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Human Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913970/human-neutrophils-show-decreased-survival-upon-long-term-exposure-to-clozapine
#1
Aya Goto, Akira Yoshimi, Tomoko Nagai, Mako Ukigai, Akihiro Mouri, Norio Ozaki, Yukihiro Noda
OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients, but treatment with clozapine is strictly limited because it can induce lethal-hematologic side effects. We investigated the effects of short- and long-term exposure of human neutrophils derived from healthy subjects to clozapine and compared them with the effects of reactive metabolite of clozapine, olanzapine, and doxorubicin. METHODS: Neutrophils were exposed to clozapine and olanzapine (1, 10, 50, or 100 μM), reactive metabolite of clozapine (50 or 100 μM), or doxorubicin (0...
September 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913946/facial-emotion-recognition-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-on-the-role-of-comorbid-alcohol-and-substance-use-disorders-and-comt-val158met
#2
Giuseppe Carrà, Gabriella Nicolini, Annamaria Lax, Francesco Bartoli, Filippo Castellano, Alessia Chiorazzi, Giulia Gamba, Mattia Bava, Cristina Crocamo, Costanza Papagno
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether facial emotion recognition (FER), impaired in both schizophrenia and alcohol and substance use disorders (AUDs/SUDs), is additionally compromised among comorbid subjects, also considering the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, randomly recruiting 67 subjects with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia, and rigorously assessing AUDs/SUDs and COMT Val158Met polymorphism...
September 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#3
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791734/drinking-status-but-not-acute-alcohol-consumption-influences-delay-discounting
#4
Sally Adams, Angela S Attwood, Marcus R Munafò
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). METHODS: Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting...
August 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766324/resting-state-fmri-and-social-cognition-an-opportunity-to-connect
#5
Alex Doruyter, Nynke A Groenewold, Patrick Dupont, Dan J Stein, James M Warwick
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by altered social cognition. The importance of social cognition has previously been recognized by the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria project, in which it features as a core domain. Social task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) currently offers the most direct insight into how the brain processes social information; however, resting-state fMRI may be just as important in understanding the biology and network nature of social processing...
August 1, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750479/the-impact-of-alcohol-hangover-symptoms-on-cognitive-and-physical-functioning-and-mood
#6
Marith van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marlou Mackus, Aurora J A E van de Loo, Joris C Verster
Hangover research often records the presence and severity of symptoms experienced the day after heavy alcohol consumption. However, usually no information is gathered on the impact of experiencing these symptoms on mood, cognition, and physical activities. An online survey was held among Dutch students, aged 18-30 years, who recently had a hangover. Overall hangover severity (i.e., a single 1-item rating) and the severity of 22 individual symptoms were rated on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme)...
July 27, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750478/multiple-dsm-5-substance-use-disorders-a-national-study-of-us-adults
#7
Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West, Emily M Jutkiewicz, Carol J Boyd
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to determine the lifetime and past-year prevalence estimates of multiple Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) among U.S. adults. METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions featured in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 and older. RESULTS: The majority of past-year nonalcohol DSM-5 SUDs had at least 1 other co-occurring past-year SUD, ranging from 56...
July 27, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722214/impairment-due-to-combined-sleep-restriction-and-alcohol-is-not-mitigated-by-decaying-breath-alcohol-concentration-or-rest-breaks
#8
Jessica E Manousakis, Clare Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological and laboratory-based driving simulator studies have shown the detrimental impact of moderate, legal levels of alcohol consumption on driving performance in sleepy drivers. As less is known about the time course of decaying alcohol alongside performance impairment, our study examined impairment and recovery of performance alongside decaying levels of alcohol, with and without sleep restriction. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young males (18-27 years) underwent 4 counterbalanced conditions: Baseline, Alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] < 0...
July 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685869/biomarkers-of-the-alcohol-hangover-state-ethyl-glucuronide-etg-and-ethyl-sulfate-ets
#9
Marlou Mackus, Aurora J A E van de Loo, S Jorinde Raasveld, Anna Hogewoning, Javier Sastre Toraño, Frits M Flesch, Gerdien A H Korte-Bouws, Renier H P van Neer, Xiaochun Wang, Thomas T Nguyen, Karel A Brookhuis, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) as biomarkers of the hangover state. METHODS: Thirty-sixhealthy social drinkers participated in this study, being of naturalistic design. Eighteen participants experience regular hangovers (the hangover group), whereas the other 18 claim to not experience a hangover (the hangover-immune group). On a control day (alcohol-free) day and a post-alcohol day, urine EtG and EtS concentrations were determined and hangover severity assessed...
July 6, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635119/the-detection-and-prevention-of-unintentional-consumption-of-dox-and-25x-nbome-at-portugal-s-boom-festival
#10
Daniel Martins, Monica J Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura, Iván Fornís, Helena Valente
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. METHODS: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. RESULTS: About 67...
