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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735850/carrier-study-and-treatment-of-close-contacts-a-must-for-diphtheria-eradication
#1
Usha Udgaonkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735849/client-partner-notification-and-management-a-rational-approach-to-reduce-new-hiv-infections
#2
Sunite A Ganju, Anil K Kanga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735848/septicemic-listeriosis-an-emerging-food-borne-illness-in-india
#3
Angel T Miraclin, Susmitha K Perumalla, John Davis Prasad, Thambu David Sudarsanam
Listeriosis is a food borne illness of significant public health concern, caused by consumption of food contaminated by gram negative bacilli, Listeria monocytogenes. Clinical listeriosis is relatively rare and it has varying spectrum of presentation, ranging from severe sepsis in immune-compromised individuals, febrile gastroenteritis and meningo-encephalitis in infants and adults. This disease is under reported in developing nations due to the lack of awareness and inadequate laboratory facilities to promptly isolate and identify the organism...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735847/acute-hepatitis-due-to-epstein-barr-virus-with-cross-reacting-antibodies-to-cytomegalovirus
#4
Asli Karadeniz, Zuhal Yesilbag, Fatih Öner Kaya, Feride Sinem Akgün
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of systemic infection known as infectious mononucleosis with classic presentation of fever, oropharyngitis and lymphadenitis. EBV rarely causes acute hepatitis. In this report, we present a 19-year-old patient presented with nausea, fatigue and jaundice. Her physical examination and laboratory tests revealed the diagnosis as acute hepatitis due to EBV with cross-reacting antibodies to cytomegalovirus.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735846/fungal-keratitis-caused-by-laetisaria-arvalis
#5
Lakshey Dudeja, Lakshmipriya Jeganathan, N Venkatesh Prajna, Lalitha Prajna
A 53-year-old female presented with keratitis (right eye) after fall of insect 10 days back. The ulcer worsened in spite of aggressive treatment with topical natamycin (5%) and amphotericin-B (0.15%) eye drops and finally perforated. Iris tissue sealed the perforation site, and ulcer healed with formation of adherent leucoma. This case represents first reported case of keratitis caused by Laetisaria arvalis and stresses on aggressive course of keratitis caused by this fungus. Importance of DNA sequencing in identification of unidentified fungal species is also highlighted...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735845/a-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-resistant-hiv-patient-with-rhinoentomophthoromycosis
#6
Rachita Dhurat, Rajendra J Kothavade, Anand Kumar
The Conidiobolus coronatus-related rhinoentomophthoromycosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised (HIV negative) individuals has been treated successfully with antifungal drugs. However, C. coronatus infections in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART)-resistant (HIV infected) individuals particularly with rhinoentomophthoromycosis have not been reported previously. Here, we describe a case of itraconazole non-responding rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an HIV-infected patient with first-line antiretroviral (ART) drug resistance which was successfully managed through systematic diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in dermatologic setting...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735844/observation-of-a-new-pattern-of-mutations-in-gyra-and-parc-within-escherichia-coli-exhibiting-fluroquinolone-resistance
#7
Nivedita Dasgupta, Deepjyoti Paul, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Shiela Chetri, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Therapeutic options with quinolones are severely compromised in infections caused by members of Enterobacteriaceae family. Mutations in chromosomal region are one of the major reasons for bacterial resistance towards this group of antibiotic. The aim of the study is to detect the mutations in gyr A and par C responsible for quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. A total of 96 quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from a tertiary care hospital of North-east India during March 2015 to August 2015...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735843/-in-silico-and-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-collected-across-indian-hospitals
#8
Agila Kumari Pragsam, D Thirumal Kumar, C George Priya Doss, Ramya Iyadurai, Sowmya Satyendra, Camilla Rodrigues, Sangeeta Joshi, Indranil Roy, Bhaskar Narayan Chaudhuri, D S Chitnis, Dhole Tapan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antimicrobial agent with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility for a total of 149 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for the most commonly used antimicrobials including the new agent ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T). Broth microdilution was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration against various antimicrobials including C/T. Among the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor, overall susceptibility was 67%, 55% and 51% for C/T, Piperacillin/Tazobactam (P/T) and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam, respectively...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735842/role-of-insertion-sequence-element-is-256-as-a-virulence-marker-and-its-association-with-biofilm-formation-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-from-hospital-and-community-settings-in-chennai-south-india
#9
Saravanan Murugesan, Stalin Mani, Indhumathy Kuppusamy, Padma Krishnan
The objective of this study was to detect the association of biofilm formation with IS256 among clinical and carrier isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). A total of 71 MRSE isolates were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of biofilm formation was done by Congo red agar method. Detection of genes associated with biofilm formation (icaAD, aap and atlE) and insertion sequence IS256 was done by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 71 MRSE isolates,19/40 (47.5%) clinical isolates from hospital settings and 11/31 (35...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735841/foetomaternal-outcomes-of-hepatitis-e-infection-outbreak-in-north-india
#10
Neha Gautam, Shriya Ganju, Sunite A Ganju, Sohini Walia, Anil Kanga Kumar
Hepatitis E infection (HEV) in pregnant females, especially in the third trimester is associated with poor foetomaternal outcomes. However, the mechanisms of severe liver injury remain obscure. In a recent HEV outbreak in North India, six pregnant females were detected to be positive for HEV infection with concomitant hepatitis A infection in three pregnant females. None of the pregnant females were positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection. The mortality was 50% in pregnant females. In an outbreak, besides, testing for hepatitis markers and understanding the pathogenesis of HEV infection in pregnancy, improving basic hygienic standards is of utmost importance...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735840/-in-vitro-analysis-of-the-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-values-of-different-generations-of-anti-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-antibiotics
#11
Aneta Guzek, Zbigniew Rybicki, Dariusz Tomaszewski
