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Zoological Science

Naoki Mito, Kazuhiko Ohshima, Osamu Saitoh
The Japanese clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) is a lentic-breeding species distributed throughout western Japan. Threats, such as habitat loss, have led to it being categorized as a vulnerable species. To explore the phylogeographic features and population differentiation among clouded salamanders in Shiga prefecture, we analyzed sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. DNA samples were collected from 29 distinct breeding sites, and 53 cytochrome b haplotypes were identified. On the basis of comparison of the composition and frequency of haplotypes in each breeding site, salamanders in each habitat appeared to have distinct characteristics...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Shinri Tomioka, Keiichi Kakui, Hiroshi Kajihara
Capitellids have emerged as monophyletic in most but not all recent molecular phylogenies, indicating that more extensive taxon sampling is necessary. In addition, monophyly of most or all capitellid genera was questionable, as some diagnostic characters vary ontogenetically within individuals. We tested the monophyly of Capitellidae and eight capitellid genera using phylogenetic analyses of combined 18S, 28S, H3, and COI gene sequences from 36 putative capitellid species. In our trees, Capitellidae formed a monophyletic sister group to Echiura, and Capitella was also monophyletic, separated by a long branch from other capitellids...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Natsumi Maruoka, Hajime Ohtsuki, Wataru Makino, Jotaro Urabe
We examined the morphology of Daphnia individuals maintained in our laboratory for several years, originally collected in Lake Inbanuma, Chiba, Japan. We determined partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rRNA genes from specimens in the cultured material. These animals are morphologically similar to D. obtusa Kurz, 1874 , but genetically distinct from this species. Our detailed observation shows that the morphological characteristics in the female and male individuals of our material are highly congruent with those of D...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Hyun-Ju Yoon, Eun-Jin Joo, Dong-Soo Ha, Hyung-Kyu Nam, Jongmin Yoon
Some seabirds commonly use artificially reclaimed lands, which are frequently located next to mainland environments, for breeding. Nest predation risk caused by birds or mammals from the mainland has negative influence on fitness-related costs and distribution of seabirds. Here, we sought to link potential factors, specifically those related to nest predation and nest environment, with breeding performance and colony movements of the Saunders's gull (Saundersilarus saundersi), a vulnerable species, on a large reclaimed area (1350 ha) in Incheon in Republic of Korea...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Xiao-Yan Zhang, Zhu-Qin Huang, Tiao Ning, Xiao-Han Xiang, Chun-Qing Li, Shan-Yuan Chen, Heng Xiao
The fish genus Sinocyclocheilus contains many different species that inhabit diverse natural environments, such as surface water layer, cave, or intermediate. As a result of these different habitats there are some differences in their sensory systems. Microscopic and submicroscopic structures of olfactory systems in six representative species of Sinocyclocheilus were studied, including one surface-dwelling species (S. grahami), two intermediate species (S. jii and S. macrophthalmus) and three cave-dwelling species (S...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Takafumi Nakano, Ko Tomikawa
The systematic status of the stygobitic amphipod, Paramoera relicta Uéno, 1971, was revisited based on morphological examination of the paratypes, and molecular phylogenetic analyses using a newly collected specimen from its type locality. The paratypes clearly showed that this species does not possess the "sinusoid" antennal sinus in the head, which was erroneously described in the original description of this species; P. relicta is unquestionably classified within the genus Paramoera Miers, 1875 ...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Toshio Okazaki
Male peacock (Pavo cristatus) tail feathers have an eyespot pattern with an inconspicuous black or dark blue center surrounded by brilliant, structural colors, such as blue, light brown, and yellow-green. Under ultraviolet A (UVA), the central part of the eyespot reflects UVA better than the surrounding parts. Herein, I examined various areas of eyespots on paraffin sections of feathers using an optical microscope, and characterized positional relationships between barbs and barbules. These analyses confirmed that barbules in the central part of the eyespot are in a horizontal position with respect to the barb, and that light transmission from the central part is less than that from the other parts...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Kiichiro Taniguchi, Akihiko Kokuryo, Takao Imano, Hideki Nakagoshi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
The adult male accessory gland in insects is an internal reproductive organ analogous to the mammalian prostate, and secretes various components in the seminal fluid. Products of the accessory gland in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are known to control reproductive behaviors in mated females, such as food uptake, oviposition rate, and rejection of re-mating with other males, all of which increase male reproductive capacity. Production of larger amounts of accessory gland products is thus thought to result in higher male reproductive success...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Chong-Rui Wang, Wen-Wen Suo, Xiang-Rong Huang, Fu-Chu Liao, Zhi-Qiang Liang, Li-Na Du
A new species of pachychilid freshwater gastropod, Sulcospira hunanensis sp. nov., is described from Hunan Province, China, based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters, including elongated shell with eight to nine whorls, spiral whorls with ribs, and stomach with outer and inner crescentic pads not connected to each other. Sulcospira hunanensis sp. nov. is the first confirmed report of this genus from Hunan Province, China...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Yosuke Amaike, Yoshinori Nishita, Kohji Uraguchi, Ryuichi Masuda
To assess the genetic diversity of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population on Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, we examined genotypes of exon 2 of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB1 gene for 232 individuals and identified 17 novel alleles. The subpopulation in the Southern area was genetically differentiated from those in all other areas on Hokkaido, suggesting isolation in southern Hokkaido. In addition, the Southern subpopulation is lower in genetic diversity than the other subpopulations, possibly resulting from purifying selection and/or a recent bottleneck...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Nobuaki Nagata, Jyun-Ichi Kitamura, Osamu Inaba, Masahiro Kumagai, Yasufumi Fujimoto, Teiji Sota
