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Developmental Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059567/behavioral-and-neural-foundations-of-multisensory-face-voice-perception-in-infancy
#1
Daniel C Hyde, Ross Flom, Chris L Porter
In this article, we describe behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for infants' multimodal face-voice perception. We argue that the behavioral development of face-voice perception, like multimodal perception more broadly, is consistent with the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (IRH). Furthermore, we highlight that several recently observed features of the neural responses in infants converge with the behavioral predictions of the intersensory redundancy hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of combining brain and behavioral measures to study multisensory processing, as well as some applications of this work for atypical development...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059566/early-verb-action-and-noun-object-mapping-across-sensory-modalities-a-neuro-developmental-view
#2
Lakshmi Gogate, George Hollich
The authors provide an alternative to the traditional view that verbs are harder to learn than nouns by reviewing three lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence in word-mapping development across cultures. First, preverbal infants tune into word-action and word-object pairings using domain-general mechanisms. Second, while post-verbal infants from noun-friendly language environments experience verb-action mapping difficulty, infants from verb-friendly language environments do not. Third, children use language-specific conventions to learn all types of words, although still strongly influenced by their language environment...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059564/visual-event-related-potentials-to-novel-objects-predict-rapid-word-learning-ability-in-20-month-olds
#3
Kristina Borgström, Janne von Koss Torkildsen, Magnus Lindgren
In an event-related potentials (ERP) study, twenty-month-old children (n = 37) were presented with pseudowords to map to novel object referents in five presentations. Quicker attenuation of the visual Negative central component (Nc) to novel objects predicted a larger difference in N400 amplitude between congruous and incongruous presentations of pseudowords at test. Furthermore, better initial recognition of familiar objects (Nc difference between familiar and novel objects) predicted the strength of the N400 incongruity effect to the verbal labels of these real objects...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059561/changes-in-the-nogo-n2-event-related-potential-component-across-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Caroline Hoyniak
Research suggests that the NoGo N2 event-related potential component elicited in children during Go/NoGo and Continuous Performance tasks indexes response inhibition capacities. This meta-analysis examined what is known about the N2 component's amplitude/latency values, developmental trajectory, and the differences between amplitudes in Go and NoGo trials. Sixty-five studies measuring the N2 in children ages 2-12 were meta-analyzed to estimate the N2's average amplitude/latency at each age. Findings suggest that N2 amplitude/latency values decrease in magnitude across childhood, and NoGo N2 amplitudes were more negative than Go N2 amplitudes, supporting interpretations of this component as indexing response inhibition...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059555/synchrony-detection-of-linguistic-stimuli-in-the-presence-of-faces-neuropsychological-implications-for-language-development-in-asd
#5
Elena Patten, Jeffrey D Labban, Devin M Casenhiser, Catherine L Cotton
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be impaired in their ability to detect audiovisual synchrony and their ability may be influenced by the nature of the stimuli. We investigated the possibility that synchrony detection is disrupted by the presence of human faces by testing children with ASD using a preferential looking language-based paradigm. Children with low language abilities were significantly worse at detecting synchrony when the stimuli include an unobscured face than when the face was obscured...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918206/children-and-adolescents-show-altered-visual-working-memory-related-brain-activity-more-than-one-decade-after-arterial-switch-operation-for-d-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#6
Peter Klaver, Walter Knirsch, Karoline Wurmitzer, David Yoh von Allmen
This pilot study investigated neural correlates of visual working memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in seven patients more than one decade after neonatal arterial switch operation for surgical correction of d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA, aged 10-18 years, 1 female). Compared with age and sex matched healthy controls patients showed similar visual working memory performance and a smaller increase in brain activity in the posterior parietal cortex with higher visual working memory load...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805419/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-executive-functioning-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria
#7
Deborah A Bilder, J Kay Noel, Erin R Baker, William Irish, Yinpu Chen, Markus J Merilainen, Suyash Prasad, Barbara J Winslow
This systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) investigates the impact of elevated blood phenylalanine (Phe) on neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). The meta-analysis of PKU is challenging because high-quality evidence is lacking due to the limited number of affected individuals and few placebo-controlled, double-blind studies of adults with high and low blood Phe. Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with PKU exceed general population estimates for inattention, hyperactivity, depression, and anxiety...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759435/working-memory-in-children-with-neurocognitive-effects-from-sickle-cell-disease-contributions-of-the-central-executive-and-processing-speed
#8
Kelsey E Smith, Jeffrey Schatz
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley's working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759424/infant-diet-related-changes-in-syllable-processing-between-4-and-5-months-implications-for-developing-native-language-sensitivity
#9
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379950/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-auditory-information-processing-in-adolescence-a-study-on-sex-differences
#10
Sarolta Bakos, Thomas Töllner, Monika Trinkl, Iris Landes, Jürgen Bartling, Nicola Grossheinrich, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Ellen Greimel
To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information...
