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Developmental Neuropsychology

Nadine Akbar, Alessio Signori, Maria Pia Amato, Maria Pia Sormani, Emilio Portaccio, Claudia Niccolai, Benedetta Goretti, Christine Till, Brenda Banwell
Processing speed is a frequently affected cognitive domain in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and is commonly assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). The objective of this study was to determine maturational trajectories in SDMT performance and baseline factors affecting trajectories in a sample of 82 pediatric MS individuals. Performance on the SDMT increased with age in patients with pediatric MS followed by a subsequent decline. Furthermore, patients who were older at disease onset and had a higher IQ showed greater gains with age, suggesting that these factors may be protective with respect to cognitive maturation in pediatric MS...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Aishah Abdul Rahman, Daniel J Carroll, Kimberly Andrews Espy, Sandra A Wiebe
We examined the neural correlates underlying response inhibition in early childhood. Five-year-old children completed a Go/No-go task with or without time pressure (Fast vs. Slow condition) while scalp EEG was recorded. On No-go trials where inhibition was required, the left frontal N2 and posterior P3 were enhanced relative to Go trials. Time pressure was detrimental to behavioral performance and modulated the early-occurring P1 component. The topography of ERPs related to response inhibition differed from patterns typically seen in adults, and may indicate a compensatory mechanism to make up for immature inhibition networks in children...
August 31, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Tricia S Williams, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Nomazulu Dlamini, Gabrielle deVeber, Robyn Westmacott
This study examined the prevalence of learning and psychological diagnoses and associated neurological and personal-environmental risk factors following perinatal and childhood arterial ischemic stroke. In our sample of 126 children and youth, 52.4% received a diagnosis following their assessment. Specifically, 32% had a single diagnosis and 21% had two or more diagnoses. Learning disability, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability were the most prevalent diagnoses. Associated risk factors varied by diagnosis with lower intellectual functioning being the common risk factor across categories...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rosemarie Scolaro Moser, Philip Schatz
Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Masumi Inagaki
Although phonics is the most frequently used approach in treating students with reading difficulties, its effects have not been fully clarified at either a behavioral or neurophysiological level. The present case study administered pure and short-term (i.e., 10 minutes per day for five weeks) phonics-training to a 13-year-old Japanese girl with severe difficulty in learning English. As a result, a drastic improvement in reading accuracy was associated with the enhancement of print-specific N170 in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the trained words...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Elizabeth Smith, Afrouz Anderson, Audrey Thurm, Philip Shaw, Mika Maeda, Fatima Chowdhry, Victor Chernomordik, Amir Gandjbakhche
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a brain imaging technique that is well-suited for use in young children, making it particularly useful for investigating the neural bases of the development of executive functions. In the present study, children (ages 4-10) underwent fNIRS while completing response inhibition and working memory tasks. While both tasks were associated with increases in oxyhemoglobin and decreases in deoxyhemoglobin, we found that strength of activation increased with age and with improvements in task performance...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Tobias W Meissner, Patrick Friedrich, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Erhan Genç, Sarah Weigelt
Visual functions requiring interhemispheric transfer exhibit a long developmental trajectory up to age 12, which might be constrained by corpus callosum maturation. Here, we use electrophysiological and behavioral crossed-uncrossed differences (CUDs) in a visual Poffenberger paradigm to estimate the interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT)-a measure of corpus callosum maturation-in 7-year-old children and adults. Adult's electrophysiological CUDs were faster than 7-year-old's. Behavioral CUDs did not differ and proved to be unreliable in a 6-month follow-up test...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kara Murias, Adam Kirton, Sana Tariq, Adrian Gil Castillejo, Andrea Moir, Giuseppe Iaria
As a focal injury in an otherwise healthy child, perinatal stroke provides a clinical model of developmental brain plasticity. In this study, we report evidence that children with perinatal periventricular venous infarcts perform as well as control children on a video game that tests navigation abilities. In addition, children with a history of perinatal arterial strokes overcame initial deficits in navigation performance after additional practice. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that a complex cognitive skill dependent on a distributed neural network with prolonged maturation, such as navigation, may demonstrate resilience after early brain injury...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Wenhai Zhang, Tao Suo, Ping Zhang, Cancan Zhao, Caizhi Liao, Liwei Zhang, Hong Li
We investigated whether effort control (EC) modulates gender differences in late positive potential (LPP) evoked by affective pictures. We collected EEG data from 46 healthy adolescents while they viewed 90 affective pictures. Relative to neutral pictures, boys showed larger LPP amplitudes for positive pictures compared to girls while girls showed larger LPP amplitudes for negative pictures compared to boys. Temperamental EC in boys negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for positive pictures, whereas EC in girls negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for negative pictures...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Stephanie Gorman, Marcia A Barnes, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
