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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619827/architectural-protein-pita-cooperates-with-dctcf-in-organization-of-functional-boundaries-in-bithorax-complex
#1
Olga Kyrchanova, Nikolay Zolotarev, Vladic Mogila, Oksana Maksimenko, Paul Schedl, Pavel Georgiev
Boundaries in the Bithorax Complex (BX-C) of Drosophila delimit autonomous regulatory domains that drive parasegment-specific expression of homeotic genes. BX-C boundaries have two critical functions: they must block crosstalk between adjacent regulatory domains, and at the same time facilitate boundary bypass. The C2H2 zinc finger Pita protein binds to several BX-C boundaries including Fab-7 and Mcp To study Pita functions, we have used a boundary replacement strategy by substituting modified DNAs for the Fab-7 boundary, which is located between the iab-6 and iab-7 regulatory domains...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619826/a-toolkit-for-gfp-mediated-tissue-specific-protein-degradation-in-c-elegans
#2
Shaohe Wang, Ngang Heok Tang, Pablo Lara-Gonzalez, Zhiling Zhao, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Bram Prevo, Andrew D Chisholm, Arshad Desai, Karen Oegema
Proteins essential for embryo production, cell division, and early embryonic events are frequently re-utilized later in embryogenesis, during organismal development, or in the adult. Examining protein function across these different biological contexts requires tissue-specific perturbation. Here, we describe a method that utilizes expression of a fusion between a GFP-targeting nanobody and a SOCS-box containing ubiquitin ligase adaptor to target GFP tagged proteins for degradation. When combined with endogenous locus GFP tagging by CRISPR-Cas9 or rescue of a null mutant with a GFP fusion, this approach enables routine and efficient tissue-specific protein ablation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619825/spef2-functions-in-microtubule-mediated-transport-in-elongating-spermatids
#3
Mari S Lehti, Fu-Ping Zhang, Noora Kotaja, Anu Sironen
Sperm differentiation requires specific protein transport for correct sperm tail formation and head shaping. A transient microtubular structure, the manchette, appears around the differentiating spermatid head and serves as a platform for protein transport to the growing tail. Sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2) is known to be essential for sperm tail development. In this study we investigated the function of SPEF2 during spermatogenesis using a male germ cell-specific Spef2 knockout mouse model. In addition to defects in sperm tail development, we observed a duplication of the basal body and failure in the manchette migration resulting in an abnormal head shape...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619824/the-histone-3-lysine-4-methyltransferase-setd1b-is-a-maternal-effect-gene-required-for-the-oogenic-gene-expression-program
#4
David Brici, Qinyu Zhang, Susanne Reinhardt, Andreas Dahl, Hella Hartmann, Kerstin Schmidt, Neha Goveas, Jiahao Huang, Lenka Gahurova, Gavin Kelsey, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, A Francis Stewart, Andrea Kranz
Germ cell development involves major reprogramming of the epigenome to prime the zygote for totipotency. Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylations are universal epigenetic marks mediated in mammals by six H3K4 methyltransferases related to fly Trithorax, including two yeast Set1 orthologs: Setd1a and Setd1b. Whereas Setd1a plays no role in oogenesis, we report that Setd1b deficiency causes female sterility. Oocyte specific Gdf9iCre conditional knockout (Setd1b(Gdf9) cKO) ovaries develop through all stages however follicular loss accumulated with age and unfertilized metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibited irregularities of the zona pellucida and meiotic spindle...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619823/sin3a-regulates-epithelial-progenitor-cell-fate-during-lung-development
#5
Changfu Yao, Gianni Carraro, Bindu Konda, Xiangrong Guan, Takako Mizuno, Norika Chiba, Matthew Kostelny, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Gregory David, Jonathan L McQualter, Barry R Stripp
Mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific progenitors for maintenance and differentiation during development are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the co-repressor protein Sin3a is critical for lung endoderm development. Loss of Sin3a in early foregut endoderm leads to a specific and profound defect in lung development with lung buds failing to undergo branching morphogenesis and progressive atrophy of the proximal lung endoderm with complete epithelial loss at later stages of development. Consequently, neonatal pups died at birth due to respiratory insufficiency...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619822/cop9-signalosome-subunits-protect-capicua-from-map-kinase-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-of-degradation
