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Journal of Biological Rhythms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990443/mapping-quantitative-trait-loci-underlying-circadian-light-sensitivity-in-drosophila
#1
Adeolu B Adewoye, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Eran Tauber
Despite the significant advance in our understanding of the molecular basis of light entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila, the underlying genetic architecture is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify loci associated with variation in circadian photosensitivity, which are important for the evolution of this trait. We have used complementary approaches that combined quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, complementation testing, and transcriptome profiling to dissect this variation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984167/task-related-phasing-of-circadian-rhythms-in-antennal-responsiveness-to-odorants-and-pheromones-in-honeybees
#2
Moshe Nagari, Paul Szyszka, Giovanni Galizia, Guy Bloch
The insect antennae receive olfactory information from the environment. In some insects, it has been shown that antennal responsiveness is dynamically regulated by circadian clocks. However, it is unknown how general this phenomenon is and what functions it serves. Circadian regulation in honeybee workers is particularly interesting in this regard because they show natural task-related chronobiological plasticity. Forager bees show strong circadian rhythms in behavior and brain gene expression, whereas nurse bees tend brood around-the-clock and have attenuated circadian rhythms in activity and whole-brain gene expression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954576/a-model-based-approach-to-optimizing-ultradian-forced-desynchrony-protocols-for-human-circadian-research
#3
Nora Stack, David Barker, Mary Carskadon, Cecilia Diniz Behn
The human circadian system regulates internal 24-h rhythmicity and plays an important role in many aspects of human health and behavior. To investigate properties of the human circadian pacemaker such as intrinsic period and light sensitivity, experimental researchers have developed forced desynchrony (FD) protocols in which manipulations of the light-dark (LD) cycle are used to desynchronize the intrinsic circadian rhythm from the rest-activity cycle. FD protocols have typically been based on exposure to long LD cycles, but recently, ultradian FD protocols with short LD cycles have been proposed as a new methodology for assessing intrinsic circadian period...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954569/the-dorsal-medial-habenula-minimally-impacts-circadian-regulation-of-locomotor-activity-and-sleep
#4
Yun-Wei A Hsu, Jennifer J Gile, Jazmine G Perez, Glenn Morton, Miriam Ben-Hamo, Eric E Turner, Horacio O de la Iglesia
In nocturnal rodents, voluntary wheel-running activity (WRA) represents a self-reinforcing behavior. We have previously demonstrated that WRA is markedly reduced in mice with a region-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a), which leads to an ablation of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb). The decrease in WRA in these dMHb-lesioned (dMHb(CKO)) mice suggests that the dMHb constitutes a critical center for conveying reinforcement by exercise. However, WRA also represents a prominent output of the circadian system, and the possibility remains that the dMHb is a source of input to the master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946788/the-hepato-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-renal-axis-mathematical-modeling-of-cortisol-s-production-metabolism-and-seasonal-variation
#5
Kamau Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
Cortisol dynamics are governed by the integration of influences from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and metabolic enzymes, such as the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) family, which are highly expressed in hepatic and renal tissue. The coordinated regulation of cortisol dynamics is essential for the maintenance of a healthy state, and aberrant cortisol circadian rhythms are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. The duration of the light-dark cycle, or photoperiod, which regulates SCN activity, varies seasonally, and the shorter photoperiod winter season is associated with elevated cortisol levels, peak inflammatory disease incidence, and symptom exacerbation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920512/rhythmic-three-part-harmony-the-complex-interaction-of-maternal-placental-and-fetal-circadian-systems
#6
Peter J Mark, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Brendan J Waddell
From the perspective of circadian biology, mammalian pregnancy presents an unusual biological scenario in which an entire circadian system (i.e., that of the fetus) is embodied within another (i.e., that of the mother). Moreover, both systems are likely to be influenced at their interface by a third player, the placenta. Successful pregnancy requires major adaptations in maternal physiology, many of which involve circadian changes that support the high metabolic demands of the growing fetus. A functional role for maternal circadian adaptations is implied by the effects of circadian disruption, which result in pregnancy complications including higher risks for miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#7
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862076/timing-the-microbes-the-circadian-rhythm-of-the-gut-microbiome
#8
Xue Liang, Garret A FitzGerald
The mammalian circadian clock system, which includes the master clock and peripheral clocks, times different biological processes in reaction to external cues, such as the light-dark cycle. However, the chronobiology of prokaryotic cells is less well understood, except for in cyanobacteria. The recent blooming of gut microbiome research has revealed a critical role for the trillions of microbes residing in the vertebrate gut in determining both health and disease in the host. The question of whether the gut microbiome exhibits circadian oscillation and how it synchronizes with the host circadian clock has attracted considerable interest...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845736/the-life-and-times-of-parasites-rhythms-in-strategies-for-within-host-survival-and-between-host-transmission
#9
Sarah E Reece, Kimberley F Prior, Nicole Mideo
Biological rhythms are thought to have evolved to enable organisms to organize their activities according to the earth's predictable cycles, but quantifying the fitness advantages of rhythms is challenging and data revealing their costs and benefits are scarce. More difficult still is explaining why parasites that live exclusively within the bodies of other organisms have biological rhythms. Rhythms exist in the development and traits of parasites, in host immune responses, and in disease susceptibility. This raises the possibility that timing matters for how hosts and parasites interact and, consequently, for the severity and transmission of diseases...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840790/a-new-rhodopsin-influences-light-dependent-daily-activity-patterns-of-fruit-flies
