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Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition

Masahiro Hayashi, Takashi Ishibashi, Takashi Maoka
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplement containing astaxanthin-rich extract derived from Paracoccus carotinifaciens (astaxanthin supplement) on cognitive function of subjects aged 45-64 years. Cognitive functions of 28 subjects orally administered 8 mg astaxanthin/day of astaxanthin supplement for 8 weeks (astaxanthin group) and 26 subjects given a placebo (placebo group) were compared by word memory test, verbal fluency test, and Stroop test. The astaxanthin group experienced significantly larger increase in blood astaxanthin level than the placebo group...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Aya Umeno, Toshiki Fukui, Yoshiko Hashimoto, Masatoshi Kataoka, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Hidenori Nagai, Masanori Horie, Mototada Shichiri, Kohzoh Yoshino, Yasukazu Yoshida
We previously reported that type 2 diabetes risk, early impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance can be predicted by measuring the fasting levels of certain biomarkers. Here we validated these findings in randomly recruited healthy volunteers ( n  = 101) based on biomarker expression as well as various non-invasive indices. Weight, body mass index, waist circumference and visceral fat differed between individuals with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, and normal subjects...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Suk Pyo Shin, Yoon Mi Choi, Won Hee Kim, Sung Pyo Hong, Jong-Min Park, Joohee Kim, Oran Kwon, Eun Hyun Lee, Ki Baik Hahm
The exact pathogenesis of diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not known, but the abnormal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is considered to be one of the important contributing factors as in other gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and colorectal cancer as well as systemic diseases. Though diverse trials of probiotics had been continued in the treatment of diarrhea-IBS, only a few proved by randomized clinical trial. To prove the efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 isolated from breast milk in patients with diarrhea-IBS, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial was done including health related-quality of life analysis, colon transit time, and the changes of fecal microbiota...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Munetaka Iguchi, Kazuki Kakimoto, Takanori Kuramoto, Kei Nakazawa, Minori Kubota, Yuki Hirata, Kaori Fujiwara, Satoshi Harada, Taisuke Sakanaka, Kazuhiro Ota, Shoko Edogawa, Yuichi Kojima, Sadaharu Nouda, Toshihiko Okada, Ken Kawakami, Toshihisa Takeuchi, Takuya Inoue, Kazuhide Higuchi
Low-dose aspirin, which is widely used to reduce the risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular thrombosis, often induces gastroenteropathy by increasing the permeability of the mucosa. However, therapeutic strategies for patients with low-dose aspirin-induced small intestinal injury have not been determined. We evaluated the preventative effect of egualen sodium hydrate, a gastro-protective agent that suppresses indomethacin-induced small-intestinal damage in rats, against small-intestinal mucosal damage induced by low-dose aspirin in healthy adult male volunteers...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Hiromi Kawamura, Sarasa Tanaka, Yuri Ota, Sumire Endo, Mariko Tani, Midori Ishitani, Motoyoshi Sakaue, Mikiko Ito
Phosphorus management through dietetic therapy is vital for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients. There are two main sources of phosphorus in the diet, organic phosphorus from protein and inorganic phosphorus from food additives. The adverse effects of high phosphorus intake on vascular-endothelium function have been reported; however, the differences in the effects of organic phosphorus versus inorganic phosphorus are not clear. In this study, we examined an acute effect of these high phosphorus meals intake on vascular-endothelium function...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Wataru Aoi, Takashi Maoka, Ryo Abe, Mayuko Fujishita, Kumi Tominaga
Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, exists in non-esterified and esterified forms. Although it is known that astaxanthin can improve exercise endurance and cause metabolic improvement in skeletal muscle, the effects of the two different forms are unclear. We investigated the effects of the different forms of astaxanthin on endurance in mice. Eight-week-old ICR mice were divided into four groups: control; astaxanthin extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis in an esterified form; astaxanthin extracted from Phaffia rhodozyma in a non-esterified form; and astaxanthin synthesized chemically in a non-esterified form...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ayumi Yoshimoto, Takashi Uebanso, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Several environmental factors during the prenatal period transgenerationally affect the health of newborns in later life. Because low-dose antibiotics have been used for promoting the growth of crops and livestock in agriculture, humans may have ingested residual antibiotics for several decades. However, the effect of prenatal administration of low-dose antibiotics on newborns' health in later life is unclear. In the present study, we found that prenatal treatment of murine mothers with low-dose antibiotics increased the abundance of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and the genera Clostridium IV and XIVa in feces from pups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ming Jin, Ming-Hua Shen, Mei-Hua Jin, Ai-Hua Jin, Xue-Zhe Yin, Ji-Shu Quan
The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of soy isoflavones from hypocotyl in GK diabetic rats. A single administration and long-term administration tests were conducted in GK diabetic rats to test the hypoglycemic effect of soy isoflavones. At the end of long-term administration trial, blood protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, glycosylated serum protein, C-reactive protein, insulin, aminotransferase, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α were estimated. Inhibition of soy isoflavones against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as on glucose uptake into brush border membrane vesicles or Caco-2 cells were determined in vitro ...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Izumi Tsukayama, Keisuke Toda, Yasunori Takeda, Takuto Mega, Mitsuki Tanaka, Yuki Kawakami, Yoshitaka Takahashi, Masumi Kimoto, Kei Yamamoto, Yoshimi Miki, Makoto Murakami, Toshiko Suzuki-Yamamoto
Hyperproduced prostaglandin E2 by cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 evokes several pathophysiological responses such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Dioscorea japonica on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin. Dioscorea japonica feeding and Dioscorea japonica extract topical application suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and inhibited tumor formation, hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Saki Shinto, Yuta Matsuoka, Mayumi Yamato, Ken-Ichi Yamada
