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Journal of Biological Rhythms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219034/measuring-relative-coupling-strength-in-circadian-systems
#1
Christoph Schmal, Erik D Herzog, Hanspeter Herzel
Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183263/inverse-european-latitudinal-cline-at-the-timeless-locus-of-drosophila-melanogaster-reveals-selection-on-a-clock-gene-population-genetics-of-ls-tim
#2
Valeria Zonato, Stefano Vanin, Rodolfo Costa, Eran Tauber, Charalambos P Kyriacou
The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183256/experimental-and-mathematical-analyses-relating-circadian-period-and-phase-of-entrainment-in-neurospora-crassa
#3
Kwangwon Lee, Prithvi Shiva Kumar, Sean McQuade, Joshua Y Lee, Sohyun Park, Zheming An, Benedetto Piccoli
Circadian rhythms are observed in most organisms on earth and are known to play a major role in successful adaptation to the 24-h cycling environment. Circadian phenotypes are characterized by a free-running period that is observed in constant conditions and an entrained phase that is observed in cyclic conditions. Thus, the relationship between the free-running period and phase of entrainment is of interest. A popular simple rule has been that the entrained phase is the expression of the period in a cycling environment (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179611/sensitivity-to-pigment-dispersing-factor-pdf-is-cell-type-specific-among-pdf-expressing-circadian-clock-neurons-in-the-madeira-cockroach
#4
Julia Gestrich, Maria Giese, Wen Shen, Yi Zhang, Alexandra Voss, Cyril Popov, Monika Stengl, HongYing Wei
Transplantation studies have pinpointed the circadian clock of the Madeira cockroach to the accessory medulla (AME) of the brain's optic lobes. The AME is innervated by approximately 240 adjacent neuropeptidergic neurons, including 12 pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing neurons anterior to the AME (aPDFMEs). Four of the aPDFMEs project contralaterally, controlling locomotor activity rhythms of the night-active cockroach. The present in vitro Ca2+ imaging analysis focuses on contralaterally projecting AME neurons and their responses to PDF, GABA, and acetylcholine (ACh)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179610/a-tug-of-war-between-cryptochrome-and-the-visual-system-allows-the-adaptation-of-evening-activity-to-long-photoperiods-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Christa Kistenpfennig, Mayumi Nakayama, Ruri Nihara, Kenji Tomioka, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Taishi Yoshii
In many animals, the circadian clock plays a role in adapting to the coming season by measuring day length. The mechanism for measuring day length and its neuronal circuits remains elusive, however. Under laboratory conditions, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays 2 activity peaks: one in the morning and one in the evening. These peaks appear to be regulated by 2 separate circadian oscillators (the morning and evening oscillators) that reside in different subsets of pacemaker clock neurons in the brain...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172926/sumoylation-contributes-to-timekeeping-and-temperature-compensation-of-the-plant-circadian-clock
#6
Louise L Hansen, Harrold A van den Burg, Gerben van Ooijen
The transcriptional circadian clock network is tuned into a 24-h oscillator by numerous posttranslational modifications on the proteins encoded by clock genes, differentially influencing their subcellular localization or activity. Clock proteins in any circadian organism are subject to posttranslational regulation, and many of the key enzymes, notably kinases and phosphatases, are functionally conserved between the clocks of mammals, fungi, and plants. We now establish sumoylation, the posttranslational modification of target proteins by the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, as a novel mechanism regulating key clock properties in the model plant Arabidopsis...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172879/circadian-rhythms-in-visual-responsiveness-in-the-behaviorally-arrhythmic-drosophila-clock-mutant-clkjrk
#7
Olivia M Nippe, Alex R Wade, Christopher J H Elliott, Sangeeta Chawla
An organism's biological day is characterized by a pattern of anticipatory physiological and behavioral changes that are governed by circadian clocks to align with the 24-h cycling environment. Here, we used flash electroretinograms (ERGs) and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to examine how visual responsiveness in wild-type Drosophila melanogaster and the circadian clock mutant ClkJrk varies over circadian time. We show that the ERG parameters of wild-type flies vary over the circadian day, with a higher luminance response during the subjective night...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172852/sumoylation-of-the-plant-clock-transcription-factor-cca1-suppresses-dna-binding
