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Developmental Neuropsychology

M R van den Bunt, M A Groen, S W van der Kleij, M W Noordenbos, E Segers, K R Pugh, L Verhoeven
Although dyslexia is characterized by a deficit in phonological representations, the nature of this deficit is debated. Previously, it was shown that adults with dyslexia respond differently to online manipulations of auditory feedback. In the present study, we found that individual differences in reading and reading-related skills within a group of 30 children (10-13 years old) with dyslexia were associated with the response to altered feedback. The fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus was not directly related to the response to altered feedback...
July 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Carolien Konijnenberg, Nils Martin Jondalen, Mikael Falkhaugen Husby, Annika Melinder
Much is still unknown about the potential long-term effects of prenatal methadone and buprenorphine exposure. We examined neural correlates of cognitive control in 19 prenatally methadone and buprenorphine exposed and 21 nondrug exposed children, aged 9-11 years. Children performed a modified version of the Eriksen Flanker task, which taps into selective attention, conflict response, and response inhibition mechanisms. We investigated behavioral responses and the ERP components N1, P2, N2, P3, and the late positive component (LPC)...
July 6, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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June 28, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rivka Green, Ayala Adler, Brenda L Banwell, Tracy L Fabri, E Ann Yeh, D Louis Collins, John G Sled, Sridar Narayanan, Christine Till
Youth with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience cognitive impairment and psychosocial disturbances. We describe the relationship between memory function, psychosocial skills, and brain volume in 32 patients with pediatric-onset MS and 30 controls. Amygdala volume was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. In general, poorer memory was associated with reduced functional communication skills and reduced amygdala volume. Greater amygdala volume in patients correlated with parent-reported functional communication and social skills...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lauren Julius Harris
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to read music and play an instrument? Can more material rewards follow for cognition, language, and emotion, and for social and physical well-being? This essay presents an overview of issues and evidence from a broad range of disciplines and age groups...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Dazhi Cheng, Qing Xiao, Qian Chen, Jiaxin Cui, Xinlin Zhou
A number of studies have investigated the cognitive deficits underlying dyslexia and dyscalculia. Yet, it remains unclear as to whether dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with the common visual perception deficits. The current investigation analyzed cognitive performance in children with dyslexia, dyscalculia, comorbidity, and typically developing subjects. The results showed that children with dyslexia, dyscalculia and comorbidity exhibited common deficits in numerosity processing and visual perception...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Chao Yan, Hui Zhou, Wei Wei, Yi-Ji Wang, Lixian Cui, Raymond C K Chan, Ci-Ping Deng
We conducted a 4-year longitudinal study to investigate trajectories of attention in a sample of 145 Chinese children. The Test of Everyday Attention was administered and latent growth modeling was used to capture developmental trajectories. We found that children's selective attention showed a linear increase, whereas attentional control and sustained attention increased rapidly then slowed down over 4 years. There was no significant correlation between the slopes of growth model for any subsystems. Girls showed higher initial levels of selective attention than boys, but no difference in growth rate...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Marcus Sooley, Erin K Cressman, Rose Martini
The ability to mentally represent actions is suggested to play a role in the online control of movement in healthy adults. Children's movement imagery ability and online control have been shown to develop at similar nonlinear rates. The current study investigated the relationship between movement imagery and online control in children by comparing implicit and explicit movement imagery measures with the ability to make online trajectory corrections. Imagery ability was a significant predictor of children's online control of movement once general reaching efficiency was controlled for...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Simone J Darling, Cinzia De Luca, Vicki Anderson, Maria McCarthy, Stephen Hearps, Marc L Seal
Little is known about white matter microstructure and its role in information processing abilities of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early posttreatment. Twenty-one survivors of ALL and 18 controls (7-16 years) underwent neurocognitive assessment. A subsample underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ALL group performed poorer on measures of processing capacity, and had widespread areas of decreased fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Significant group by white matter microstructure interactions was found when predicting processing speed...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kristie L Sweeney, Matthew Ryan, Heather Schneider, Lisa Ferenc, Martha Bridge Denckla, E Mark Mahone
