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Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213553/automated-cell-tracking-identifies-mechanically-oriented-cell-divisions-during-drosophila-axis-elongation
#1
Michael F Z Wang, Miranda Hunter, Gang Wang, Christopher McFaul, Christopher M Yip, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in the conserved process of axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally-applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations...
February 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209779/a-histone-h4-lysine-20-methyltransferase-couples-environmental-cues-to-sensory-neuron-control-of-developmental-plasticity
#2
Colin E Delaney, Albert T Chen, Jacqueline V Graniel, Kathleen J Dumas, Patrick J Hu
Animals change developmental fates in response to external cues. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, unfavorable environmental conditions induce a state of diapause known as dauer by inhibiting the conserved DAF-2 insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway through incompletely understood mechanisms. We previously established a role for the C. elegans dosage compensation protein DPY-21 in the control of dauer arrest and DAF-2 ILS. Here we show that the histone H4 lysine 20 methyltransferase SET-4, which also influences dosage compensation, promotes dauer arrest in part by repressing the X-linked ins-9 gene, which encodes a new agonist insulin-like peptide (ILP) expressed specifically in the paired ASI sensory neurons that are required for dauer bypass...
February 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174252/trbp-maintains-mammalian-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-properties-by-enhancing-the-notch-signaling-pathway-as-a-novel-transcriptional-coactivator
#3
Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Mookwang Kwon, Jae Youl Cho, Hui Xuan Ng, Samuel J Pleasure, Keejung Yoon
Transactivation response element RNA-binding protein (TRBP) is known to play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and microRNA biogenesis. However, recent studies implicate TRBP in a variety of biological processes as a mediator for cross-talk between signal transduction pathways. Here, we provide the first evidence that TRBP is required for efficient neurosphere formation, and expression of neural stem cell markers and Notch target genes in primary neural progenitor cells in vitro Consistent with this, introduction of TRBP into the mouse embryonic brain in utero increased the fraction of cells expressing Sox2 in the ventricular zone (VZ)...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174251/a-process-engineering-approach-to-increase-organoid-yield
#4
Natasha Arora, Jasmin Imran Alsous, Jacob W Guggenheim, Michael Mak, Jorge Munera, James M Wells, Roger D Kamm, H Harry Asada, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Linda G Griffith
Temporal manipulation of the in vitro environment and growth factors can direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into organoids, aggregates with multiple tissue-specific cell types and three-dimensional structure mimicking native organs. A mechanistic understanding of early organoid formation is essential for improving the robustness of these methods, which is necessary prior to use in drug development and regenerative medicine. We investigated intestinal organoid emergence, focusing on measurable parameters of hindgut spheroids, the intermediate step between definitive endoderm and mature organoids...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174250/direct-conversion-of-root-primordium-into-shoot-meristem-relies-on-timing-of-stem-cell-niche-development
#5
Olga Rosspopoff, Liudmila Chelysheva, Julie Saffar, Lena Lecorgne, Delphine Gey, Erwann Caillieux, Vincent Colot, François Roudier, Pierre Hilson, Richard Berthomé, Marco Da Costa, Philippe Rech
To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174249/tracking-the-embryonic-stem-cell-transition-from-ground-state-pluripotency
#6
Tüzer Kalkan, Nelly Olova, Mila Roode, Carla Mulas, Heather J Lee, Isabelle Nett, Hendrik Marks, Rachael Walker, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Kathryn S Lilley, Jennifer Nichols, Wolf Reik, Paul Bertone, Austin Smith
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are locked into self-renewal by shielding from inductive cues. Release from this ground state in minimal conditions offers a system for delineating developmental progression from naive pluripotency. Here we examined the initial transition process. The ES cell population behaves asynchronously. We therefore exploited a short-half-life Rex1::GFP reporter to isolate cells either side of exit from naive status. Extinction of ES cell identity in single cells is acute. It occurs only after near-complete elimination of naïve pluripotency factors, but precedes appearance of lineage specification markers...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174248/mpwip-regulates-air-pore-complex-development-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#7
Victor A S Jones, Liam Dolan
