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Developmental Neuropsychology

Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Lloyd Flaro, Fern S Baldwin, Jaspreet Rai, Laszlo A Erdodi
OBJECTIVE: To replicate previous research on Conners' Continuous Performance Test - Second Edition subscales as performance validity tests (PVTs) in children. METHOD: Classification accuracy for the Omissions (OMI), Hit Reaction Time (HRT), and Perseverations (PER) subscales was computed for 414 children and adolescents. RESULTS: Overall, OMI, HRT, and PER demonstrated good specificity but low and variable sensitivity across cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that OMI, HRT, and PER can function as embedded PVTs in mixed clinical samples of children, although their clinical utility is limited by their low sensitivity...
January 15, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kate Cockcroft, Robyn Milligan
Not much is known about the structure of working memory in atypical development. We undertook a detailed comparison of the functional organization of working memory in HIV-infected (n = 95; Mage  = 7.42 years), and HIV-exposed (n = 86; Mage  = 7.36 years) children, together with an uninfected, unexposed typically developing comparison group (n = 92; Mage  = 7.05 years). Participants were in their first year of formal education. Within-group comparisons of five models showed that a four-factor model with separate verbal and visuospatial storage and processing accounted for the typically developing group, while working memory was structurally undifferentiated in the HIV-affected groups...
January 9, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Natalie H Brito, William P Fifer, Dima Amso, Rachel Barr, Martha Ann Bell, Susan Calkins, Albert Flynn, Hawley E Montgomery-Downs, Lisa M Oakes, John E Richards, Larissa M Samuelson, John Colombo
The use of global, standardized instruments is conventional among clinicians and researchers interested in assessing neurocognitive development. Exclusively relying on these tests for evaluating effects may underestimate or miss specific effects on early cognition. The goal of this review is to identify alternative measures for possible inclusion in future clinical trials and interventions evaluating early neurocognitive development. The domains included for consideration are attention, memory, executive function, language, and socioemotional development...
January 7, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
Erik N Ringdahl, Megan L Becker, Julia E Hussey, Nicholas S Thaler, Sally J Vogel, Chad Cross, Joan Mayfield, Daniel N Allen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous patterns of neuropsychological impairment. This study investigated heterogeneity in executive function (EF) using the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) to evaluate 121 children and adolescents with TBI and 121 matched normal controls. The TBI group performed approximately two standard deviations below controls. Cluster analyses indicated that a three-cluster solution best classified the TBI group and a four-cluster solution best classified controls...
December 27, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Carlos Burneo-Garcés, Francisco Cruz-Quintana, Miguel Pérez-García, Manuel Fernández-Alcántara, Ahmed Fasfous, Mª Nieves Pérez-Marfil
The socioeconomic status (SES) of parents has a crucial influence on the cognitive development of children, but it is not clear whether this effect varies as a function of the children's age. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of children aged 7, 9, and 11 years of parents with extremely low SES in a developing country (Ecuador). Participating children were divided between a medium-SES group and a low-SES group. Statistically significant differences were observed as a function of SES group and age in verbal memory, language, and executive function, observing wider between-group differences among the 11-year-olds...
December 11, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Grant L Iverson, Philip Schatz
ImPACT® Pediatric is an examiner-administered iOS-based battery of neuropsychological tests designed to measure neurocognitive functioning in children ages 5-11. This study documented Multivariate Base Rates (prevalence of low scores when multiple test scores are considered simultaneously) in the ImPACT® Pediatric standardization sample (N = 892). In the total sample, it was common for children to obtain at least one low factor score using the 25th percentile [T 43; base rate (BR) = 54.2%], 16th percentile (T40, BR = 38...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lyndsey Juliane Chong, Alexandria Meyer
Despite growing evidence that an elevated error-related negativity (ERN) is a risk marker for anxiety, it is unclear what psychological construct underlies this association. To address this gap, we devised a 9-item self-report scale for assessing error sensitivity (i.e. the fear of making mistakes) in children. The Child Error Sensitivity Index was administered to 97 children ages 5-7 years old and demonstrated good internal reliability and convergent validity. The Child Error Sensitivity Index related to the ERN, and the relationship between the ERN and child anxiety symptoms was mediated by scores on the Child Error Sensitivity Index...
November 8, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Anita Puhr, Ellen Ruud, Vicki Anderson, Bernt Johan Due-Tønnesen, Anne-Britt Skarbø, Arnstein Finset, Stein Andersson
Long-term executive function (EF), psychological and emotional difficulties, and fatigue among adult survivors of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are sparsely studied. One hundred and fourteen adult PBT survivors, 89 PBT survivor informants, and a healthy control group completed questionnaires assessing these domains. Significant differences between PBT survivors and controls were found on all self-reported measures, most strongly on measures reflecting EF. Patients reported significantly more difficulties with metacognitive aspects of EF compared to behavioral aspects...
