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Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743801/foxq2-has-a-key-role-in-anterior-head-and-central-brain-patterning-in-insects
#1
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the foxQ2 ortholog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743800/in-vivo-genetic-cell-lineage-tracing-reveals-that-oviductal-secretory-cells-self-renew-and-give-rise-to-ciliated-cells
#2
Arnab Ghosh, Shafiq M Syed, Pradeep S Tanwar
The epithelial lining of the Fallopian tube is vital for fertility, providing nutrition to gametes, and facilitating their transport. It is composed of two major cell types: secretory cells and ciliated cells. Interestingly, human ovarian cancer precursor lesions are primarily consisting of secretory cells. It is unclear why secretory cells are the dominant cell type in these lesions. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms governing Fallopian tube epithelial homoeostasis are currently unknown. In the present study, we showed that across the different developmental stages of mouse oviduct, secretory cells are the most frequently dividing cells of the oviductal epithelium...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743799/non-canonical-wox11-mediated-root-branching-contributes-to-plasticity-in-arabidopsis-root-system-architecture
#3
Lihong Sheng, Xiaomei Hu, Yujuan Du, Guifang Zhang, Hai Huang, Ben Scheres, Lin Xu
Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis However, our knowledge of how the root system is plastically formed in response to diverse inductive cues is limited. Here we show that WOX11 contributes to root system plasticity. When seedlings are grown vertically on medium, WOX11 is not expressed in LR founder cells. During AR initiation, WOX11 is expressed in AR founder cells and activates LBD16LBD16 also functions in LR formation and is activated in that context by ARF7/19 and not by WOX11 This indicates that divergent initial processes that lead to ARs and LRs may converge on the similar mechanism for primordium development...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743798/essential-basal-cytonemes-take-up-hedgehog-in-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#4
Weitao Chen, Hai Huang, Ryo Hatori, Thomas B Kornberg
Morphogen concentration gradients that extend across developmental fields form by dispersion from source cells. In the Drosophila wing disc, Hedgehog (Hh) produced by posterior compartment cells distributes in a concentration gradient to adjacent cells of the anterior compartment. We monitored Hh:GFP after pulsed expression and analyzed movements and co-localization of Hh, Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) proteins tagged with GFP or mCherry and expressed at physiological levels from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743797/sonic-hedgehog-from-both-nerves-and-epithelium-is-a-key-trophic-factor-for-taste-bud-maintenance
#5
David Castillo-Azofeifa, Justin T Losacco, Ernesto Salcedo, Erin J Golden, Thomas E Finger, Linda A Barlow
The integrity of taste buds is intimately dependent on an intact gustatory innervation, yet the molecular nature of this dependency is unknown. Here we show differentiation of new taste bud cells, but not progenitor proliferation, is interrupted in mice treated with a Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor (HPI), and that gustatory nerves are a source of Shh for taste bud renewal. Additionally, epithelial taste precursor cells express Shh transiently, and are a local supply of Hh ligand supporting taste cell renewal...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743796/sox2-expression-in-schwann-cells-inhibits-myelination-in-vivo-and-induces-influx-of-macrophages-to-the-nerve
#6
Sheridan L Roberts, Xin-Peng Dun, Robin D S Doddrell, Thomas Mindos, Louisa K Drake, Mark W Onaitis, Francesca Florio, Angelo Quattrini, Maurizio D'Antonio, David B Parkinson
Correct myelination is crucial for the function of the peripheral nervous system. Both positive and negative regulators within the axon and Schwann cell function to ensure the correct onset and progression of myelination during both development and following peripheral nerve injury and repair. The Sox2 transcription factor is well known for its roles in the development and maintenance of progenitor and stem cell populations, but has also been proposed in vitro as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733392/editorial-changes
#7
EDITORIAL
Olivier Pourquié, Katherine Brown
Here at Development we are very sad to be saying goodbye to two of our editors: Ottoline Leyser and Geraldine Seydoux. Both Ottoline and Geraldine have been valued members of the editorial team since 2011, and we are hugely grateful for the time and effort they have put in to handling research papers, helping to shape the journal's future plans and, in Ottoline's case, coordinating our 2016 Special Issue on Plant Development. They will both be greatly missed, but will maintain connections with and continue to provide input on the journal as members of our Editorial Advisory Board...
