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Biology of Sport

Adam Maszczyk, Artur Gołaś, Przemysław Pietraszewski, Magdalena Kowalczyk, Paweł Cięszczyk, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Wojciech Smółka, Adam Zając
Physical balance is an important factor in sport. Neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) can be used to improve concentration and focus. The present study investigated and determined the impact of neurofeedback training on dynamic balance in judo. Eighteen judokas voluntarily participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). In the experimental group subjects were trained to inhibit 3-8 Hz while they were also trained to reinforce 14-19 Hz brainwave activities at points O1 and O2 for ten sessions and 25 minutes per session...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Iancu Horia-Daniel, Jabbour Georges
This study examines the impact of two forms of active warm-up on supramaximal cycling performance among sedentary adults. Thirty-seven adults [23.05 (6.4) years; BMI=26.05 (1.3) kg/m2 , FM=30.1 (4.2)%, VO2max =23.8 (5.8) ml/min/kg] participated in a cross-over randomized study, and all underwent a supramaximal cycling test (SCT) following 5 minutes of two models of warm-up pedalled at a constant velocity of 60 rpm. In the first experimental condition, the warm-up was set at 50% of maximal aerobic power (WU50%MAP)...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Antonio Dello Iacono, Chen Buksbaum, Johnny Padulo, Iftach Hetsroni, David Ben-Sira, Moshe Ayalon
The aim of this study was to test whether lesions of the medial meniscus (MM) and of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are associated with specific abnormalities of isokinetic moment curves (IMCs). Fifty-four young adults (20 active healthy people, and 34 patients with unilateral knee injuries) were assessed through knee extensor and flexor isokinetic tests at 60°/s. Qualitative IMC analysis was performed using a novel classification system which identified three distinct abnormal shapes. The chi-squared (χ2) test was used to determine the inter-individual and intra-individual differences between the groups...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Jesús V Giménez, Hongyou Liu, Patrycja Lipińska, Andrzej Szwarc, Paweł Rompa, Miguel A Gómez
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the number of ball touches authorised per game (one touch [T1], two touches [T2], and free touches [FT]) on the players' physical responses throughout the bouts in 4 vs 4 soccer small-sided games (SSGs) with mini-goals (without a goalkeeper). Fourteen professional Polish players (age 23.2±2.7 years, height 177.9±6.1 cm, weight: 73.2±6.9 kg, body fat 12.6±2%, playing experience: 14±5 years) completed nine series of 4 vs 4 SSGs. Each trial included three series of SSGs with a game duration of 4 minutes on an equal sized pitch (30x24 m; 720 m2 ; individual occupied area per player=90 m2 )...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Hourcade Jean-Christophe, Noirez Philippe, Sidney Michel, Toussaint Jean-François, Desgorces François
The present study analyses the effects of the high-intensity distribution change within sessions on physical performance and on training loads (TL) provided by quantification methods based on heart rate (HR) and on whole body indicators of exercise-induced physiological stress. Fourteen trained physical education students (21.9±1.2 years, 68.3±7.9 kg, 180±7.3 cm) performed two sessions with the same intensities, volumes and pauses but differing in the efforts' intensity distribution: one was composed of exercises dissociating the intensities (12 repetitions of 30 m sprints then 12 min interval runs) and the second mixed the intensities (30 m sprint followed by 60 s rest and 2 runs of 15 s - 15 s at 100% and 50% of maximal aerobic velocity - MAV)...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Allisson B Justino, Anibal Mm Neto, Miguel J S Bortolini, Leonardo G Peixoto, Eduardo S Prado, Marina Garcia-Hortal, Françoise V Botelho, Foued S Espindola
This study aimed to verify whether salivary total protein (STP) would reflect anaerobic threshold in elderly athletes subjected to an incremental exercise test. METHODS: Seven elderly elite athletes (EEA) and six physically active elderly men (PAE) completed a treadmill protocol in which blood and saliva samples were collected. RESULTS: Blood lactate (BL) and STP increased significantly in EEA during the test (0.8 ± 0.2 to 5.1 ± 2.0 mmol/L and 42.5 ± 7.5 to 222...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Hun-Young Park, Chulho Shin, Kiwon Lim
Athletic endurance performance at sea level can be improved via intermittent hypoxic training (IHT). However, the efficacy of IHT for enhancement of aerobic exercise performance at sea level is controversial because of methodological differences. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether the IHT regimen ameliorates exercise economy and aerobic exercise performance in moderately trained swimmers. A total of 20 moderately trained swimmers were equally assigned to the control group (n=10) training in normoxic conditions and the IHT group (n=10) training at a simulated altitude of 3000 m...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Miłosz Czuba, Olga Fidos-Czuba, Kamila Płoszczyca, Adam Zając, Józef Langfort
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) and the live high, train low strategy on aerobic capacity and sports performance in off-road cyclists in normoxia. Thirty off-road cyclists were randomized to three groups and subjected to 4-week training routines. The participants from the first experimental group were exposed to normobaric hypoxia conditions (FiO2 = 16.3%) at rest and during sleep (G-LH-TL; n=10; age: 20.5 ± 2.9 years; body height 1.81 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 69...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Badrane Zinoubi, Sana Zbidi, Henry Vandewalle, Karim Chamari, Tarak Driss
This study aimed to: i) use Borg's scale of rating perceived exertion (RPE) in the prescription of cycling training exercises with alternated intensity (S); ii) determine the relationships between RPE and the indices of physiological strains, e.g. heart rate (HR) and blood lactate ([La]), measured during S compared to continuous exercises (C). HR, [La] and RPE were measured in 11 active men at the 5th and 10th minutes of cycling exercises. These exercises were performed with constant or varying intensity corresponding to average power outputs (APO) equal to 160 and 240 W...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Cheol Min Kim
