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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446520/obituary-tokindo-s-okada-1927-2017
#1
Hisato Kondoh, Harukazu Nakamura
Hisato Kondoh and Harukazu Nakamura look back at the life and career of their mentor Tokindo S. Okada, a pioneer of Japanese developmental biology.
April 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442471/development-of-organoids-from-mouse-and-human-endometrium-showing-endometrial-epithelium-physiology-and-long-term-expandability
#2
Matteo Boretto, Benoit Cox, Manuel Noben, Nikolai Hendriks, Amelie Fassbender, Heleen Roose, Frédéric Amant, Dirk Timmerman, Carla Tomassetti, Arne Vanhie, Christel Meuleman, Marc Ferrante, Hugo Vankelecom
The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and human endometrium. Dissociated endometrial tissue, embedded in Matrigel under WNT-activating conditions, swiftly formed organoid structures that showed long-term expansion capacity, and reproduced the molecular and histological phenotype of the tissue's epithelium...
April 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432219/optimized-cubic-protocol-for-3d-imaging-of-chicken-embryos-at-single-cell-resolution
#3
María Victoria Gómez-Gaviro, Evan Balaban, Diana Bocancea, María Teresa Lorrio, María Pompeiano, Manuel Desco, Jorge Ripoll, Juan José Vaquero
The CUBIC tissue clearing protocol has been optimized to produce translucent immunostained whole chicken embryos and embryo brains. When combined with multispectral light sheet microscopy, the validated protocol presented here provides a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method for acquiring accurate histological images that preserve three-dimensional structural relationships with single-cell-level resolution in whole early-stage chicken embryos, and in the whole brains of late-stage embryos.
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432218/dynamics-of-growth-zone-patterning-in-the-milkweed-bug-oncopeltus-fasciatus
#4
Tzach Auman, Barbara M I Vreede, Aryeh Weiss, Susan D Hester, Terri A Williams, Lisa M Nagy, Ariel D Chipman
We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432217/rar%C3%AE-2-is-required-for-vertebrate-somitogenesis
#5
Amanda Janesick, Weiyi Tang, Tuyen T L Nguyen, Bruce Blumberg
During vertebrate somitogenesis, retinoic acid is known to establish the position of the determination wavefront, controlling where new somites are permitted to form along the anteroposterior body axis. Less is understood about how RAR regulates somite patterning, rostral-caudal boundary setting, specialization of myotome subdivisions, or the specific RAR subtype that is required for somite patterning. Characterizing the function of RARβ has been challenging due to the absence of embryonic phenotypes in murine loss-of-function studies...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432216/embryonic-cholecystitis-and-defective-gallbladder-contraction-in-the-sox17-haploinsufficient-model-of-biliary-atresia
#6
Hiroki Higashiyama, Aisa Ozawa, Hiroyuki Sumitomo, Mami Uemura, Ko Fujino, Hitomi Igarashi, Kenya Imaimatsu, Naoki Tsunekawa, Yoshikazu Hirate, Masamichi Kurohmaru, Yukio Saijoh, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Yoshiakira Kanai
The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids to the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes the biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the Sox17-haploinsufficient gallbladder and liver in the etiology of biliary atresia remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in the Sox17(+/-) embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432215/actomyosin-based-tissue-folding-requires-a-multicellular-myosin-gradient
#7
Natalie C Heer, Pearson W Miller, Soline Chanet, Norbert Stoop, Jörn Dunkel, Adam C Martin
Tissue folding promotes three-dimensional (3D) form during development. In many cases, folding is associated with myosin accumulation at the apical surface of epithelial cells, as seen in the vertebrate neural tube and the Drosophila ventral furrow. This type of folding is characterized by constriction of apical cell surfaces, and the resulting cell shape change is thought to cause tissue folding. Here, we use quantitative microscopy to measure the pattern of transcription, signaling, myosin activation, and cell shape in the Drosophila mesoderm...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432214/a-microrna-mrna-expression-network-during-oral-siphon-regeneration-in-ciona
#8
Elijah J Spina, Elmer Guzman, Hongjun Zhou, Kenneth S Kosik, William C Smith
Here we present a parallel study of mRNA and microRNA expression during oral siphon (OS) regeneration in Ciona robusta, and the derived network of their interactions. In the process of identifying 248 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs as differentially expressed (DE), we also identified 57 novel microRNAs, several of which are among the most highly DE. Analysis of functional categories identified enriched transcripts related to stress responses and apoptosis at the wound healing stage, signaling pathways including Wnt and TGF-β during early regrowth, and negative regulation of extracellular proteases in late stage regeneration...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428215/blocked-transcription-through-kvdmr1-results-in-absence-of-methylation-and-gene-silencing-resembling-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome
#9
Vir B Singh, Sirinapa Sribenja, Kayla E Wilson, Kristopher M Attwood, Joanna C Hillman, Shilpa Pathak, Michael J Higgins
The maternally methylated KvDMR1 ICR regulates imprinted expression of a cluster of maternally-expressed genes on human chromosome 11p15.5. Disruption of imprinting leads to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth and cancer predisposition condition. In the majority of BWS patients, maternal-specific methylation at KvDMR1 is absent and genes under its control are repressed. We analyzed a mouse model carrying a poly(A) truncation cassette inserted to prevent RNA transcripts from elongation through KvDMR1...