June 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631432/profile-effects-and-toxicity-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#11
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Kinda Ibrahim, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, effects, and toxicity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 and included 19 databases. Search terms included "novel psychoactive substance(s)," "effect(s)," and "toxicity" and their synonyms. Studies included were those from any country, in any language, and between January 2007 and April 2015. Studies published before 2007 and those regarding the synthesis of NPS were excluded...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631373/the-risk-of-violence-associated-with-novel-psychoactive-substance-misuse-in-patients-presenting-to-acute-mental-health-services
#12
Abu Shafi, Paul Gallagher, Neil Stewart, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
Novel psychoactive substance (NPS) availability is increasing at a phenomenal rate and so is their associated misuse. Currently, the harms associated with NPS misuse are unclear. This report presents the initial findings of a continuing study looking into the impact of NPS misuse on admissions to an acute mental health facility in London. Violence preadmission and violence during admission have been found to be significant in NPS misusers compared to non-NPS substance misusers. Our findings have important consequences for acute mental health, emergency, and public health services...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#13
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617997/a-market-on-both-sides-of-the-law-the-use-of-the-hidden-web-for-the-sale-of-new-psychoactive-substances
#14
Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Andreas Kimergård, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: The hidden Web is used for the anonymous sale of drugs, and with the UK Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016, implemented on May 26th 2016; it could increase as a platform for obtaining new psychoactive substances (NPS). This study aims to describe the NPS market on the visible and hidden Web preban, and assess whether the hidden Web is a likely place for the sale of NPS postban. METHODS: Data collection of 113 online shops took place in October 2015. Data collection of 22 cryptomarkets took place every 2 months from October 2015 to 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA project...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597570/pharmaco-toxicological-effects-of-the-novel-third-generation-fluorinate-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adbinaca-ab-fubinaca-and-sts-135-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#15
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Adolfo Gregori, Fabiana Di Rosa, Federica Nigro, Alessandro Rimessi, Paolo Pinton, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Matteo Marti
INTRODUCTION: 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 are 3 novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids that are illegally marketed as incense, herbal preparations, or research chemicals for their psychoactive cannabis-like effects. METHODS: The present study aims at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in male CD-1 mice, comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9) -THC and JWH-018...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582802/altered-serum-levels-of-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-and-il-18-in-depressive-disorder-patients
#16
Ni Fan, Yayan Luo, Yufen Ou, Hongbo He
OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorder is associated with abnormal changes in cytokines levels. This study aimed to assess serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-18 in depressive patients. The correlations between these three cytokine concentrations and the patients' clinical characteristics were also assessed. METHODS: Serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 concentrations were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from 64 depressive patients and 80 healthy control subjects...
June 5, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573760/oral-glucose-tolerance-test-performance-in-olanzapine-treated-schizophrenia-spectrum-patients-is-predicted-by-bmi-and-triglycerides-but-not-olanzapine-dose-or-duration
#17
Jeffrey Guina, Sayon Roy, Ankur Gupta, Daniel D Langleben, Igor Elman
OBJECTIVE: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35)...
June 1, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568743/interventions-for-treatment-and-or-prevention-of-alcohol-hangover-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ranil Jayawardena, Thulasika Thejani, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Dinithi Fernando, Joris C Verster
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new research conducted over the past few years (2009-2016) assessing the effectiveness of potentially curative and/or preventive methods of alcohol hangover. METHODS: Data were retrieved by a 4-stage systematic search process. A search of the online Pubmed and Scopus databases were performed, using a combination of keywords: "Alcohol," "Ethanol," and "C2 H5 OH," in combination with the terms "Hangover," "Treatment," and "Prevention." The search comprised studies listed between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2016...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568705/hair-analysis-for-the-detection-of-drug-use-is-there-potential-for-evasion
#19
Shanna Marrinan, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Declan Naughton, Emerlinda Levari, John Collins, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Hair analysis for illicit substances is widely used to detect chronic drug consumption or abstention from drugs. Testees are increasingly seeking ways to avoid detection by using a variety of untested adulterant products (e.g., shampoos, cleansers) widely sold online. This study aims to investigate adulteration of hair samples and to assess effectiveness of such methods. METHODS: The literature on hair test evasion was searched for on PubMed or MEDLINE, Psycinfo, and Google Scholar...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568608/next-day-residual-effects-of-flibanserin-on-simulated-driving-performance-in-premenopausal-women
#20
Gary G Kay, Thomas Hochadel, Eric Sicard, Karthi K Natarajan, Noel N Kim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the next-day residual effects of acute and steady-state nighttime dosing of flibanserin on simulated driving performance and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study, 72 subjects were treated with either acute oral doses of placebo, zopiclone 7.5 mg (positive control) or flibanserin 100 mg at bedtime (indicated therapeutic dose), or after chronic nightly oral doses of flibanserin 100 mg for 1 week followed by a single bedtime dose of flibanserin 200 mg (supratherapeutic dose)...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
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