Obesity is affected by genetic factors and environmental influences. This research was undertaken to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to obesity and physical fitness and then to analyse and compare interactions between physical fitness and obesity-associated genotypes. To investigate relationships between physical fitness and major SNPs previously reported to be related to obesity, 68 SNPs in 32 genes were genotyped in 71 Korean children. Tests were conducted to evaluate five elements of physical fitness (speed, aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility)...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Ian Varley, Seema Patel, Alun G Williams, Philip J Hennis
The purpose of the study was to investigate the current use of genetic testing in UK elite sport and assess how genetic testing might be received by those employed in elite sport. Seventy-two elite athletes and 95 support staff at UK sports clubs and governing bodies completed an online survey of 11 questions concerning their experience of genetic testing and beliefs regarding the use of genetic testing in sport. Genetic testing related to sports performance and injury susceptibility is conducted in UK elite sport, albeit by a relatively small proportion of athletes (≤17%) and support staff (≤8%)...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Christina Pacheco, Stela Mirla da Silva Felipe, Milca Magalhães Dias de Carvalho Soares, Juliana Osório Alves, Paula Matias Soares, José Henrique Leal-Cardoso, Adriano César Carneiro Loureiro, Alex Soares Marreiros Ferraz, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto
Regular exercise is an exogenous factor of gene regulation with numerous health benefits. The study aimed to evaluate human genes linked to physical exercise in an 'omic scale, addressing biological questions to the generated database. Three literature databases were searched with the terms 'exercise', 'fitness', 'physical activity', 'genetics' and 'gene expression'. For additional references, papers were scrutinized and a text-mining tool was used. Papers linking genes to exercise in humans through microarray, RNA-Seq, RT-PCR and genotyping studies were included...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
Jose Antonio Pérez-Turpin, Mario Trottini, Juan Jose Chinchilla-Mira, Weronika Cyganik
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of microfiltered and sterilized seawater ingestion on running performance in a hot environment. This cross-over, double-blind randomized trial included 12 experienced male runners. The subjects randomly consumed seawater (SW) or pure water (placebo) in an equivalent amount of 50 ml five minutes prior to running at 40% of their VO2 max for 95.0 ± 18.5 min, at 30°C, until they lost 3% of body weight. Every 20 minutes, a measurement of their body weight was taken and a blood lactate analysis was performed...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Władysław Jagiełło, Jagiełło Marina, Kalina Roman Maciej, Barczyński Bartłomiej Jan, Litwiniuk Artur, Klimczak Jarosław
Fencing is a combat sport whose form of direct confrontation involves hitting the opponent with a weapon. The purpose of the study was to determine the properties of body composition of female representatives of the Polish national fencing team. The study involved 11 female athletes of the Polish national fencing team. Their age was 16-22 years (19±2.32), body weight 52-78 kg (59.7±7.4), body height 158-183 cm (167.46±6.10) and the training experience 7.64±3.47 years. The reference group consisted of 153 students of Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Clint Hansen, Fernando Sanz-Lopez, Rodney Whiteley, Nebojsa Popovic, Hosny Abdelrahman Ahmed, Marco Cardinale
Goalkeepers have a very important role in handball. In coaching communities it is well recognized that goalkeepers' performances can predict team ranking in major tournaments. Despite this, few studies have been conducted on elite goalkeepers participating in World Championships. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse goalkeepers' save performance during the 88 matches of the 2015 men's World Championships tournament. Goalkeepers from 24 national teams were analysed using a tracking camera system and bespoke software (Prozone Handball V...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Ikram Bezrati, Marwa Khammassi, Moncef Feki, Naziha Kaabachi, Anissa Bouassida
To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Ana R Alves, Carlos C Marta, Henrique P Neiva, Mikel Izquierdo, Mário C Marques
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP) in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years), were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R), Endurance-only (E), Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER), Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER), Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE), and a Control group (C)...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Lucas Marques, Emerson Franchini, Gustavo Drago, Marcelo S Aoki, Alexandre Moreira
Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative approach for application in the context of high-level sports. Despite its growing acceptance, there is no empirical evidence of BP adoption in high-level judo athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the maximal strength, muscle power, judo-specific performances, and hormonal concentration changes of state/national level (NG) and international level (IG) judo athletes subjected to BP. Twenty-one elite judo athletes (international level = 10; 21...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Alejandro Gonzalez-Aguero, Angel Matute-Llorente, Alba Gomez-Cabello, Jose A Casajus, German Vicente-Rodríguez
The aims of the present study were, firstly, to evaluate areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone strength and structure during a swimming season and compare them to those of normo-active controls (CG), and secondly to ascertain whether practising an additional weight-bearing sport other than swimming might improve bone. Twenty-three swimmers who only swam (SWI-PURE; 14 males, 9 females), 11 swimmers who combined swimming with an additional weight-bearing sport (SWI-SPORT; 8 males, 3 females) and 28 controls (CG; 16 males, 12 females) participated in the present study...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Dailson Paulucio, Bruno M Costa, Caleb G M Santos, Fernando Nogueira, Alexander Koch, Marco Machado, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Fernando Ams Pompeu
Taurine (TA) ingestion has been touted as blunting the deleterious effects of ethanol (ET) ingestion on motor performance. This study investigated the effects of ingestion of 0.6 mL·kg-1 of ET, 6 grams of TA, and ethanol in combination with taurine (ET+TA) on economy of movement (EM) and heart rate (HR). Nine volunteers, five female (22 ± 3 years) and four male (26 ± 5 years), participated in a study that used a counterbalanced experimental design. EM and HR were measured for 6 min while the subjects were pedalling at a fixed load 10% below the anaerobic threshold...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
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