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Journal of Biological Rhythms

Laura Kervezee, Marc Cuesta, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
Light is a potent synchronizer of the central circadian clock; however, the effect of light exposure on peripheral gene expression is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of bright light exposure on genome-wide peripheral gene expression levels during a 4-day simulated night shift protocol in which the habitual sleep period is delayed by 10 h. Eleven healthy participants (mean age, 24 years; range, 18-30; 10 men/1 woman) were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Three participants were exposed to bright light (~6,500 lux) for 8 h during the nightly waking period, while the other 8 were maintained in dim-light conditions (~10 lux)...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Danilo E F L Flôres, Gisele A Oda
Artificial lab manipulation of LD cycles has enabled simulations of the disruptive conditions found in modern human societies, such as jet-lag, night-work and light at night. New techniques using animal models have been developed, and these can greatly improve our understanding of circadian disruption. Some of these techniques, such as in vivo bioluminescence assays, require minimum external light. This requirement is challenging because the usual lighting protocols applied in circadian desynchronization experiments rely on considerable light input...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Carmel Bilu, Paul Zimmet, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Haim Einat, Galila Agam, Ehud Grossman, Noga Kronfeld-Schor
Although type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and depression are associated with disturbances in circadian rhythms, most studies of these diseases use nocturnal mice and rats while modeling diurnal humans. We suggest that the development of T2DM and depression are related to changes that accompany the switch from the mammalian ancestral nocturnal activity to the current diurnal one. We show that diurnal sand rats ( Psammomys obesus) held outdoors in laboratory cages (where they are exposed to natural environmental conditions) and fed a standard rodent diet do not develop T2DM in contrast to animals held indoors (where the only cycling environmental condition is light) fed the same diet...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Karine D Scheuermaier, Jung Hie Lee, Jeanne F Duffy
Age-related disrupted sleep has been associated with modifications in the timing of endogenous circadian rhythms. There are studies suggesting a decreased sensitivity of the aging circadian pacemaker to light. In this study, we aimed to test whether a moderate illuminance light stimulus would produce significant phase shifts in older adults, and whether those would fall in a range consistent with the illuminance response curve (IRC) we previously reported in older adults. We conducted an 8-day in-patient study with 12 healthy older participants (mean age [SD], 58...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Jordan M Singer, Jacob J Hughey
Unraveling the effects of genetic or environmental perturbations on biological rhythms requires detecting changes in rhythmicity across multiple conditions. Although methods to detect rhythmicity in genome-scale data are well established, methods to detect changes in rhythmicity or changes in average expression between experimental conditions are often ad hoc and statistically unreliable. Here we present LimoRhyde (linear models for rhythmicity, design), a flexible approach for analyzing transcriptome data from circadian systems...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Amanda M Maple, Rachel K Rowe, Jonathan Lifshitz, Fabian Fernandez, Amelia L Gallitano
Up to 80% of people meeting DSM-IV definitions for schizophrenia will exhibit difficulties with sleep, along with a breakdown in circadian entrainment and rhythmicity. The changes to the sleep and circadian systems in this population are thought to be interdependent, as evidenced by the frequent use of the combined term "sleep and circadian rhythm disruption" or "SCRD" to describe their occurrence. To understand links between sleep and circadian problems in the schizophrenia population, we analyzed the duration and rhythmicity of sleep behavior in mice lacking function of the immediate early gene early growth response 3 ( Egr3)...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Dax Ovid, Tyrone B Hayes, George E Bentley
Endocrine research in animals often entails exogenous hormone administration. Special issues arise when developing administration protocols for hormones with circadian and seasonal periodicity. This article reviews various methods for the exogenous administration of hormones with such periodicities by focusing on melatonin. We discuss that methodological variations across studies can affect experimental results. Melatonin administration techniques used in vertebrates includes infusion pumps, beeswax pellets, oral administration, injections, SILASTIC capsules, osmotic pumps, transdermal delivery, beads, and sponges...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Marta Beauchamp, Enrico Bertolini, Peter Deppisch, Jonathan Steubing, Pamela Menegazzi, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Recently, we reported differences in the expression pattern of the blue light-sensitive flavoprotein cryptochrome (CRY) and the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the neuronal clock network of high-latitude Drosophila species, belonging to the Drosophila subgenus ( virilis-repleta radiation), compared with cosmopolitan D. melanogaster flies, belonging to the Sophophora subgenus. Alterations in rhythmic patterns of activity due to these differences might have adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and, hence, adjusting to long photoperiods...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Karin C H J Smolders, Samantha T Peeters, Ingrid M L C Vogels, Yvonne A W de Kort
To date, it is largely unknown which light settings define the optimum to steer alertness and cognitive control during regular daytime working hours. In the current article, we used a multimeasure approach combined with a relatively large sample size ( N = 60) and a large range of intensity levels (20-2000 lux at eye level) to investigate the dose-dependent relationship between light and correlates of alertness and executive control during regular working hours in the morning and afternoon. Each participant was exposed to a single-intensity light level for 1 h after a 30-min baseline phase (100 lux at the eye) in the morning and afternoon (on separate days) during their daily routine...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Renske Lok, Tom Woelders, Marijke C M Gordijn, Roelof A Hut, Domien G M Beersma
Broad-spectrum light applied during the night has been shown to affect alertness in a dose-dependent manner. The goal of this experiment was to investigate whether a similar relationship could be established for light exposure during daytime. Fifty healthy participants were subjected to a paradigm (0730-1730 h) in which they were intermittently exposed to 1.5 h of dim light (<10 lux) and 1 h of experimental light (24-2000 lux). The same intensity of experimental light was used throughout the day, resulting in groups of 10 subjects per intensity...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Renske Lok, Karin C H J Smolders, Domien G M Beersma, Yvonne A W de Kort
