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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784672/genetic-screening-and-multipotency-in-rhesus-monkey-haploid-neural-progenitor-cells
#1
Haisong Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Jian Yu, Congyu Wu, Qian Gao, Xu Li, Yanni Li, Jinxin Zhang, Yaru Tian, Tao Tan, Weizhi Ji, Luyuan Li, Yang Yu, Ling Shuai
Haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have been extensively applied in forward and reverse genetic screening. However, the mammalian haploid somatic cell line is difficult to achieve because of spontaneous diploidization in differentiation. As a non-human primate species, monkeys are widely used in basic and pre-clinical research in which haploid cells are restricted to ESCs. Here, we report that rhesus monkey haESCs in an optimized culture medium showed naïve-state pluripotency and stable haploidy. This model facilitated the derivation of haploid neural progenitor cells (haNPCs), which maintained haploidy and differentiation potential into neurons and glia for a long period in vitro High-throughput trapping mutations can be efficiently introduced into haNPCs via piggyBac transposons...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784671/a-non-autonomous-function-of-the-core-pcp-protein-vangl2-directs-peripheral-axon-turning-in-the-developing-cochlea
#2
Satish R Ghimire, Evan M Ratzan, Michael R Deans
The cochlea is innervated by neurons that relay sound information from hair cells to central auditory targets. A subset of these are the TypeΙΙ spiral ganglion neurons which have nociceptive features and contribute to feedback circuits providing neuroprotection in extreme noise. TypeΙΙ neurons make a distinctive 90 degree turn towards the cochlear base to synapse with 10-15 outer hair cells. We demonstrate that this axon turning event requires Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, is disrupted in Vangl2 and Celsr1 knockout mice, and that VANGL2 acts non-autonomously from the cochlea to direct turning...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777011/fox-proteins-are-modular-competency-factors-for-facial-cartilage-and-tooth-specification
#3
Pengfei Xu, Bartosz Balczerski, Amanda Ciozda, Kristin Louie, Veronika Oralova, Ann Huysseune, J Gage Crump
Facial form depends on the precise positioning of cartilage, bone, and tooth fields in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. How complex signaling information is integrated to specify these cell types remains a mystery. We find that modular expression of Forkhead-domain transcription factors (Fox) in the zebrafish face arises through integration of Hh, Fgf, Bmp, Edn1, and Jagged-Notch pathways. Whereas loss of C-class Fox proteins results in reduced upper facial cartilages, loss of F-class Fox proteins results in distal jaw truncations and absent midline cartilages and teeth...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777010/developmental-vascular-regression-is-regulated-by-a-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-myc-p21-cdkn1a-pathway-that-controls-cell-proliferation-and-cell-death
#4
Gowri Nayak, Yoshinobu Odaka, Vikram Prasad, Alyssa F Solano, Eun-Jin Yeo, Shruti Vemaraju, Jeffery D Molkentin, Andreas Trumpp, Bart Williams, Sujata Rao, Richard A Lang
Normal development requires tight regulation of cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we investigated these control mechanisms in the hyaloid vessels, a temporary vascular network in the mammalian eye that requires a Wnt/β-catenin response for scheduled regression. We investigated whether the hyaloid Wnt response was linked to the oncogene Myc , and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21 (CDKN1A), both established regulators of cell cycle progression and cell death. Our analysis showed that the Wnt pathway coreceptors LRP5 and LRP6 have overlapping activities mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hyaloid vascular endothelial cells (VECs)...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769221/size-reduced-embryos-reveal-a-gradient-scaling-based-mechanism-for-zebrafish-somite-formation
#5
Kana Ishimatsu, Tom W Hiscock, Zach M Collins, Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari, Kenny Lischer, David L Richmond, Yasumasa Bessho, Takaaki Matsui, Sean G Megason
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769220/retinoic-acid-induced-expression-of-hnf1%C3%AE-and-fzd4-is-required-for-pancreas-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#6
Maja B Gere, Claudia Pommerenke, Thomas Lingner, Tomas Pieler
Retinoic acid (RA) is required for pancreas specification in Xenopus and other vertebrates. However, the gene network that is directly induced by RA-signalling in this context remains to be defined. We identified the transcription factor Hnf1β and the Wnt-receptor Fzd4/Fzd4s as direct RA-target genes through RNA-sequencing of in vitro generated pancreatic explants. Functional analyses of Hnf1β and Fzd4/Fzd4s in programmed pancreatic explants and whole embryos revealed their requirement for pancreatic progenitor formation and differentiation...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769219/yif1-associates-with-yip1-on-golgi-and-regulates-dendrite-pruning-in-sensory-neurons-during-drosophila-metamorphosis
#7
Qiwei Wang, Yan Wang, Fengwei Yu
Pruning that selectively removes unnecessary neurites without causing neuronal death is essential for sculpting the mature nervous system during development. In Drosophila , ddaC sensory neurons specifically prune their larval dendrites with intact axons during metamorphosis. However, it remains unknown about an important role of ER-to-Golgi transport in dendrite pruning. Here, in a clonal screen we identified Yif1, an uncharacterized Drosophila homologue of Yif1p that is known as a regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport in yeast...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769218/simulation-of-melanoblast-displacements-reveals-new-features-of-developmental-migration
#8
Pascal Laurent, Valérie Petit, Zackie Aktary, Stuart Gallagher, Luke Tweedy, Laura Machesky, Lionel Larue
To distribute and establish the melanocyte lineage throughout the skin and other developing organs, melanoblasts undergo several rounds of proliferation, accompanied by migration through complex environments and differentiation. Melanoblast migration requires interaction with extracellular matrix of the epidermal basement membrane and with surrounding keratinocytes in the developing skin. Migration has been characterized by measuring speed, trajectory and directionality of movement, but there are many unanswered questions about what motivates and defines melanoblast migration...