April 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420712/sec71-functions-as-a-gef-for-the-small-gtpase-arf1-to-govern-dendrite-pruning-of-drosophila-sensory-neurons
#10
Yan Wang, Heng Zhang, Meng Shi, Yih-Cherng Liou, Lei Lu, Fengwei Yu
Pruning, whereby neurons eliminate their exuberant neurites, is central for the maturation of the nervous system. In Drosophila, sensory neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites without affecting their axons during metamorphosis. However, it is unknown whether the secretory pathway plays a role in dendrite pruning. Here, we show that the small GTPase Arf1, an important regulator of secretory pathway, is specifically required for dendrite pruning of ddaC/D/E sensory neurons but dispensable for apoptosis of ddaF neurons...
April 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420711/excitatory-neurons-sculpt-gabaergic-neuronal-connectivity-in-the-c-elegans-motor-circuit
#11
Belinda Barbagallo, Alison Philbrook, Denis Touroutine, Navonil Banerjee, Devyn Oliver, Christopher M Lambert, Michael M Francis
Establishing and maintaining the appropriate number of GABA synapses is key for balancing excitation and inhibition in the nervous system, though we have only a limited understanding of the mechanisms controlling GABA circuit connectivity. Here, we show that disrupting cholinergic innervation of GABAergic neurons in the C. elegans motor circuit alters GABAergic neuron synaptic connectivity. These changes are accompanied by a reduced frequency and increased amplitude of GABAergic synaptic events. Acute genetic disruption in early development-during the integration of post-embryonic born GABAergic neurons into the circuit-produces irreversible effects on GABAergic synaptic connectivity that mimic those produced by chronic manipulations...
April 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420710/reciprocal-proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-pifs-and-hfr1-underlying-photomorphogenic-development-in-arabidopsis
#12
Xiaosa Xu, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Vinh Ngoc Pham, Qingyun Bu, Andrew Nguyen, Enamul Huq
The phytochrome-mediated regulation of photomorphogenesis under red and far-red light conditions involves both positive and negatively acting factors. The positively acting factors (e.g., HY5/HFR1/LAF1 and others) are degraded in the dark to prevent photomorphogenesis. By contrast, the negatively acting factors (e.g., PIFs) are degraded in response to light to promote photomorphogenesis. Here we show that the negatively acting factor, PIF1 is also degraded in the dark by direct heterodimerization with the positively acting factor, HFR1...
April 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360133/numb-regulates-somatic-cell-lineage-commitment-during-early-gonadogenesis-in-mice
#13
Yi-Tzu Lin, Lindsey Barske, Tony DeFalco, Blanche Capel
During early gonadogenesis, proliferating cells in the coelomic epithelium (CE) give rise to most somatic cells in both XX and XY gonads. Previous dye-labeling experiments showed that a single CE cell could give rise to additional CE cells and to both supporting and interstitial cell lineages, implying that cells in the CE domain are multipotent progenitors, and suggesting that an asymmetric division is involved in the acquisition of gonadal cell fates. We found that NUMB is asymmetrically localized in CE cells, suggesting that it might be involved...
March 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360132/dose-dependent-transduction-of-hedgehog-relies-on-phosphorylation-based-feedback-between-the-gpcr-smoothened-and-the-kinase-fused
#14
Matthieu Sanial, Isabelle Bécam, Line Hofmann, Julien Behague, Camilla Argüelles, Vanessa Gourhand, Lucia Bruzzone, Robert A Holmgren, Anne Plessis
Smoothened (SMO) is a GPCR-related protein required for the transduction of Hedgehog (HH). The HH gradient leads to graded phosphorylation of SMO, mainly by the PKA and CKI kinases. How thresholds in HH morphogen regulate SMO to promote switch-like transcriptional responses is a central unsolved issue. Using the wing imaginal disc model in Drosophila, we identified novel SMO phosphosites that enhance the effects of the PKA/CKI kinases on SMO accumulation, its localization at the plasma membrane and its activity...