The colonisation of the land by plants was accompanied by the evolution of complex tissues and multicellular structures comprising different cell types as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here we show that the single WIP protein in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha L. is required for the development of the multicellular gas exchange structure, the air pore complex. This 16-cell barrel-shaped structure surrounds an opening between epidermal cells that facilitates the exchange of gasses between the chamber containing the photosynthetic cells inside the plant and the air outside...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174247/self-organisation-after-embryonic-kidney-dissociation-is-driven-via-selective-adhesion-of-ureteric-epithelial-cells
#8
J G Lefevre, H S Chiu, A N Combes, J M Vanslambrouck, A Ju, N A Hamilton, M H Little
Human pluripotent stem cells, after directed differentiation in vitro, can spontaneously generate complex tissues via self-organisation of the component cells. Self-organisation can also reform embryonic organ structure after tissue disruption. It has previously been demonstrated that dissociated embryonic kidneys can recreate component epithelial and mesenchymal relationships sufficient to allow continued kidney morphogenesis. Here we investigate the timing and underlying mechanisms driving self-organisation after dissociation of the embryonic kidney using time-lapse imaging, high-resolution confocal analyses and mathematical modelling...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174246/mechanical-tension-and-spontaneous-muscle-twitching-precede-the-formation-of-cross-striated-muscle-in-vivo
#9
Manuela Weitkunat, Martina Lindauer, Andreas Bausch, Frank Schnorrer
Muscle forces are produced by repetitive stereotyped acto-myosin units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are chained into linear myofibrils spanning the entire muscle fiber. In mammalian body muscles, myofibrils are aligned laterally resulting in their typical cross-striated morphology. Despite this detailed textbook knowledge about the adult muscle structure, it is still unclear how cross-striated myofibrils are built in vivo Here, we investigate the morphogenesis of Drosophila abdominal muscles and establish them as in vivo model for cross-striated muscle development...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174245/eccentric-position-of-the-germinal-vesicle-and-cortical-flow-during-oocyte-maturation-specify-the-animal-vegetal-axis-of-ascidian-embryos
#10
Masumi Tokuhisa, Miyuki Muto, Hiroki Nishida
The animal-vegetal (A-V) axis is already set in unfertilized eggs. It plays crucial roles to coordinate germ-layer formation. However, how the A-V axis is set has not been well studied. In ascidians, unfertilized eggs are already polarized along the axis in terms of cellular components. The polarization occurs during oocyte maturation. Oocytes within the gonad have the germinal vesicle (GV) close to the future animal pole. When the GVs of full-grown oocytes were experimentally translocated to the opposite pole by centrifugal force, every aspect that designates A-V polarity was reversed in the eggs and embryos...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174244/a-novel-floor-plate-boundary-defined-by-adjacent-en1-and-dbx1-microdomains-distinguishes-midbrain-dopamine-and-hypothalamic-neurons
#11
Navid Nouri, Rajeshwar Awatramani
The mesodiencephalic floor plate (mdFP) is the source of diverse neuron types. Yet, how this structure is compartmentalized has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we identify a novel boundary subdividing the mdFP into two microdomains, defined by Engrailed 1 (En1) and developing brain homeobox 1 (Dbx1) Utilizing simultaneous dual and intersectional fate mapping, we demonstrate that this boundary is precisely formed with minimal overlap between En1 and Dbx1 microdomains, unlike many other boundaries. We show that the En1 microdomain gives rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons, while the Dbx1 microdomain gives rise to subthalamic (STN), premammillary (PM), and posterior hypothalamic (PH) populations...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174243/efficient-talen-mediated-gene-targeting-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#12
Lorna Taylor, Daniel F Carlson, Sunil Nandi, Adrian Sherman, Scott C Fahrenkrug, Michael J McGrew
In this work we use TALE nucleases (TALENs) to target a reporter construct to the DDX4 (vasa) locus in chicken primordial germ cells. Vasa is a key germ cell determinant in many animal species and is posited to control avian germ cell formation. We show that TALENs mediate homology directed repair of the DDX4 locus on the Z sex chromosome at high (8.1%) efficiencies. Large genetic deletions of 30kb encompassing the entire DDX4 locus were also created using a single TALEN pair. The targeted PGCs were germ line competent and were used to produce DDX4 null offspring...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174242/diversity-of-fate-outcomes-in-cell-pairs-under-lateral-inhibition
#13
Nara Guisoni, Rosa Martinez-Corral, Jordi Garcia Ojalvo, Joaquín de Navascués
