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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158447/krox20-defines-a-subpopulation-of-cardiac-neural-crest-cells-contributing-to-arterial-valves-and-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#1
Gaëlle Odelin, Emilie Faure, Fanny Coulpier, Maria Di Bonito, Fanny Bajolle, Michèle Studer, Jean-François Avierinos, Patrick Charnay, Piotr Topilko, Stéphane Zaffran
Although cardiac neural crest cells are required at early stages of arterial valve development, their contribution during valvular leaflet maturation remains poorly understood. Here we show in mouse that neural crest cells from pre-otic and post-otic regions make distinct contributions to the arterial valve leaflets. Genetic fate-mapping analysis of neural crest Krox20-expressing cells reveals a large contribution to the borders and the interleaflet triangles of the arterial valves. Loss of Krox20 function results in hyperplastic aortic valve and partially penetrant bicuspid aortic valve formation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158446/drosophila-embryonic-type-ii-neuroblasts-origin-temporal-patterning-and-contribution-to-the-adult-central-complex
#2
Kathleen T Walsh, Chris Q Doe
Drosophila neuroblasts are an excellent model for investigating how neuronal diversity is generated. Most brain neuroblasts generate a series of ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each make two neurons (type I lineage), but sixteen brain neuroblasts generate a series of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that each produce 4-6 GMCs and 8-12 neurons (type II lineage). Thus, type II lineages are similar to primate cortical lineages, and may serve as models for understanding cortical expansion. Yet the origin of type II neuroblasts remains mysterious: do they form in the embryo or larva? If they form in the embryo, do their progeny populate the adult central complex, as do the larval type II neuroblast progeny? Here we present molecular and clonal data showing that all type II neuroblasts form in the embryo, produce INPs, and express known temporal transcription factors...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158445/pdgfr%C3%AE-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-balance-modulates-progenitor-cell-differentiation-into-white-and-beige-adipocytes
#3
Zhanguo Gao, Alexes C Daquinag, Fei Su, Brad Snyder, Mikhail G Kolonin
Relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot-specificity of preadipocyte delineation. We demonstrate that PDGFRα expression precedes PDGFRβ expression in all subcutaneous but only in a fraction of visceral adipose stromal cells...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158444/hnf1b-controls-epithelial-organization-and-cell-polarity-during-ureteric-bud-branching-and-collecting-duct-morphogenesis
#4
Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot, Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Seppo J Vainio, Silvia Cereghini
Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158443/fox-and-ets-family-transcription-factors-regulate-the-pigment-cell-lineage-in-planarians
#5
Xinwen He, Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Yan Li, Alyssa M Molinaro, Jason Pellettieri, Bret J Pearson
Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158442/the-xenopus-primordial-germ-cell-transcriptome-identifies-sox7-a-novel-role-in-early-pgc-development
#6
Amanda M Butler, Dawn A Owens, Lingyu Wang, Mary Lou King
Xenopus primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined by the presence of maternally derived germ plasm. Germ plasm components both protect PGCs from somatic differentiation and begin a unique gene expression program. Segregation of the germline from the endodermal lineage occurs during gastrulation, and PGCs subsequently initiate zygotic transcription. However, the gene-network(s) that operate to both preserve and promote germline differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate PGC and neighboring endoderm cell mRNAs after lineage segregation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158441/shep-regulates-drosophila-neuronal-remodeling-by-controlling-transcription-of-its-chromatin-targets
#7
Dahong Chen, Ryan K Dale, Elissa P Lei
Neuronal remodeling is critical to form the mature nervous system and can lead to neuropsychiatric diseases when disrupted. Global gene expression changes in neurons during remodeling as well as the factors that regulate these changes remain poorly defined. To elucidate this process, we performed RNA-seq on isolated Drosophila larval and pupal neurons and found up-regulated synaptic signaling and down-regulated gene expression regulators as a result of normal neuronal metamorphosis. We further tested the role of alan shepard (shep), which encodes an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein required for proper neuronal remodeling...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158440/cohesin-facilitates-zygotic-genome-activation-in-zebrafish
#8
Michael Meier, Jenny Grant, Amy Dowdle, Amarni Thomas, Jennifer Gerton, Philippe Collas, Justin M O'Sullivan, Julia A Horsfield
