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Developmental Neuropsychology

Jessica Pan, Kayle Sawyer, EmilyKate McDonough, Laura Slotpole, David Gansler
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a measure of cognitive flexibility for children, which requires rule-use and shifting. Demographic, cognitive, regional cortical thickness, and genetic variables, including those related to language and executive function, were used to build predictive models of DCCS scores in 556 healthy pediatric participants. Gender, age, frontal, and temporal lobe regions of interest, and measures of sustained attention, inhibition, and word reading were selected as the best predictors of DCCS performance...
September 14, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Melanie A Blair, Ashley Moyett, Angelica A Bato, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
The present study examined the role of executive control functions (ECF) in adaptive risk-taking during adolescence. Healthy individuals aged 8-25 were administered ECF measures and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a computerized measure of risk-taking propensity. Findings demonstrated that adolescents who executed a more consistent response strategy evidenced better performance on the BART. Greater working memory (WM) predicted lower response variability and WM capacity mediated the relationship between age and variability...
August 30, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Annette Holth Skogan, Beate Oerbeck, Cathrine Christiansen, Hilde Lillian Lande, Jens Egeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Nicci Grace, Beth P Johnson, Nicole J Rinehart, Peter G Enticott
The primary aim of this study was to kinematically assess how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plan and control their handwriting actions. Forty-three boys aged between 8 to 12 years were included in the present analysis; 23 with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) controls. Sophisticated objective and quantifiable assessment of movement metrics and dynamics was applied across a series of basic cursive handwriting sequences. Children with ASD demonstrated atypical control of handwriting metrics and dynamics, as well as significantly greater neuromotor noise relative to age-matched peers...
August 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Natalia Moss, Christine L Petranovich, Lauren Parks, Andrea Sherwood
Anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis is a rare neurological condition. Limited existing pediatric case studies have shown mild, but persisting, neuropsychological impairments. This report described neuropsychological functioning in two patients treated for anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis. Patient A is a 16-year-old male (10 months after symptom onset) and Patient B is a 5-year-old female (45 months after symptom onset). Contrary to expectations, their cognitive profiles were largely intact, raising the possibility of minimal cognitive implications for some pediatric patients with this condition...
August 10, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kinga Morsanyi, Bianca M C W van Bers, Patrick A O'Connor, Teresa McCormack
This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with dyscalculia have an order processing deficit. The ordering measures included both numerical and non-numerical ordering tasks, and ordering of both familiar and novel sequences was assessed. Magnitude processing/estimation tasks and measures of inhibition skills were also administered. The participants were 20 children with developmental dyscalculia, and 20 children without maths difficulties. The two groups were closely matched on age, gender, socio-economic status, educational experiences, IQ and reading ability...
July 30, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
M R van den Bunt, M A Groen, S W van der Kleij, M W Noordenbos, E Segers, K R Pugh, L Verhoeven
Although dyslexia is characterized by a deficit in phonological representations, the nature of this deficit is debated. Previously, it was shown that adults with dyslexia respond differently to online manipulations of auditory feedback. In the present study, we found that individual differences in reading and reading-related skills within a group of 30 children (10-13 years old) with dyslexia were associated with the response to altered feedback. The fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus was not directly related to the response to altered feedback...
July 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Carolien Konijnenberg, Nils Martin Jondalen, Mikael Falkhaugen Husby, Annika Melinder
Much is still unknown about the potential long-term effects of prenatal methadone and buprenorphine exposure. We examined neural correlates of cognitive control in 19 prenatally methadone and buprenorphine exposed and 21 nondrug exposed children, aged 9-11 years. Children performed a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker task, which taps into selective attention, conflict response, and response inhibition mechanisms. We investigated behavioral responses and the ERP components N1, P2, N2, P3, and the late positive component (LPC)...
July 6, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lauren Julius Harris
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to read music and play an instrument? Can more material rewards follow for cognition, language, and emotion, and for social and physical well-being? This essay presents an overview of issues and evidence from a broad range of disciplines and age groups...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Dazhi Cheng, Qing Xiao, Qian Chen, Jiaxin Cui, Xinlin Zhou
A number of studies have investigated the cognitive deficits underlying dyslexia and dyscalculia. Yet, it remains unclear as to whether dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with the common visual perception deficits. The current investigation analyzed cognitive performance in children with dyslexia, dyscalculia, comorbidity, and typically developing subjects. The results showed that children with dyslexia, dyscalculia and comorbidity exhibited common deficits in numerosity processing and visual perception...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Chao Yan, Hui Zhou, Wei Wei, Yi-Ji Wang, Lixian Cui, Raymond C K Chan, Ci-Ping Deng
We conducted a 4-year longitudinal study to investigate trajectories of attention in a sample of 145 Chinese children. The Test of Everyday Attention was administered and latent growth modeling was used to capture developmental trajectories. We found that children's selective attention showed a linear increase, whereas attentional control and sustained attention increased rapidly then slowed down over 4 years. There was no significant correlation between the slopes of growth model for any subsystems. Girls showed higher initial levels of selective attention than boys, but no difference in growth rate...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rivka Green, Ayala Adler, Brenda L Banwell, Tracy L Fabri, E Ann Yeh, D Louis Collins, John G Sled, Sridar Narayanan, Christine Till
Youth with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience cognitive impairment and psychosocial disturbances. We describe the relationship between memory function, psychosocial skills, and brain volume in 32 patients with pediatric-onset MS and 30 controls. Amygdala volume was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. In general, poorer memory was associated with reduced functional communication skills and reduced amygdala volume. Greater amygdala volume in patients correlated with parent-reported functional communication and social skills...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Marcus Sooley, Erin K Cressman, Rose Martini
The ability to mentally represent actions is suggested to play a role in the online control of movement in healthy adults. Children's movement imagery ability and online control have been shown to develop at similar nonlinear rates. The current study investigated the relationship between movement imagery and online control in children by comparing implicit and explicit movement imagery measures with the ability to make online trajectory corrections. Imagery ability was a significant predictor of children's online control of movement once general reaching efficiency was controlled for...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Simone J Darling, Cinzia De Luca, Vicki Anderson, Maria McCarthy, Stephen Hearps, Marc L Seal
Little is known about white matter microstructure and its role in information processing abilities of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early posttreatment. Twenty-one survivors of ALL and 18 controls (7-16 years) underwent neurocognitive assessment. A subsample underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ALL group performed poorer on measures of processing capacity, and had widespread areas of decreased fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Significant group by white matter microstructure interactions was found when predicting processing speed...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kristie L Sweeney, Matthew Ryan, Heather Schneider, Lisa Ferenc, Martha Bridge Denckla, E Mark Mahone
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months)...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sarah A Vadnais, Michelle Y Kibby, Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels
We identified statistical predictors of four processing speed (PS) components in a sample of 151 children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Performance on perceptual speed was predicted by visual attention/short-term memory, whereas incidental learning/psychomotor speed was predicted by verbal working memory. Rapid naming was predictive of each PS component assessed, and inhibition predicted all but one task, suggesting a shared need to identify/retrieve stimuli rapidly and inhibit incorrect responding across PS components...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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