Light is known to elicit non-image-forming responses, such as effects on alertness. This has been reported especially during light exposure at night. Nighttime results might not be translatable to the day. This article aims to provide an overview of (1) neural mechanisms regulating alertness, (2) ways of measuring and quantifying alertness, and (3) the current literature specifically regarding effects of different intensities of white light on various measures and correlates of alertness during the daytime...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
André Malan, Dominique Ciocca, Etienne Challet, Paul Pévet
Syrian hamsters may present 2 types of torpor when exposed to ambient temperatures in the winter season, from 8°C to 22°C (short photoperiod). The first is daily torpor, which is controlled by the master circadian clock of the body, located in the SCN. In this paper, we show that daily torpor bout duration is unchanged over the 8°C to 22°C temperature range, as predicted from the thermal compensation of circadian clocks. These findings contrast with the second type of torpor: multi-day torpor or classic hibernation...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Yujiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The onset and offset of an activity band in the circadian behavioral rhythm are known to differentially reentrain to shifted light-dark cycles (LD). Differential reentrainment could be explained by different light responsivities of circadian oscillators underlying these phase-markers. In contrast, reentrainment is accelerated by exposure to nonphotic time cues such as timed wheel-running. However, the relationship between the 2 oscillators and nonphotic acceleration of reentrainment is largely unknown. We examined phase-shifts of the mouse behavioral rhythm in response to an 8-h phase-advanced shift of LD and effects of behavioral interventions: maintained in a home cage (HC), exposed to a running wheel (RW) in HC (HC+RW), transferred to a new cage (NC), and exposed to RW in NC (NC+RW)...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Tianfei Hou, Wen Su, Zhenheng Guo, Ming C Gong
Diabetic patients have an increased prevalence of blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm disruption, which is associated with an increased risk of target organ damage and detrimental cardiovascular events. Limited information is available regarding the role of clock genes in the disruption of BP circadian rhythm in diabetes due to the lack of a diabetic animal model that allows real-time monitoring of clock gene oscillation. Here, we generated a novel diabetic db/db-mPer2Luc mouse model by crossing type 2 diabetic db/db mice with mPer2Luc knock-in mice...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Ivy C Mason, Mohamed Boubekri, Mariana G Figueiro, Brant P Hasler, Samer Hattar, Steven M Hill, Randy J Nelson, Katherine M Sharkey, Kenneth P Wright, Windy A Boyd, Marishka K Brown, Aaron D Laposky, Michael J Twery, Phyllis C Zee
Despite the omnipresence of artificial and natural light exposure, there exists little guidance in the United States and elsewhere on light exposure in terms of timing, intensity, spectrum, and other light characteristics known to affect human health, performance, and well-being; in parallel, there is little information regarding the quantity and characteristics of light exposure that people receive. To address this, the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, in the Division of Lung Diseases, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, held a workshop in August 2016 on circadian health and light...
October 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Kelin L Wheaton, Katelin F Hansen, Sydney Aten, Kyle A Sullivan, Hyojung Yoon, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
Within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-the locus of the master circadian clock- transcriptional regulation via the CREB/CRE pathway is implicated in the functioning of the molecular clock timing process, and is a key conduit through which photic input entrains the oscillator. One event driving CRE-mediated transcription is the phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133 (Ser133 ). Indeed, numerous reporter gene assays have shown that an alanine point mutation in Ser133 reduces CREB-mediated transcription. Here, we sought to examine the contribution of Ser133 phosphorylation to the functional role of CREB in SCN clock physiology in vivo...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Azure D Grant, Kathryn Wilsterman, Benjamin L Smarr, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Whereas long-period temporal structures in endocrine dynamics have been well studied, endocrine rhythms on the scale of hours are relatively unexplored. The study of these ultradian rhythms (URs) has remained nascent, in part, because a theoretical framework unifying ultradian patterns across systems has not been established. The present overview proposes a conceptual coupled oscillator network model of URs in which oscillating hormonal outputs, or nodes, are connected by edges representing the strength of node-node coupling...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
David McBride, Linda Petzold
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master clock of the brain. It is a network of neurons that behave like biological oscillators, capable of synchronizing and maintaining daily rhythms. The detailed structure of this network is still unknown, and the role that the connectivity pattern plays in the network's ability to generate robust oscillations has yet to be fully elucidated. In recent work, we used an information theory-based technique to infer the structure of the functional network for synchronization, from bioluminescence reporter data...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Daniel S Whittaker, Dawn H Loh, Huei-Bin Wang, Yu Tahara, Dika Kuljis, Tamara Cutler, Cristina A Ghiani, Shigenobu Shibata, Gene D Block, Christopher S Colwell
Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from progressive neurodegeneration that results in cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and motor dysfunction. Disturbances in sleep-wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, frequent bedtime awakenings, and excessive fatigue. The BACHD mouse model exhibits many HD core symptoms including circadian dysfunction. Because circadian dysfunction manifests early in the disease in both patients and mouse models, we sought to determine if early interventions that improve circadian rhythmicity could benefit HD symptoms and delay disease progression...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Alan L Hutchison, Ravi Allada, Aaron R Dinner
There is much interest in using genome-wide expression time series to identify circadian genes. However, the cost and effort of such measurements often limit data collection. Consequently, it is difficult to assess the experimental uncertainty in the measurements and, in turn, to detect periodic patterns with statistical confidence. We show that parametric bootstrapping and empirical Bayes methods for variance shrinkage can improve rhythm detection in genome-wide expression time series. We demonstrate these approaches by building on the empirical JTK_CYCLE method (eJTK) to formulate a method that we term BooteJTK...
August 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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