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Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition

Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Ryo Inoue, Saori Kashiwagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Saeko Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Okayama, Osamu Dohi, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Takeshi Ishikawa, Osamu Handa, Hideyuki Konishi, Kayo Okuda, Yoshimasa Tsujimoto, Hiromu Ohnogi, Yoshito Itoh
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux and prevent gastric ulcers, and have been considered as low risk. However, recent studies have identified possible associations between PPI use and gut microbiota, suggesting that PPIs use increases the risk of enteric infections, including Clostridium difficile infection. To investigate gut microbiota in Japanese PPIs users, we conducted 16S metagenomics analysis of fecal samples collected from PPI users and healthy adults. In total, 36 PPI users and 36 PPI non-users (as control subjects) matched by age and sex were recruited and fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiome using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Sung Gil Kim, Gwang Seok Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Ae Eun Moon, Hyun Yoon
The present study was conducted to assess the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (uACR) in Korean adults. Data on 4,948 adults aged ≥20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-3 (2012) were analyzed. After adjusting for the related variables (except age), the odds ratios (ORs) of vitamin D deficiency with the normal group as a reference were significantly higher in the decreased eGFR plus elevated uACR group [3...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Hirokazu Uemura, Miwa Yamaguchi, Mariko Nakamoto, Tirani Bahari, Keisuke Miki, Masashi Ishizu, Fusakazu Sawachika, Kokichi Arisawa
The beneficial effects of dietary calcium intake on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, a risk factor of cardiovascular disease, have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the associations between dietary calcium intake and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in the general Japanese population. We analyzed the data of 2,019 subjects (1,194 men and 825 women) aged 35 to 69 years in a cross-sectional study of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Nutrients intake including calcium were estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Woori Na, Misung Kim, Cheongmin Sohn
Inflammation is associated with chronic disease. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a predictor of chronic disease. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is used to determine the overall inflammatory potential of diet. A cross-sectional analysis of Health Examinee cohort data (2012-2014) from Korea was performed. Subjects were 40-79 years of age (8,332 males; 19,754 females). The DII was used to analyze the relationship between subject characteristics, nutrient intake, and the hs-CRP. Additionally, the relationship between DII and hs-CRP as a predictor of chronic disease was examined...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Akinori Yanaka
Chronic oxidative stress impairs regular defecation. Sulforaphane (SFN) enhances anti-oxidant systems, ameliorating oxidative injury. SFN inhibits overgrowth of anaerobic microflora and protects small intestine from oxidative injury. We assessed whether daily intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts (BS) improves defecation in humans. Forty-eight subjects, with a constipation scoring system (CSS) >2 points, were assigned to either the BS group ( n = 24) or the alfalfa sprouts (AS) group ( n = 24), and were requested to eat 20 g daily of raw BS or AS, respectively, for 4 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ryouhei Yoshikawa, Hironori Yamamoto, Otoki Nakahashi, Tomohiro Kagawa, Mari Tajiri, Mari Nakao, Shiori Fukuda, Hidekazu Arai, Masashi Masuda, Masayuki Iwano, Eiji Takeda, Yutaka Taketani
In this study, we investigated the relationship between age-related changes in renal α-Klotho gene expression, vitamin D metabolism and the responsiveness of dietary phosphate in 1, 2 and 13 month-old mice fed a high phosphate (phosphate 1.2%) diet or low phosphate (phosphate 0.02%) diet for 5 days. We found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in plasma were significantly lower in the high phosphate group than the low phosphate group for 1 and 2 month-old mice, but not 13 month-old mice. In addition, in the high phosphate group plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were decreased in 2 month-old mice relative to 1 month-old mice, but 13 month-old mice had higher levels than 2 month-old mice...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Hiroaki Moroi, Tomomi Kotani, Rika Miki, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Masako Mizuno, Yumiko Ito, Takafumi Ushida, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano, Hua Li, Seiji Sumigama, Eiko Yamamoto, Akira Iwase, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Spontaneous preterm birth is often caused by chorioamnionitis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in the response of the innate immune system. The role of TLR5 in chorioamnionitis remains unclear: however, TLR5 was reported to have a significantly stronger effect on the induction of interleukin (IL)-6 when compared with other TLRs in amniotic epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate TLR5 expression in placentas with preterm histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA). The expression levels of TLR5 were evaluated in the amnions, chorions, deciduae and villi with and without HCA using immunohistochemistry...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Weina Gao, Lingling Pu, Ming Chen, Jingyu Wei, Zhonghao Xin, Yawen Wang, Zhanxin Yao, Tala Shi, Changjiang Guo
Previously, we showed that 0.5% quercetin simultaneously decreased serum homocysteine and glutathione (GSH) levels in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 0.5% quercetin on GSH metabolism, related enzymes and signal pathways in rats. Rats were fed the control diet and 0.5% quercetin-supplemented diet for 6 weeks. The results showed that quercetin reduced serum and hepatic content of GSH and the ratio of GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), enhanced hepatic activity and mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), inhibited hepatic activity and mRNA expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and decreased hepatic glutathione reductase (GR) mRNA expression...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Aki Hirayama, Shigeru Oowada, Hiromu Ito, Hirofumi Matsui, Atsushi Ueda, Kazumasa Aoyagi
To clarify the clinical significance of the redox-controlling effects of Kampo, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, we determined the scavenging activities of various reactive oxygen species in clinically used Kampo formulae using an electron spin resonance-based technique. Formulae containing Rhei Rhizoma (i.e., mashiningan and daiobotanpito) showed high scavenging activity against the alkoxyl radical, and crude extract quantity was significantly correlated with scavenging activity. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was positively correlated with the quantity of Zingiberis Rhizoma...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Kazutoshi Watanabe, Masahiko Tanaka, Satoshi Yuki, Manabu Hirai, Yorihiro Yamamoto
