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Zoological Science

Ken Yoshimura, Junji Shindo, Ikuo Kageyama
We observed the morphology of the papilla linguae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus thai) using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue was caudally elongated and lacked the lingual torus. Filiform papillae were densely distributed along the dorsal surface of the apex, and the rostral and caudal parts of the corpus, but were attenuated in the lingual root. Two or three vallate papillae that were rounded or elongated were situated at the boundary between the caudal part of the corpus and lingual root, and foliate papillae and associated cone-like processes were observable in the lateral margin of the caudal end...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Doris Albinsky, Drew Wham, Naoya Shinzato, James Davis Reimer
Tropical and subtropical shallow benthic marine communities are highly diverse and balanced systems that constitute an important natural resource. Knowledge of the genetic diversity, connectivity and reproduction mode of each population is critical to understanding the fate of whole assemblages in times of disturbances. Importantly, the capability of populations to adapt to environmental challenges will be crucial to determining their survival. Here, we report on the population structure of the common reef zoantharian Zoanthus sansibaricus in the northwestern Pacific, by examining populations at three different locations in southern Japan using five highly variable microsatellite markers...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Chao Yang, Meixia Yang, Qingxiong Wang, Yingchun Lu, Xuejuan Li
In this study, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of Falco amurensis (Falconiformes, Falconidae). The F. amurensis mitogenome is 17,464 bp long, and contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and two non-coding regions (control region and pseudo-control region). Most PCGs initiate with ATG and terminate with TAA. atp8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, with cox1 showing the lowest. rrnS and rrnL contain three domains with 46 helices and six domains with 59 helices, respectively...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Tein-Shun Tsai, Jean-Jay Mao, Yuen Ying Chan, Yi-Jie Lee, Zi-You Fan, Shih-Hao Wang
Few convenient/expeditious methods for identifying the species of shed snake skins in specific areas have been developed. The scales on shed snake skins are permeable to light and can be examined by light microscopy (LM), which is of higher availability-especially for wild animal researchers and citizen scientists-than conventional approach which examines the scale microstructures by scanning electron microscopy. We collected and examined a total of 801 shed samples or scale specimens from 53 snake species in Taiwan and adjacent islands, and developed the first guide to identify the fragmented or faded shed skins of most snake species by LM...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Daisuke Uyeno, Euichi Hirose
Splanchnotrophidae Norman and Scott, 1906 is a family of parasitic copepods that infest nudibranchian and sacoglossan sea slugs. In this study, a new species of splanchnotrophid copepod, Lomanoticola nishiharai n. sp., is described based on specimens of both sexes collected from the facelinid nudibranch, Sakuraeolis enosimensis (Baba, 1930), in the Seto Inland Sea off Hiroshima, central Japan. It represents the third species of Lomanoticola Scott and Scott, 1895 and is characterized by the following female characters: the cephalosome distinctly protruded; the second and third lateral processes on the body originated from same bases; the caudal rami bears a seta V which almost same as long as the rami...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Ritsu Kamiya, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Takako Kato-Minoura
Chlamydomonas flagella display surface motility such that small polystyrene beads (microspheres) attached to the flagellar membrane move bidirectionally along the flagellum. This surface motility enables cells to glide on a solid substrate to which they are attached by the flagellar surface. Previous studies suggested that microsphere movement and gliding motility result from the movement of transmembrane glycoprotein(s) within the plane of the plasma membrane, driven by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which utilizes cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Chenhao Yang, Huihui Gao, Yao Gao, Changming Yang, Wuzi Dong
Abnormal embryos of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) were observed in an imitating ecologic breeding system at 20°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of bacterial infection on the early embryonic development of CGS. The ratio of abnormal embryos at 10 days after embryos incubated was 35.0% ± 2.1%, 35.6% ± 2.3% and 34.7% ± 3.4% in six breeding system farms of Hanzhong city in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. However, in the standard imitating ecology breeding mesocosm, the proportion of abnormal embryos was about 5%...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Yoriko T Nakamura
In the teleost fish medaka, an adult ovary simultaneously contains developing oocytes at all phases of oogenesis during the breeding season. However, it remains unclear where oocytes at each developmental stage are located in the ovary by the time of ovulation. To examine the relationship between the developmental stage of oocytes and their positions in the ovary of vertebrate medaka during oogenesis, the stage of oocyte development was determined from the diameter of the oocytes and the cellular morphological characteristics, such as the germinal vesicle and micropyle at the animal pole and attaching filaments at the vegetal pole, and the positions of developing oocytes in the ovary in all sections were observed...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Pandey Puneeta, Dharmamony Vijai, Jun Yamamoto, Yasunori Sakurai
Squid embryos develop in the perivitelline fluid inside the chorion, which is an envelope secreted by the ovarian follicle. The onset of hatching initiates local dissolution of the chorion when the hatching gland enzyme facilitates the release of the developed paralarvae. In the present study, we investigated the pre-hatching behavioral patterns of Todarodes pacificus embryos and their responses to light after hatching. Observations of orientation were conducted using embryos developing inside chorions embedded within intact egg masses, while phototactic experiments were conducted on paralarvae that hatched from these egg masses...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Mario Vitor Buzete Gardinal, Claudemir Kuhn Faccioli, Renata Alari Chedid, Ricardo Hideo Mori, Irene Bastos Franceschini Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
The ventricle of the fish heart is a chamber that exhibits great morphological and vascular variability among species. However, although the Neotropical region has the greatest taxonomic and functional diversity in freshwater fish, many considerations have been formed without previous knowledge of the ventricular morphology of these fishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to describe the anatomy, myoarchitecture, and distribution of coronary vessels in the ventricle of three species belonging to two representative groups from this geographical area, Leporinus elongatus, Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes) and Pterodoras granulosus (Siluriformes), using gross anatomy and light microscopy...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Daniel Rodrigues Stuginski, Carlos Arturo Navas, Fábio Cury de Barros, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Marcio Martins, José Eduardo de Carvalho
Feeding specialization is a recurrent issue in the evolution of snakes and is sometimes associated to morphological and/or behavioral adaptations that improve snake performance to exploit a particular food type. Despite its importance for animal fitness, the role of physiological traits has been much less studied than morphological and behavioral traits in the evolution of feeding specialization in snakes. In this context, the energetic cost of post-prandial period is an important physiological factor due to the remarkable effect on the snake energy budget...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Hikari Myoshu, Masahiro A Iwasa
To evaluate the colonization histories of the Japanese house mice (Mus musculus), phenotypic and genotypic admixtures of the subspecific traits were studied by evaluation of external body characteristics and mitochondrial gene elements. We analyzed mitochondrial Cytb gene and coat colorations and body dimensions as subspecific characteristics in mice from four areas of the Japanese Islands, the Sorachi, Ishikari and Iburi areas of Hokkaido, the Hidaka area of Hokkaido, and northeastern and central Honshu. Three occurrence patterns of the subspecific haplotypes of Cytb-the castaneus type only, the musculus type only, and the castaneus, musculus, and domesticus types together-were observed in the study areas...