November 5, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Russell A Barkley, Mariellen Fischer
No studies have examined if time reproduction deficits exist in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. We followed 131 ADHD and 71 community control (CC) cases for 20+ years to young adulthood at which time they were given a time reproduction task. The ADHD group made smaller time reproductions and showed greater variability of errors at the longer durations compared to CC cases, whether ADHD was still present or not at follow-up. Nonverbal working memory and design fluency tests were related to timing errors while anxiety and depression were not...
October 30, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Augusto Buchweitz, Adriana Corrêa Costa, Rudineia Toazza, Ana Bassôa de Moraes, Valentina Metsavaht Cara, Nathália Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Bruna Gregolim, Luiz Fernando Dresch, Matheus Dorigatti Soldatelli, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Mirna Wetters Portuguez, Alexandre Rosa Franco
The goal of the present study was to investigate intrinsic and reading-related brain function associated with dyslexia and typical readers in monolingual Brazilian children. Two fMRI studies were carried out: a resting-state and a word-reading study. The results show (a) underconnectivity between the occipitotemporal region (visual word form area) and the brain's default-mode network in dyslexic readers and (b) more activation of the anterior cingulate cortex for typical readers relative to dyslexic readers...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Lauren Julius Harris
Does music matter? Judging from the ever-diminishing support for music education in public funding, the message is that it is just a frill to be cast aside for more pressing needs. The pleasure of listening to music is worthy in itself and reason enough for support, but what happens when people are more deeply engaged, such as when they learn to read music and play an instrument? Can more material rewards follow for cognition, language, and emotion, and for social and physical well-being? This essay presents an overview of issues and evidence from a broad range of disciplines and age groups...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Giacomo Vivanti, Cheryl Dissanayake, Peter A J Fanning, Darren R Hocking
Motor interference occurs when action execution is hindered by the observation of an incongruent action. The present study used a novel eye-tracking paradigm to test the motor interference effect in 22 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 14 preschoolers with Williams syndrome (WS), and 18 typically developing (TD) peers. In TD children, performance of a pre-determined action was slower after the observation of an incongruent motor action and faster following observation of a congruent motor action, indicating a motor interference effect...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Tricia S Williams
Childhood arterial ischemic stroke often involves basal ganglia and thalamus but little is known about neuropsychological outcomes in this group. We examined intellectual ability, academics, attention, executive function, and psychological diagnoses in children and adolescents (6-20 years of age) with childhood stroke involving the basal ganglia (n = 32) or thalamus (n = 12). Intellectual ability was age-appropriate but working memory was significantly lower than expected. Compared to the normative mean, the stroke group exhibited significantly weaker performance in reading comprehension, math fluency, attention, and greater challenges with executive function...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Stephanie M Emhoff, Julie K Lynch, Robert J McCaffrey
There has been an increased recognition that validity testing is an integral component of evaluations conducted with youth. The incorporation of validity testing provides an objective basis for placing confidence in the test data as an accurate assessment of the child's or adolescent's current ability level and/or an accurate indication of the child's or adolescent's current symptoms or behavioral functioning. The use of objective performance validity and symptom validity is consistent with the current emphasis of data-driven decision-making...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Federica Rossetto, Ilaria Castelli, Francesca Baglio, Davide Massaro, Margherita Alberoni, Raffaello Nemni, Simone Shamay-Tsoory, Antonella Marchetti
The aim of the study was to explore cognitive and affective dimensions of ToM using the computerized Yoni task in participants with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI=16), early stage of Parkinson's Disease (PD=14), and healthy controls (HC=18) Results demonstrated that the Yoni task was effective in discriminating between groups in 1th  order cognitive dimension (MCI<PD=HC, pcorr <.05), and in 2nd  order cognitive and affective dimensions (MCI<HC, pcorr  <.05), highlighting a reduced ToM performance also in people with PD (MCI<PD<HC, pcorr  <...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Robert A Leark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Michelle C Fenesy, Steve S Lee
Using multiple mediation with bootstrapping, dimensions of executive functioning (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, set shifting) were tested as mediators of predictions of academic and social outcomes from observed positive and negative parenting in 131 children followed prospectively into early adolescence. Inhibitory control and working memory mediated predictions of academic achievement, whereas inhibitory control meditated predictions of school competence from positive parenting. Additionally, working memory mediated predictions of negative social preference, but not social competence, from positive parenting...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jessica Pan, Kayle Sawyer, EmilyKate McDonough, Laura Slotpole, David Gansler
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a measure of cognitive flexibility for children, which requires rule-use and shifting. Demographic, cognitive, regional cortical thickness, and genetic variables, including those related to language and executive function, were used to build predictive models of DCCS scores in 556 healthy pediatric participants. Gender, age, frontal, and temporal lobe regions of interest, and measures of sustained attention, inhibition, and word reading were selected as the best predictors of DCCS performance...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Melanie A Blair, Ashley Moyett, Angelica A Bato, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
The present study examined the role of executive control functions (ECF) in adaptive risk-taking during adolescence. Healthy individuals aged 8-25 were administered ECF measures and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a computerized measure of risk-taking propensity. Findings demonstrated that adolescents who executed a more consistent response strategy evidenced better performance on the BART. Greater working memory (WM) predicted lower response variability and WM capacity mediated the relationship between age and variability...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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