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Developmental Neuropsychology

Khatereh Borhani, Vahid Nejati
This review focuses on facial emotion recognition (FER) in individuals with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral studies of FER in ADHD have resulted in inconsistent findings. Here, we discuss the factors that vary across studies and the way that they influence FER processes in ADHD. Across reviewed studies, fear was the most deficient facial expression to be recognized. Our review suggested that FER deficit in ADHD does not alleviate across development and is partially distinct from ADHD symptoms...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jennifer Wilson, Glenda Andrews, Christy Hogan, Si Wang, David H K Shum
A group of 126 typically developing children (aged 5-12 years) completed three cool executive function tasks (spatial working memory, stop signal, intra-extra dimensional shift), two hot executive function tasks (gambling, delay of gratification), one advanced theory of mind task (strange stories with high versus low affective tone), and a vocabulary test. Older children performed better than younger children, consistent with the protracted development of hot and cool executive functions and theory of mind...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kristen P Morie, Jia Wu, Nicole Landi, Marc N Potenza, Linda C Mayes, Michael J Crowley
Impaired cognitive control is a consequence of cocaine exposure. Difficulty with feedback processing may underlie this impairment. We examined neural correlates of feedback processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 49 prenatally cocaine-exposed (PCE) and 34 nondrug exposed (NDE) adolescents. Adolescents performed a reward-feedback task with win/no-win feedback in a chance-based task. We investigated amplitude and latency of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 ERP components and source-based estimates elicited during feedback processing...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Francesca Burro, Armando Cama, Vicenza Lertora, Edvige Veneselli, Serena Rossetti, Lina Pezzuti
We studied the intellectual profiles of 13 Italian children diagnosed with spina bifida myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMC HC) against a control group of children. The results showed that MMC HC group had lower performance in all subtests, four indices, and the FSIQ of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, forth-edition. The MMC HC group showed flat cognitive profiles between subtests within each index and between four core indices. However, the cognitive abilities that were mostly impaired seemed to be related to visual selective and focused attention, to visual acuity, to visuo-perceptive organization and visuomotor integration and to visual short-term memory...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Zoë W Hawks, Michael J Strube, Neco X Johnson, Dorothy K Grange, Desirée A White
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a hereditary disorder characterized by disrupted phenylalanine metabolism and cognitive impairment. However, the precise nature and developmental trajectory of this cognitive impairment remains unclear. The present study used a verbal fluency task to dissociate executive and verbal processes in children with PKU (n = 23; 7-18 years) and controls (n = 44; 7-19 years). Data were collected at three longitudinal timepoints over a three-year period, and the contributions of age, group, and their interaction to fluency performance were evaluated...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Alexandra P Key, Elisabeth M Dykens
This study examined the feasibility of eye tracking measures as markers of hyperphagia in 42 children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Gaze data collected during free visual exploration of complex displays revealed that food images may not have an overall superior salience in PWS. However, increased attention to food in the context of other high-interest items was associated with higher scores on caregiver reports of hyperphagia. The study also provided preliminary evidence of test-retest reliability of eye tracking measures, suggesting that gaze characteristics may be a promising objective marker of food-related interests in PWS...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Hatun Zengin-Bolatkale, Edward G Conture, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. METHOD: Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. RESULTS: Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lauren Julius Harris
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to read music and play an instrument? Can more material rewards follow for cognition, language, and emotion, and for social and physical well-being? This essay presents an overview of issues and evidence from a broad range of disciplines and age groups...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Alice C Schermerhorn
Interparental conflict and neural correlates of children's emotion processing were examined. Event-related potential (ERP) data were collected from 87 children (9-11 years old) with stimuli depicting interpersonal anger, happiness, and neutrality. Three ERP components were modulated by child-reported measures of conflict, reflecting a progression from early sensory attention to cognitive control to stimulus categorization. Negative conflict predicted larger N1 and N2 amplitudes on happy than on angry trials...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Alexandra Key
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Danielle Chase, Philip Schatz, Nathan Smyk, R Robert Franks
We documented effort stability during neuropsychological (NP) testing examining failure rates on three Performance Validity Tests (PVTs). 65 student athletes, ages 8-21, were evaluated in an outpatient practice, following sports-related concussion over three sessions within 18 months of injury (mean=6 months). 7.7% of student athletes failed PVTs at all three test sessions, 7.7% failed PVTs at two test sessions, and 12.3% failed PVTs at one session; 28% of this sample was sub-optimally engaged for at least one test session, producing invalid neuropsychological data at the time of testing and 72% produced valid neuropsychological data across the comprehensive evaluation...
