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Developmental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764201/cognitive-predictors-of-sequential-motor-impairments-in-children-with-dyslexia-and-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757012/developmental-trajectory-of-motor-deficits-in-preschool-children-with-adhd
#2
Kristie L Sweeney, Matthew Ryan, Heather Schneider, Lisa Ferenc, Martha Bridge Denckla, E Mark Mahone
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718727/which-neuropsychological-functions-predict-various-processing-speed-components-in-children-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Sarah A Vadnais, Michelle Y Kibby, Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels
We identified statistical predictors of four processing speed (PS) components in a sample of 151 children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Performance on perceptual speed was predicted by visual attention/short-term memory, whereas incidental learning/psychomotor speed was predicted by verbal working memory. Rapid naming was predictive of each PS component assessed, and inhibition predicted all but one task, suggesting a shared need to identify/retrieve stimuli rapidly and inhibit incorrect responding across PS components...
May 2, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601225/functional-basic-reading-skills-in-williams-syndrome
#4
Gabrielle Brawn, Saskia Kohnen, May Tassabehji, Melanie Porter
This study investigated whether individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) can attain a functional level of basic reading skills. The Study also investigated broader cognitive factors associated with reading ability in individuals with WS. Thirty individuals with WS participated in this study (mean chronological age 21 years and mean mental age 7 years 7 months). The results supported our hypotheses that: firstly, reading abilities would be heterogeneous in WS; secondly, at least some WS individuals are capable of achieving a functional basic reading level; and thirdly, on average, WS individuals would find reading of nonwords more difficult than reading of regular and irregular words...
March 30, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558171/atypical-information-use-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-during-judgments-of-child-and-adult-face-identity
#5
Louise Ewing, Elizabeth Pellicano, Harriet King, Laura Lennuyeux-Comnene, Emily K Farran, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Marie L Smith
Unusual patterns of fixation behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder during face tasks hint at atypical processing strategies that could contribute to diminished face expertise in this group. Here, we use the Bubbles reverse correlation technique to directly examine face-processing strategies during identity judgments in children with and without autism, and typical adults. Results support a qualitative atypicality in autistic face processing. We identify clear differences not only in the specific features relied upon for face judgments, but also more generally in the extent to which they demonstrate a flexible and adaptive profile of information use...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533096/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-sports-a-historical-and-narrative-review
#6
Gary Solomon
My objectives are to review: 1) a brief history of sport-related concussion (SRC) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), 2) the evolution of CTE in American professional football, 3) the data regarding SRC/CTE as they relate to depression and suicide, 4) the data on the neurocognitive effects of subconcussion/repetitive head trauma (with emphases on heading the ball in soccer and early exposure to football), 5) the evidence related to SRC and neurodegenerative diseases, 6) the published studies of CTE, 7) the NINDS neuropathological criteria for CTE, 8) public beliefs about SRC/CTE, and 9) the scientific questions regarding CTE...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432037/applying-a-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective-to-disruptive-behavior-disorders-implications-for-schools
#7
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412010/decoupling-of-the-occipitotemporal-cortex-and-the-brain-s-default-mode-network-in-dyslexia-and-a-role-for-the-cingulate-cortex-in-good-readers-a-brain-imaging-study-of-brazilian-children
#8
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411997/does-music-matter-a-look-at-the-issues-and-the-evidence
#9
Lauren Julius Harris
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to read music and play an instrument? Can more material rewards follow for cognition, language, and emotion, and for social and physical well-being? This essay presents an overview of issues and evidence from a broad range of disciplines and age groups...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521532/cortical-responses-to-chinese-phonemes-in-preschoolers-predict-their-literacy-skills-at-school-age
#10
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521525/neural-correlates-of-children-s-emotion-understanding
#11
Sophie Bennett, Hannah Larkin, Hannah Pincham, Sarah Carman, Pasco Fearon
This study aimed to develop an EEG paradigm to identify neural correlates of emotion understanding in children. In Experiment 1, children took part in an emotional story task. In Experiment 2, children completed an emotional task and a physical story task Late Positive Potentials (LPP) were demonstrated in response to emotional content in both studies. Together, The study demonstrates the potential value of the LPP as a flexible probe for studying children's emotion understanding and encourages further work into the specificity versus generality of cognitive processes underpinning the LPP in social information processing...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482371/social-functioning-following-pediatric-stroke-contribution-of-neurobehavioral-impairment
#12
Mardee Greenham, Anne L Gordon, Anna Cooper, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Rod W Hunt, Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Vicki Anderson