The bitterling Acheilognathus melanogaster is a critically endangered primary freshwater fish endemic to the Pacific side of eastern Japan. To elucidate A. melanogaster genetic structure, we investigated phylogeography in nine populations, using gene sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cytb), as well as nuclear Rhodopsin (Rho) and glycosyltransferase (Glyt). We found four Cytb-based geographical clusters unevenly divided between the northern and southern regions, with smaller groups in the south. Of the nuclear genes, Glyt did not show geographical differentiation, whereas Rho formed two clusters: one widely occurring and another restricted to central regions...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Ken Yoshimura, Junji Shindo, Ikuo Kageyama
We observed the morphology of the papilla linguae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus thai) using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue was caudally elongated and lacked the lingual torus. Filiform papillae were densely distributed along the dorsal surface of the apex, and the rostral and caudal parts of the corpus, but were attenuated in the lingual root. Two or three vallate papillae that were rounded or elongated were situated at the boundary between the caudal part of the corpus and lingual root, and foliate papillae and associated cone-like processes were observable in the lateral margin of the caudal end...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Doris Albinsky, Drew Wham, Naoya Shinzato, James Davis Reimer
Tropical and subtropical shallow benthic marine communities are highly diverse and balanced systems that constitute an important natural resource. Knowledge of the genetic diversity, connectivity and reproduction mode of each population is critical to understanding the fate of whole assemblages in times of disturbances. Importantly, the capability of populations to adapt to environmental challenges will be crucial to determining their survival. Here, we report on the population structure of the common reef zoantharian Zoanthus sansibaricus in the northwestern Pacific, by examining populations at three different locations in southern Japan using five highly variable microsatellite markers...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Chao Yang, Meixia Yang, Qingxiong Wang, Yingchun Lu, Xuejuan Li
In this study, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of Falco amurensis (Falconiformes, Falconidae). The F. amurensis mitogenome is 17,464 bp long, and contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and two non-coding regions (control region and pseudo-control region). Most PCGs initiate with ATG and terminate with TAA. atp8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, with cox1 showing the lowest. rrnS and rrnL contain three domains with 46 helices and six domains with 59 helices, respectively...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Tein-Shun Tsai, Jean-Jay Mao, Yuen Ying Chan, Yi-Jie Lee, Zi-You Fan, Shih-Hao Wang
Few convenient/expeditious methods for identifying the species of shed snake skins in specific areas have been developed. The scales on shed snake skins are permeable to light and can be examined by light microscopy (LM), which is of higher availability-especially for wild animal researchers and citizen scientists-than conventional approach which examines the scale microstructures by scanning electron microscopy. We collected and examined a total of 801 shed samples or scale specimens from 53 snake species in Taiwan and adjacent islands, and developed the first guide to identify the fragmented or faded shed skins of most snake species by LM...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Daisuke Uyeno, Euichi Hirose
Splanchnotrophidae Norman and Scott, 1906 is a family of parasitic copepods that infest nudibranchian and sacoglossan sea slugs. In this study, a new species of splanchnotrophid copepod, Lomanoticola nishiharai n. sp., is described based on specimens of both sexes collected from the facelinid nudibranch, Sakuraeolis enosimensis (Baba, 1930), in the Seto Inland Sea off Hiroshima, central Japan. It represents the third species of Lomanoticola Scott and Scott, 1895 and is characterized by the following female characters: the cephalosome distinctly protruded; the second and third lateral processes on the body originated from same bases; the caudal rami bears a seta V which almost same as long as the rami...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Ritsu Kamiya, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Takako Kato-Minoura
Chlamydomonas flagella display surface motility such that small polystyrene beads (microspheres) attached to the flagellar membrane move bidirectionally along the flagellum. This surface motility enables cells to glide on a solid substrate to which they are attached by the flagellar surface. Previous studies suggested that microsphere movement and gliding motility result from the movement of transmembrane glycoprotein(s) within the plane of the plasma membrane, driven by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which utilizes cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Chenhao Yang, Huihui Gao, Yao Gao, Changming Yang, Wuzi Dong
Abnormal embryos of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) were observed in an imitating ecologic breeding system at 20°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of bacterial infection on the early embryonic development of CGS. The ratio of abnormal embryos at 10 days after embryos incubated was 35.0% ± 2.1%, 35.6% ± 2.3% and 34.7% ± 3.4% in six breeding system farms of Hanzhong city in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. However, in the standard imitating ecology breeding mesocosm, the proportion of abnormal embryos was about 5%...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Yoriko T Nakamura
In the teleost fish medaka, an adult ovary simultaneously contains developing oocytes at all phases of oogenesis during the breeding season. However, it remains unclear where oocytes at each developmental stage are located in the ovary by the time of ovulation. To examine the relationship between the developmental stage of oocytes and their positions in the ovary of vertebrate medaka during oogenesis, the stage of oocyte development was determined from the diameter of the oocytes and the cellular morphological characteristics, such as the germinal vesicle and micropyle at the animal pole and attaching filaments at the vegetal pole, and the positions of developing oocytes in the ovary in all sections were observed...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Pandey Puneeta, Dharmamony Vijai, Jun Yamamoto, Yasunori Sakurai
Squid embryos develop in the perivitelline fluid inside the chorion, which is an envelope secreted by the ovarian follicle. The onset of hatching initiates local dissolution of the chorion when the hatching gland enzyme facilitates the release of the developed paralarvae. In the present study, we investigated the pre-hatching behavioral patterns of Todarodes pacificus embryos and their responses to light after hatching. Observations of orientation were conducted using embryos developing inside chorions embedded within intact egg masses, while phototactic experiments were conducted on paralarvae that hatched from these egg masses...
August 2018: Zoological Science
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