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Zoological Science

Stanley Ifeanyi Ugwu, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Masaya Morita
Identification of seminal proteins provides a means of investigating their roles. Despite their importance in the study of protein function, such as regulation of sperm motility, it is difficult to select candidates from the large number of proteins. Analyzing the rate of molecular evolution is a useful strategy for selecting candidates, and expressing the protein allows the examination of its function. In the present study, we investigated seminal plasma proteins of the cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus, which exhibits a unique mode of fertilization and a rapidly evolving gene that encodes a seminal plasma protein, zona-pellucida 3-like (ZP3-like), which does not belong to the same molecular family as other ZPs...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Takato Izumi, Yuji Ise, Kensuke Yanagi, Daisuke Shibata, Rei Ueshima
A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Cataixa López, James Davis Reimer
Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Milleporidae) spp. are distributed throughout shallow subtropical and tropical marine environments in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean-Atlantic, and have traditionally been identified using pore characteristics and colony form. Until now, representatives of Millepora spp. on the island of Okinawa-jima, Japan, have been divided into five species; three branching species (Millepora intricata, M. tenera, M. dichotoma), one species with plate-like morphology (M. platyphylla), and one encrusting species (M...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Olha Tytiuk, Oleksandr Yaryhin, Yaroslav Stepanyuk
We studied the formation of the olfactory organ of European weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the formation of its placodes to the formation of lamellae using light microscopy. The aim of the present investigation was to determine which morphogenetic features of the olfactory organ ate associated with the demersal lifestyle. The olfactory organ of European weatherfish goes through such developmental stages as olfactory placode, olfactory pit, and olfactory chamber with lamellae. Formation of the olfactory pit occurs in prolarvae, but a considerable increase in size takes place during the switch to exogenous feeding...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Luca Vecchioni, Federico Marrone, Marco Arculeo, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
Two members of the genus Ferrissia Walker, 1903, namely Ferrissia nipponica (Kuroda, 1949) and F. japonica Habe and Burch, 1965, have been reported to occur in Japan, but due to a lack of molecular data, doubts have been expressed as to their validity. Furthermore, the possible presence of allochthonous Ferrissia taxa has been stated under a variety of names, so that even now there is no consensus on their presence and identity. Recently, freshwater limpets belonging to the planorbid genus Ferrissia were collected in an irrigation trough on the Izu island of Hachijōjima, Tokyo, Japan...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Masanori Okanishi, Toshihiko Fujita
Previous phylogenetic studies of the family Gorgonocephalidae (brittle stars and basket stars) have identified three subfamilies, Astrotominae, Astrothamninae, and Gorgonocephalinae. The genus Astroclon was tentatively assigned to the subfamily Astrothamninae in previous studies, but its morphology is enigmatic and molecular data of the genus was insufficient. Therefore, the systematic position of Astroclon required confirmation to reconstruct the accurate systematics of the Euryalida. In the present study, we sought to clarify the subfamilial classification in the family Gorgonocephalidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Euryalida)...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Takehiro Miyazaki, Manami Fukui, Emi Inagaki, Kenji Miki, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Katoh, Yukio Ohira, Motoko Noguchi, Toshinobu Tokumoto
Experimental testicular teratomas (ETTs) can be induced in 129/Sv mouse by E12.5 fetal testes transplant into adult testes. Previously, we conducted linkage analysis to explore candidate genes possibly involved in ETT development using F2 intercross fetuses derived from F1[LTXBJ × 129/Sv- + /Ter (+ /+)] hybrids. By linkage analysis on Chr 18 and Chr 19, we identified the genomic locus for experimental testicular teratoma 1 (ett1) on Chr 18. In the present study, we conducted additional mapping and linkage analysis on teratoma susceptibility and genome composition on Chr 1-17...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Nobuaki Nagata, Atsushi Ohwaki, Daisuke Akaishi, Teiji Sota
Dytiscus sharpi is a critically endangered diving beetle endemic to Japan that is distributed in five distant areas today. Information on the population genetics of this species is crucial for its conservation. We investigated the genetic differentiation and divergence of the D. sharpi in seven populations in North and South Hokuriku on the Sea of Japan side, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear Histone 3 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Although the nuclear markers showed little geographic genetic differentiation, nine COI haplotypes were identified from 31 individuals, and these haplotypes were divided into two distinct networks A and B...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Yuta Mochimaru, Jun Negishi, Syo Murakami, Shiori Musha, Koichi Sato, Fumikazu Okajima, Hideaki Tomura
Human, mouse, and zebrafish ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptors (OGR1s) are activated by both metals and extracellular protons. In the present study, we examined whether pig, rat, chicken, and Xenopus OGR1 homologs could sense and be activated by protons and metals. We found that all homologs stimulated serum response element (SRE)-driven promoter activities when they are stimulated by protons. On the other hand, metals differentially activated the homologs. The results using chimeric receptors of human and zebrafish OGR1s indicate that the specificity of the metal-induced activation lies in the extracellular region...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Hisanori Okamiya, Tamotsu Kusano
