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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526756/restricted-intra-embryonic-origin-of-bona-fide-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-chicken
#1
Laurent Yvernogeau, Catherine Robin
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that pose the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence of HSCs has never been formally proven in chicken embryos. Here, we established a complete cartography and quantification of hematopoietic cells in the aorta during development. We demonstrated the existence of bona fide HSCs, originating from the chicken embryo aorta (and not the yolk sac, allantois or head), through an in vivo transplantation assay...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526755/the-matrix-protein-tiggrin-regulates-plasmatocyte-maturation-in-drosophila-larva
#2
Chen U Zhang, Ken M Cadigan
The lymph gland (LG) is a major source of hematopoiesis during Drosophila development. In this tissue, prohemocytes differentiate into multiple lineages including macrophage-like plasmatocytes, which comprise the vast majority of mature hemocytes. Previous studies have uncovered genetic pathways that regulate prohemocyte maintenance and some cell fate choices between hemocyte lineages. However, less is known about how the plasmatocyte pool of the LG is established and matures. Here we report that Tiggrin, a matrix protein expressed in the LG, is a specific regulator of plasmatocyte maturation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526754/oxygenation-and-adenosine-deaminase-support-growth-and-proliferation-of-ex-vivo-cultured-drosophila-wing-imaginal-discs
#3
Katrin Strassburger, Franziska K Lorbeer, Marilena Lutz, Fabian Graf, Michael Boutros, Aurelio A Teleman
The Drosophila wing imaginal disc has been an important model system over the past decades for discovering novel biology related to development, signaling, and epithelial morphogenesis. Novel experimental approaches would be enabled by a culturing setup allowing ex vivo cultures of wing discs. Current setups, however, are not able to sustain both growth and cell-cycle progression of wing discs ex vivo. We discover here a setup requiring both oxygenation of the tissue and adenosine deaminase activity in the medium, which supports both growth and proliferation of wing discs for 9 hours...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526753/altered-feto-placental-vascularization-feto-placental-malperfusion-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice-with-egfl7-loss-of-function
#4
Lauretta A Lacko, Romulo Hurtado, Samantha Hinds, Michael G Poulos, Jason M Butler, Heidi Stuhlmann
EGFL7 is a secreted, angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526752/the-apical-ecm-preserves-embryonic-integrity-and-distributes-mechanical-stress-during-morphogenesis
#5
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Shashi Kumar Suman, Michel Labouesse
Epithelia are bound by both basal and apical extracellular matrices (ECM). While the composition and function of the former have been intensively investigated, less is known about the latter. The embryonic sheath, the ECM apical to the C. elegans embryonic epidermis, has been suggested to promote its elongation. In an RNAi screen for the components of the sheath, we identified the Zona Pellucida domain proteins NOAH-1 and NOAH-2. We found that these proteins act in the same pathway, and in parallel to three other putative sheath proteins, SYM-1, LET-4 and FBN-1/Fibrillin, to ensure embryonic integrity and promote elongation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526751/a-new-hypothesis-for-foregut-and-heart-tube-formation-based-on-differential-growth-and-actomyosin-contraction
#6
Hadi S Hosseini, Kara E Garcia, Larry A Taber
For decades, it was commonly thought that the bilateral heart fields in the early embryo fold directly toward the midline, where they meet and fuse to create the primitive heart tube. Recent studies have challenged this view, however, suggesting that the heart fields fold diagonally. Since early foregut and heart tube morphogenesis are intimately related, this finding also raises questions concerning the traditional view of foregut formation. Here, we combine experiments on chick embryos with computational modeling to explore a new hypothesis for the physical mechanisms of heart tube and foregut formation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526750/pdgf-controls-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion-by-regulating-n-cadherin-during-neural-crest-migration
#7
Isabel Bahm, Elias H Barriga, Antonina Frolov, Eric Theveneau, Paul Frankel, Roberto Mayor
A fundamental property of neural crest (NC) migration is Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), a process by which cells change their direction of migration upon cell contact. CIL has been proven to be essential for NC migration in amphibian and zebrafish by controlling cell polarity in a cell contact dependent manner. Cell contact during CIL requires the participation of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, which starts to be expressed by NC cells as a consequence of the switch between E- and N-cadherins during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507001/p38-mapk-as-an-essential-regulator-of-dorsal-ventral-axis-specification-and-skeletogenesis-during-sea-urchin-development-a-re-evaluation
#8
Maria Dolores Molina, Magali Quirin, Emmanuel Haillot, Felipe Jimenez, Aline Chessel, Thierry Lepage
