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Digestive Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231565/correlation-of-high-resolution-manometric-findings-with-symptoms-of-dysphagia-and-endoscopic-features-in-adults-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
Ulrike von Arnim, Arne Kandulski, Jochen Weigt, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) presents with dysphagia, but data about motility patterns using high-resolution manometry (HRM) are rare. We aimed at evaluating esophageal motility patterns in EoE and their correlation to endoscopic and dysphagia scores. METHODS: Twenty-six EoE patients and 23 controls were included after 4 weeks of treatment with proton pump inhibitors. Dysphagia and endoscopic scores were evaluated before performing HRM. EoE patients were classified to have fibrostenotic (FS) or inflammatory (IF) type...
February 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147377/case-report-acute-flair-of-ulcerative-colitis-during-pregnancy-is-still-a-major-problem
#3
Marijana Protic, Srdjan Markovic, Dino Tarabar
Although severe flare of ulcerative colitis (UC) is uncommon, it significantly increases the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and other adverse fetal outcomes. It is critical to optimize aggressive medical treatment with both mother and fetal health. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with a severe flare of UC at the 16th gestational week. The diagnosis of extensive UC was established 8 years ago. From the time she was diagnosed, she had 5 moderate flares successfully treated with oral and topical mesalamine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147375/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
REVIEW
Walter Reinisch
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147374/experience-with-biosimilar-infliximab-remsima%C3%A2-in-norway
#5
Jørgen Jahnsen, Kristin Kaasen Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: The first monoclonal antibody biosimilar to be used in clinical practice is the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor Remsima® (CT-P13). The drug is approved for all indications as the originator infliximab (Remicade®) although clinical efficacy has been demonstrated only in rheumatic diseases. Since the fall of 2013, Remsima® has been available in Norway and from January 2014, it has been the drug of choice when initiating biological treatment in biologics naïve patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147373/subject-index-vol-35-no-1-2-2017
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147371/crohn-s-disease-and-intestinal-transplantation
#7
Pavel Drastich, Martin Oliverius
BACKGROUND: Most patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require one or more operations during their lifetime. Repeated resections and surgical complications may result in short gut in a subset of patients, typically those with extensive small bowel disease or a penetrating CD phenotype. The effects of short bowel syndrome (SBS) can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening advanced intestinal failure. Worldwide, CD is the second leading indication for intestinal transplantation (ITx) in SBS, but the overall incidence of ITx is quite low...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147370/does-the-introduction-of-biosimilars-change-our-understanding-about-treatment-modalities-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
L Buer, M L Høivik, A W Medhus, B Moum
BACKGROUND: Biological agents, mainly tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, play an important role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These drugs are expensive and constitute a major cost in the IBD care. In 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody, infliximab (IFX), was approved in the EU. Key Messages: There has been considerable skepticism regarding the use of biosimilars. Both clinicians and patients have questioned the safety and efficacy of these new drugs...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147369/real-life-efficacy-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-biosimilar-infliximab
#9
Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Peter L Lakatos
Recently, the use of biosimilar infliximab (IFX) in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has become widespread in some European and non-European countries. Data on the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity from real-life cohorts are accumulating. The first reports showed similar outcomes in the induction and maintenance of remission, mucosal healing, safety and immunogenicity profile to the originator IFX. In the present review, we aimed to summarize the existing knowledge on the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity profile of biosimilar IFX reported from real-life cohorts...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147368/combining-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-with-biosimilars-a-strategy-to-improve-the-efficacy-of-biologicals-for-treating-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-at-an-affordable-cost
#10
REVIEW
Ann Gils
BACKGROUND: Biologicals provide a tight disease control but not all patients respond favourably to treatment. Some patients do not respond at all (primary non-responders), while other patients respond initially but show loss of response over time (secondary non-responders). Drug concentrations in the serum of patients can be monitored and correlated with biological, clinical or endoscopic response. Therapeutic thresholds have been defined for infliximab and adalimumab. The European Medicines Agency has approved 3 biosimilars of infliximab and new biosimilars are waiting approval...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147367/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-crohn-s-disease
#11
Geoffrey M Forbes
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells with immunomodulatory properties. They uniquely express HLA class I antigen at a low level, and do not express HLA class II. Hence, for allogeneic administration, donor to recipient matching is not required; yet a prolonged chimeric state does not occur. Contrary to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cytotoxic drug therapy is not required to harvest, or administer, cells. Key Messages: MSC are obtained from marrow, adipose tissue or placenta...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147366/what-should-be-done-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-prior-malignancy
