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Zoological Science

Susumu Ohtsuka, Hayato Tanaka, Geoffrey A Boxshall
A new species of the cyclopinid genus Cyclopicina, C. toyoshioae sp. nov., was collected from the hyperbenthic layer off northern Kyushu Island, Japan; its description is based on two adult female specimens. This is the first record of the genus from the Indo-Pacific region. The new species can be distinguished from its two known congeners in: (1) the relatively short antennules which do not reach the posterior margin of the dorsal cephalothoracic shield; (2) the shape of seminal receptacles; (3) the segmentation and armature of the cephalothoracic appendages; (4) the shape of the basal protrusion between the rami of legs 1-4; (5) the presence of three outer spines on the third exopodal segment of leg 4; and (6) the presence or absence of outer setae on the free exopodal segment of leg 5...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Takehito Okui, Sakiko Hosozawa, Satoka Kohama, Shingo Fujiyama, Shun Maekawa, Hiroshi Muto, Takashi Kato
Erythroid progenitors that respond to erythropoietin (Epo) are present in the liver of adult Xenopus laevis. However, cells responding to Epo in the larval liver and through the metamorphosis period under hepatic remodeling have not been characterized. In this study, tadpoles were staged using the tables of Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF). Liver cells from pre- (NF56) or post- (NF66) metamorphic stage were cultured in the presence of Epo. β2-globin mRNA expression peaked at day 7 after the start of culture. Larval β2-globin was highly expressed in NF56-derived cells, while adult β2-globinwas detected in those of NF66...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Hiromu Suga, Wataru Hirano, Toru Katoh, Kei W Matsubayashi, Haruo Katakura
The ladybird beetles Propylea quatuordecimpunctata and P. japonica have largely overlapping distributions in northern Japan, and in the laboratory produce fertile hybrids. In this study, we surveyed the distribution and morphological differentiation of these species and the hybrids in natural populations, with a focus on western Hokkaido, northern Japan. Phenotypic analyses were conducted for 987 individuals collected at 90 localities. In addition, the nuclear internal transcribed spacer-II (ITS2) region (549 bp) and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (700 bp) were sequenced for 620 individuals from 53 localities...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Hirokazu Abe, Tomohiko Kondoh, Waka Sato-Okoshi
The morphology of two Pseudopolydora species, P. cf. reticulata Radashevsky and Hsieh, 2000 and P. achaeta Radashevsky and Hsieh, 2000 are reported from Japan for the first time. Pseudopolydora cf. reticulata was collected from Japanese tidal flats, and individuals possess the characteristic netlike pigmentation on the dorsum of anterior chaetigers and the longitudinal black band along midline of caruncle. Pseudopolydora achaeta was collected from subtidal bottom mud of Onagawa Bay, and individuals have distinctive characteristics, such as intensive black pigmentation on dorsal and ventral sides of the anterior body and nearly straight vertical rows of major spines on the fifth chaetiger...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Kanako Yamao, Reiko Ishiwaka, Masaru Murakami, Seiki Takatsuki
A previous quantitative analysis of the food composition of the Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) in Japan showed that it is insectivorous and granivorous. This supports the expectation that such a small mammal requires highly nutritious foods. Other studies have analyzed the feces of harvest mice, but these were only collected during winter in order to minimize disturbance of the animals. In the present study, we collected samples from all four seasons in order to understand changes in diet throughout the year...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Michio Imafuku, Naomichi Ogihara
There have been only a few reports on the directional reflection of light by butterfly wings. Here, we systematically investigated this phenomenon in a lycaenid butterfly, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus,in which males have bright green wings based on structural coloration. We used a device that measures intensities of light in hemispherical space by vertical shifting of a sensor and horizontal rotation of the stage carrying the wing, which is illuminated from the top, to determine the direction of light reflected by the fore- and hindwings...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Han Yang, Chung-Ping Lin, Ai-Ping Liang
South China is a region of remarkable topographic complexity. However, the impact of climate fluctuations in the Pleistocene on the local fauna and especially insects has not been extensively studied. We integrated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite data of the rice spittle bug, Callitettix versicolor, to determine the genetic structure, potential biogeographic barriers, and historical demography of this species. The mtDNA data revealed two distinct lineages (Western and Eastern) congruent with the geographically separated western and eastern sub-regions of the Hengduan Mountains...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Mikihiko Kumashiro, Masaki Sakai
We found that the genitalia of the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus are equipped with an autocleaning system. The cricket keeps its genitalia clean by removing foreign matter and endogenous waste. Morphological study showed that the membrane complex consists of a median pouch and a genital chamber floor covered by small scales, each of which has a base of approximately 10 µm in width and a fringe with 5-10 spines 3-20 µm in length. The scales are arranged symmetrically about the midline, curving gradually in the lateral direction and continuing to the lateral pouch serving as a trash container...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Mikihiko Kumashiro, Masaki Sakai
Three types of genital movement, their neural controls, and functional roles were investigated to gain a better understanding of the mechanism underlying autocleaning in the male cricket. The membrane complex consisting of the median pouch and genital chamber floor shows peculiar undulation that is composed of two types of movements: a right-left large shift and small crease-like movements. The large shift was caused by contraction of a pair of muscles (MPA) located anterior to the median pouch, while the crease-like movements were caused by numerous muscle fibers extending over the membrane complex...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Balazs Bernáth, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
In polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. However, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (PS) was considered to be non-existent in them. Recently, however, gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess PS, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. Therefore, PS in Ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic insects, apparently does not play a dominant role in locating water bodies, and is difficult to demonstrate in situations free of chemical cues...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Ryunosuke Minami, Chiaki Sato, Yumi Yamahama, Hideo Kubo, Takahiko Hariyama, Ken-Ichi Kimura
The "moth-eye" structure, which is observed on the surface of corneal lens in several insects, supports anti-reflective and self-cleaning functions due to nanoscale protrusions known as corneal nipples. Although the morphology and function of the "moth-eye" structure, are relatively well studied, the mechanism of protrusion formation from cell-secreted substances is unknown. In Drosophila melanogaster, a compound eye consists of approximately 800 facets, the surface of which is formed by the corneal lens with nanoscale protrusions...
