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Digestive Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268212/inhibition-of-ceramide-decreased-the-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-g5-8-mrna-in-an-animal-model-of-cholesterol-gallstone
#1
Hyo Jung Kim, Jae Seon Kim, Seikwan Oh, Hwan-Soo Yoo
BACKGROUND: The increased risk of gallstone has been reported in patients with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter polymorphism. The half-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 mediate the efflux of cholesterol in hepatocytes and the intestine. We investigated whether ceramide plays a role in cholesterol efflux through the ABC transporters. METHODS: Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 3 groups. The normal group (n = 5) was fed a normal chow diet, the cholesterol group (n = 10) was fed a lithogenic diet, and the myriocin group (n = 15) was fed the lithogenic diet and myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl transferase...
March 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245467/hospitalizations-due-to-cirrhosis-clinical-aspects-in-a-large-cohort-of-italian-patients-and-cost-analysis-report
#2
Marco Di Pascoli, Elena Ceranto, Paolo De Nardi, Daniele Donato, Angelo Gatta, Paolo Angeli, Patrizia Pontisso
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates. This study was addressed to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of cirrhosis on hospitalizations in a large population in Italy. METHODS: Epidemiological analysis was performed using hospital discharge sheets of 57,720 hospitalizations due to liver disease from 2006 to 2008, selected from the Veneto regional archive. In a sample of 100 randomly selected hospitalizations, a detailed cost analysis was performed and a comparison was made with sets of patients admitted for heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
March 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231565/correlation-of-high-resolution-manometric-findings-with-symptoms-of-dysphagia-and-endoscopic-features-in-adults-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#3
Ulrike von Arnim, Arne Kandulski, Jochen Weigt, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) presents with dysphagia, but data about motility patterns using high-resolution manometry (HRM) are rare. We aimed at evaluating esophageal motility patterns in EoE and their correlation to endoscopic and dysphagia scores. METHODS: Twenty-six EoE patients and 23 controls were included after 4 weeks of treatment with proton pump inhibitors. Dysphagia and endoscopic scores were evaluated before performing HRM. EoE patients were classified to have fibrostenotic (FS) or inflammatory (IF) type...
February 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249296/regulation-of-liver-energy-balance-by-the-nuclear-receptors-farnesoid-x-receptor-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#4
Kang Ho Kim, David D Moore
BACKGROUND: The liver undergoes major changes in substrate utilization and metabolic output over the daily feeding and fasting cycle. These changes occur acutely in response to hormones such as insulin and glucagon, with rapid changes in signaling pathways mediated by protein phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. They are also reflected in chronic alterations in gene expression in response to nutrient-sensitive transcription factors. Among these, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) provide an intriguing, coordinated response to maintain energy balance in the liver...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249291/bile-acid-uptake-transporters-as-targets-for-therapy
#5
Davor Slijepcevic, Stan F J van de Graaf
Bile acids are potent signaling molecules that regulate glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis predominantly via the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5). The sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) ensure an effective circulation of (conjugated) bile acids. The modulation of these transport proteins affects bile acid localization, dynamics and signaling. The NTCP-specific pharmacological inhibitor myrcludex B inhibits hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249287/the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-mechanisms-of-bile-acid-induced-liver-damage
#6
Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which bile acids induce liver injury in cholestasis remains controversial. Although high levels of bile acids are toxic when applied to liver cells, the level of toxic bile acids in the liver of most cholestatic animals and patients is <10 μM, indicating there must be alternative mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may play an important role in bile acid-induced liver injury, as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is stimulated by bile acids in mouse hepatocyte cultures...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249286/impact-of-fibroblast-growth-factors-19-and-21-in-bariatric-metabolism
#7
Ashley Patton, Farooq H Khan, Rohit Kohli
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective therapeutic intervention for obesity, which is an abnormal health condition that is prevalent worldwide. Metabolic improvements that precede weight loss after bariatric surgery may be mediated, in part, through the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 signaling pathways. Both FGF15/19 and FGF21 are hormone-like members of the FGF family and exert their metabolic effects in an endocrine manner. Enhanced bile acid recycling after bariatric surgery leads to increased circulating levels of FGF15/19 in the distal small intestine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249284/disease-associated-changes-in-bile-acid-profiles-and-links-to-altered-gut-microbiota
#8
Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a central role in the host metabolism of bile acids through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions, which generate unconjugated free bile acids and secondary bile acids respectively. These microbially generated bile acids are particularly potent signalling molecules that interact with host bile acid receptors (including the farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor and TGR5 receptor) to trigger cellular responses that play essential roles in host lipid metabolism, electrolyte transport and immune regulation...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249283/author-index-vol-35-no-3-2017
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249282/progress-in-the-molecular-characterization-of-hepatobiliary-transporters
#10
Dietrich Keppler
Over the last 25 years, our understanding of the driving forces for hepatobiliary elimination and knowledge of the molecular basis of uptake and efflux transport in hepatocytes have undergone fundamental changes. This refers to bile acids and many other endogenous substances as well as to drugs that are eliminated on the hepatobiliary route. In this development, not only molecular cloning, functional characterization, and localization of transporters were decisive, but also the discovery of hereditary mutations in genes encoding sinusoidal uptake transporters and canalicular export pumps in humans and rodents...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249279/farnesoid-x-receptor-an-emerging-target-to-combat-obesity
