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Zoological Science

Hikari Myoshu, Masahiro A Iwasa
To evaluate the colonization histories of the Japanese house mice (Mus musculus), phenotypic and genotypic admixtures of the subspecific traits were studied by evaluation of external body characteristics and mitochondrial gene elements. We analyzed mitochondrial Cytb gene and coat colorations and body dimensions as subspecific characteristics in mice from four areas of the Japanese Islands, the Sorachi, Ishikari and Iburi areas of Hokkaido, the Hidaka area of Hokkaido, and northeastern and central Honshu. Three occurrence patterns of the subspecific haplotypes of Cytb-the castaneus type only, the musculus type only, and the castaneus, musculus, and domesticus types together-were observed in the study areas...
June 2018: Zoological Science
YoonJee Hong, Kyung Seok Kim, Junpei Kimura, Kaarina Kauhala, Inna Voloshina, Mikhail S Goncharuk, Li Yu, Ya-Ping Zhang, Mariko Sashika, Hang Lee, Mi-Sook Min
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is endemic to East Asia but has been introduced in Europe. Its high adaptability enabled its rapid colonization of European countries, where population growth has been raising concerns regarding ecosystem disturbance and the spread of zoonotic diseases. The genetic diversity and structure of endemic, source, and introduced populations from seven locations across South Korea, China, Russian Far East, Finland (spread to Finland after introduction to European part of Russia from Russian Far East), Vietnam, and Japan (Honshu and Hokkaido) were examined based on 16 microsatellite loci...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Koudai Morishita, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Kouta Kanno, Takefumi Kikusui
Sexual behaviors are instinctually exhibited without prior training, but they are modulated by experience. One of the precopulatory behaviors in adult male mice, courtship ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), has attracted considerable academic attention recently. Male mice emit ultrasounds as courtship behavior when encountering females. However, the modulatory effects of experience on USVs remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the effects of sociosexual experience and aging on adult male vocalizations...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Jing Ren, Natasha de Gunten, Alexander S Konstantinov, Fredric V Vencl, Siqin Ge, David L Hu
Camouflaged objects are harder to detect if the background itself is more heterogeneous, and search becomes increasingly inefficient when the scene contains multiple items resembling the target. Some adult leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with highly specialized habits make holes on host plant leaves while feeding. We propose that leaf beetles camouflage themselves with their feeding holes. The presence of holes makes predators' visual search harder, thus giving beetles more time to escape from the leaf surface either by jumping (Galerucinae: Alticini) or rolling (rest of Chrysomelidae)...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Bektaş Sönmez
Acquiring information about metabolic heating is necessary for the improved understanding of nesting beaches. However, there are limited studies on metabolic heating of green turtle (Chelonia mydas, L. 1758) on Mediterranean beaches. The present study sought to determine the metabolic heating, and its effect on the feminization of green turtle hatchlings during 2016 and 2017 nesting season on Samandağ Beach, Hatay, Turkey. Moreover, the relations between metabolic heating and nest parameters, and spatio-temporal differences of metabolic heating were evaluated...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Masato Owada
Seven (including one new) species of the polyplacophoran genus Ischnochiton (Ischnochitonidae) from the Pacific coast of Japan, namely, I. boninensis, I. comptus, I. manazuruensis, I. hakodadensis, I. hayamii sp. nov., I. paululus, and I. poppei, were investigated on the basis of DNA sequence analyses of COI, 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene regions. For the latter four species, SEM observations were simultaneously carried out. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on the four gene regions for 18 chiton species indicated that the seven Japanese Ischnochiton species are polyphyletic and originated from two different clades...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Tein-Shun Tsai, Zi-Yu Chen, Chin-Hsiu Lin, Yi-Wen Yeh
Morphometric measurements are basic but essential data in morphological and ecological research. It is thus beneficial to develop a safe, convenient, multipurpose device/technique to determine body length and physical characteristics of living snakes with high accuracy/precision and low stress, and to enable the probing of snakes and collection of tissue samples. To meet these requirements, we developed an improved technique, which we named the Confining-Box Method (CBM). On measuring the body lengths of a total of 72 live snakes, we found significant differences in the accuracy and precision of measurements among the squeeze-box method, the anesthesia method, and the CBM, as well as between vertebral line and the mid-ventral line measurements...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Yuji Yamazaki
Recently, expansion of the number and distribution of sika deer, Cervus nippon, in the Japanese Archipelago has resulted in the disturbance of indigenous gene pools and ecosystems. There are also concerns that the artificial introduction of sika deer to certain areas may aggravate this situation. In order to contribute to the conservation of ecosystems, I examined the current state of genetic disturbance and dispersal routes in the sika deer populations around Toyama Prefecture, one of the main areas of expanding sika deer distribution...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Renan da Silva Olivier, Rodrigo Aranda
Species of Temnomastax have wide morphological similarities, and differentiation is usually based on male and female genitalia. In this study, we tested whether morphometric differences contribute to differentiation of species of Temnomastax, proposed an identification key for males, and morphometrically studied the sexual dimorphism of Temnomastax hamus and Temnomastax ricardoi. Analysis was performed using 204 specimens belonging to six species; fifteen morphometric variables were used. We used MANOVA and ANOVA to test the morphometric differences among species and Discriminant Analysis for sexual distinction...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Tomohiro Tsuji, Hiroki Gotoh, Shinichi Morita, Junya Hirata, Yohei Minakuchi, Toshinobu Yaginuma, Atsushi Toyoda, Teruyuki Niimi
Many species of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) possess vivid body colors. These colors and patterns show diversity between coccinellid species, or even within species. However, the molecular underpinnings of these striking body colors are scarcely understood. One of the candidate pigmentation molecules responsible for ladybird body color is ommochrome pigment, which is well known as the red pigment molecule responsible for the red eyes of Drosophila. Various insects also use ommochrome in body coloration...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Stanley Ifeanyi Ugwu, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Masaya Morita