December 2016: Zoological Science
Seigo Sugimachi, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami, Jiro Okada
Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Hiroki Kohno, Shota Suenami, Hideaki Takeuchi, Tetsuhiko Sasaki, Takeo Kubo
The European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) is used as a model organism in studies of the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying social behaviors and/or advanced brain functions. The entire honeybee genome has been sequenced, which has further advanced molecular biologic studies of the honeybee. Functions of genes of interest, however, remain largely to be elucidated in the honeybee due to the lack of effective reverse genetic methods. Moreover, genetically modified honeybees must be maintained under restricted laboratory conditions due to legal restrictions, further complicating the application of reverse genetics to this species...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Wataru Saito, Yosuke Amaike, Takako Sako, Yayoi Kaneko, Ryuichi Masuda
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) is highly adaptable to urban environments. Populations of carnivorans inhabiting urban areas sometimes differ ecologically and genetically from those in rural areas. However, there is little information on urban raccoon dogs. This study focused on raccoon dog populations in Tokyo, one of the most highly urbanized cities in the world. We examined the genotypes of 10 microsatellites for 101 fecal samples from raccoon dogs inhabiting the grounds of the Imperial Palace, a green space in central Tokyo...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Shota Takemi, Ichiro Sakata, Auvijit Saha Apu, Shinji Tsukahara, Satowa Yahashi, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai
Ghrelin was first isolated from human and rat as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In the present study, we determined the ghrelin cDNA sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World monkey, and investigated the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract and localization profiles with somatostatin-producing cells. The marmoset ghrelin cDNA coding region was 354 base pairs, and showed high homology to that in human, rhesus monkey, and mouse...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Yurika Hitoshi, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
Choosiness, or female receptivity to copulation, is a critical component in female preference for a mating partner, as it functions at the final step in the mating process by determining whether she accepts copulation with a given male. In spite of its importance in the evolutionary process of male traits via sexual selection, little is known about the genetic variation and inheritance pattern of female receptivity. Drosophila prolongata shows a unique courtship behavior, leg vibration, which increases female receptivity to copulation...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Saka Yoshikawa, Makiko Mimura, Shin Watanabe, Liang-Kong Lin, Hidetoshi Ota, Yasushi Mizoguchi
The Ryukyu wild boar (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) is an endemic, morphologically defined subspecies of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) found on five islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago (a group of small islands stretching from mainland Japan to Taiwan). Two hypothetical scenarios have been proposed regarding the origin of the current Ryukyu wild boar populations: 1) natural dispersal and 2) transportation and subsequent release by prehistoric humans. To test these two hypotheses, we compared the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence (1140 base pairs) in 352 individual wild boar samples that included representatives of all five insular populations of the Ryukyu wild boar and populations of other conspecific subspecies in insular East and Southeast Asia and the Eurasian Continent...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Shinri Tomioka, Tomohiko Kondoh, Waka Sato-Okoshi, Katsutoshi Ito, Keiichi Kakui, Hiroshi Kajihara
Capitella teleta Blake et al., 2009 is an opportunistic capitellid originally described from Massachusetts (USA), but also reported from the Mediterranean, NW Atlantic, and North Pacific, including Japan. This putatively wide distribution had not been tested with DNA sequence data; intraspecific variation in morphological characters diagnostic for the species had not been assessed with specimens from non-type localities, and the species status of the Japanese population(s) was uncertain. We examined the morphology and mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene sequences of Capitella specimens from two localities (Ainan and Gamo) in Japan...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Hayato Tanaka, Moriaki Yasuhara
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are among the most extreme habitats on Earth. Major research interests in these ecosystems have focused on the anomalous macrofauna, which are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. In contrast, the meiofauna is largely overlooked in this chemosynthetic environment. The present study describes a new species, Thomontocypris shimanagai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Ostracoda), which was collected from the surface of colonies of neoverrucid barnacles and paralvinellid worms on the chimneys at the Myojin-sho submarine caldera...
October 2016: Zoological Science
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