May 16, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764858/distinct-regulation-of-snail-in-two-muscle-lineages-of-the-ascidian-embryo-achieves-temporal-coordination-of-muscle-development
#9
Miki Tokuoka, Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou
The transcriptional repressor Snail is required for proper differentiation of the tail muscle of ascidian tadpole larvae. Two muscle lineages (B5.1 and B6.4) contribute to the anterior tail muscle cells, and are consecutively separated from a transcriptionally quiescent germ cell lineage at the 16- and 32-cell stages. Concomitantly, cells of these lineages begin to express Tbx6.b at the 16- and 32-cell stages, respectively. Meanwhile, Snail expression begins in these two lineages simultaneously at the 32-cell stage...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764857/lineage-guided-notch-dependent-gliogenesis-by-drosophila-multi-potent-progenitors
#10
Qingzhong Ren, Takeshi Awasaki, Yu-Chun Wang, Yu-Fen Huang, Tzumin Lee
Macroglial cells in the central nervous system exhibit regional specialization and carry out region-specific functions. Diverse glial cells arise from specific progenitors in specific spatiotemporal patterns. This raises an interesting possibility that there exist glial precursors with distinct developmental fates, which govern region-specific gliogenesis. Here we mapped the glial progeny produced by the Drosophila type II neuroblasts, which, like vertebrate radial glia cells, yield both neurons and glia via intermediate neural progenitors (INPs)...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752387/transfection-of-capsaspora-owczarzaki-a-close-unicellular-relative-of-animals
#11
Helena Parra-Acero, Núria Ros-Rocher, Alberto Perez-Posada, Aleksandra Kożyczkowska, Núria Sánchez-Pons, Azusa Nakata, Hiroshi Suga, Sebastián R Najle, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo
How animals emerged from their unicellular ancestor remains a major evolutionary question. New genome data from the closest unicellular relatives of animals has provided important insights into animal origins. We know that the unicellular ancestor of animals had an unexpectedly complex genetic repertoire, including many genes key to animal development and multicellularity. Thus, assessing the function of these genes among unicellular relatives of animals is key to understand how were they co-opted at the onset of Metazoa...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752386/nppa-and-nppb-act-redundantly-during-zebrafish-cardiac-development-to-confine-avc-marker-expression-and-reduce-cardiac-jelly-volume
#12
Daniela R Grassini, Anne K Lagendijk, Jessica E De Angelis, Jason Da Silva, Angela Jeanes, Nicole Zettler, Neil I Bower, Benjamin M Hogan, Kelly A Smith
Atrial natriuretic peptide ( nppa/anf ) and brain natriuretic peptide ( nppb/bnp ) form a gene cluster with expression in the chambers of the developing heart. Despite restricted expression, a function in cardiac development has not been demonstrated by mutant analysis. This is attributed to functional redundancy however their genomic location in cis has impeded formal analysis. Using genome-editing, we generated mutants for nppa and nppb and found single mutants indistinguishable from wildtype whereas nppa / nppb double mutants display heart morphogenesis defects and pericardial oedema...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752385/the-phosphoinositide-phosphatase-sac1-regulates-cell-shape-and-microtubule-stability-in-the-developing-drosophila-eye
#13
Lauren M Del Bel, Nigel Griffiths, Ronit Wilk, Ho-Chun Wei, Anastasia Blagoveshchenskaya, Jason Burgess, Gordon Polevoy, James V Price, Peter Mayinger, Julie A Brill
Epithelial patterning in the developing Drosophila melanogaster eye requires the Neph1 homolog Roughest (Rst), an immunoglobulin family cell surface adhesion molecule expressed in interommatidial cells (IOC). Here, using a novel temperature-sensitive (ts) allele, we show that the phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac1 is also required for IOC patterning. sac1 ts mutants have rough eyes and retinal patterning defects that resemble rst mutants. sac1 ts retinas exhibit elevated levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), consistent with the role of Sac1 as a PI4P phosphatase...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752384/a-regulatory-pathway-involving-retinoic-acid-and-calcineurin-demarcates-and-maintains-joint-cells-and-osteoblasts-in-the-fin-regenerate
#14
Stephanie C McMillan, Jing Zhang, Hue-Eileen Phan, Shirine Jeradi, Leona Probst, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Marie-Andrée Akimenko
During zebrafish fin regeneration, blastema cells lining the epidermis differentiate into osteoblasts and joint cells to reconstruct the segmented bony rays. We show that osteoblasts and joint cells originate from a common cell lineage, but are committed to different cell fates. Pre-osteoblasts expressing runx2a/b commit to the osteoblast lineage upon expressing sp7 , while the strong upregulation of hoxa13a correlates with a commitment to a joint cell type. In the distal regenerate, hoxa13a , evx1, and pthlha are sequentially upregulated at regular intervals to define the newly identified presumptive joint cells...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739839/transcriptional-induction-of-cell-wall-remodelling-genes-is-coupled-to-microtubule-driven-growth-isotropy-at-the-shoot-apex-in-arabidopsis