At zygotic genome activation (ZGA), changes in chromatin structure are associated with new transcription immediately following the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). The nuclear architectural proteins, cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), contribute to chromatin structure and gene regulation. We show here that normal cohesin function is important for ZGA in zebrafish. Depletion of cohesin subunit Rad21 delays ZGA without affecting cell cycle progression. In contrast, CTCF depletion has little effect on ZGA whereas complete abrogation is lethal...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158439/differential-spatial-distribution-of-mir165-6-determines-variability-in-plant-root-anatomy
#9
G Di Ruocco, G Bertolotti, E Pacifici, L Polverari, M Tsiantis, S Sabatini, P Costantino, R Dello Ioio
A clear example of interspecific variation is the number of root cortical layers in plants. The genetic mechanisms underlying this variability are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of a convenient model. Here, we demonstrate that Cardamine hirsuta, unlike Arabidopsis thaliana, has two cortical layers that are patterned during late embryogenesis. We show that a miR165/6-dependent distribution of the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) transcription factor PHABULOSA (PHB) controls this pattern...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122841/hh-gene-participates-in-the-left-right-asymmetry-development-of-amphioxus-by-controlling-cer-expression
#10
Guangwei Hu, Guang Li, Hui Wang, Yiquan Wang
Correct patterning of left-right asymmetry is an important process during the embryonic development of bilaterians. It is known that Hh signaling plays a role in LR asymmetry development of mouse, chicken and sea urchin embryos by regulating Nodal expression. In this study, we reported a novel regulating way of Hh gene in the LR asymmetry development of amphioxus embryos. Our results revealed that Hh(-/-) embryos abolished Cerburs (Cer) transcription and led to bilaterally symmetric expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx As a consequence, Hh(-/-) mutants duplicated its left-side structures and lost right-side characters displaying an abnormal bilaterally symmetric body plan...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122840/juvenile-hormone-signaling-in-short-germ-band-hemimetabolan-embryos
#11
Ana Fernandez-Nicolas, Xavier Belles
The role of juvenile hormone (JH) in insect embryos is a mystery, especially in short germ-band hemimetabolan species. To shed light on this mystery, we depleted the mRNA levels of Kruppel homolog 1, Methoprene tolerant and JH acid O-methyltransferase, key elements of JH signaling, in embryos of the short germ-band hemimetabolan species Blattella germanica This precluded the formation of the germ-band anlage in a group of embryos. Hatchability was also reduced, which may have been due to premature upregulation of laccase 2, a promoter of cuticle tanning...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122839/fgf-receptors-control-alveolar-elastogenesis
#12
Rongbo Li, John C Herriges, Lin Chen, Robert P Mecham, Xin Sun
Alveologenesis is the final step of lung development characterized by the formation of millions of alveolar septa which constitute the vast gas-exchange surface area. The genetic network driving alveologenesis is poorly understood compared to those in earlier steps of lung development. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling through the FGF receptors, Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 (hereafter Fgfr3;4), is critical for alveologenesis. However, the mechanisms through which they mediate this process remain unclear. Here we show that in Fgfr3;4 global mutant mice, alveolar simplification is first observed at the onset of alveologenesis at postnatal day (P) 3...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113992/axonemal-dynein-assembly-requires-the-r2tp-complex-component-pontin
#13
Yuanyuan Li, Lu Zhao, Shiaulou Yuan, Jiefang Zhang, Zhaoxia Sun
Pontin (Ruvbl1) and Reptin (Ruvbl2) are closely related AAA ATPases. They are components of the Ruvbl1-Rvubl2-Tah1-Pih1 (R2TP) complexes that function as co-chaperones for the assembly of multiple macromolecular protein complexes. Here, we show that Pontin is essential for cilia motility in both zebrafish and mouse and that Pontin and Reptin function cooperatively in this process. pontin zebrafish mutants display phenotypes tightly associated with cilia defects and cilia motility is lost in a number of ciliated tissues along with a reduction in the number of both outer and inner dynein arms (ODAs and IDAs)...
November 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113991/knockout-of-the-arp2-3-complex-in-epidermis-causes-a-psoriasis-like-disease-hallmarked-by-hyperactivation-of-transcription-factor-nrf2
#14
Rob van der Kammen, Ji-Ying Song, Iris de Rink, Hans Janssen, Stefania Madonna, Claudia Scarponi, Cristina Albanesi, Wim Brugman, Metello Innocenti
Arp2/3 complex assembles branched actin filaments key to many cellular processes, but its organismal roles remain poorly understood. Here we employed conditional arpc4 knockout mice to study the function of the Arp2/3 complex in the epidermis.We found that depletion of the Arp2/3 complex by knockout of arpc4 results in skin abnormalities at birth that evolve into a severe psoriasis-like disease hallmarked by hyperactivation of transcription factor Nrf2. Knockout of arpc4 in cultured keratinocytes was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, upregulation of Nrf2-target genes and decreased filamentous actin levels...