#11
C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Obesity and its associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes, have reached epidemic levels worldwide. However, available treatment options are limited and ineffective in managing the disease. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of new pharmacological solutions. The bile acid (BA) Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has recently emerged as an attractive candidate. Initially described for their role in lipid and vitamin absorption from diet, BAs are hormones with powerful effects on whole body lipid and glucose metabolism...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249278/mechanisms-of-tauroursodeoxycholate-mediated-hepatoprotection
#12
Dieter Häussinger, Claus Kordes
Ursodeoxycholate and its taurine conjugate tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) promote choleresis by triggering the insertion of transport proteins for bile acids into the canalicular and basolateral membranes of hepatocytes. In addition, TUDC exerts hepatoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects, can counteract the action of toxic bile acids and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress. TUDC can also initiate the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including hepatic stellate cells and promote their development into hepatocyte-like cells...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249277/preface
#13
Dieter Häussinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249275/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-modulates-metabolic-disease
#14
Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Cen Xie, Andrew D Patterson
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the synthesis, transport and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BA) by modulating the expression of related genes in the liver and small intestine. The composition of the gut microbiota is correlated with metabolic diseases, notably obesity and non-alcoholic fatty acid disease (NAFLD). Recent studies revealed that bacterial metabolism of BA can modulate FXR signaling in the intestine by altering the composition and concentrations of FXR agonist and antagonist. FXR agonist enhances while FXR antagonist suppresses obesity, NAFLD and insulin resistance...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249274/the-emerging-role-of-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#15
Jung-Chin Chang, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; previously referred to as primary biliary cirrhosis) is a chronic fibrosing cholangiopathy with the signature of an autoimmune disease and features of intrahepatic cholestasis. Immunosuppressing treatments are largely unsuccessful. Responsiveness to ursodeoxycholic acid and reduced expression of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) on canalicular membranes and small bile ducts underline the importance of bicarbonate transportation in its disease mechanism...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249273/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-and-takeda-g-protein-couple-receptor-5-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation
#16
John Y L Chiang, Preeti Pathak, Hailiang Liu, Ajay Donepudi, Jessica Ferrell, Shannon Boehme
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms by activating the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (aka takeda G protein couple receptor 5, TGR5) signaling. Paradoxical roles of FXR in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and metabolic disorder have been reported recently. The activation or inhibition of intestinal FXR signaling has been shown to improve insulin and glucose sensitivity and energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249272/extended-abstract-deficiency-of-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-slc10a1-a-new-inborn-error-of-metabolism-with-an-attenuated-phenotype
#17
Frédéric M Vaz, Hidde H Huidekoper, Coen C Paulusma
We present the first patient with a defect in the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide SLC10A1 (NTCP), which plays a key role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The clinical presentation of the child was mild and the child showed no signs of liver dysfunction or pruritus despite extremely elevated plasma bile salt levels (>100-fold upper-limit of normal). A homozygous point mutation was found in the SLC10A1 gene (resulting in amino acid change R252H) and functional studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the mutation...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249269/roles-of-ileal-asbt-and-ost%C3%AE-ost%C3%AE-in-regulating-bile-acid-signaling
#18
Paul A Dawson
BACKGROUND: In addition to their classical role as detergents, bile acids function as signaling molecules to regulate gastrointestinal physiology, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and energy expenditure. The pharmacodynamic potential of bile acids is dependent in part on the tight pharmacokinetic control of their concentration and metabolism, properties governed by their hepatic synthesis, enterohepatic cycling, and biotransformation via host and gut microbiota-catalyzed pathways. Key Messages: By altering the normal cycling and compartmentalization of bile acids, changes in hepatobiliary or intestinal transport can affect signaling and lead to the retention of cytotoxic hydrophobic bile acids and cell injury...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249268/bile-acids-in-polycystic-liver-diseases-triggers-of-disease-progression-and-potential-solution-for-treatment
#19
Maria J Perugorria, Ibone Labiano, Aitor Esparza-Baquer, Marco Marzioni, Jose J G Marin, Luis Bujanda, Jesús M Banales
Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are a group of genetic hereditary cholangiopathies characterized by the development and progressive growth of cysts in the liver, which are the main cause of morbidity. Current therapies are based on surgical procedures and pharmacological strategies, which show short-term and modest beneficial effects. Therefore, the determination of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis appears to be crucial in order to find new potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and abnormal cystic cholangiocyte growth and secretion are some of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249266/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-cholestatic-liver-disease
#20
Nicholas F LaRusso, James H Tabibian, Steven P O'Hara
Hepatobiliary health and disease is influenced by multiple factors including genetics, epigenetics, and the environment. Recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the microbiome also plays a central role in the initiation and/or progression of several liver diseases. Our current understanding of the dynamic interplay between microbes, microbial products and liver health and pathophysiology is incomplete. However, exciting insights are continually being made that support both a central role of the microbiome and a need for further interrogation of the microbes or microbe-associated molecules involved in the initiation and progression of select liver diseases...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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