Motor deficits persisting into childhood (>7 years) are associated with increased executive and cognitive dysfunction, likely due to parallel neural circuitry. This study assessed the longitudinal trajectory of motor deficits in preschool children with ADHD, compared to typically developing (TD) children, in order to identify individuals at risk for anomalous neurological development. Participants included 47 children (21 ADHD, 26 TD) ages 4-7 years who participated in three visits (V1, V2, V3), each one year apart (V1=48-71 months, V2=60-83 months, V3=72-95 months)...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sarah A Vadnais, Michelle Y Kibby, Audreyana C Jagger-Rickels
We identified statistical predictors of four processing speed (PS) components in a sample of 151 children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Performance on perceptual speed was predicted by visual attention/short-term memory, whereas incidental learning/psychomotor speed was predicted by verbal working memory. Rapid naming was predictive of each PS component assessed, and inhibition predicted all but one task, suggesting a shared need to identify/retrieve stimuli rapidly and inhibit incorrect responding across PS components...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Gabrielle Brawn, Saskia Kohnen, May Tassabehji, Melanie Porter
This study investigated whether individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) can attain a functional level of basic reading skills. The Study also investigated broader cognitive factors associated with reading ability in individuals with WS. Thirty individuals with WS participated in this study (mean chronological age 21 years and mean mental age 7 years 7 months). The results supported our hypotheses that: firstly, reading abilities would be heterogeneous in WS; secondly, at least some WS individuals are capable of achieving a functional basic reading level; and thirdly, on average, WS individuals would find reading of nonwords more difficult than reading of regular and irregular words...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Louise Ewing, Elizabeth Pellicano, Harriet King, Laura Lennuyeux-Comnene, Emily K Farran, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Marie L Smith
Unusual patterns of fixation behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder during face tasks hint at atypical processing strategies that could contribute to diminished face expertise in this group. Here, we use the Bubbles reverse correlation technique to directly examine face-processing strategies during identity judgments in children with and without autism, and typical adults. Results support a qualitative atypicality in autistic face processing. We identify clear differences not only in the specific features relied upon for face judgments, but also more generally in the extent to which they demonstrate a flexible and adaptive profile of information use...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Gary Solomon
My objectives are to review: 1) a brief history of sport-related concussion (SRC) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), 2) the evolution of CTE in American professional football, 3) the data regarding SRC/CTE as they relate to depression and suicide, 4) the data on the neurocognitive effects of subconcussion/repetitive head trauma (with emphases on heading the ball in soccer and early exposure to football), 5) the evidence related to SRC and neurodegenerative diseases, 6) the published studies of CTE, 7) the NINDS neuropathological criteria for CTE, 8) public beliefs about SRC/CTE, and 9) the scientific questions regarding CTE...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sophie Bennett, Hannah Larkin, Hannah Pincham, Sarah Carman, Pasco Fearon
This study aimed to develop an EEG paradigm to identify neural correlates of emotion understanding in children. In Experiment 1, children took part in an emotional story task. In Experiment 2, children completed an emotional task and a physical story task Late Positive Potentials (LPP) were demonstrated in response to emotional content in both studies. Together, The study demonstrates the potential value of the LPP as a flexible probe for studying children's emotion understanding and encourages further work into the specificity versus generality of cognitive processes underpinning the LPP in social information processing...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Mardee Greenham, Anne L Gordon, Anna Cooper, Michael Ditchfield, Lee Coleman, Rod W Hunt, Mark T Mackay, Paul Monagle, Vicki Anderson
Pediatric stroke can result in long-term neurobehavioral impairments including cognitive, language, and motor deficits, all of which may disrupt the normal development of social skills. This study aimed to examine specific components of social function at 5-year poststroke at a group and individual level and explore the contribution of neurobehavioral impairment. Thirty-one children with arterial ischemic stroke participated in the study. Assessment included parent-rated questionnaires measuring social adjustment and social participation as well as behavior and fatigue...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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