July 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-cactus-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-to-promote-dl-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#8
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently respective to Cactus fluctuations...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705898/cellular-heterogeneity-in-the-ureteric-progenitor-niche-and-distinct-profiles-of-branching-morphogenesis-in-organ-development
#9
Elisabeth A Rutledge, Jean-Denis Benazet, Andrew P McMahon
Branching morphogenesis creates arborized epithelial networks. In the mammalian kidney, an epithelial progenitor pool at ureteric branch tips (UBT) creates the urine-transporting collecting system. Using region-specific mouse reporter strains, we performed an RNA-seq screen, identifying tip and stalk enriched gene sets in the developing collecting duct system. Detailed in situ hybridization studies of tip-enriched predictions identified UBT-enriched gene sets conserved between the mouse and human kidney. Comparative spatial analysis of their UBT niche expression highlighted distinct patterns of gene expression revealing novel molecular heterogeneity within the UBT progenitor population...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705897/cas9-mediated-excision-of-nematostella-brachyury-disrupts-endoderm-development-pharynx-formation-and-oral-aboral-patterning
#10
Marc D Servetnick, Bailey Steinworth, Leslie S Babonis, David Simmons, Miguel Salinas-Saavedra, Mark Q Martindale
The mesoderm was a key novelty in animal evolution, though we understand little of how mesoderm arose. brachyury, the founding member of the T-box gene family, is a key gene in chordate mesoderm development. However, the brachyury gene was present in the common ancestor of fungi and animals, long before mesoderm appeared. To explore ancestral roles of brachyury prior to the evolution of definitive mesoderm, we excised the gene using CRISPR/Cas9 in the diploblastic cnidarian Nematostella vectensisNvbrachyury is normally expressed in precursors of the pharynx, which separates endoderm from ectoderm...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705896/bmp-signaling-maintains-a-mesoderm-progenitor-cell-state-in-the-mouse-tailbud
#11
Richa Sharma, Maxwell E R Shafer, Eric Bareke, Mathieu Tremblay, Jacek Majewski, Maxime Bouchard
Caudal somites are generated from a pool of progenitor cells located in the tailbud region. These progenitor cells form the presomitic mesoderm that gradually differentiates into somites under the action of the segmentation clock. The signals responsible for tailbud mesoderm progenitor pool maintenance during axial elongation are still elusive. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is sufficient to activate the entire mesoderm progenitor gene signature in primary cultures of caudal mesoderm cells. Bmp signaling acts through the key regulatory genes Brachyury (T) and Nkx1-2 and contributes to the activation of several other regulators of the mesoderm progenitor gene network...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705895/asymmetric-distribution-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-%C3%AE-regulates-dorsoventral-axis-in-the-early-sea-urchin-embryo
#12
Wei-Lun Chang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Kuan-Ting Lin, Han-Ru Li, Chih-Yu Pai, Jen-Hao Chen, Yi-Hsien Su
Hypoxia signaling is an ancient pathway by which animals can respond to low oxygen. Malfunction of this pathway disturbs the hypoxic acclimation and results in various diseases, including cancers. The role of the hypoxia pathway in early embryogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus blastula, hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα), the downstream transcription factor of this pathway, is localized and transcriptionally active on the future dorsal side. This asymmetric distribution is attributable to its oxygen-sensing ability...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705894/genome-wide-analysis-of-facial-skeletal-regionalization-in-zebrafish
#13
Amjad Askary, Pengfei Xu, Lindsey Barske, Maxwell Bay, Paul Bump, Bartosz Balczerski, Michael A Bonaguidi, J Gage Crump
Patterning of the facial skeleton involves the precise deployment of thousands of genes in distinct regions of the pharyngeal arches. Despite the significance for craniofacial development, how genetic programs drive this regionalization remains incompletely understood. Here we use combinatorial labeling of zebrafish cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) to define global gene expression along the dorsoventral axis of the developing arches. Intersection of region-specific transcriptomes with expression changes in response to signaling perturbations demonstrates complex roles for Endothelin1 (Edn1) signaling in the intermediate joint-forming region, yet a surprisingly minor role in ventral-most regions...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698226/loss-of-dna-methylation-in-zebrafish-embryos-activates-retrotransposons-to-trigger-antiviral-signaling
#14
Yelena Chernyavskaya, Raksha Mudbhary, Debra Tokarz, Vinitha Jacob, Smita Gopinath, Chi Zhang, Xiaochen Sun, Shuang Wang, Elena Magnani, Bhavani P Madakashira, Jeffrey A Yoder, Yujin Hoshida, Kirsten C Sadler
Complex cytoplasmic nucleotide sensing mechanisms can recognize foreign DNA based on a lack of methylation and initiate an immune response to clear the infection. Zebrafish embryos with global DNA hypomethylation caused by mutations in the ubiquitin-like, with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (uhrf1) or DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) genes exhibit a robust interferon induction characteristic of first line of defense against viral infection. We found that this interferon induction occurred in non-immune cells and asked whether intracellular viral sensing pathways in these cells were the trigger...