#6
Annabelle Suisse, DanQing He, Kevin Legent, Jessica E Treisman
The COP9 signalosome removes Nedd8 modifications from the Cullin subunits of ubiquitin ligase complexes, reducing their activity. Here we show that mutations in the Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 1b (CSN1b) gene increase the activity of ubiquitin ligases that contain Cullin 1. Analysis of CSN1b mutant phenotypes revealed a requirement for the COP9 signalosome to prevent ectopic expression of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target genes. It does so by protecting Capicua, a transcriptional repressor of EGFR target genes, from EGFR pathway-dependent ubiquitination by a Cullin 1/SKP1-related A/Archipelago E3 ligase and subsequent proteasomal degradation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619821/convergence-of-signaling-pathways-underlying-habenular-formation-and-axonal-outgrowth
#7
Sara Roberson, Marnie E Halpern
The habenular nuclei are a conserved integrating center in the vertebrate epithalamus where they modulate diverse behaviors. Despite their importance, our understanding of habenular development is incomplete. Time-lapse imaging and fate mapping demonstrate that the dorsal habenulae (dHb) of zebrafish are derived from dbx1b-expressing (dbx1b(+)) progenitors, which transition into cxcr4b-expressing neuronal precursors. The precursors give rise to differentiated neurons whose axons innervate the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN)...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619820/soxf-factors-induce-notch1-expression-via-direct-transcriptional-regulation-during-early-arterial-development
#8
Ivy Kim-Ni Chiang, Martin Fritzsche, Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Alice Neal, Kelly Holmes, Anne Lagendijk, Jeroen Overman, Donatella D'Angelo, Alice Omini, Dorien Hermkens, Emmanuelle Lesieur, Ke Liu, Indrika Ratnayaka, Monica Corada, George Bou-Gharios, Jason Carroll, Elisabetta Dejana, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Benjamin Hogan, Monica Beltrame, Sarah De Val, Mathias Francois
Arterial specification and differentiation are influenced by a number of regulatory pathways. While it is known that the Vegfa-Notch cascade plays a central role in this biological process, the transcriptional hierarchy controlling arterial specification has not been fully delineated. To elucidate the direct transcriptional regulators of Notch receptor expression in arterial endothelial cells, we used histone signatures, DNaseI hypersensitivity and ChIP-seq data to identify enhancers for the human NOTCH1 and zebrafish notch1b genes...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619819/yorkie-and-hedgehog-independently-restrict-bmp-production-in-escort-cells-to-permit-germline-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#9
Jianhua Huang, Amy Reilein, Daniel Kalderon
Multiple signaling pathways guide the behavior and differentiation of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic stem cells (FSCs) in the Drosophila germarium, necessitating careful control of signal generation, range and responses. Signal integration involves Escort Cells (ECs), which promote differentiation of the GSC derivatives they envelop, provide niche signals for FSCs and derive directly from FSCs in adults. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling induces the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie (Yki) to promote proliferation and maintenance of FSCs but Hh also signals to ECs, which are quiescent...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619818/antagonistic-regulation-of-the-second-mitotic-wave-by-eyes-absent-sine-oculis-and-combgap-coordinates-proliferation-and-specification-in-the-drosophila-retina
#10
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
The transition from proliferation to specification is fundamental to the development of appropriately patterned tissues. In the developing Drosophila eye, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So) orchestrate the progression of progenitor cells from asynchronous cell division to G1 arrest and neuronal specification at the morphogenetic furrow. Here, we uncover a novel role for Eya and So in promoting cell cycle exit in the Second Mitotic Wave (SMW), a synchronized, terminal cell division that occurs several hours after passage of the furrow...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619817/canoe-and-scribble-loss-synergizes-causing-tumor-like-overgrowth-via-ras-activation-in-neural-stem-cells-and-epithelia