Bufo japonicus formosus (Eastern-Japanese common toad) is endemic to Eastern Japan. As with many Japanese amphibians, little is known about its terrestrial life, especially during the nonbreeding season. This species persists even in highly disturbed urban areas where many other amphibian species have already been extirpated. An understanding of how such species use habitats within remnant landscapes may help to inform management strategies for the conservation of urban ecosystems. We examined the nightly movement patterns, distance traveled, movement range, and microhabitat selection of non-breeding adult B...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Toshio Tamura, Seiya Hida, Takehiko Sakai
The evolutionary history of eight-barbel loaches of the genus Lefua was investigated to resolve the faunal formation and evolutionary history of Japanese and East Asian freshwater fishes. In the present study, we found that seven Lefua specimens obtained from western Japan could not be assigned genetically to any population recognized so far, although they were morphologically and ecologically indistinguishable from Lefua sp 1. We tentatively designated the specimens as the Nihonkai population. Sequencing of the mitochondrial D-loop region showed that five specimens of the Nihonkai population were allied with the Kinki and Tokai populations of L...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Xiaoxuan Li, Cuijuan Niu
Maternal effects play important evolutionary and ecological roles. Amictic female mothers of monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus can transmit predatory information of Asplanchna brightwellii in their environment to their offspring by changing the offspring's defensive morphology to increase their fitness. However, it remains unclear whether such maternal effects also exist during sexual reproduction of a mictic mother. This study explored the maternal effect in mictic mothers using the B. calyciflorus and A...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Abdul Haleem, Orus Ilyas
Indian gaur (Bos gaurus) is one of nine species of wild oxen found in the world. They are largely confined to evergreen, semi-evergreen, and moist deciduous forests, but also occur in dry deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. According to the IUCN Red List ( 2017 ), the estimated population of gaur in India is between 15,000 and 35,000 individuals, and probably due to this, despite the gaur's vast range of distribution, they are listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN and listed as schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act ( 1972 ) as well as in appendix-I in CITES ( 2003 )...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Masafumi Matsui, Wichase Khonsue, Somsak Panha
The taxonomic status of two populations of stream toads of the genus Ansonia from Thailand, previously suspected to be specifically distinct on the basis of molecular data, are assessed using morphological and additional genetic data. In mtDNA phylogeny, each of the two Thai lineages, one from Pilok Subdistrict, Kanchanaburi, and another from Phuket Island, are separated from other congenerics from the Thai-Malay Peninsula by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between other species in the genus...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Toshio Okazaki
I analyzed the association between the reflectance spectra and melanin rod arrangement in barbules of the eyespot of peacock feathers. The reflectance spectra from the yellow-green feather of the eyespot indicated double peaks of 430 and 540 nm. The maximum reflectance spectrum of the blue feather was 480 nm, and that of the dark blue feather was 420 nm. The reflectance spectra from brown feathers indicated double peaks of 490 and 610 nm. Transmission electron microscopic analysis confirmed that melanin rods were arranged fanwise in the outer layer toward the barbule tips...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Masaki Tamori, Jun Koki, Tatsuo Motokawa
Sea urchins have a globiferous pedicellaria that stands from a test with a stalk on which lies a head made of three movable jaws with venom-injecting teeth. The globiferous pedicellariae of the flower sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus, one of the most developed among sea urchins, are unique in that the jaws are provided with a jaw membrane that gives the pedicellaria an appearance of a flower when the jaws are open. We observed this membrane in an ionic liquid that does not require processes, such as fixation, dehydration, or coating with conductive materials, for observation with a scanning electron microscope...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Sebastian J Charlton, Mikkel B Nielsen, Carina R Pedersen, Lisette Thomsen, Mads P Kristjansen, Thomas B Sørensen, Cino Pertoldi, Julie Strand
Between 1970 and 2012, vertebrate abundance has declined by 58% with an average annual decline of 2%, calling for serious action to prevent a mass extinction and an irreversible loss of biodiversity. Cryobanks and cryopreservation have the potential to assist and improve ex situ and in situ conservation strategies by storing valuable genetic material. A great deal of studies concerning cryopreservation have been performed within the class Mammalia, although no systematic overview has previously been presented...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Nozomi Morita, Kazuo Inaba, Yasunori Saito
Without the establishment of effective culturing systems, little can be known about the late developmental stages of polyclad flatworms. Here, we report a laboratory culturing system for three polyclad species: Comoplana pusilla, Notocomplana koreana, and Pseudostylochus obscurus, and we describe changes in their morphology from hatching to reproductive maturity. These species hatch out as lobe-less larvae with four eyespots, but the number of eyespots increases in later development. Cross-like and triangularly shaped larvae are observed in N...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Seiki Takatsuki, Risako Miyaoka, Keita Sugaya
We studied the food habits of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procionoides) at the Tama Forest Science Garden, western Tokyo, Japan by fecal analysis in 2014/15. Martens were dependent on fruits throughout the year and showed less marked seasonal changes. Raccoon dogs were less dependent on fruits than martens were, and more dependent on mammals in spring, insects in summer and winter, and seeds throughout the year. Martens fed on more fruits containing tiny seeds, such as Actinidia arguta and Stachyurus praecox, whereas raccoon dogs fed on more large-seeded fruits, such as Ginkgo biloba and Diospyros kaki...
February 2018: Zoological Science
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