Cell fate determination by lateral inhibition via Notch/Delta signalling has been extensively studied. Most formalised models consider Notch/Delta interactions in fields of cells, with parameters that typically lead to symmetry breaking of signalling states between neighbouring cells, commonly resulting in salt-and-pepper fate patterns. Here we consider the case of signalling between isolated cell pairs, and find that the bifurcation properties of a standard mathematical model of lateral inhibition can lead to stable symmetric signalling states...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174241/development-of-a-human-cardiac-organoid-injury-model-reveals-innate-regenerative-potential
#14
Holly K Voges, Richard J Mills, David A Elliott, Robert G Parton, Enzo R Porrello, James E Hudson
The adult human heart possesses a limited regenerative potential following an ischemic event, and undergoes a number of pathological changes in response to injury. While cardiac regeneration has been documented in zebrafish and neonatal mouse hearts, it is currently unknown whether the immature human heart is capable of undergoing complete regeneration. Combined progress in pluripotent stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering has facilitated the development of human cardiac organoids (hCO), which resemble fetal heart tissue and can be used to address this important knowledge gap...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174240/self-organising-aggregates-of-zebrafish-retinal-cells-for-investigating-mechanisms-of-neural-lamination
#15
Megan K Eldred, Mark Charlton-Perkins, Leila Muresan, William A Harris
To investigate the cell-cell interactions necessary for the formation of retinal layers, we cultured dissociated zebrafish retinal progenitors in agarose microwells. Within these wells, the cells re-aggregated within hours, forming tight retinal organoids. Using a Spectrum of Fates zebrafish line, in which all different types of retinal neurons show distinct fluorescent spectra, we found that by 48 hours in culture, the retinal organoids acquire a distinct spatial organization, i.e. they became coarsely but clearly laminated...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174239/ataxin-2-binding-protein-1-is-a-context-specific-positive-regulator-of-notch-signaling-during-neurogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Jay Prakash Shukla, Girish Deshpande, L S Shashidhara
The role of Notch pathway during lateral inhibition underlying binary cell fate choice is extensively studied, although context-specificity that generates diverse outcomes is relatively less well understood. In the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, differential Notch signaling between cells of proneural cluster orchestrates sensory organ specification. Here we report functional analysis of Drosophila Ataxin2 binding protein1 (dA2BP1) during this process. It's human orthologue A2BP1 is linked to type 2 Spinocerebellar ataxia and other complex neuronal disorders...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174238/functional-characterisation-of-cis-regulatory-elements-governing-dynamic-eomes-expression-in-the-early-mouse-embryo
#17
Claire S Simon, Damien J Downes, Matthew E Gosden, Jelena Telenius, Douglas R Higgs, Jim R Hughes, Ita Costello, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
The T-box transcription factor (TF) Eomes is a key regulator of cell fate decisions during early mouse development. The cis-acting regulatory elements that direct expression in the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), primitive streak (PS) and definitive endoderm (DE) have yet to be defined. Here, we identified three gene-proximal enhancer-like sequences (PSE_a, PSE_b and VPE) that faithfully activate tissue specific expression in transgenic embryos. However, targeted deletion experiments demonstrate that PSE_a and PSE_b are dispensable and only the VPE is required for optimal Eomes expression in vivo Embryos lacking this enhancer display variably penetrant defects in anterior-posterior axis orientation and DE formation...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#18
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here we show that members of the Integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
January 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126843/jmjd-1-2-phf8-controls-axon-guidance-by-regulating-hedgehog-like-signaling
#19
Alba Redo Riveiro, Luca Mariani, Emily Malmberg, Pier Giorgio Amendola, Juhani Peltonen, Garry Wong, Anna Elisabetta Salcini
Components of the KDM7 family of histone demethylases are implicated in neuronal development and one member, PHF8, is also found mutated in cases of X-linked mental retardation. However, how PHF8 regulates neurodevelopmental processes and contributes to the disease is still largely missing. Here we show that the catalytic activity of a PHF8 homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, JMJD-1.2, is required non-cell autonomously for proper axon guidance. Loss of JMJD-1.2 deregulates the transcription of the Hedgehog-related genes wrt-8 and grl-16 whose overexpression is sufficient to induce the axonal defects...
January 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126842/integrin-suppresses-neurogenesis-and-regulates-brain-tissue-assembly-in-planarian-regeneration
#20
Nicolle A Bonar, Christian P Petersen
Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a critical regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs...
January 26, 2017: Development
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