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Human Psychopharmacology

Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Thomas J Blom, Paul E Keck, Stephanie L Williams, Jeffrey A Welge, Susan L McElroy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: Fifty participants with BED received LDX (20-70 mg/day) (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for up to 12 weeks in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, and flexible-dose trial. The primary outcome measure was binge eating (BE) days/week. RESULTS: In the primary longitudinal analysis, compared with placebo, LDX was not associated with a significantly greater rate of reduction in BE days/week, as well as BE episodes/week, and scores on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity or Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for binge eating scales...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Michael S Breen, Dan J Stein, David S Baldwin
INTRODUCTION: The utility of blood for genome-wide gene expression profiling and biomarker discovery has received much attention in patients diagnosed with major neuropsychiatric disorders. While numerous studies have been conducted, statistical rigor and clarity in terms of blood-based biomarker discovery, validation, and testing are needed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to investigate methodological approaches and to assess the value of blood transcriptome profiling in research on mental disorders...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
José Carlos Bouso, Eduardo José Pedrero-Pérez, Sam Gandy, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). METHODS: These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Chiara Rovera, Massimo Carlo Mauri, Elena Bertin, Chiara Di Pace, Silvia Paletta, Alessandra Reggiori, Ilaria Francesca De Gaspari, Dario Cattaneo, Daniela Mari, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this open-label naturalistic study was to assess clinical outcomes and the predictive value of duloxetine plasma levels in major depressive disorder in the elderly. METHODS: This naturalistic, open-label design involved 35 outpatients aged between 65 and 87 years. Duloxetine plasma levels were collected in 24 patients after the first month. Patients were evaluated using 21-item Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression, Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, Mini Mental State Examination, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, Barthel Index and Beck's Depression Inventory...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Isaac N Kwakye, Matthew Garner, David S Baldwin, Susan Bamford, Verity Pinkney, Felicity L Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of healthy volunteers' experiences of mental health trials. METHODS: A qualitative study was nested within a healthy volunteer placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine, a psychotropic drug used for treating patients with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Eight participants were interviewed, and data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Interviewees described volunteering for the trial because they were interested in research, wanted the monetary incentive, wanted to help researchers, and wanted to be part of something...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Wei Zheng, Ying-Qiang Xiang, Xian-Bin Li, Gabor S Ungvari, Helen F K Chiu, Feng Sun, Carl D'Arcy, Xiangfei Meng, Yu-Tao Xiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of huperzine A (HupA), an isolate of Huperzine serrata, in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, WanFang, Chinese Biomedical, and China Journal Net databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English or Chinese of HupA augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy versus placebo or ongoing antipsychotic treatment...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Massimiliano Buoli, René S Kahn, Marta Serati, A Carlo Altamura, Wiepke Cahn
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare antipsychotic monotherapies in terms of time to discontinuation in a sample of schizophrenia patients followed-up for 36 months. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty schizophrenia patients, treated with antipsychotic monotherapy and followed-up in psychiatric outpatient clinics of Universities of Milan and Utrecht were included in the study. A survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) of the 36-month follow-up period was performed to compare the single treatment groups...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Edith M Heintjes, Jetty A Overbeek, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Gunnar Brobert, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of specific adverse outcomes between patients starting quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone use in the Netherlands. METHODS: Observational study using the PHARMO Database Network, including patients starting quetiapine (4658), olanzapine (5856), or risperidone (7229) in 2000-2009, comparing rates of all-cause mortality, failed suicide attempts, extrapyrimidal symptoms (EPS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypothyroidism, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Elisa Conti, Lucio Tremolizzo, Marta Elena Santarone, Marco Tironi, Isabella Radice, Chiara Paola Zoia, Angelo Aliprandi, Andrea Salmaggi, Roberto Dominici, Marco Casati, Ildebrando Appollonio, Carlo Ferrarese
OBJECTIVE: Donepezil (DNPZ) is a drug commonly used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may favour a T helper 2 phenotype leading to increased naturally occurring auto-antibodies (NAb) against beta-amyloid (Aβ). We hypothesized the involvement of the cholinergic receptors [α7-nicotnic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)] expressed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: Fifty patients with mild-to-moderate AD, DNPZ treated (DNPZ+, n = 25) or not (DNPZ-, n = 25), and 25 matched controls were enrolled and PBMC extracted for both in vitro cultures, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Vlasios Brakoulias, Vladan Starcevic, Amparo Belloch, Liliana Dell'Osso, Ygor A Ferrão, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Christine Lochner, Donatella Marazziti, Andrew Martin, Hisato Matsunaga, Euripedes C Miguel, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Maria C do Rosário, Roseli G Shavitt, Arumugham Shyam Sundar, Dan Joseph Stein, Kirupamani Viswasam
OBJECTIVES: To assess rates of psychotropic medication use in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in seven different countries on five continents and to compare these with international treatment guidelines. METHODS: Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on the characteristics of their patients with OCD and on their incidence of psychotropic use. Consistency of summary statistics across countries was evaluated...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Giuseppe Carrà, Cristina Crocamo, Francesco Bartoli, Annamaria Lax, Martina Tremolada, Claudio Lucii, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosè, Irene Bighelli, Giovanni Ostuzzi, Mariasole Castellazzi, Massimo Clerici, Corrado Barbui