Oxidative stress causes cell death and induces many kinds of disease, including liver disease. Nitroxides are known to react catalytically with free radicals. In this study, the cell protective activities of nitroxides were compared with those of other antioxidants. Nitroxides showed much greater inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death than other antioxidants in a hepatic cell line and in primary hepatocytes. The intracellular oxidative stress level at 24 h after hydrogen peroxide stimulation was significantly decreased by nitroxides, but not by other antioxidants...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Toshio Kobayashi, Akira Andoh
The human intestinal microbiota has a close relationship with health control and causes of diseases, and a vast number of scientific papers on this topic have been published recently. Some progress has been made in identifying the causes or species of related microbiota, and successful results of data mining are reviewed here. Humans who are targets of a disease have their own individual characteristics, including various types of noise because of their individual life style and history. The quantitatively dominant bacterial species are not always deeply connected with a target disease...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Akira Murakami
In a variety of experimental models, dietary phytochemicals have been demonstrated to exhibit pronounced and versatile bioactivities. Importantly, the possibility of such phytochemicals for human application has been supported in part by epidemiological surveys, which have demonstrated that frequent ingestion of vegetables and fruits containing abundant phytochemicals lowers the risk of onset of various diseases. However, the action mechanisms underlying those dietary phytochemical activities remain to be fully elucidated...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Noriyuki Miyoshi
Elevated levels of cholesterol aldehyde, 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (secosterol-A, also called 5,6-secosterol), and its aldolization product (secosterol-B) have been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and tissues samples of brains affected by neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia suggesting that increased formation of these compounds may be associated with inflammation-related diseases. Secosterol-A and secosterol-B, and also further oxidized products seco-A-COOH and seco-B-COOH induce several pro-inflammatory activities in vitro ...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Okayama, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux and prevent gastric ulcers, and have been considered as low risk. However, recent studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and gut microbiota, suggesting that PPIs use increases the risk of enteric infections, including Clostridium difficile infection. To investigate gut microbiota in Japanese PPIs users, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from PPI users and healthy adults. In total, 36 PPI users and 36 PPI non-users (as control subjects) matched by age and sex were recruited and fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Sung Gil Kim, Gwang Seok Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Ae Eun Moon, Hyun Yoon
The present study was conducted to assess the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (uACR) in Korean adults. Data on 4,948 adults aged ≥20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-3 (2012) were analyzed. After adjusting for the related variables (except age), the odds ratios (ORs) of vitamin D deficiency with the normal group as a reference were significantly higher in the decreased eGFR plus elevated uACR group [3...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Hirokazu Uemura, Miwa Yamaguchi, Mariko Nakamoto, Tirani Bahari, Keisuke Miki, Masashi Ishizu, Fusakazu Sawachika, Kokichi Arisawa
The beneficial effects of dietary calcium intake on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, a risk factor of cardiovascular disease, have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the associations between dietary calcium intake and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in the general Japanese population. We analyzed the data of 2,019 subjects (1,194 men and 825 women) aged 35 to 69 years in a cross-sectional study of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Nutrients intake including calcium were estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Woori Na, Misung Kim, Cheongmin Sohn
Inflammation is associated with chronic disease. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a predictor of chronic disease. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is used to determine the overall inflammatory potential of diet. A cross-sectional analysis of Health Examinee cohort data (2012-2014) from Korea was performed. Subjects were 40-79 years of age (8,332 males; 19,754 females). The DII was used to analyze the relationship between subject characteristics, nutrient intake, and the hs-CRP. Additionally, the relationship between DII and hs-CRP as a predictor of chronic disease was examined...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Akinori Yanaka
Chronic oxidative stress impairs regular defecation. Sulforaphane (SFN) enhances anti-oxidant systems, ameliorating oxidative injury. SFN inhibits overgrowth of anaerobic microflora and protects small intestine from oxidative injury. We assessed whether daily intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts (BS) improves defecation in humans. Forty-eight subjects, with a constipation scoring system (CSS) >2 points, were assigned to either the BS group ( n  = 24) or the alfalfa sprouts (AS) group ( n  = 24), and were requested to eat 20 g daily of raw BS or AS, respectively, for 4 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ryouhei Yoshikawa, Hironori Yamamoto, Otoki Nakahashi, Tomohiro Kagawa, Mari Tajiri, Mari Nakao, Shiori Fukuda, Hidekazu Arai, Masashi Masuda, Masayuki Iwano, Eiji Takeda, Yutaka Taketani
In this study, we investigated the relationship between age-related changes in renal α-Klotho gene expression, vitamin D metabolism and the responsiveness of dietary phosphate in 1, 2 and 13 month-old mice fed a high phosphate (phosphate 1.2%) diet or low phosphate (phosphate 0.02%) diet for 5 days. We found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in plasma were significantly lower in the high phosphate group than the low phosphate group for 1 and 2 month-old mice, but not 13 month-old mice. In addition, in the high phosphate group plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were decreased in 2 month-old mice relative to 1 month-old mice, but 13 month-old mice had higher levels than 2 month-old mice...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Hiroaki Moroi, Tomomi Kotani, Rika Miki, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Masako Mizuno, Yumiko Ito, Takafumi Ushida, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano, Hua Li, Seiji Sumigama, Eiko Yamamoto, Akira Iwase, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Spontaneous preterm birth is often caused by chorioamnionitis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in the response of the innate immune system. The role of TLR5 in chorioamnionitis remains unclear: however, TLR5 was reported to have a significantly stronger effect on the induction of interleukin (IL)-6 when compared with other TLRs in amniotic epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate TLR5 expression in placentas with preterm histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA). The expression levels of TLR5 were evaluated in the amnions, chorions, deciduae and villi with and without HCA using immunohistochemistry...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
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