Identification of seminal proteins provides a means of investigating their roles. Despite their importance in the study of protein function, such as regulation of sperm motility, it is difficult to select candidates from the large number of proteins. Analyzing the rate of molecular evolution is a useful strategy for selecting candidates, and expressing the protein allows the examination of its function. In the present study, we investigated seminal plasma proteins of the cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus, which exhibits a unique mode of fertilization and a rapidly evolving gene that encodes a seminal plasma protein, zona-pellucida 3-like (ZP3-like), which does not belong to the same molecular family as other ZPs...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Takato Izumi, Yuji Ise, Kensuke Yanagi, Daisuke Shibata, Rei Ueshima
A new species in a new genus of sea anemone, Tempuractis rinkai gen. et sp. nov., was discovered at several localities along the temperate rocky shores of Japan. The new species is approximately 4 mm in length and has been assigned to family Edwardsiidae, because it has eight macrocnemes, lacks sphincter and basal muscles, and possesses rounded aboral end. The sea anemone, however, also has a peculiar body shape unlike that of any other known taxa. This new species resembles some genera, especially Drillactis and Nematostella, in smooth column surface without nemathybomes or tenaculi, but is distinguishable from them by several morphological features: the presence of holotrichs and absence of nematosomes...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Cataixa López, James Davis Reimer
Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Milleporidae) spp. are distributed throughout shallow subtropical and tropical marine environments in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean-Atlantic, and have traditionally been identified using pore characteristics and colony form. Until now, representatives of Millepora spp. on the island of Okinawa-jima, Japan, have been divided into five species; three branching species (Millepora intricata, M. tenera, M. dichotoma), one species with plate-like morphology (M. platyphylla), and one encrusting species (M...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Olha Tytiuk, Oleksandr Yaryhin, Yaroslav Stepanyuk
We studied the formation of the olfactory organ of European weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the formation of its placodes to the formation of lamellae using light microscopy. The aim of the present investigation was to determine which morphogenetic features of the olfactory organ ate associated with the demersal lifestyle. The olfactory organ of European weatherfish goes through such developmental stages as olfactory placode, olfactory pit, and olfactory chamber with lamellae. Formation of the olfactory pit occurs in prolarvae, but a considerable increase in size takes place during the switch to exogenous feeding...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Luca Vecchioni, Federico Marrone, Marco Arculeo, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
Two members of the genus Ferrissia Walker, 1903, namely Ferrissia nipponica (Kuroda, 1949) and F. japonica Habe and Burch, 1965, have been reported to occur in Japan, but due to a lack of molecular data, doubts have been expressed as to their validity. Furthermore, the possible presence of allochthonous Ferrissia taxa has been stated under a variety of names, so that even now there is no consensus on their presence and identity. Recently, freshwater limpets belonging to the planorbid genus Ferrissia were collected in an irrigation trough on the Izu island of Hachijōjima, Tokyo, Japan...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Masanori Okanishi, Toshihiko Fujita
Previous phylogenetic studies of the family Gorgonocephalidae (brittle stars and basket stars) have identified three subfamilies, Astrotominae, Astrothamninae, and Gorgonocephalinae. The genus Astroclon was tentatively assigned to the subfamily Astrothamninae in previous studies, but its morphology is enigmatic and molecular data of the genus was insufficient. Therefore, the systematic position of Astroclon required confirmation to reconstruct the accurate systematics of the Euryalida. In the present study, we sought to clarify the subfamilial classification in the family Gorgonocephalidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Euryalida)...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Takehiro Miyazaki, Manami Fukui, Emi Inagaki, Kenji Miki, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Katoh, Yukio Ohira, Motoko Noguchi, Toshinobu Tokumoto
Experimental testicular teratomas (ETTs) can be induced in 129/Sv mouse by E12.5 fetal testes transplant into adult testes. Previously, we conducted linkage analysis to explore candidate genes possibly involved in ETT development using F2 intercross fetuses derived from F1[LTXBJ × 129/Sv- + /Ter (+ /+)] hybrids. By linkage analysis on Chr 18 and Chr 19, we identified the genomic locus for experimental testicular teratoma 1 (ett1) on Chr 18. In the present study, we conducted additional mapping and linkage analysis on teratoma susceptibility and genome composition on Chr 1-17...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Nobuaki Nagata, Atsushi Ohwaki, Daisuke Akaishi, Teiji Sota
Dytiscus sharpi is a critically endangered diving beetle endemic to Japan that is distributed in five distant areas today. Information on the population genetics of this species is crucial for its conservation. We investigated the genetic differentiation and divergence of the D. sharpi in seven populations in North and South Hokuriku on the Sea of Japan side, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear Histone 3 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Although the nuclear markers showed little geographic genetic differentiation, nine COI haplotypes were identified from 31 individuals, and these haplotypes were divided into two distinct networks A and B...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Yuta Mochimaru, Jun Negishi, Syo Murakami, Shiori Musha, Koichi Sato, Fumikazu Okajima, Hideaki Tomura
Human, mouse, and zebrafish ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptors (OGR1s) are activated by both metals and extracellular protons. In the present study, we examined whether pig, rat, chicken, and Xenopus OGR1 homologs could sense and be activated by protons and metals. We found that all homologs stimulated serum response element (SRE)-driven promoter activities when they are stimulated by protons. On the other hand, metals differentially activated the homologs. The results using chimeric receptors of human and zebrafish OGR1s indicate that the specificity of the metal-induced activation lies in the extracellular region...
April 2018: Zoological Science
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