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Biology of Sport

Jose Antonio Pérez-Turpin, Mario Trottini, Juan Jose Chinchilla-Mira, Weronika Cyganik
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of microfiltered and sterilized seawater ingestion on running performance in a hot environment. This cross-over, double-blind randomized trial included 12 experienced male runners. The subjects randomly consumed seawater (SW) or pure water (placebo) in an equivalent amount of 50 ml five minutes prior to running at 40% of their VO2 max for 95.0 ± 18.5 min, at 30°C, until they lost 3% of body weight. Every 20 minutes, a measurement of their body weight was taken and a blood lactate analysis was performed...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Władysław Jagiełło, Jagiełło Marina, Kalina Roman Maciej, Barczyński Bartłomiej Jan, Litwiniuk Artur, Klimczak Jarosław
Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Clint Hansen, Fernando Sanz-Lopez, Rodney Whiteley, Nebojsa Popovic, Hosny Abdelrahman Ahmed, Marco Cardinale
Goalkeepers have a very important role in handball. In coaching communities it is well recognized that goalkeepers' performances can predict team ranking in major tournaments. Despite this, few studies have been conducted on elite goalkeepers participating in World Championships. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse goalkeepers' save performance during the 88 matches of the 2015 men's World Championships tournament. Goalkeepers from 24 national teams were analysed using a tracking camera system and bespoke software (Prozone Handball V...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Ikram Bezrati, Marwa Khammassi, Moncef Feki, Naziha Kaabachi, Anissa Bouassida
To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Ana R Alves, Carlos C Marta, Henrique P Neiva, Mikel Izquierdo, Mário C Marques
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP) in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years), were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R), Endurance-only (E), Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER), Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER), Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE), and a Control group (C)...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Lucas Marques, Emerson Franchini, Gustavo Drago, Marcelo S Aoki, Alexandre Moreira
Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative approach for application in the context of high-level sports. Despite its growing acceptance, there is no empirical evidence of BP adoption in high-level judo athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the maximal strength, muscle power, judo-specific performances, and hormonal concentration changes of state/national level (NG) and international level (IG) judo athletes subjected to BP. Twenty-one elite judo athletes (international level = 10; 21...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Alejandro Gonzalez-Aguero, Angel Matute-Llorente, Alba Gomez-Cabello, Jose A Casajus, German Vicente-Rodríguez
The aims of the present study were, firstly, to evaluate areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone strength and structure during a swimming season and compare them to those of normo-active controls (CG), and secondly to ascertain whether practising an additional weight-bearing sport other than swimming might improve bone. Twenty-three swimmers who only swam (SWI-PURE; 14 males, 9 females), 11 swimmers who combined swimming with an additional weight-bearing sport (SWI-SPORT; 8 males, 3 females) and 28 controls (CG; 16 males, 12 females) participated in the present study...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Dailson Paulucio, Bruno M Costa, Caleb G M Santos, Fernando Nogueira, Alexander Koch, Marco Machado, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Fernando Ams Pompeu
Taurine (TA) ingestion has been touted as blunting the deleterious effects of ethanol (ET) ingestion on motor performance. This study investigated the effects of ingestion of 0.6 mL·kg-1 of ET, 6 grams of TA, and ethanol in combination with taurine (ET+TA) on economy of movement (EM) and heart rate (HR). Nine volunteers, five female (22 ± 3 years) and four male (26 ± 5 years), participated in a study that used a counterbalanced experimental design. EM and HR were measured for 6 min while the subjects were pedalling at a fixed load 10% below the anaerobic threshold...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt, Jaak Jürimäe
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in associations of serum acylated and des-acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin levels with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CReF) in adolescent boys (mean age of 14.0 years) with overweight (OWB; n=55) and with normal weight (NWB; n=154). METHODS: Total PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry (counts/min) and CReF by peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak/kg). RESULTS: No differences were found in serum PYY, acylated ghrelin or des-acyl ghrelin levels, whereas mean leptin (11...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Sermin Algul, Cagri Ozdenk, Oguz Ozcelik
The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night) amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years) and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years) male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests) to 64-76% of the subjects' maximal heart rate for about 30 min...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Michał Brzeziański, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Łukasz Radzimińki, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Anna Jegier