July 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694260/coup-tf1-2-nr2f1-and-nr2f2-control-subtype-and-laminar-identity-of-mge-derived-neocortical-interneurons
#15
Jia Sheng Hu, Daniel Vogt, Susan Lindtner, Magnus Sandberg, Shanni N Silberberg, John L R Rubenstein
Distinct cortical interneuron (CIN) subtypes have unique circuit functions; dysfunction in specific subtypes is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Somatostatin (SST) and Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are the two major subtypes generated by medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors. Spatial and temporal mechanisms governing their cell-fate specification and differential integration into cortical layers are largely unknown. We provide evidence that Coup-TF1&2 (Nr2f1&2) transcription factor expression in an arc-shaped progenitor domain within the MGE promotes time-dependent survival of this neuroepithelium and the time-dependent specification of layer V SST CINs...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694259/high-efficiency-non-mosaic-crispr-mediated-knock-in-and-mutations-in-f0-xenopus
#16
Yetki Aslan, Emmanuel Tadjuidje, Aaron M Zorn, Sang-Wook Cha
The revolution in CRISPR-mediated genome editing has enabled the mutation and insertion of virtually any DNA sequence, particularly in cell culture where selection can be used to recover relatively rare homologous recombination events. The efficient use of this technology in animal models still presents a number of challenges including the time to establish mutant lines, mosaic gene editing in founder animals, and low homologous recombination rates. Here we report a method for CRISPR-mediated genome editing in Xenopus oocytes with homology-dependent repair (HDR) that provides efficient non-mosaic targeted insertion of small DNA fragments of 40-50 nucleotides, in 4...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694258/plc%C3%AE-is-the-physiological-trigger-of-the-ca-2-oscillations-that-induce-embryogenesis-in-mammals-but-offspring-can-be-conceived-in-its-absence
#17
Alaa Hachem, Jonathan Godwin, Margarida Ruas, Hoi Chang Lee, Minerva Ferrer Buitrago, Goli Ardestani, Andrew Bassett, Sebastian Fox, Felipe Navarrete, Petra de Sutter, Björn Heindryckx, Rafael Fissore, John Parrington
Activation of the egg by the sperm is the first, vital stage of embryogenesis. The sperm protein PLCζ has been proposed as the physiological agent that triggers the Ca(2+) oscillations that normally initiate embryogenesis. Consistent with this, recombinant PLCζ induces Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs and debilitating mutations in the PLCZ1 gene are associated with infertility in men. However, there has been no evidence that gene knockout of PLCζ abolishes the ability of sperm to induce Ca(2+) oscillations in eggs...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694257/bmp-signaling-regulates-satellite-cell-dependent-postnatal-muscle-growth
#18
Amalia Stantzou, Elija Schirwis, Sandra Swist, Sonia Alonso-Martin, Ioanna Polydorou, Faouzi Zarrouki, Etienne Mouisel, Cyriaque Beley, Anaïs Julien, Fabien Le Grand, Luis Garcia, Céline Colnot, Carmen Birchmeier, Thomas Braun, Markus Schuelke, Frédéric Relaix, Helge Amthor
Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of Noggin in postnatal mice, to antagonize BMP ligands, or satellite cell specific knock-out of BMP transmembrane receptor Alk3, or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth and ultimately retarded muscle growth...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694256/multiple-modes-of-lrp4-function-in-modulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-during-tooth-development
#19
Youngwook Ahn, Carrie Sims, Megan J Murray, Paige K Kuhlmann, Jesús Fuentes-Antrás, Scott D Weatherbee, Robb Krumlauf
During development and homeostasis, precise control of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is in part achieved by secreted and membrane proteins that negatively control activity of Wnt co-receptors, Lrp5 and Lrp6. Lrp4 is related to Lrp5/6 and is implicated in modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling presumably through its ability to bind to the Wise (Sostdc1)/Sost (Sclerostin) family of Wnt antagonists. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of Lrp4 function in modulating Wnt signaling, we performed an array of genetic analyses in murine tooth development, where Lrp4 and Wise play important roles...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694255/soluble-app-functions-as-a-vascular-niche-signal-that-controls-adult-neural-stem-cell-number
#20
Yuya Sato, Yutaka Uchida, Jingqiong Hu, Tracy L Young-Pearse, Takako Niikura, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
What controls neural stem cell (NSC) number in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain? Vascular niche signals regulate NSC quiescence and growth. Here, we have uncovered a role for soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) as a vascular niche signal in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of the adult brain. sAPP suppresses NSC growth in culture. Further in vivo studies on the role of APP for the NSC number in the SVZ clearly demonstrate that endothelial deletion of App causes a significant increase in the number of BrdU(+) label-retaining NSCs in the SVZ, while NSC/astrocyte deletion of App has no detectable effect on the NSC number...
July 10, 2017: Development
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