, Andrea Salmaggi, Roberto Dominici, Marco Casati, Ildebrando Appollonio, Carlo Ferrarese
OBJECTIVE: Donepezil (DNPZ) is a drug commonly used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may favour a T helper 2 phenotype leading to increased naturally occurring auto-antibodies (NAb) against beta-amyloid (Aβ). We hypothesized the involvement of the cholinergic receptors [α7-nicotnic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)] expressed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Fifty patients with mild-to-moderate AD, DNPZ treated (DNPZ+, n = 25) or not (DNPZ-, n = 25), and 25 matched controls were enrolled and PBMC extracted for both in vitro cultures, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Vlasios Brakoulias, Vladan Starcevic, Amparo Belloch, Liliana Dell'Osso, Ygor A Ferrão, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Christine Lochner, Donatella Marazziti, Andrew Martin, Hisato Matsunaga, Euripedes C Miguel, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Maria C do Rosário, Roseli G Shavitt, Arumugham Shyam Sundar, Dan Joseph Stein, Kirupamani Viswasam
OBJECTIVES: To assess rates of psychotropic medication use in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in seven different countries on five continents and to compare these with international treatment guidelines. METHODS: Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on the characteristics of their patients with OCD and on their incidence of psychotropic use. Consistency of summary statistics across countries was evaluated...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Giuseppe Carrà, Cristina Crocamo, Francesco Bartoli, Annamaria Lax, Martina Tremolada, Claudio Lucii, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosè, Irene Bighelli, Giovanni Ostuzzi, Mariasole Castellazzi, Massimo Clerici, Corrado Barbui
OBJECTIVE: Corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation is often associated with use of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). However, other factors require appropriate consideration, including age and gender, the role of other known medications associated with QTc prolongation, and severe comorbid conditions, such as co-occurring alcohol abuse/dependence. We aimed to study potential mediating roles of different, related, candidate variables on QTc. METHODS: We capitalized on data from a large (N = 2366), cross-sectional, national survey, the STAR Network QTc study, using a representative sample of people taking FGAs, and recruited from mental health services across Italy...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
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