January 31, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Erik Domellöf, Anna-Maria Johansson, Louise Rönnqvist
This study investigated developmental changes and differences in upper-limb movement organization from 4 to 8 years of age in children born preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT). Kinematic recordings of precision-demanding unimanual movements and lateral assessments were carried out in 37 children (18 PT). All children, particularly children born PT, displayed considerable gain in movement kinematics. Contrary to controls, children born PT displayed persistently less-evident side preference. Gestational age (GA) contributed significantly to kinematic differences shown, with larger upper-limb deviances in the lowest GAs, in agreement with cross-sectional findings of altered hemispheric connections and delayed side-specialization among children born very PT...
January 29, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Vickie Plourde, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Philippe Robaey, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study aims to test cognitive skills underlying the association between inattention and reading in early primary school. Teachers rated inattention symptoms when children (N = 523-962) were 6-7 years old. Children were assessed at age 7-8 on phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), rapid auditory and bimodal processing, vocabulary, and reading (decoding and comprehension). Phonological awareness, RAN of numbers, and vocabulary mediated the association between inattention and both decoding and comprehension...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jason W Griffin, Brandon E Gavett
This study examined how autistic traits relate to third-party observation during neuropsychological testing. Using a counterbalanced within-subjects design (N = 61), we manipulated the absence and presence of third-party observation when administering alternate forms of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test to individuals with variable autistic traits. Bayesian linear mixed effects modeling was used to examine the interaction between autistic traits and third-party observation on test performance...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Izabela Kaczmarek, Paweł Kleka, Piotr Fliciński, Barbara Steinborn
The present work addresses the identification and qualitative assessment of errors that appear in a free-drawn clock-drawing test representing the time 8:20 in a sample of 455 children and adolescents with neurological diseases and their controls. The authors sought to verify whether the occurrence of particular errors in the clock drawings significantly differentiates the clinical groups. For statistical evaluation of the results, we applied correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The results of the study showed that three types of errors played an important role in the differentiation of the groups: spatial neglect, mirror reflection, and phonological depletion...
December 26, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sid E O'Bryant, Melissa Edwards, Leigh Johnson, James Hall, Adriana Gamboa, Judith O'jile
This study aimed to provide normative references for Mexican Americans on neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed from a total of 797 Mexican-Americans recruited across three Texas-based studies with approximately one-half of the participants tested in Spanish. Normative tables include: MMSE, AMNART, WMS-III (Logical Memory I, II; Visual Reproduction I, II; Digit Span), CERAD, RAVLT, Exit25, CLOX 1 & 2, Trail Making Test- A&B, BNT, COWA, and Animal Naming. The norms were stratified by education then age...
November 30, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
James R Hall, Valerie Hobson Balldin, Adriana Gamboa, Melissa L Edwards, Leigh A Johnson, Sid E O'Bryant
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is an assessment of neuropsychological functioning commonly used in clinical and research settings. To our knowledge, normative data for the RBANS is not available for Hispanic, Mexican Americans, which the current study sought to establish. Data from 136 Hispanic, Mexican Americans from Project FRONTIER were analyzed. Approximately half of the sample was administered testing in Spanish. Normative tables were created for English and Spanish speaking Mexican Americans...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
A Helo, N Azaiez, P Rämä
Semantic priming has been demonstrated in object or word contexts in toddlers. However, less is known about semantic priming in scene context. In this study, 24-month-olds with high and low vocabulary skills were presented with visual scenes (e.g., kitchen) followed by semantically consistent (e.g., spoon) or inconsistent (e.g., bed) spoken words. Inconsistent scene-word pairs evoked a larger N400 component over the frontal areas. Low-producers presented a larger N400 over the right while high-producers over the left frontal areas...
November 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
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