OBJECTIVE: Corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation is often associated with use of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). However, other factors require appropriate consideration, including age and gender, the role of other known medications associated with QTc prolongation, and severe comorbid conditions, such as co-occurring alcohol abuse/dependence. We aimed to study potential mediating roles of different, related, candidate variables on QTc. METHODS: We capitalized on data from a large (N = 2366), cross-sectional, national survey, the STAR Network QTc study, using a representative sample of people taking FGAs, and recruited from mental health services across Italy...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
James E Clark, Jason W Osborne, Peter Gallagher, Stuart Watson
Neuroendocrine data are typically positively skewed and rarely conform to the expectations of a Gaussian distribution. This can be a problem when attempting to analyse results within the framework of the general linear model, which relies on assumptions that residuals in the data are normally distributed. One frequently used method for handling violations of this assumption is to transform variables to bring residuals into closer alignment with assumptions (as residuals are not directly manipulated). This is often attempted through ad hoc traditional transformations such as square root, log and inverse...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Yenal Dundar, Janette Greenhalgh, Marty Richardson, Kerry Dwan
OBJECTIVES: We used systematic review methodology to identify and evaluate short-term pharmacological interventions for agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. METHOD: We searched electronic databases for randomised controlled trials involving comparisons between current treatments for agitation, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and placebo. The patient population was adults with agitation associated with psychotic or bipolar disorder treated in specialist mental health services...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Johan Reutfors, Eric Clapham, Shahram Bahmanyar, Lena Brandt, Erik G Jönsson, Anders Ekbom, Robert Bodén, Urban Ösby
OBJECTIVE: This study explores suicide risk in schizophrenia in relation to side effects from antipsychotic medication. METHODS: Among patients with a first clinical discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Stockholm County between 1984 and 2000 (n = 4000), those who died by suicide within 5 years from diagnosis were defined as cases (n = 84; 54% male). For each case, one individually matched control was identified from the same population...
July 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Stefanie M Beck, Hannes Ruge, Christoph Schindler, Martin Burkart, Robert Miller, Clemens Kirschbaum, Thomas Goschke
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive control as well as stress reactivity is assumed to depend on prefrontal dopamine and decline with age. Because Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 increases prefrontal dopamine in animals, we assessed its effects on cognitive functions related to prefrontal dopamine. METHODS: Effects of 240-mg EGb761 daily on task-set-switching, response-inhibition, delayed response, prospective-memory, task-related fMRI-BOLD-signals and the Trier Social Stress-Test were explored in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot-trial in 61 elderly volunteers with subjective memory impairment...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Andrew D Krystal, Gary Zammit
BACKGROUND: Lurasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is a potent 5-HT7 antagonist and D2 , 5-HT2A antagonist, and 5-HT1A partial agonist. As such, lurasidone would be expected to modulate sleep and circadian function but there have been no human studies of the sleep effects of a 5-HT7 antagonist. The purpose of this study was to assess effects of lurasidone on sleep. METHODS: This was a cross-over, polysomnographic study involving 54 healthy volunteers who underwent two treatment periods (order randomized) each consisting of two nights in the laboratory: Night 1-lights out at usual bedtime; Night 2-4-h advance of sleep phase and randomization to either lurasidone 40 mg or placebo...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Janine J Benson-Martin, Dan J Stein, David S Baldwin, Katharina Domschke
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to be one of the most effective treatments for managing depression and other severe mental illnesses. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms underlying response to ECT remain uncertain. This mini-review presents clinical findings regarding the role of genetic factors in the aetiology of the ECT response. Studies on the role of variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene; other dopamine-, serotonin-, and G-protein-related genes; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); apolipoprotein E (APOE); angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes in mediating response to ECT are summarized...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Aurora J A E van de Loo, Nienke van Andel, Charlotte A G H van Gelder, Boris S G Janssen, Joep Titulaer, Jimmy Jansen, Joris C Verster
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this double blind placebo controlled study was to examine if specific effects on subjective intoxication and alertness-sleepiness ratings could be demonstrated after consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) when compared to consuming alcohol only (AO). METHODS: 56 healthy volunteers rated their subjective intoxication on a scale ranging from 0 (sober) to 10 (highly intoxicated) at baseline, breath alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0%, and at BAC 0...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Simon J C Davies, Benoit H Mulsant, Alastair J Flint, Barnett S Meyers, Anthony J Rothschild, Ellen M Whyte, Margaret M Kirshner, Denise Sorisio, Bruce G Pollock, Robert R Bies
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported an unexpected interaction between olanzapine and sertraline in a population being treated for psychotic depression. Contrary to knowledge of cytochrome p450 interactions sertraline increased apparent clearance of olanzapine by 30%. Here we examined the pharmacokinetics of sertraline in the same population. Existing studies suggest that sertraline apparent clearance is significantly increased in male subjects and suggested an age/sex interaction. METHODS: We studied subjects undergoing combination of sertraline/olanzapine treatment for psychotic depression in the Study of the Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Gary G Kay, Howard I Schwartz, Mark A Wingertzahn, Shyamalie Jayawardena, Russell P Rosenberg
OBJECTIVE: Next-day residual effects of a nighttime dose of gabapentin 250 mg were evaluated on simulated driving performance in healthy participants in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, four-period crossover study that included diphenhydramine citrate 76 mg and triazolam 0.5 mg. METHODS: At treatment visits, participants (n = 59) were dosed at ~23:30, went to bed immediately, and awakened 6.5 h postdose for evaluation. The primary endpoint was the standard deviation of lateral position for the 100-km driving scenario...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
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