November 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113990/notch-is-required-for-the-formation-of-all-nephron-segments-and-primes-nephron-progenitors-for-differentiation
#15
Eunah Chung, Patrick Deacon, Joo-Seop Park
Notch signaling plays important roles during mammalian nephrogenesis. To investigate if Notch regulates nephron segmentation, we performed Notch loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in developing nephrons in mice. Contrary to the previous notion that Notch signaling promotes the formation of proximal tubules and represses the formation of distal tubules in the mammalian nephron, we show that inhibition of Notch blocks the formation of all nephron segments and that constitutive activation of Notch in developing nephrons does not promote or repress the formation of a specific segment...
November 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097443/a-facilitated-diffusion-mechanism-establishes-the-drosophila-dorsal-gradient
#16
Sophia N Carrell, Michael D O'Connell, Thomas Jacobsen, Amy E Allen, Stephanie M Smith, Gregory T Reeves
The transcription factor NF-κB plays an important role in the immune system, apoptosis, and inflammation. Dorsal, a Drosophila homolog of NF-κB, patterns the dorsal-ventral axis in the blastoderm embryo. During this stage, Dorsal is sequestered outside the nucleus by the IκB homolog Cactus. Toll signaling on the ventral side breaks the Dorsal/Cactus complex, allowing Dorsal to enter the nucleus to regulate target genes. Fluorescent data show that Dorsal accumulates on the ventral side of the syncytial blastoderm...
November 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084807/different-modes-of-apc-c-activation-control-growth-and-neuron-glia-interaction-in-the-developing-drosophila-eye
#17
Helen Neuert, Yeliz Yuva-Aydemir, Marion Silies, Christian Klämbt
The development of the nervous system requires tight control of cell division, fate specification and migration. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that affects different steps of cell cycle progression, as well as having postmitotic functions in nervous system development. It can therefore link different developmental stages in one tissue. The two adaptor proteins Fizzy/Cdc20 and Fizzy-Related/Cdh1 confer APC/C substrate specificity. Here we show that two distinct modes of APC/C function act during Drosophila eye development...
October 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084806/long-noncoding-rna-rocr-contributes-to-sox9-expression-and-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Matt J Barter, Rodolfo Gomez, Sam Hyatt, Kat Cheung, Andrew Skelton, Yaobo Xu, Ian Clark, David A Young
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner where they function in various aspects of cell biology, often as key regulators of gene expression. In this study we established a role for lncRNAs in chondrocyte differentiation. Using RNA sequencing we identified a human articular chondrocyte repertoire of lncRNAs from normal hip cartilage donated by neck of femur fracture patients. Of particular interest are lncRNAs upstream of the master chondrocyte transcription factor SOX9 locus...
October 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084805/rpm-1-regulates-axon-termination-by-affecting-growth-cone-collapse-and-microtubule-stability
#19
Melissa A Borgen, Dandan Wang, Brock Grill
Axon termination is essential for efficient, accurate nervous system construction. At present, relatively little is known about how growth cone collapse occurs prior to axon termination in vivo. Using the mechanosensory neurons of C. elegans, we found collapse prior to axon termination is protracted with the growth cone transitioning from a dynamic to a static state. Growth cone collapse prior to termination is facilitated by the signaling hub RPM-1. Given the prominence of the cytoskeleton in growth cone collapse, we assessed the relationship between RPM-1 and regulators of actin dynamics and microtubule stability...
October 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084804/conservation-and-variation-in-pair-rule-gene-expression-and-function-in-the-intermediate-germ-beetle-dermestes-maculatus
#20
Jie Xiang, Katie Reding, Alison Heffer, Leslie Pick
A set of pair-rule segmentation genes (PRGs) promote the formation of alternate body segments in Drosophila melanogaster While Drosophila embryos are long-germ, with segments specified more-or-less simultaneously, most insects add segments sequentially as the germband elongates. The hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus, represents an intermediate between short- and long-germ development, ideal for comparative study of PRGs. Here we show that eight of nine Drosophila PRG-orthologs are expressed in stripes in Dermestes Functional results parse these genes into three groups: Dmac-eve, -odd, and -run play roles in both germband elongation and PR-patterning...
October 30, 2017: Development
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