#12
REVIEW
Jacques Cosnes
BACKGROUND: Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with prior malignancy is challenging because therapeutic immunosuppression required for controlling IBD activity may increase the risk of cancer recurrence. Key Messages: Contrary to the observations in the post-transplant population, retrospective observational studies of IBD patients with prior malignancy have not demonstrated that immunosuppressive drugs increased significantly the risk of new or recurrent cancer...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147365/measurement-of-fibrosis-in-crohn-s-disease-strictures-with-imaging-and-blood-biomarkers-to-inform-clinical-decisions
#13
REVIEW
Peter D R Higgins
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing fibrosis from inflammation in an intestinal stricture in Crohn's disease is quite difficult. The absence of signs of inflammation on CT or MRI does not prove the absence of inflammation, as most strictures have a mix of fibrosis and inflammation. Identifying refractory fibrosis and distinguishing the patients who will respond to anti-inflammatory therapy from those who will require surgery are important clinical requirements, and several new technologies in imaging and serum biomarkers are being applied to this problem...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147364/intestinal-microbiota-facts-and-fiction
#14
Miloslav Kverka, Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová
In humans, the gut microbiota forms a complex ecosystem consisting of a vast number of bacteria, Archaea, fungi and viruses. It represents a major stimulus to the development of the immune system and many other physiological functions, so that it may shape the individual's susceptibility to infectious and immune-mediated diseases. The emergence of new '-omics' methods recently revolutionized the way we study the host-microbe interactions, but they also raised new questions and issues. In this review, we discuss the impact of these new data on the current and future therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147360/what-can-we-learn-from-epidemiological-studies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Dana Duricova
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies represent the whole spectrum of patient population and should represent the mainstay when evaluating patients' prognosis. A high number of CD patients need surgical intervention during the disease course. The disease course of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is quite varied and still quite unpredictable. Key Messages: According to earlier studies, up to 60% of patients undergo at least one operation after 10 years of CD duration...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147358/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-crohn-s-disease-state-of-the-art-treatment
#16
C J Hawkey
Both autologous and allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been tried in Crohn's disease (CD). In allogeneic HSCT, the host bone marrow is ablated and replaced by bone marrow from a donor. This substitution of a genetically different bone marrow is effective in a number of conditions including those with an immunological basis such as CD. While the toxicity of allogeneic HSCT has precluded its uptake in idiopathic CD, there is interest in its utility in the management of early onset infantile (inflammatory bowel disease), which behaves as a monogenic disorder, with abnormalities of the interleukin 10 signalling system as the best recognized...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147357/author-index-vol-35-no-1-2-2017
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147356/infliximab-biosimilar-remsima%C3%A2-in-therapy-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-patients-experience-from-one-tertiary-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-centre
#18
M Kolar, D Duricova, M Bortlik, V Hruba, N Machkova, K Mitrova, K Malickova, M Lukas, Milan Lukas
BACKGROUND: The evidence on the efficacy and safety of biosimilar infliximab (IFX) in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is sparse. METHODS: Consecutive IBD patients visiting our centre were included. One cohort composed of prospectively followed patients who were switched from original to biosimilar IFX between January and March 2015. The second cohort included retrospectively assessed anti-tumor necrosis factor α-naïve patients who started therapy between January 2015 and January 2016...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147355/improvement-of-a-leaky-intestinal-barrier
#19
REVIEW
Eduard F Stange
In Crohn's disease, the mucus layer appears to be defective in terms of low defensin levels and lack of antibacterial activity. These deficiencies actually explain the Montreal phenotypes and the stable localization of disease in the terminal ileum with low α-defensins from Paneth cells and/or low β-defensins in colonic disease, respectively. Conversely, in ulcerative colitis (UC) the defensin production is normal or even induced, but the mucus layer is thinner and patchy, more in the liquid form and also chemically altered so that antibacterial peptides are not retained and lost into the luminal bacterial bulk...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147353/anti-cytokine-strategies-beyond-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-therapy-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Gerhard Rogler, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl
Cytokines are small proteins produced by a broad range of cells important in cell signaling. They include interleukins, but also chemokines, interferons, and tumor necrosis factors (TNF). They play an important role for communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. The cytokine network is complex and, therefore, therapeutic interventions are difficult. The first anti-cytokine strategy successfully introduced into IBD therapy was the neutralization of TNF by antibodies. Beyond targeting this cytokine anti-IL-23 strategies were demonstrated to be of therapeutic benefit in IBD...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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