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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888196/differential-temporal-control-of-foxa-a-and-zic-r-b-specifies-brain-versus-notochord-fate-in-the-ascidian-embryo
#1
Tatsuro Ikeda, Yutaka Satou
In embryos of an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis, two transcription factors, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b, are required for specification of the brain and the notochord, which are derived from distinct cell lineages. In the brain lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed with no temporal overlap. In the notochord lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed simultaneously. In the present study, we found that the temporally non-overlapping expression of Foxa.a and Zic-r.b in the brain lineage was regulated by three repressors, Prdm1-r...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888195/remodeling-of-adhesion-and-modulation-of-mechanical-tensile-forces-during-apoptosis-in-drosophila-epithelium
#2
Xiang Teng, Lei Qin, Roland Le Borgne, Yusuke Toyama
Apoptosis is a mechanism of eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells during development and tissue homeostasis. During apoptosis within a tissue, the adhesions between dying and neighboring non-dying cells need to be remodeled so that the apoptotic cell is expelled. In parallel, the contraction of actomyosin cables formed in apoptotic and neighboring cells drive cell extrusion. To date, the coordination between the dynamics of cell adhesion and the progressive changes in tissue tension around an apoptotic cell is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888194/a-set-of-simple-cell-processes-are-sufficient-to-model-spiral-cleavage
#3
Miguel Brun-Usan, Miquel Marín-Riera, Cristina Grande, Marta Truchado-Garcia, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
During cleavage the zygote becomes partitioned into a set of cells with a particular spatial arrangement. Spiral cleavage is the most abundant cleavage type at the phylum level. Different cellular processes have been hypothesized to be responsible for the development of the specific spatial arrangement of blastomeres in the spiral blastula. These include the orientation of cell division according to an animal-vegetal gradient, according to cells' main axis (Hertwig's rule), according to the contact areas between cells or orthogonally to previous divisions (Sach's rule)...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888193/conserved-and-novel-functions-of-programmed-cellular-senescence-during-vertebrate-development
#4
Hongorzul Davaapil, Jeremy P Brockes, Maximina H Yun
Cellular senescence, a form of stable cell cycle arrest traditionally associated with tumour suppression, has been recently found to occur during mammalian development. Here, we show that cell senescence is an intrinsic part of the developmental programme in amphibians. Programmed senescence occurs in specific structures at defined time-windows during amphibian development. It contributes to the physiological degeneration of the amphibian pronephros and to the development of the cement gland and oral cavity...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888192/atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-controls-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-mammary-gland
#5
Gillian J Wilson, Kay D Hewit, Kenneth J Pallas, Claire J Cairney, Kit M Lee, Christopher A Hansell, Torsten Stein, Gerard J Graham
Macrophages are important regulators of branching morphogenesis during development, and postnatally in the mammary gland. Regulation of macrophage dynamics during these processes can therefore have a profound impact on development. We demonstrate here that the developing mammary gland expresses high levels of inflammatory CC-chemokines which are essential in vivo regulators of macrophage migration. We further demonstrate that the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, which scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, is differentially expressed during mammary gland development...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888191/wt1-directs-the-lineage-specification-of-sertoli-and-granulosa-cells-by-repressing-sf1-expression
#6
Min Chen, Lianjun Zhang, Xiuhong Cui, Xiwen Lin, Yaqiong Li, Yaqing Wang, Yanbo Wang, Yan Qin, Dahua Chen, Chunsheng Han, Bin Zhou, Vicki Huff, Fei Gao
Supporting cells (Sertoli and granulosa) and steroidogenic cells (Leydig and theca-interstitium) are two major somatic cell types in mammalian gonads. However, the mechanisms that control their differentiation during gonad development remain elusive. In this study, we found deletion of Wt1 in ovary after sex determination caused ectopic development of steroidogenic cells at embryonic stage. Furthermore, the differentiation of both Sertoli and granulosa cells was blocked when Wt1 was deleted before sex determination and most genital ridge somatic cells differentiated into steroidogenic cells in both male and female gonads...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888190/tfap2-and-sox1-2-3-cooperatively-specify-ectodermal-fates-in-ascidian-embryos
#7
Kaoru S Imai, Hiroki Hikawa, Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou
Epidermis and neural tissues differentiate from the ectoderm in animal embryos. While epidermal fate is thought to be induced in vertebrate embryos, embryological evidence has indicated that no intercellular interactions during early stages are required for epidermal fate in ascidian embryos. To test this hypothesis, we determined the gene regulatory circuits for epidermal and neural specification in the ascidian embryo. These circuits started with Tfap2-r.b and Sox1/2/3, which are expressed in the ectodermal lineage immediately after zygotic genome activation...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864382/molecular-dynamics-of-dkk4-modulates-wnt-action-and-regulates-meibomian-gland-development
#8
Jian Sima, Yulan Piao, Yaohui Chen, David Schlessinger
Secreted Dickkopf (Dkk) proteins are major Wnt pathway modulators during organ development. Dkk1 has been widely studied and acts as a general Wnt inhibitor. However, the molecular function of other Dkks remains largely unknown. Here we show that Dkk4 selectively inhibits a subset of Wnts, but is further inactivated by proteolytic cleavage. Meibomian gland (MG) formation is employed as a model where Dkk4 and its Wnt targets are expressed. Skin-specific expression of Dkk4 arrests MG growth at early germ phase, similar to that observed in Eda-ablated Tabby mice...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864381/lc8-dynein-light-chain-promotes-localization-and-function-of-puf-protein-fbf-2-in-germline-progenitor-cells
#9
Xiaobo Wang, Jenessa R Olson, Dominique Rasoloson, Mary Ellenbecker, Jessica Bailey, Ekaterina Voronina
PUF family translational repressors are conserved developmental regulators, but the molecular function provided by the regions flanking the PUF RNA-binding domain is unknown. In C. elegans, PUF proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2 support germline progenitor maintenance by repressing production of meiotic proteins and use distinct mechanisms to repress their target mRNAs. We identify dynein light chain DLC-1 as an important new regulator of FBF-2 function. DLC-1 directly binds to FBF-2 outside of the RNA-binding domain and promotes FBF-2 localization and function...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864380/setd5-is-essential-for-mammalian-development-and-co-transcriptional-regulation-of-histone-acetylation
#10
Anna B Osipovich, Rama Gangula, Pedro G Vianna, Mark A Magnuson
SET-domain containing proteins play a vital role in regulating gene expression during development through modifications in chromatin structure. Here we show that SET domain containing 5 (Setd5) is divergently transcribed with Gt(ROSA26)Sor, is necessary for mammalian development, and interacts with the PAF1 co-transcriptional complex and other proteins. Setd5-deficient embryos exhibit severe defects in neural tube formation, somitogenesis, and cardiac development, have aberrant vasculogenesis in embryos, yolk sacs, and placentas; and die between embryonic day 10...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864379/foxn4-promotes-gene-expression-required-for-multiple-motile-cilia-formation
#11
Evan P Campell, Ian K Quigley, Chris Kintner
Multiciliated cell (MCC) differentiation involves extensive organelle biogenesis required to extend hundreds of motile cilia. Key transcriptional regulators have been identified that drive gene expression required for organelle biogenesis during MCC differentiation, which are activated by, and act downstream, of two related, small coiled-coil proteins, Multicilin and Gemc1. Here we identify foxn4 as a new downstream target of Multicilin required for MCC differentiation in the Xenopus skin. When Foxn4 activity is inhibited in Xenopus embryos, MCCs show transient ciliogenesis defects similar to those observed in mutants in Foxj1, a known key regulator of genes required for motile ciliation...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836966/integration-of-actomyosin-contractility-with-cell-cell-adhesion-during-dorsal-closure
#12
Julia Duque, Nicole Gorfinkiel
In this work, we combine genetic perturbation, time-lapse imaging and quantitative image analysis to investigate how pulsatile actomyosin contractility drives cell oscillations, apical cell contraction and tissue closure, during the morphogenesis of the amnioserosa, the main force-generating tissue during the process of Dorsal Closure in Drosophila. Our work reveals that Myosin activity determines the oscillatory and contractile behaviour of amnioserosa cells. Reducing Myosin activity prevents cell shape oscillations and reduces cell contractility...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836965/exon-and-contraction-dependent-functions-of-titin-in-sarcomere-assembly
#13
Yu-Huan Shih, Alexey V Dvornikov, Ping Zhu, Xiao Ma, Maeng Jo Kim, Yonghe Ding, Xiaolei Xu
Truncating TTN variants (TTNtvs) are the major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); however, allelic heterogeneity, i.e., TTNtvs in different exons, results in variable phenotypes, remains a major hurdle for disease diagnosis and therapy. Here, we generated a panel of ttn mutants in zebrafish. Four single deletion mutants in ttn.2 or ttn.1 resulted in 4 phenotypes, and 3 double ttn.2/ttn.1 mutants exhibited more severe phenotypes in somites. Protein analysis identified ttn(xu071) as a near-null mutant and the other 6 mutants as hypomorphic alleles...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836964/phospholipid-composition-and-a-polybasic-motif-determine-d6-protein-kinase-polar-association-with-the-plasma-membrane-and-tropic-responses
#14
Inês C R Barbosa, Hiromasa Shikata, Melina Zourelidou, Mareike Heilmann, Ingo Heilmann, Claus Schwechheimer
The polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN (PIN-FORMED) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatio-temporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6PK (D6 PROTEIN KINASE) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it co-localizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836963/phosphorylated-groucho-delays-differentiation-in-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-by-providing-a-molecular-memory-of-egfr-signaling-in-the-niche
#15
Michael J Johnston, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Ze'ev Paroush, Todd G Nystul
In the epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) of the Drosophila ovary, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling promotes self-renewal whereas Notch signaling promotes differentiation of the prefollicle cell (pFC) daughters. We have identified two proteins, Six4 and Groucho (Gro), that link the activity of these two pathways to regulate the earliest cell fate decision in the FSC lineage. Our data indicate that Six4 and Gro promote differentiation toward the polar cell fate by promoting Notch pathway activity...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836962/delayed-neurogenesis-with-respect-to-eye-growth-shapes-the-pigeon-retina-for-high-visual-acuity
#16
Tania Rodrigues, Michal Krawczyk, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Lidia Matter-Sadzinski, Jean-Marc Matter
The macula and fovea located at the optical centre of the retina make primate visual perception unique among mammals. Our current understanding of retina ontogenesis is primarily based on animal models having no macula and no fovea. However, the pigeon retina and the human macula share a number of structural and functional properties that justify introducing the former as a new model system for retina development. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the pigeon and chicken retinas at different embryonic stages reveals that the pigeon's genetic programs underlying cell differentiation are postponed until the end of the period of cell proliferation...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836961/insights-from-imaging-the-implanting-embryo-and-the-uterine-environment-in-three-dimensions
#17
Ripla Arora, Adam Fries, Karina Oelerich, Kyle Marchuk, Khalida Sabeur, Linda C Giudice, Diana J Laird
Although much is known about the embryo during implantation, the architecture of the uterine environment in which the early embryo develops is not well understood. We employed confocal imaging in combination with 3D analysis to identify and quantify dynamic changes to the luminal structure of murine uterus in preparation for implantation. When applied to mouse mutants with known implantation defects, this method detected striking peri-implantation abnormalities in uterine morphology that cannot be visualized by histology...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827821/early-bioelectric-activities-mediate-redox-modulated-regeneration
#18
Fernando Ferreira, Guillaume Luxardi, Brian Reid, Min Zhao
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and electric currents modulate regeneration; however, the interplays between biochemical and biophysical signals during regeneration remain poorly understood. We investigate the interactions between redox and bioelectric activities during tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. We show that inhibition of NADPH oxidases-mediated production of ROS, or scavenging or blocking their diffusion into cells, impairs regeneration and consistently regulate the dynamics of membrane potential, transepithelial potential (TEP) and electric current densities (JI) during regeneration...
November 8, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827820/nodal-and-fgf-coordinate-ascidian-neural-tube-morphogenesis
#19
Ignacio A Navarrete, Michael Levine
Formation of the vertebrate neural tube represents one of the premier examples of morphogenesis in animal development. Here, we investigate this process in the simple chordate, CIONA INTESTINALIS: Previous studies have implicated Nodal and FGF signals in the specification of lateral and ventral neural progenitors. We show that these signals also control the detailed cellular behaviors underlying morphogenesis of the neural tube. Live imaging experiments show that FGF controls the intercalary movements of ventral neural progenitors, while Nodal is essential for the characteristic stacking behavior of lateral cells...
November 8, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827819/prmt5-is-essential-for-the-maintenance-of-chondrogenic-progenitor-cells-in-the-limb-bud
#20
Jacqueline L Norrie, Qiang Li, Swanie Co, Bau-Lin Huang, Ding Ding, Jann C Uy, Zhicheng Ji, Susan Mackem, Mark T Bedford, Antonella Galli, Hongkai Ji, Steven A Vokes
During embryonic development, undifferentiated progenitor cells balance the generation of additional progenitor cells with differentiation. Within the developing limb, cartilage cells differentiate from mesodermal progenitors in an ordered process that results in the specification of the correct number of appropriately sized skeletal elements. The internal process by which these cells maintain an undifferentiated state while preserving their capacity to differentiate is unknown. Here, we report that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 has a critical role in maintaining progenitor cells...
November 8, 2016: Development
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