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistance to antimicrobials may result in the increased risk of treatment failure. The objective of the study was to analyse in vitro MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, ceftaroline, dalbavancin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. All MRSA strains isolated from hospitalised patients were analysed according to the current microbiological recommendations. Finally, a total of 124 MRSA strains were analysed; all were susceptible to tested antibiotics...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735839/survey-of-probiotic-preparations-and-labeling-practices-in-indian-market
#12
Vikas Chandrashekhar Ghattargi, Swapnil H Kalam, Sumeet S Pandit, Shrikant P Pawar, Yogesh S Shouche
A cross-sectional survey was conducted across 320 chemists shop in Pune city for their availability and labeling practices. The questionnaire revealed the data about the most sold probiotic preparations, their mode of sale, and their available forms such as tablet, capsule, and sachet. Top ten probiotic preparations were evaluated for labeling practice as per the existing regulations of the Indian Council of Medical Research-Department of Biotechnology, Indian guidelines. Majority of probiotic preparations were listing the best before date, viability, probiotic organisms, net quantity, and batch number, but none of them mentioned the health claims...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735838/molecular-epidemiology-of-circulating-human-adenovirus-types-in-acute-conjunctivitis-cases-in-chandigarh-north-india
#13
Mini P Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Amit Gupta, Jasmine Khurana, Radha Kanta Ratho
Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a major cause of viral conjunctivitis. The various serotypes implicated in the causation are 3, 4, 8, 19 and 37. The present study aimed to know the circulating types of HAdV causing acute conjunctivitis in North India. A total of 23 conjunctival swabs were collected from patients with clinically suspected acute viral conjunctivitis during 2014-2015. The HAdV was implicated in the etiology in 65.2% of cases. The sequencing of representative samples using hexon gene suggests the presence of serotype 8 and 4...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735837/diagnostic-performance-of-serological-tests-to-detect-antibodies-against-acute-scrub-typhus-infection-in-central-india
#14
Kiran Pote, Rahul Narang, Pradeep Deshmukh
Background: Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. Methodology: The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735836/association-of-glycerol-kinase-gene-with-class-3-integrons-a-novel-cassette-array-within-escherichia-coli
#15
Rajkumari Elizabeth, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Atanu Chakravarty, Deepjyoti Paul, Shiela Chetri, Deepshikha Bhowmik, Jayalaxmi Wangkheimayum, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Background: Integrons are genetic elements which are known for their role in capturing and spreading of antibiotic resistance determinants among Gram-negative bacilli. So far, there is no study regarding Class 3 integron and their genetic organisation in India. Objective: This study investigates the occurrence of Class 3 integron and their gene cassette array among Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 200 E. coli isolates were collected from indoor and outdoor patients from Silchar Medical College and Hospital during September 2015 to February 2016...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735835/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-intracranial-abscess-an-analytical-series-and-review-on-molecular-surgical-and-medical-aspects
#16
Veena Kumari Haradara Bahubali, Priya Vijayan, Vasundhra Bhandari, Nagarathna Siddaiah, Dwarakanath Srinivas
Purpose: Intracranial abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is rare and unexplored. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, clinical and molecular characteristics, treatment options and outcome of MRSA intracranial abscess over a period of 6 years. Patientsand Methods: A total of 21 patients were included in this retrospective study. The demographic and clinical details of all the patients were collected. Molecular typing including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, spa typing and polymerase chain reaction of Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin (PVL) gene for the latter 6 isolates was performed...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735834/utility-of-genexpert-in-the-diagnosis-reliance-on-urine-microscopy-and-clinical-characteristics-of-genitourinary-tuberculosis-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Ajaz Nabi Koul, Basharat A Kassana, Aadil Rafeeq Rather
Background: One-third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) with new infection occurring every second. In humans, TB is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB). Genitourinary TB (GUTB) is still a major health problem in many developing countries including India and had been declared by the World Health Organisation as 'public health emergency' in 1993. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital involving 46 patients who presented with clinical feature suggestive of GUTB - urine specimens of these 46 patients were analysed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), AFB culture, GeneXpert, and other relevant investigations were done to reach the diagnosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735833/echinocandins-their-role-in-the-management-of-candida-biofilms
#18
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735832/identification-of-multiple-strains-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-using-heteroduplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-varying-severity-of-chronic-periodontitis
#19
Mihir Raghavendra Kulkarni, Kishore G Bhat, Betsy Sara Thomas, G Subraya Bhat, Raghavendra Dhirendra Kulkarni
Aim: Research has demonstrated that there are multiple strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis with varying potency to cause periodontal disease. The current study aims at using heteroduplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the strain diversity of P. gingivalis in periodontitis lesions of varying severity in a sample of the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 60 individuals with varying severity of chronic periodontitis and 30 individuals with a clinically healthy periodontium...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735831/comparison-of-different-methods-of-rna-preparation-from-peripheral-blood-for-nucleic-acid-amplification-assay
#20
Dong Eun Lee, Hanna Lee, Seon Duk Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Jae Young Choe, Sora Yun, Hong-Jun Park, Jungbae Park, Jong Kun Kim
Background: Nucleic acid amplification assays (NAAs), such as polymerase chain reaction or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are used for disease diagnosis. Current nucleic acid isolation kits require several hours for completion of protocol including the complicated handling steps. Objective: In this study, a simple and cost-effective nucleic acid preparation method was developed, and its performance was compared with those of commercial kits. Materials and Methods: RNA was prepared using our method and three commercial RNA isolation kits...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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