Recently studies have shown that, depending on the type of training and its duration, the expression levels of selected circulating myomiRNAs (c-miR-27a,b, c-miR-29a,b,c, c-miR-133a) differ and correlate with the physiological indicators of adaptation to physical activity. To analyse the expression of selected classes of miRNAs in soccer players during different periods of their training cycle. The study involved 22 soccer players aged 17-18 years. The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run test was used to estimate VO2 max among the soccer players...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Chunyang Chen, Yan Sun, Hao Liang, Dan Yu, Songnian Hu
The muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) A/G variants (rs8111989) have been associated with skeletal muscle performance in humans; they are correlated with physical performance and contribute to differences in the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) responses during power or endurance training. However, there is not enough definitive evidence to demonstrate whether the A and G allelic variants of the CKM gene rs8111989 are indeed genetic factors that can influence human physical performance. In our study, we identified 9 articles on CKM in a literature search, and conducted two meta-analyses on the CKM rs8111989 A/G allele or genotype differences between power or endurance athletes and general controls...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Fanxing Zeng, Hua Zhao, Jingwen Liao
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K ), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Alexandre Moreira, Marcelo Massa, Carlos R Thiengo, Rafael Alan Rodrigues Lopes, Marcelo R Lima, Roel Vaeyens, Wesley P Barbosa, Marcelo S Aoki
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of hormonal status, anthropometric profile, sexual maturity level, and physical performance on the technical abilities of 40 young male soccer players during small-sided games (SSGs). Anthropometric profiling, saliva sampling, sexual maturity assessment (Tanner scale), and physical performance tests (Yo-Yo and vertical jumps) were conducted two weeks prior to the SSGs. Salivary testosterone was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Technical performance was determined by the frequency of actions during SSGs...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Katia Kitamura, Lucas Adriano Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Cesar Cavinato Cal Abad, Ronaldo Finotti, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Irineu Loturco
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete's body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Miran Pehar, Damir Sekulic, Nedim Sisic, Miodrag Spasic, Ognjen Uljevic, Ante Krolo, Zoran Milanovic, Tine Sattler
The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i) playing position and (ii) competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Jakub Chycki, Tomasz Zając, Adam Maszczyk, Anna Kurylas
Previously it was demonstrated that mineralization and alkalization properties of mineral water are important factors influencing acid-base balance and hydration in athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking different types of water on urine pH, specific urine gravity, and post-exercise lactate utilization in response to strenuous exercise. Thirty-six male soccer players were divided into three intervention groups, consuming around 4.0 l/day of different types of water for 7 days: HM (n=12; highly mineralized water), LM (n=12; low mineralized water), and CON (n=12; table water)...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Cristiano Eirale, Scott Gillogly, Gurcharan Singh, Karim Chamari
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. While injuries and illnesses can affect the players' health and performance, they can also have a major economic impact on teams. Moreover, several studies have shown the favourable association between higher player availability and team success. Therefore, injury prevention could directly impact clubs' financial balance and teams' performance via increased player availability. To be able to develop effective methods of injury prevention, it is vital to first determine the scope and the degree of the problem: the mechanisms and types of injuries, their frequency and severity, etc...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Monika Skrzypiec-Spring, Jarosław Krzywański, Monika Karlikowska-Skwarnik, Andrzej Pokrywka, Hubert Krysztofiak, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Ernest Kuchar
In addition to different injuries, infections are the most common reason for giving up training altogether or reducing its volume and intensity, as well as a lack of opportunities to participate in sports competitions. Nowadays, a slow but constant re-emergence of pertussis, especially among teenagers and young adults, including athletes, can be observed. This paper describes an outbreak of pertussis among professional Polish shooters, focusing on the transmission of Bordetella pertussis infection between members of the national team, its influence on performance capacity and adverse event analysis...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Thiago O Borges, Alexandre Moreira, Renato Bacchi, Ronaldo L Finotti, Mayara Ramos, Charles R Lopes, Marcelo S Aoki
This technical report aims to determine the validity and the accuracy of the VERT Wearable Jump Monitor. The participants of this study were all experienced volleyball players from the U18 category from the Brazilian National team. To assess jump performance, the VERT scores were compared to the VERTEC (jump and reach device). Each athlete performed 3 attack and 3 block jumps in a random, counterbalanced order, and the average score was registered. In the attack jumps, the VERTEC and VERT mean ± SD scores were 70...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
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