March 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360131/a-small-molecule-screen-reveals-that-hsp90%C3%AE-promotes-the-conversion-of-ipsc-derived-endoderm-to-a-hepatic-fate-and-regulates-hnf4a-turnover
#15
Ran Jing, Cameron B Duncan, Stephen A Duncan
We have previously shown that the transcription factor HNF4A is required for the formation of hepatic progenitor cells from endoderm that has been derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. We reasoned that we could uncover regulatory pathways with novel roles in hepatocyte differentiation by identifying cellular processes that regulate HNF4A. We, therefore, performed a screen of 1120 small molecules with well-characterized mechanisms of action to detect those that affect the abundance of HNF4A in iPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells...
March 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356311/regulation-of-brn3b-by-dlx1-and-dlx2-is-required-for-retinal-ganglion-cell-differentiation-in-the-vertebrate-retina
#16
Qi Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Shaohong Cheng, Rajiv Dixit, Shunzhen Zhang, Jimmy de Melo, Xiuqian Mu, William H Klein, Nadean L Brown, Jeffrey T Wigle, Carol Schuurmans, David D Eisenstat
Regulated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation and axonal guidance is required for a functional visual system. Homeodomain and basic helix loop helix transcription factors are required for retinogenesis, as well as patterning, differentiation and maintenance of specific retinal cell types. We hypothesized that Dlx1/Dlx2 and Brn3b homeobox genes function in parallel intrinsic pathways to determine RGC fate and generated Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b triple knockout mice. A more severe retinal phenotype was found in the Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b null retinas than predicted by combining features of the Brn3b single and Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout retinas, including near total RGC loss with a marked increase in amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer...
March 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348168/fgfr2-is-required-for-airway-basal-cell-self-renewal-and-terminal-differentiation
#17
Gayan Balasooriya, Maja Goschorska, Eugenia Piddini, Emma L Rawlins
Airway stem cells slowly self-renew and produce differentiated progeny to maintain homeostasis throughout the life-span of an individual. Mutations in the molecular regulators of these processes may drive cancer or degenerative disease, but are also potential therapeutic targets. Conditionally deleting one copy of FGF Receptor 2 in adult mouse airway basal cells results in self-renewal and differentiation phenotypes. We show that FGFR2 signalling correlates with maintenance of expression of a key transcription factor for basal cell self-renewal and differentiation, SOX2...
March 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348167/wnts-contribute-to-neuromuscular-junction-formation-through-distinct-signaling-pathways
#18
Julien Messéant, Jérôme Ezan, Perrine Delers, Konstantin Glebov, Carmen Marchiol, Franck Lager, Gilles Renault, Fadel Tissir, Mireille Montcouquiol, Nathalie Sans, Claire Legay, Laure Strochlic
Understanding the developmental steps shaping the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) connecting motoneurons to skeletal muscle fibers, is critical. Wnt morphogens are key players in the formation of this specialized peripheral synapse. Yet, the individual and collaborative functions of Wnts as well as their downstream pathways remain poorly understood at the NMJ. Here, we demonstrate through Wnt4 and Wnt11 gain of function studies in culture or in mice that Wnts enhance acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and motor axon outgrowth...
March 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320734/topless-mediates-brassinosteroid-control-of-shoot-boundaries-and-root-meristem-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Ana Espinosa-Ruiz, Cristina Martínez, Miguel de Lucas, Norma Fàbregas, Nadja Bosch, Ana I Caño-Delgado, Salomé Prat
The transcription factor bri1-EMS-SUPRESSOR1 (BES1) is a master regulator of brassinosteroid (BR)-regulated gene expression. BES1 together with BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) drive activated or repressed expression of several genes, and have a prominent role in negative regulation of BR synthesis. Here, we report that BES1 interaction with TOPLESS (TPL), via its ERF-associated amphiphilic repression EAR motif, is essential for BES1-mediated control of organ boundary formation in the SAM and the regulation of the quiescent center (QC) cell division in roots...
March 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302748/smc5-6-is-required-for-the-formation-of-segregation-competent-bivalent-chromosomes-during-meiosis-i-in-mouse-oocytes
#20
Grace Hwang, Fengyun Sun, Marilyn O'Brien, John J Eppig, Mary Ann Handel, Philip W Jordan
SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin, and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis had not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre-driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Development
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