Pediatric stroke can result in long-term neurobehavioral impairments including cognitive, language, and motor deficits, all of which may disrupt the normal development of social skills. This study aimed to examine specific components of social function at 5-year poststroke at a group and individual level and explore the contribution of neurobehavioral impairment. Thirty-one children with arterial ischemic stroke participated in the study. Assessment included parent-rated questionnaires measuring social adjustment and social participation as well as behavior and fatigue...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461118/emotional-face-recognition-in-individuals-withattention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-article
#13
Khatereh Borhani, Vahid Nejati
This review focuses on facial emotion recognition (FER) in individuals with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral studies of FER in ADHD have resulted in inconsistent findings. Here, we discuss the factors that vary across studies and the way that they influence FER processes in ADHD. Across reviewed studies, fear was the most deficient facial expression to be recognized. Our review suggested that FER deficit in ADHD does not alleviate across development and is partially distinct from ADHD symptoms...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461111/executive-function-in-middle-childhood-and-the-relationship-with-theory-of-mind
#14
Jennifer Wilson, Glenda Andrews, Christy Hogan, Si Wang, David H K Shum
A group of 126 typically developing children (aged 5-12 years) completed three cool executive function tasks (spatial working memory, stop signal, intra-extra dimensional shift), two hot executive function tasks (gambling, delay of gratification), one advanced theory of mind task (strange stories with high versus low affective tone), and a vocabulary test. Older children performed better than younger children, consistent with the protracted development of hot and cool executive functions and theory of mind...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461102/feedback-processing-in-adolescents-with-prenatal-cocaine-exposure-an-electrophysiological-investigation
#15
Kristen P Morie, Jia Wu, Nicole Landi, Marc N Potenza, Linda C Mayes, Michael J Crowley
Impaired cognitive control is a consequence of cocaine exposure. Difficulty with feedback processing may underlie this impairment. We examined neural correlates of feedback processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 49 prenatally cocaine-exposed (PCE) and 34 nondrug exposed (NDE) adolescents. Adolescents performed a reward-feedback task with win/no-win feedback in a chance-based task. We investigated amplitude and latency of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 ERP components and source-based estimates elicited during feedback processing...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451990/intellectual-efficiency-in-children-and-adolescents-with-spina-bifida-myelomeningocele-and-shunted-hydrocephalus
#16
Francesca Burro, Armando Cama, Vicenza Lertora, Edvige Veneselli, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti
We studied the intellectual profiles of 13 Italian children diagnosed with spina bifida myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMC HC) against a control group of children. The results showed that MMC HC group had lower performance in all subtests, four indices, and the FSIQ of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, forth-edition. The MMC HC group showed flat cognitive profiles between subtests within each index and between four core indices. However, the cognitive abilities that were mostly impaired seemed to be related to visual selective and focused attention, to visual acuity, to visuo-perceptive organization and visuomotor integration and to visual short-term memory...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436854/feasibility-of-event-related-potential-erp-biomarker-use-to-study-effects-of-mother-s-voice-exposure-on-speech-sound-differentiation-of-preterm-infants
#17
Olena D Chorna, Ellyn L Hamm, Hemang Shrivastava, Nathalie L Maitre
Atypical maturation of auditory neural processing contributes to preterm-born infants' language delays. Event-related potential (ERP) measurement of speech-sound differentiation might fill a gap in treatment-response biomarkers to auditory interventions. We evaluated whether these markers could measure treatment effects in a quasi-randomized prospective study. Hospitalized preterm infants in passive or active, suck-contingent mother's voice exposure groups were not different at baseline. Post-intervention, the active group had greater increases in/du/-/gu/differentiation in left frontal and temporal regions...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436853/electrophysiological-response-during-auditory-gap-detection-biomarker-for-sensory-and-communication-alterations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, James C McPartland, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Alexandra P Key
Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432026/developmental-trajectories-of-executive-and-verbal-processes-in-children-with-phenylketonuria
#19
Zoë W Hawks, Michael J Strube, Neco X Johnson, Dorothy K Grange, Desirée A White
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a hereditary disorder characterized by disrupted phenylalanine metabolism and cognitive impairment. However, the precise nature and developmental trajectory of this cognitive impairment remains unclear. The present study used a verbal fluency task to dissociate executive and verbal processes in children with PKU (n = 23; 7-18 years) and controls (n = 44; 7-19 years). Data were collected at three longitudinal timepoints over a three-year period, and the contributions of age, group, and their interaction to fluency performance were evaluated...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412007/eye-tracking-as-a-marker-of-hyperphagia-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#20
Alexandra P Key, Elisabeth M Dykens
This study examined the feasibility of eye tracking measures as markers of hyperphagia in 42 children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Gaze data collected during free visual exploration of complex displays revealed that food images may not have an overall superior salience in PWS. However, increased attention to food in the context of other high-interest items was associated with higher scores on caregiver reports of hyperphagia. The study also provided preliminary evidence of test-retest reliability of eye tracking measures, suggesting that gaze characteristics may be a promising objective marker of food-related interests in PWS...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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