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Developmental Neuropsychology

Bruno Bastos Vieira de Melo, Maria João Trigueiro, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to identify neuroanatomical differences in ADHD through an overview of systematic reviews that report encephalic differences compared to a control group in volume, area, activation likelihood or chemical composition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Cochrane guidelines and PRISMA criteria in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. RESULTS: Results revealed broad encephalic involvement that includes a functional frontal and cingulate hypoactivation and structural differences in corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal nuclei...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sid E O'Bryant, Melissa Edwards, Leigh Johnson, James Hall, Adriana Gamboa, Judith O'jile
This study aimed to provide normative references for Mexican Americans on neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed from a total of 797 Mexican-Americans recruited across three Texas-based studies with approximately one-half of the participants tested in Spanish. Normative tables include: MMSE, AMNART, WMS-III (Logical Memory I, II; Visual Reproduction I, II; Digit Span), CERAD, RAVLT, Exit25, CLOX 1 & 2, Trail Making Test- A&B, BNT, COWA, and Animal Naming. The norms were stratified by education then age...
November 30, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
James R Hall, Valerie Hobson Balldin, Adriana Gamboa, Melissa L Edwards, Leigh A Johnson, Sid E O'Bryant
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is an assessment of neuropsychological functioning commonly used in clinical and research settings. To our knowledge, normative data for the RBANS is not available for Hispanic, Mexican Americans, which the current study sought to establish. Data from 136 Hispanic, Mexican Americans from Project FRONTIER were analyzed. Approximately half of the sample was administered testing in Spanish. Normative tables were created for English and Spanish speaking Mexican Americans...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
A Helo, N Azaiez, P Rämä
Semantic priming has been demonstrated in object or word contexts in toddlers. However, less is known about semantic priming in scene context. In this study, 24-month-olds with high and low vocabulary skills were presented with visual scenes (e.g., kitchen) followed by semantically consistent (e.g., spoon) or inconsistent (e.g., bed) spoken words. Inconsistent scene-word pairs evoked a larger N400 component over the frontal areas. Low-producers presented a larger N400 over the right while high-producers over the left frontal areas...
November 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Diana Milena Cortes-Patino, Paulo Sergio Dillon Soares-Filho, Maria Rocio Acosta-Barreto
This study analyzed choice behavior in the Hungry Donkey Task, with a focus on learning trajectories and the stability of preference, in 100 children of different ages (8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). The results indicated that (a) learning occurred as the task progressed, (b) early adolescents performed poorly during the task, and (c) most of the participants did not reach the stability criterion during the task. The present study suggests that decision-making in children and adolescents varies with age, and that the inclusion of an operant-based approach (e...
November 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Meaghan E Spedden, Anne Sofie B Malling, Ken K Andersen, Bente R Jensen
The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0...
November 21, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
A Sales, A Pitarque, J Escudero, E Satorres, J C Meléndez
Patients with Parkinson's disease may show certain cognitive impairments, although it is unclear how these deficits can affect their learning potential. The study aims to use the testing-the-limits technique to compare the potential for cognitive plasticity in a group of Patients with Parkinson's disease (N = 33) and a group of healthy older adults (N = 33). Sixty-six participants performed verbal learning test to analyze the learning potential. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant main effects of time, group, and the interaction...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Natalia Becker, Mailton Vasconcelos, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Caroline Dos Santos, Lisiane Bizarro, Rosa M M De Almeida, Jerusa Fumagalli De Salles, Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho
Despite advances in the characterization of developmental dyslexia (DD), several questions regarding the interplay between DD-susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors remain open. This systematic review aimed at answering the following questions: What has been the impact of new resources on the knowledge about DD? Which questions remain open? What is the investigative agenda for the short term? Forty-six studies were analyzed. Despite the growing literature on DD candidate genes, most studies have not been replicated...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Madeline Simon, Arthur Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod
We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Nadine Akbar, Alessio Signori, Maria Pia Amato, Maria Pia Sormani, Emilio Portaccio, Claudia Niccolai, Benedetta Goretti, Christine Till, Brenda Banwell
Processing speed is a frequently affected cognitive domain in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and is commonly assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). The objective of this study was to determine maturational trajectories in SDMT performance and baseline factors affecting trajectories in a sample of 82 pediatric MS individuals. Performance on the SDMT increased with age in patients with pediatric MS followed by a subsequent decline. Furthermore, patients who were older at disease onset and had a higher IQ showed greater gains with age, suggesting that these factors may be protective with respect to cognitive maturation in pediatric MS...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Aishah Abdul Rahman, Daniel J Carroll, Kimberly Andrews Espy, Sandra A Wiebe
We examined the neural correlates underlying response inhibition in early childhood. Five-year-old children completed a Go/No-go task with or without time pressure (Fast vs. Slow condition) while scalp EEG was recorded. On No-go trials where inhibition was required, the left frontal N2 and posterior P3 were enhanced relative to Go trials. Time pressure was detrimental to behavioral performance and modulated the early-occurring P1 component. The topography of ERPs related to response inhibition differed from patterns typically seen in adults, and may indicate a compensatory mechanism to make up for immature inhibition networks in children...