Dorsal-ventral axis formation in the sea urchin embryo relies on the asymmetrical expression of the TGF-beta Nodal. The p38-MAPK pathway has been proposed to be essential for dorsal-ventral axis formation by acting upstream of nodal expression. Herein, we report that, in contrast to previous studies that used pharmacological inhibitors of p38, manipulating the activity of p38 by genetic means has no obvious impact on morphogenesis. Instead, we discovered that p38 inhibitors strongly disrupt specification of all germ layers by blocking signalling from the Nodal receptor and by interfering with the ERK pathway...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507000/the-cell-wall-localized-atypical-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanase-zerzaust-controls-tissue-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Prasad Vaddepalli, Lynette Fulton, Jennifer Wieland, Katrin Wassmer, Milena Schaeffer, Stefanie Ranf, Kay Schneitz
Orchestration of cellular behavior in plant organogenesis requires integration of intercellular communication and cell wall dynamics. The underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Tissue morphogenesis in Arabidopsis depends on the receptor-like kinase STRUBBELIG. Mutations in ZERZAUST were previously shown to result in a strubbelig-like mutant phenotype. Here we report on the molecular identification and functional characterization of ZERZAUST We show that ZERZAUST encodes a putative GPI-anchored β-1,3 glucanase suggested to degrade the cell wall polymer callose...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506999/btbd7-is-essential-for-region-specific-epithelial-cell-dynamics-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-vivo
#10
William P Daley, Kazue Matsumoto, Andrew D Doyle, Shaohe Wang, Brian J DuChez, Kenn Holmbeck, Kenneth M Yamada
Branching morphogenesis of developing organs requires coordinated but poorly understood changes in epithelial cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. We report that Btbd7 is a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in vivo. Btbd7 levels are elevated in peripheral cells of branching epithelial end buds, where it enhances cell motility and cell-cell adhesion dynamics. Genetic ablation of Btbd7 in mice disrupts branching morphogenesis of salivary gland, lung, and kidney. Btbd7 knockout results in more tightly packed outer bud cells, which display stronger E-cadherin localization, reduced cell motility, and decreased dynamics of transient cell separations associated with cleft formation; inner bud cells remain unaffected...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506998/fgf10-sox9-are-essential-for-establishment-of-distal-progenitor-cells-during-salivary-gland-development
#11
Lemonia Chatzeli, Marcia Gaete, Abigail S Tucker
Salivary glands are formed by branching morphogenesis with epithelial progenitors forming a network of ducts and acini (secretory cells). During this process, epithelial progenitors specialise into distal (tips of the gland) and proximal (the stalk region) identities that produce the acini and higher order ducts respectively. Little is known about the factors that regulate progenitor expansion and specialisation in the different parts of the gland. Here we show that Sox9 is involved in establishing the identity of the distal compartment before the initiation of branching morphogenesis...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506997/the-phosphatase-pgam5-antagonizes-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-embryonic-anterior-posterior-axis-patterning
#12
Verena Rauschenberger, Dominic B Bernkopf, Sabrina Krenn, Kowcee Jalal, Jens Heller, Jürgen Behrens, Marc Gentzel, Alexandra Schambony
The scaffold protein Dishevelled is a central intracellular component of Wnt signaling pathways. Various kinases have been described that regulate and modulate Wnt signaling through phosphorylation of Dishevelled. However, besides the general protein phosphatases 1 and 2 (PP1 and PP2), no specific protein phosphatases have been identified. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of the protein phosphatase Pgam5 in vitro and in vivo Pgam5 is a novel antagonist of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in human cells and Xenopus embryogenesis...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506996/ret-mediated-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-inhibits-mouse-prostate-development
#13
Hyun-Jung Park, Eric C Bolton
In humans and rodents, the prostate gland develops from the embryonic urogenital sinus (UGS). The androgen receptor (AR) is thought to control the expression of morphogenetic genes in inductive UGS mesenchyme, which promotes proliferation and cytodifferentiation of the prostatic epithelium. However, the nature of the AR-regulated morphogenetic genes and the mechanisms whereby AR controls prostate development are not understood. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) binds GDNF family receptor-α1 (GFRα1) and signals through activation of RET tyrosine kinase...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506995/apical-constriction-is-driven-by-a-pulsatile-apical-myosin-network-in-delaminating-drosophila-neuroblasts
#14
Yanru An, Guosheng Xue, Yang Shaobo, Deng Mingxi, Xiaowei Zhou, Weichuan Yu, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Lei Zhang, Yan Yan