#11
Noemí Rives-Quinto, Maribel Franco, Ana de Torres-Jurado, Ana Carmena
Over the past decade an intriguing connection between asymmetric cell division, stem cells and tumorigenesis has emerged. Neuroblasts, the neural stem cells of the Drosophila central nervous system, divide asymmetrically and constitute an excellent paradigm for further investigating that connection. Here we show that the simultaneous loss of the asymmetric cell division regulators Canoe (Afadin in mammals) and Scribble in neuroblast clones leads to tumor-like overgrowth through both a severe disruption of the asymmetric cell division process and a canoe loss-mediated Ras-PI3K-Akt activation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576774/aff-1-fusogen-can-rejuvenate-the-regenerative-potential-of-adult-dendritic-trees-via-self-fusion
#12
Veronika Kravtsov, Meital Oren-Suissa, Benjamin Podbilewicz
The aging brain undergoes structural changes, affecting brain homeostasis, neuronal function and consequently cognition. The complex architecture of dendritic arbors poses a challenge to understanding age-dependent morphological alterations, behavioral plasticity and remodeling following brain injury. Here, we use the PVD polymodal neurons of C. elegans as a model to study how aging affects neuronal plasticity. Using confocal live imaging of C. elegans PVD neurons, we demonstrate age-related progressive morphological alterations of intricate dendritic arbors...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576773/distinct-roles-for-the-mtor-pathway-in-postnatal-morphogenesis-maturation-and-function-of-pancreatic-islets
#13
Katie L Sinagoga, William J Stone, Jacqueline V Schiesser, Jamie I Schweitzer, Leesa Sampson, Yi Zheng, James M Wells
While much is known about the molecular pathways that regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis of the endocrine pancreas, little is known about what regulates early postnatal development and maturation of islets. Given that birth marks the first exposure to enteral nutrition, we investigated how nutrient-regulated signaling pathways influence postnatal islet development. To do this we performed loss-of-function studies of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved kinase within a nutrient-sensing pathway known to regulate cellular growth, morphogenesis and metabolism...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576772/incompatibility-between-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genomes-during-oogenesis-results-in-ovarian-failure-and-embryonic-lethality
#14
Chunyang Zhang, Kristi L Montooth, Brian R Calvi
Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause female infertility. An important remaining question is the extent to which incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes contributes to female infertility. It was previously shown that a mitochondrial haplotype from D. simulans (simw(501) ) is incompatible with a nuclear genome from the D. melanogaster strain Oregon-R (OreR), resulting in impaired development, which was enhanced at higher temperature. This mito-nuclear incompatibility is between alleles of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl- tRNA synthetase (Aatm) and the mitochondrial-encoded tyrosyl-tRNA that it aminoacylates...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576771/bmp-signaling-orchestrates-a-transcriptional-network-to-control-the-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-mice
#15
Jifan Feng, Junjun Jing, Jingyuan Li, Hu Zhao, Vasu Punj, Tingwei Zhang, Jian Xu, Yang Chai
Signaling pathways are used reiteratively in different developmental processes yet produce distinct cell fates through specific downstream transcription factors. In this study, we used tooth root development as a model to investigate how the BMP signaling pathway regulates transcriptional complexes to direct the fate determination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We first identified the MSC population supporting mouse molar root growth as Gli1+ cells. Using a Gli1-mediated transgenic animal model, our results provide the first in vivo evidence that BMP signaling activity is required for the odontogenic differentiation of MSCs...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576770/placental-labyrinth-formation-in-mice-requires-endothelial-flrt2-unc5b-signaling
#16