Edaravone is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant drug targeting peroxyl radicals among many types of reactive oxygen species. Because of its amphiphilicity, it scavenges both lipid- and water-soluble peroxyl radicals by donating an electron to the radical. Thus, it inhibits the oxidation of lipids by scavenging chain-initiating water-soluble peroxyl radicals and chain-carrying lipid peroxyl radicals. In 2001, it was approved in Japan as a drug to treat acute-phase cerebral infarction, and then in 2015 it was approved for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Toshiyuki Nakamura, Naomi Abe-Kanoh, Yoshimasa Nakamura
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), naturally occurring in abundance in cruciferous vegetables, are the most well-studied organosulfur compounds having an electrophilic reactivity. ITCs have been accepted as major ingredients of these vegetables that afford their health promoting potentials. ITCs are able to modulate protein functions related to drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, kinases and phosphatases, etc. One of the most important questions about the molecular basis for the health promoting effects of ITCs is how they modulate cellular target proteins...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Yuxiang Ma, Yasumasa Okazaki, Jonathan Glass
Iron transport across the intestinal epithelium is facilitated by the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) on the brush border membrane (BBM). The fluorescent metal sensor calcein, which is hydrophilic, membrane-impermeable and quenched by chelation with iron, was used to test our hypothesis that intestinal iron absorption is through the endocytic processes and is involved in a pathway where BBM-derived vesicles fuse with basolateral membrane (BLM)-derived vesicles. To monitor the flux of iron via transcytosis, Caco-2 cells were employed as a polarized cell layer in Transwell chambers...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Yoshichika Kawai, Erika Nuka
Reactive oxygen species and their reaction products can damage DNA to form mutagenic lesions. Among the reactive species, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes react with nucleobases and form bulky exocyclic adducts. Many types of aldehyde-derived DNA adducts have been characterized, identified and detected in vitro and in vivo, whereas relative quantitative and pathophysiological contributions of each adduct still remain unclear. In recent years, an abundant class of DNA adducts derived from 4-oxo-2-alkenals have been identified, in addition to classic aldehyde-derived adducts...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Yutaka Odanaka, Kimitaka Takitani, Hiroshi Katayama, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Kanta Kishi, Noriyasu Ozaki, Atsuko Ashida, Ryuzo Takaya, Hiroshi Tamai
Endothelial dysfunction is the early predictive factor for the development of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction in children and early adolescents is increasing worldwide. Peripheral arterial tonometry is a noninvasive technique for assessing peripheral microvascular function and is used as a validated marker of endothelial function. We assessed anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and peripheral endothelial function in 157 Japanese early adolescents (75 boys and 82 girls)...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Tomohiro Nishikawa, Akira Asai, Norio Okamoto, Hidetaka Yasuoka, Ken Nakamura, Keisuke Yokohama, Hideko Ohama, Yusuke Tsuchimoto, Shinya Fukunishi, Yasuhiro Tsuda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Kazuhide Higuchi
Transarterial chemoembolization and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy are recommended for the treatment in patients with intermediate stage of hepatocellular carcinoma. Impaired liver function was sometime observed in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. However, what kinds of factors deeply influence in impaired liver function are not clear. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the risk factors of impaired liver function in cisplatin-naïve patients treated with these therapies using cisplatin...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Ryo Inoue, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Takamitsu Tsukahara, Masashi Tanaka, Shinya Masuda, Takayuki Inoue, Hajime Yamakage, Toru Kusakabe, Koji Hasegawa, Akira Shimatsu, Noriko Satoh-Asahara
We assessed whether gut microbial functional profiles predicted from 16S rRNA metagenomics differed in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 22 Japanese subjects were recruited from our outpatient clinic in an observational study. Fecal samples were obtained from 12 control and 10 type 2 diabetic subjects. 16S rRNA metagenomic data were generated and functional profiles predicted using "Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States" software. We measured the parameters of glucose metabolism, gut bacterial taxonomy and functional profile, and examined the associations in a cross-sectional manner...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Keiko Unno, Shigenori Noda, Yohei Kawasaki, Hiroshi Yamada, Akio Morita, Kazuaki Iguchi, Yoriyuki Nakamura
Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated that ingestion of green tea enhances healthy life. However, caffeine in green tea can interfere with sleep. In this report, we examined the effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on stress and sleep of the elderly. The participants ( n  = 10, mean age 89.3 ± 4.2 years) drank five cups/day of standard green tea for 1 week. Subsequently, they drank five cups/day of low-caffeine green tea for 2 weeks. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a stress marker...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Kayoko Kawakami, Chie Moritani, Misugi Uraji, Akiko Fujita, Koji Kawakami, Tadashi Hatanaka, Etsuko Suzaki, Seiji Tsuboi
Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic. However, an overdose of acetaminophen causes severe hepatotoxicity via depletion of hepatic glutathione. Here, we investigated the protective effects of sake lees hydrolysate against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Sake lees hydrolysate was administered orally to ICR mice for seven days. Six hours after acetaminophen treatment, the mice were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Treatment with acetaminophen markedly increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Yoko Fujiwara, Chisato Tsukahara, Naoe Ikeda, Yasuko Sone, Tomoko Ishikawa, Ikuyo Ichi, Taisuke Koike, Yoshinori Aoki
As the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health are well established, the phenolic compounds in olive oil have been gaining interest. Oleuropein, a major phenolic compound in olives, is known to reduce the blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and rabbits, however, its effect on type 2 diabetes caused by obesity is not clear. The purpose of this study is clarifying the effect of oleuropein on the glucose tolerance in skeletal muscle under the condition of lipotoxicity caused by type 2 diabetes...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
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