June 2018: Zoological Science
YoonJee Hong, Kyung Seok Kim, Junpei Kimura, Kaarina Kauhala, Inna Voloshina, Mikhail S Goncharuk, Li Yu, Ya-Ping Zhang, Mariko Sashika, Hang Lee, Mi-Sook Min
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is endemic to East Asia but has been introduced in Europe. Its high adaptability enabled its rapid colonization of European countries, where population growth has been raising concerns regarding ecosystem disturbance and the spread of zoonotic diseases. The genetic diversity and structure of endemic, source, and introduced populations from seven locations across South Korea, China, Russian Far East, Finland (spread to Finland after introduction to European part of Russia from Russian Far East), Vietnam, and Japan (Honshu and Hokkaido) were examined based on 16 microsatellite loci...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Koudai Morishita, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Kouta Kanno, Takefumi Kikusui
Sexual behaviors are instinctually exhibited without prior training, but they are modulated by experience. One of the precopulatory behaviors in adult male mice, courtship ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), has attracted considerable academic attention recently. Male mice emit ultrasounds as courtship behavior when encountering females. However, the modulatory effects of experience on USVs remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the effects of sociosexual experience and aging on adult male vocalizations...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Jing Ren, Natasha de Gunten, Alexander S Konstantinov, Fredric V Vencl, Siqin Ge, David L Hu
Camouflaged objects are harder to detect if the background itself is more heterogeneous, and search becomes increasingly inefficient when the scene contains multiple items resembling the target. Some adult leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with highly specialized habits make holes on host plant leaves while feeding. We propose that leaf beetles camouflage themselves with their feeding holes. The presence of holes makes predators' visual search harder, thus giving beetles more time to escape from the leaf surface either by jumping (Galerucinae: Alticini) or rolling (rest of Chrysomelidae)...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Bektaş Sönmez
Acquiring information about metabolic heating is necessary for the improved understanding of nesting beaches. However, there are limited studies on metabolic heating of green turtle (Chelonia mydas, L. 1758) on Mediterranean beaches. The present study sought to determine the metabolic heating, and its effect on the feminization of green turtle hatchlings during 2016 and 2017 nesting season on Samandağ Beach, Hatay, Turkey. Moreover, the relations between metabolic heating and nest parameters, and spatio-temporal differences of metabolic heating were evaluated...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Masato Owada
Seven (including one new) species of the polyplacophoran genus Ischnochiton (Ischnochitonidae) from the Pacific coast of Japan, namely, I. boninensis, I. comptus, I. manazuruensis, I. hakodadensis, I. hayamii sp. nov., I. paululus, and I. poppei, were investigated on the basis of DNA sequence analyses of COI, 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene regions. For the latter four species, SEM observations were simultaneously carried out. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on the four gene regions for 18 chiton species indicated that the seven Japanese Ischnochiton species are polyphyletic and originated from two different clades...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Tein-Shun Tsai, Zi-Yu Chen, Chin-Hsiu Lin, Yi-Wen Yeh
Morphometric measurements are basic but essential data in morphological and ecological research. It is thus beneficial to develop a safe, convenient, multipurpose device/technique to determine body length and physical characteristics of living snakes with high accuracy/precision and low stress, and to enable the probing of snakes and collection of tissue samples. To meet these requirements, we developed an improved technique, which we named the Confining-Box Method (CBM). On measuring the body lengths of a total of 72 live snakes, we found significant differences in the accuracy and precision of measurements among the squeeze-box method, the anesthesia method, and the CBM, as well as between vertebral line and the mid-ventral line measurements...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Yuji Yamazaki
Recently, expansion of the number and distribution of sika deer, Cervus nippon, in the Japanese Archipelago has resulted in the disturbance of indigenous gene pools and ecosystems. There are also concerns that the artificial introduction of sika deer to certain areas may aggravate this situation. In order to contribute to the conservation of ecosystems, I examined the current state of genetic disturbance and dispersal routes in the sika deer populations around Toyama Prefecture, one of the main areas of expanding sika deer distribution...
June 2018: Zoological Science
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