Cell delamination is a conserved morphogenetic process important for generation of cell diversity and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we used Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts as a model to study the apical constriction process during cell delamination. We observe dynamic myosin signals both around the cell adherens junctions and underneath the cell apical surface in the neuroectoderm. On the cell apical cortex the non-junctional myosin forms flows and pulses, which are termed as medial myosin pulses...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506994/gain-of-function-mutations-of-mau-draqp3a-influence-zebrafish-pigment-pattern-formation-through-the-tissue-environment
#15
Anastasia Eskova, Francois Chauvigné, Hans-Martin Maischein, Moritz Ammelburg, Joan Cerdà, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Uwe Irion
The development of the pigmentation pattern in zebrafish is a tightly regulated process that depends on both the self-organizing properties of pigment cells and extrinsic cues from other tissues. Many of the known mutations that alter the pattern act cell autonomously in pigment cells, and our knowledge about external regulators is limited. Here, we describe several dominant missense mutations in Aquaporin 3a (Aqp3a/mau) that lead to broken stripes and short fins in zebrafish. A loss-of-function allele, generated by CRISPR-Cas9, has no phenotypic consequences, demonstrating that Aqp3a is dispensable for normal development...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506993/mapk-pathway-activation-in-the-embryonic-pituitary-results-in-stem-cell-compartment-expansion-differentiation-defects-and-provides-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#16
S Haston, S Pozzi, G Carreno, S Manshaei, L Panousopoulos, J M Gonzalez-Meljem, J R Apps, A Virasami, S Thavaraj, A Gutteridge, T Forshew, R Marais, S Brandner, T S Jacques, C L Andoniadou, J P Martinez-Barbera
Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function alleles BrafV600E and KrasG12D in the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506992/reduced-mad2-levels-dampen-apoptotic-response-to-non-exchange-sex-chromosomes-and-lead-to-sperm-aneuploidy
#17
Imrul Faisal, Liisa Kauppi
In meiosis, non-exchange homologous chromosomes are at risk for missegregation and should be monitored by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to avoid formation of aneuploid gametes. Sex chromosome missegregation is particularly common and can lead to sterility or to aneuploid offspring (e.g. individuals with Turner or Klinefelter syndrome). Despite major implications for health and reproduction, modifiers of meiotic SAC robustness and the subsequent apoptotic response in male mammals remain obscure. Levels of SAC proteins, e...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506991/sonic-hedgehog-regulation-of-foxf2-promotes-cranial-neural-crest-mesenchyme-proliferation-and-is-disrupted-in-cleft-lip-morphogenesis
#18
Joshua L Everson, Dustin M Fink, Joon Won Yoon, Elizabeth J Leslie, Henry W Kietzman, Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Hannah M Chung, David O Walterhouse, Mary L Marazita, Robert J Lipinski
Cleft lip is one of the most common human birth defects, yet our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lip morphogenesis is limited. Here, we show that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-induced proliferation of cranial neural crest cell (cNCC) mesenchyme is required for upper lip closure. Gene expression profiling revealed a subset of Forkhead box (Fox) genes regulated by Shh signaling during lip morphogenesis. During cleft pathogenesis, reduced proliferation in the medial nasal process mesenchyme paralleled the domain of reduced Foxf2 and Gli1 expression...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506990/coup-tfi-mitotically-regulates-production-and-migration-of-dentate-granule-cells-and-modulates-hippocampal-cxcr4-expression
#19
Joséphine Parisot, Gemma Flore, Michele Bertacchi, Michèle Studer
Development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the primary gateway for hippocampal inputs, spans embryonic and postnatal stages and involves complex morphogenetic events. We have previously identified the nuclear receptor COUP-TFI as a novel transcriptional regulator in the postnatal organization and function of the hippocampus. Here, we dissect its role in DG morphogenesis by inactivating it either in granule cell progenitors or in granule neurons. Loss of COUP-TFI function in progenitors leads to decreased granule cell proliferative activity, precocious differentiation and increased apoptosis, resulting in a severe DG growth defect in adult mice...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506989/fgf-signaling-refines-wnt-gradients-to-regulate-patterning-of-taste-papillae
#20
Michaela Prochazkova, Teemu J Häkkinen, Jan Prochazka, Frantisek Spoutil, Andrew H Jheon, Youngwook Ahn, Robb Krumlauf, Jukka Jernvall, Ophir D Klein
The patterning of repeated structures is a major theme in developmental biology, and the interrelationship between spacing and size of such structures is an open question. Fungiform papillae are repeated epithelial structures that house taste buds on the anterior tongue. Here, we report that FGF signaling is a critical regulator of fungiform papillae development. We found that mesenchymal FGF10 controls the size of the papillary area, while overall patterning remains unchanged. Our results show that FGF signaling negatively affects the extent of canonical Wnt signaling, which is the main activation pathway during fungiform papillae development, but this effect does not occur at the level of gene transcription...
May 15, 2017: Development
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