April 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232263/relationship-between-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-findings-and-cognition-following-pediatric-tbi-a-meta-analytic-review
#11
Rachel M Roberts, Jane L Mathias, Stephen E Rose
This study meta-analyzed research examining relationships between diffusion tensor imaging and cognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from 14 studies that correlated fractional anisotropy (FA) or apparent diffusion coefficient/mean diffusivity with cognition were analyzed. Short-term (<4 weeks post-TBI) findings were inconsistent, but, in the medium to long term, FA values for numerous large white matter tracts and the whole brain were related to cognition. However, the analyses were limited by the diversity of brain regions and cognitive outcomes that have been examined; all in relatively small samples...
April 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145115/the-test-retest-reliability-of-the-visually-evoked-contingent-negative-variation-cnv-in-children-and-adults
#12
Brittany K Taylor, William J Gavin, Patricia L Davies
Establishing the reliability of event-related potentials is critical for future applications to biomarker development and clinical research. Few studies have examined the reliability of the contingent negative variation (CNV), and only in adults. The current study explored test-retest reliability of the visually evoked CNV and its embedded components, the O-wave and the E-wave, in children (7-13 years) and young adults (19-28 years) during a visual Go/No-Go task over 1-2 weeks. Test-retest reliability of the components was moderate for children, and low-to-moderate for adults...
April 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028067/predicting-growth-in-word-level-reading-skills-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-using-an-object-rhyming-functional-neuroimaging-task
#13
Emily A Farris, Jeremiah Ring, Jeffrey Black, G Reid Lyon, Timothy N Odegard
An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri...
April 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392089/neural-correlates-of-response-inhibition-in-adolescents-prospectively-predict-regular-tobacco-smoking
#14
Andrey P Anokhin, Simon Golosheykin
Inhibitory deficits have been widely reported in addiction; however, it remains unclear whether such deficits represent a determinant or a consequence of substance use. Here we show, using a prospective longitudinal design, that developmental abnormalities in the neural correlates of response inhibition in adolescents increase the risk for subsequent cigarette smoking. Reduced No-Go P3 amplitude, delayed latency of Go P3 peak, and reduced synchrony of neuronal oscillations at age 14 prospectively predicted regular smoking at age 18...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392088/brain-development-impulsivity-risky-decision-making-and-cognitive-control-integrating-cognitive-and-socioemotional-processes-during-adolescence-an-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186976/using-dual-process-models-to-examine-impulsivity-throughout-neural-maturation
#16
Rotem Leshem
The multivariate construct of impulsivity is examined through neural systems and connections that comprise the executive functioning system. It is proposed that cognitive and behavioral components of impulsivity can be divided into two distinct groups, mediated by (1) the cognitive control system: deficits in top-down cognitive control processes referred to as action/cognitive impulsivity and (2) the socioemotional system: related to bottom-up affective/motivational processes referred to as affective impulsivity...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135707/investigating-cognitive-deficits-as-risk-factors-for-developing-eating-disorders-during-adolescence
#17
Revital Naor-Ziv, Joseph Glicksohn
Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) suffer from deficits in executive functions and "theory of mind." It is unclear whether these indicate state or trait characteristics. We examined cognitive functioning in 150 adolescents, comparing those at high risk and those not at risk for ED. Deficits in set shifting and in theory of mind were found in all high-risk groups. Adolescents at high risk for bulimia were found to be higher in impulsivity and in theory of mind deficits, compared to adolescents at high risk for anorexia...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135550/relationships-between-impulsivity-anxiety-and-risk-taking-and-the-neural-correlates-of-attention-in-adolescents
#18
James W B Elsey, Michael J Crowley, W Einar Mencl, Cheryl M Lacadie, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza
Although impulsivity, anxiety, and risk-taking may relate to attentional processes, little research has directly investigated how each may be associated with specific facets of attentional processes and their underlying neural correlates. Nineteen adolescents performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving simple, selective, and divided attention. Out-of-scanner-assessed impulsivity, anxiety, and risk-taking scores were not correlated with each other and showed task-phase-specific patterns of association...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074029/ventral-striatum-connectivity-during-reward-anticipation-in-adolescent-smokers
#19
Lee Jollans, Cao Zhipeng, Ilknur Icke, Ciara Greene, Clare Kelly, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Robert Whelan
Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (N = 206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with (1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex and (2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070826/development-of-risk-taking-perspective-taking-and-inhibitory-control-during-adolescence
#20
Gillian Humphrey, Iroise Dumontheil
Structural and functional brain development is thought to lead to different developmental progressions of cognitive control, risk/reward processing, and social cognition during adolescence. We compared these abilities in a cross-sectional sample of 90 adolescents aged 12, 15, or 17 years old, using computerized measures of inhibitory control (Go/No-Go task), risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk task), and social perspective-taking (Director task). Fifteen-year-olds exhibited better inhibitory control than 12-year-olds, while 17-year-olds exhibited greater perspective-taking than younger adolescents...
January 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
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