In a prospective longitudinal study, the trajectory of verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM) development was examined 2-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months following complicated-mild to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 55) relative to an orthopedic injury comparison group (n = 47). Individual growth curve modeling revealed an interaction of age, severity, and time for verbal, but not visual-spatial WM. The youngest children with severe TBI had the lowest scores and slowest verbal WM growth...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Mélody Blais, Charlène Baly, Maëlle Biotteau, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
This study tested the learning of a new bimanual coordination in teenagers with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Both groups improved accuracy of the new coordination. No difference was found on stability. But DCD teenagers exhibited an overall higher number of additional taps, suggesting a persistent lack of motor inhibition during learning. Moreover, teenagers with the lowest scores of motor abilities present the highest number of additional taps. All these results suggest that this number of additional taps (rather than traditional measures of accuracy and stability) could be a good marker of perceptual-motor learning deficit in DCD...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jing Yu, Rui Li, Yuhua Guo, Fang Fang, Suhuan Duan, Xu Lei
To investigate the association between age-related changes in risk taking and resting-state functional activity, we recorded resting-state scans from both young (n = 26) and older adults (n = 27). In addition, all participants completed two decision-making tasks: the Cambridge Gambling Task and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. We found that older adults showed decreased functional connectivity within the medial prefrontal cortex, particularly between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Barbara C N Müller, Jörg Meinhardt, Markus Paulus
The current study was designed to examine whether 1-year-old infants relate the perception of others' being touched to their own sensorimotor system, and whether they distinguish between animate and inanimate targets. During electroencephalography (EEG) assessment, infants watched video sequences in which either a human or a nonhuman target was touched/not touched by another object. Comparisons of sensorimotor alpha activation (7-9 Hz) on centro-parietal electrodes revealed differential cortical reactivity to the touch versus nontouch situations for the human versus the nonhuman target...
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Yanfang Wang, Lusha Li, Cheng Xu, Xiaohua Cao, Zhifen Liu, Ning Sun, Aixia Zhang, Xinrong Li, Kerang Zhang
The polymorphism of ERK and PTPRR in MDD is rarely reported. The present study investigated the association between the polymorphism of ERK/PTPRR and MDD at resting-state brain function using genomic imaging. It indicated that the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changed significantly in various brain regions of MDD patients. The T/G allele of ERK-rs1267842 and G/C allele of PTPRR-rs1513105 showed abnormal ALFF and ReHo changes in cortex including superior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus...
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Alleyne P R Broomell, Martha Ann Bell
In a study with 4-year-old children, we added a mixed condition the traditional day/night task to examine performance and response times for congruent and incongruent trials within the same condition. There were no differences in percentage correct performance between the incongruent and mixed conditions; however, children performed best on the congruent condition. EEG recordings showed differential patterns of frontal power and coherence suggesting increasing cognitive load from congruent to incongruent to mixed conditions...
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
David G Thomas, Tay S Kennedy, Janna Colaizzi, Nicki Aubuchon-Endsley, Stephanie Grant, Barbara Stoecker, Elisa Duell
This study examined relations between multiple measures of maternal iron status assessed 3 months post-partum, and infant processing speed (longest look during visual habituation), memory (novelty preference), attention (heart rate changes), and neural response variability (in auditory event-related potentials) at 3 and 9 months. Plasma iron was associated with 9-month novelty preference and longest look, and developmental changes in longest look. Hemoglobin predicted sustained attention, and both plasma iron and soluble transferrin receptors predicted neural response variability at 9 months...
May 3, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lisa A Daunhauer, Brianne Gerlach-McDonald, Elizabeth Will, Deborah J Fidler
We examined performance-based laboratory tasks and ratings-based assessments of executive function (EF) in school-aged children with Down syndrome and mental-age matched peers along with adaptive functioning. METHODS: A battery of assessments including EF laboratory tasks was collected. RESULTS: The DS group performed both working memory/inhibition and planning laboratory tasks with significant challenges. Moderate correlations were evident only between some laboratory tasks and ratings-based EF domains...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Nicole Landi, Trey Avery, Michael J Crowley, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes
Extant research documents impaired language among children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) relative to nondrug exposed (NDE) children, suggesting that cocaine alters development of neurobiological systems that support language. The current study examines behavioral and neural (electrophysiological) indices of language function in older adolescents. Specifically, we compare performance of PCE (N = 59) and NDE (N = 51) adolescents on a battery of cognitive and linguistic assessments that tap word reading, reading comprehension, semantic and grammatical processing, and IQ...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rebecca S Paterson, Justin A Kenardy, Alexandra C De Young, Belinda L Dow, Debbie A Long
Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Louise Ewing, Emily K Farran, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Marie L Smith
Detailed analysis of expression judgments in Williams syndrome reveals that successful emotion categorization need not reflect "classic" information processing strategies. These individuals draw upon a distinct set of featural details to identify happy and fearful faces that differ from those used by typically developing comparison groups: children and adults. The diagnostic visual information is also notably less interlinked in Williams syndrome, consistent with reports of diminished processing of configural information during face identity judgments...
2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
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