#10
Christa Kistenpfennig, Rudi Grebler, Maite Ogueta, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Matthias Schlichting, Ralf Stanewsky, Pingkalai R Senthilan, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Rhodopsin 7 ( Rh7), a new invertebrate Rhodopsin gene, was discovered in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster in 2000, but its function has remained elusive. We generated an Rh7 null mutant ( Rh7(0)) by P element-mediated mutagenesis and found that an absence of Rh7 had significant effects on fly activity patterns during light-dark (LD) cycles: Rh7(0) mutants exhibited less morning activity and a longer siesta than wild-type controls. Consistent with these results, we found that Rh7 appears to be expressed in a few dorsal clock neurons that have been previously implicated in the control of the siesta...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840789/ultradian-rhythmicity-in-sleep-wakefulness-is-related-to-color-in-nestling-barn-owls
#11
Madeleine F Scriba, Isabelle Henry, Alexei L Vyssotski, Jakob C Mueller, Niels C Rattenborg, Alexandre Roulin
The possession of a rhythm is usually described as an important adaptation to regular changing environmental conditions such as the light-dark cycle. However, recent studies have suggested plasticity in the expression of a rhythm depending on life history and environmental factors. Barn owl ( Tyto alba) nestlings show variations in behavior and physiology in relation to the size of black feather spots, a trait associated with many behavioral and physiological phenotypes including the circadian expression of corticosterone and the regulation of body mass...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#12
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816632/the-liver-circadian-clock-modulates-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-to-metformin
#13
Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Erin K Soto, Anna Kriebs, Megan E Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Alanna B Chan, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan E Afetian, Katja A Lamia
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to lower blood glucose. Although metformin is a relatively safe and effective drug, its clinical efficacy is variable and under certain circumstances it may contribute to life-threatening lactic acidosis. Thus, additional understanding of metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could provide important information regarding therapeutic use of this widely prescribed drug. Here we report a significant effect of time of day on acute blood glucose reduction in response to metformin administration and on blood lactate levels in healthy mice...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766460/revealing-oft-cited-but-unpublished-papers-of-colin-pittendrigh-and-coworkers
#14
Michael C Tackenberg, Carl H Johnson, Terry L Page, Serge Daan
Among the scientific resources that Colin Pittendrigh passed on to his colleagues after his death in 1996 were two unpublished papers. These manuscripts, developed first in the mid-1960s and continually updated and refined through the late 1970s, centered on the development and experimental exploration of a model of circadian entrainment combining aspects of the well-known parametric (continuous) and nonparametric (discrete) models of entrainment. These texts reveal the experimental work surrounding Pittendrigh's determination of the limits of entrainment and the explanation of the bistability phenomenon...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651468/human-adolescent-phase-response-curves-to-bright-white-light
#15
Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631524/the-association-between-social-jetlag-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-general-population-the-new-hoorn-study
#16
Anitra D M Koopman, Simone P Rauh, Esther van 't Riet, Lenka Groeneveld, Amber A van der Heijden, Petra J Elders, Jacqueline M Dekker, Giel Nijpels, Joline W Beulens, Femke Rutters
Only a few studies have investigated the metabolic consequences of social jetlag. Therefore, we examined the association of social jetlag with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort. We used cross-sectional data from the New Hoorn Study cohort ( n = 1585, 47% men, age 60.8 ± 6 years). Social jetlag was calculated as the difference in midpoint sleep (in hours) between weekdays and weekend days. Poisson and linear regression models were used to study the associations, and age was regarded as a possible effect modifier...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627300/reduced-effective-emotion-regulation-in-night-owls
#17
Alexandra L Watts, Ray Norbury
Previous research has demonstrated a clear link between late chronotype and depression. The vulnerability factors underpinning this link, however, are unclear. Here the relationship between two specific emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and chronotype was investigated using multiple regression. Two hundred and forty participants (age range 18-80, 189 females) completed validated self-report questionnaires assaying chronotype, neuroticism, depressive symptomatology, sleep quality, and emotion regulation...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770653/simple-lighting-manipulations-facilitate-behavioral-entrainment-of-mice-to-18-h-days
#18
Thijs J Walbeek, Michael R Gorman
In an invariantly rhythmic world, a robust and stable mammalian circadian clock is presumed to confer fitness advantages. In shift-work or after rapid transmeridian travel, however, a stable clock might be maladaptive and a more flexibly resettable clock may have advantages. The rate at which rodents can adjust to simulated time zone travel and the range of entrainment can be markedly increased through simple light manipulations, namely, by exposing animals to extremely dim light (<0.01 lux) at night or by bifurcating rhythms under 24-h light-dark-light-dark (LDLD) cycles...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745147/early-birds-by-light-at-night-effects-of-light-color-and-intensity-on-daily-activity-patterns-in-blue-tits
#19
Maaike de Jong, Samuel P Caro, Phillip Gienapp, Kamiel Spoelstra, Marcel E Visser
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651478/interval-timing-is-preserved-despite-circadian-desynchrony-in-rats-constant-light-and-heavy-water-studies
#20
Christian C Petersen, Ralph E Mistlberger
The mechanisms that enable mammals to time events that recur at 24-h intervals (circadian timing) and at arbitrary intervals in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) are thought to be distinct at the computational and neurobiological levels. Recent evidence that disruption of circadian rhythmicity by constant light (LL) abolishes interval timing in mice challenges this assumption and suggests a critical role for circadian clocks in short interval timing. We sought to confirm and extend this finding by examining interval timing in rats in which circadian rhythmicity was disrupted by long-term exposure to LL or by chronic intake of 25% D2O...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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