Ikue Tai-Nagara, Yusuke Yoshikawa, Naoko Numata, Tomofumi Ando, Keisuke Okabe, Yuki Sugiura, Masaki Ieda, Nobuyuki Takakura, Osamu Nakagawa, Bin Zhou, Koji Okabayashi, Makoto Suematsu, Yuko Kitagawa, Martin Bastmeyer, Kohji Sato, Rüdiger Klein, Sutip Navankasattusas, Dean Y Li, Satoru Yamagishi, Yoshiaki Kubota
The placental labyrinth is the interface for gas and nutrient exchange between the embryo and the mother; hence its proper development is essential for embryogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying development of the placental labyrinth, particularly in terms of its endothelial organization, is not well understood. Here, we determined that fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2), a repulsive ligand of the UNC5 receptor family for neurons, is unexpectedly expressed in endothelial cells specifically in the placental labyrinth...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576769/defective-hand1-phosphoregulation-uncovers-essential-roles-for-hand1-in-limb-morphogenesis
#17
Beth A Firulli, Hannah Milliar, Kevin P Toolan, Jade Harkin, Robyn K Fuchs, Alex G Robling, Anthony B Firulli
The morphogenesis of the vertebrate limbs is a complex process where cell signaling and transcriptional regulation coordinate diverse structural adaptations across species. In this study, we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 dimer choice regulation within the developing vertebrate limbs. Although Hand1 deletion via the limb-specific Prx1-Cre reveals a non-essential role for Hand1 in limb morphogenesis, altering Hand1 phosphoregulation, and consequently Hand1 dimerization affinities, results in a severe truncation of anterior-proximal limb elements...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576768/defining-epithelial-cell-dynamics-and-lineage-relationships-in-the-developing-lacrimal-gland
#18
D'Juan Farmer, Sara Nathan, Jennifer Finley, Kevin Shengyang Yu, Elaine Emmerson, Lauren Byrnes, Julie Sneddon, Michael McManus, Aaron Tward, Sarah Knox
The tear producing lacrimal gland is a tubular organ that protects and lubricates the ocular surface. While the lacrimal gland possesses many features that make it an excellent model to understand tubulogenesis, the cell types and lineage relationships that drive lacrimal gland formation are unclear. Using single cell sequencing and other molecular tools, we reveal novel cell identities and epithelial lineage dynamics that underlie lacrimal gland development. We show that the lacrimal gland from its earliest developmental stages is composed of multiple subpopulations of immune, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell lineages...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559289/generating-minicorneal-organoids-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Praveen Joseph Susaimanickam, Savitri Maddileti, Vinay Kumar, Sreedhar Rao Boyinpally, Ramavat Ravinder Naik, Milind N Naik, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, Virender Singh Sangwan, Indumathi Mariappan
Corneal epithelial stem cells residing within the annular limbal crypts regulate adult tissue homeostasis. Autologous limbal grafts and tissue engineered corneal epithelial cell sheets have been widely used in the treatment of various ocular surface defects. In case of bilateral limbal defects, pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derived corneal epithelial cells are now being explored as an alternative to allogeneic limbal grafts. We report here an efficient method to generate complex three dimensional corneal organoids from human PSCs...
May 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536097/dynamic-regulation-of-vegf-inducible-genes-by-an-erk-erg-p300-transcriptional-network
#20
Jason E Fish, Manuel Cantu Gutierrez, Lan T Dang, Nadiya Khyzha, Zhiqi Chen, Shawn Veitch, Henry S Cheng, Melvin Khor, Lina Antounians, Makon-Sébastien Njock, Emilie Boudreau, Alexander M Herman, Alexander M Rhyner, Oscar E Ruiz, George T Eisenhoffer, Alejandra Medina-Rivera, Michael D Wilson, Joshua D Wythe
The transcriptional pathways activated downstream of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling during angiogenesis remain incompletely characterized. By assessing the signals responsible for induction of the Notch ligand, Delta-Like 4 (DLL4) in endothelial cells we find that activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway mirrors the rapid and dynamic induction of DLL4 transcription and that this pathway is required for DLL4 expression. Furthermore, VEGF/ERK signaling induces phosphorylation and activation of the ETS transcription factor ERG, a prerequisite for DLL4 induction...
May 23, 2017: Development
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