#15
Alessia Armezzani, Ursula Abad, Olivier Ali, Amélie Andres Robin, Laetitia Vachez, Antoine Larrieu, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Ludivine Taconnat, Virginie Battu, Thomas Stanislas, Mengying Liu, Teva Vernoux, Jan Traas, Massimiliano Sassi
The shoot apical meristem of higher plants continuously generates new tissues and organs through complex changes in growth rates and directions of its individual cells. Cell growth, driven by turgor pressure, largely depends on the cell walls, which allow cell expansion through synthesis and structural changes. A previous study revealed a major contribution of wall isotropy in organ emergence, through the disorganization of cortical microtubules. We show here that this disorganization is coupled with the transcriptional control of genes involved in wall remodelling...
May 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739838/overlapping-function-of-klf-family-targets-multiple-transcription-factors-to-maintain-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-of-es-cells
#16
Mariko Yamane, Satoshi Ohtsuka, Kumi Matsuura, Akira Nakamura, Hitoshi Niwa
Krüppel-like factors (Klf) possess a pivotal role to maintain self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The function of three Klf family members has been identified, which are suggested to largely overlap. For further dissection of their functions, we applied an inducible knockout system for these Klf family members and assessed the impacts of combinatorial loss-of-function. As a result, we confirmed that any single Klf family member was sufficient to support self-renewal, whereas the removal of all three compromised it...
May 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739837/nvertx-a-gene-expression-database-to-compare-embryogenesis-and-regeneration-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#17
Jacob F Warner, Vincent Guerlais, Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Karine Nedoncelle, Eric Röttinger
For over a century researchers have been comparing embryogenesis and regeneration hoping that lessons learned from embryonic development will unlock hidden regenerative potential. This problem has historically been a difficult one to investigate since the best regenerative model systems are poor embryonic models and vice versa. Recently however, this question has seen renewed interest as emerging models have allowed researchers to investigate these processes in the same organism. This interest has been further fueled by the advent of high-throughput transcriptomic analyses that provide virtual mountains of data...
May 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724758/evidence-for-the-temporal-regulation-of-insect-segmentation-by-a-conserved-sequence-of-transcription-factors
#18
Erik Clark, Andrew D Peel
Long-germ insects, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , pattern their segments simultaneously, whereas short-germ insects, such as the beetle Tribolium castaneum , pattern their segments sequentially, from anterior to posterior. While the two modes of segmentation at first appear quite distinct, much of this difference might simply reflect developmental heterochrony. We now show here that, in both Drosophila and Tribolium , segment patterning occurs within a common framework of sequential Caudal, Dichaete, and Odd-paired expression...
May 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724757/pi-4-5-p-2-forms-dynamic-cortical-structures-and-directs-actin-distribution-as-well-as-polarity-in-c-elegans-embryos
#19
Melina J Scholze, Kévin S Barbieux, Alessandro De Simone, Mathilde Boumasmoud, Camille C N Süess, Ruijia Wang, Pierre Gönczy
Asymmetric division is crucial for embryonic development and stem cell lineages. In the one-cell C. elegans embryo, a contractile cortical actomyosin network contributes to asymmetric division by segregating PAR proteins to discrete cortical domains. Here, we discovered that the plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) localizes to polarized dynamic structures in C. elegans zygotes, distributing in a PAR-dependent manner along the anterior-posterior (A-P) embryonic axis. PIP2 cortical structures overlap with F-actin, and coincide with the actin regulators RHO-1, CDC-42 as well as ECT-2...
May 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724756/modulation-of-f-actin-dynamics-by-maternal-mid1ip1l-controls-germ-plasm-aggregation-and-furrow-recruitment-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#20
C Eno, F Pelegri
During the early embryonic cell cycles, zebrafish germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (RNPs) gradually multimerize and become recruited to the forming furrows. RNPs multimerization occurs prior to and during furrow initiation, as forming aggregates move outward through their association with the tips of growing interphase astral microtubules. Germ plasm RNPs are also associated with short cortical F-actin. We show that, in embryos mutant for the cytoskeletal regulator mid1ip1L , germ plasm RNPs fail to become recruited to the furrow, accumulating instead at the periphery of the blastodisc...
May 3, 2018: Development
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