August 31, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Tricia S Williams, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Nomazulu Dlamini, Gabrielle deVeber, Robyn Westmacott
This study examined the prevalence of learning and psychological diagnoses and associated neurological and personal-environmental risk factors following perinatal and childhood arterial ischemic stroke. In our sample of 126 children and youth, 52.4% received a diagnosis following their assessment. Specifically, 32% had a single diagnosis and 21% had two or more diagnoses. Learning disability, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability were the most prevalent diagnoses. Associated risk factors varied by diagnosis with lower intellectual functioning being the common risk factor across categories...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Rosemarie Scolaro Moser, Philip Schatz
Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Masumi Inagaki
Although phonics is the most frequently used approach in treating students with reading difficulties, its effects have not been fully clarified at either a behavioral or neurophysiological level. The present case study administered pure and short-term (i.e., 10 minutes per day for five weeks) phonics-training to a 13-year-old Japanese girl with severe difficulty in learning English. As a result, a drastic improvement in reading accuracy was associated with the enhancement of print-specific N170 in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the trained words...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Elizabeth Smith, Afrouz Anderson, Audrey Thurm, Philip Shaw, Mika Maeda, Fatima Chowdhry, Victor Chernomordik, Amir Gandjbakhche
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a brain imaging technique that is well-suited for use in young children, making it particularly useful for investigating the neural bases of the development of executive functions. In the present study, children (ages 4-10) underwent fNIRS while completing response inhibition and working memory tasks. While both tasks were associated with increases in oxyhemoglobin and decreases in deoxyhemoglobin, we found that strength of activation increased with age and with improvements in task performance...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Tobias W Meissner, Patrick Friedrich, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Erhan Genç, Sarah Weigelt
Visual functions requiring interhemispheric transfer exhibit a long developmental trajectory up to age 12, which might be constrained by corpus callosum maturation. Here, we use electrophysiological and behavioral crossed-uncrossed differences (CUDs) in a visual Poffenberger paradigm to estimate the interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT)-a measure of corpus callosum maturation-in 7-year-old children and adults. Adult's electrophysiological CUDs were faster than 7-year-old's. Behavioral CUDs did not differ and proved to be unreliable in a 6-month follow-up test...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Kara Murias, Adam Kirton, Sana Tariq, Adrian Gil Castillejo, Andrea Moir, Giuseppe Iaria
As a focal injury in an otherwise healthy child, perinatal stroke provides a clinical model of developmental brain plasticity. In this study, we report evidence that children with perinatal periventricular venous infarcts perform as well as control children on a video game that tests navigation abilities. In addition, children with a history of perinatal arterial strokes overcame initial deficits in navigation performance after additional practice. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that a complex cognitive skill dependent on a distributed neural network with prolonged maturation, such as navigation, may demonstrate resilience after early brain injury...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Wenhai Zhang, Tao Suo, Ping Zhang, Cancan Zhao, Caizhi Liao, Liwei Zhang, Hong Li
We investigated whether effort control (EC) modulates gender differences in late positive potential (LPP) evoked by affective pictures. We collected EEG data from 46 healthy adolescents while they viewed 90 affective pictures. Relative to neutral pictures, boys showed larger LPP amplitudes for positive pictures compared to girls while girls showed larger LPP amplitudes for negative pictures compared to boys. Temperamental EC in boys negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for positive pictures, whereas EC in girls negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for negative pictures...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Stephanie Gorman, Marcia A Barnes, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
In a prospective longitudinal study, the trajectory of verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM) development was examined 2-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months following complicated-mild to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 55) relative to an orthopedic injury comparison group (n = 47). Individual growth curve modeling revealed an interaction of age, severity, and time for verbal, but not visual-spatial WM. The youngest children with severe TBI had the lowest scores and slowest verbal WM growth...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
Mélody Blais, Charlène Baly, Maëlle Biotteau, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
This study tested the learning of a new bimanual coordination in teenagers with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Both groups improved accuracy of the new coordination. No difference was found on stability. But DCD teenagers exhibited an overall higher number of additional taps, suggesting a persistent lack of motor inhibition during learning. Moreover, teenagers with the lowest scores of motor abilities present the highest number of additional taps. All these results suggest that this number of additional taps (rather than traditional measures of accuracy and stability) could be a good marker of perceptual-motor learning deficit in DCD...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
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