#8
Louise L Hansen, Lisa Imrie, Thierry Le Bihan, Harrold A van den Burg, Gerben van Ooijen
In plants, the circadian clock regulates the expression of one-third of all transcripts and is crucial to virtually every aspect of metabolism and growth. We now establish sumoylation, a posttranslational protein modification, as a novel regulator of the key clock protein CCA1 in the model plant Arabidopsis. Dynamic sumoylation of CCA1 is observed in planta and confirmed in a heterologous expression system. To characterize how sumoylation might affect the activity of CCA1, we investigated the properties of CCA1 in a wild-type plant background in comparison with ots1 ots2, a mutant background showing increased overall levels of sumoylation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129126/chronic-circadian-misalignment-without-circadian-arrhythmicity-or-sleep-deprivation-does-not-impair-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
Phan Q Duy, Samer Hattar
Artificial light in modern society has led to the ubiquity of light exposure at night as individuals work night shifts and use light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime. These aberrant light conditions have detrimental consequences on cognitive and mental health, compelling the need to understand the mechanisms by which light affects brain functions. Although it was believed that aberrant light impairs health by first disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep, we showed that chronic exposure to a light cycle termed T7 (3...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088992/circadian-profiling-of-amino-acids-in-the-scn-and-cerebral-cortex-by-laser-capture-microdissection-mass-spectrometry
#10
Jean-Michel Fustin, Sachise Karakawa, Hitoshi Okamura
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is an extremely robust self-sustained oscillator, containing virtually the same molecular clock present in other tissues in the body but, in addition, endowed with tight intercellular coupling dependent on multiple neurotransmitter systems that allow the SCN to function as the "master clock." Several studies on the circadian SCN transcriptome have been published and compared with the transcriptome of other tissues, but the recent focus shift toward the circadian metabolome and the importance of small molecules for circadian timekeeping has so far been limited to macroscopic tissues such as the liver...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990443/mapping-quantitative-trait-loci-underlying-circadian-light-sensitivity-in-drosophila
#11
Adeolu B Adewoye, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Eran Tauber
Despite the significant advance in our understanding of the molecular basis of light entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila, the underlying genetic architecture is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify loci associated with variation in circadian photosensitivity, which are important for the evolution of this trait. We have used complementary approaches that combined quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, complementation testing, and transcriptome profiling to dissect this variation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984167/task-related-phasing-of-circadian-rhythms-in-antennal-responsiveness-to-odorants-and-pheromones-in-honeybees
#12
Moshe Nagari, Paul Szyszka, Giovanni Galizia, Guy Bloch
The insect antennae receive olfactory information from the environment. In some insects, it has been shown that antennal responsiveness is dynamically regulated by circadian clocks. However, it is unknown how general this phenomenon is and what functions it serves. Circadian regulation in honeybee workers is particularly interesting in this regard because they show natural task-related chronobiological plasticity. Forager bees show strong circadian rhythms in behavior and brain gene expression, whereas nurse bees tend brood around-the-clock and have attenuated circadian rhythms in activity and whole-brain gene expression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134892/on-the-shoulders-of-giants
#13
William J Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098954/guidelines-for-genome-scale-analysis-of-biological-rhythms
#14
Michael E Hughes, Katherine C Abruzzi, Ravi Allada, Ron Anafi, Alaaddin Bulak Arpat, Gad Asher, Pierre Baldi, Charissa de Bekker, Deborah Bell-Pedersen, Justin Blau, Steve Brown, M Fernanda Ceriani, Zheng Chen, Joanna C Chiu, Juergen Cox, Alexander M Crowell, Jason P DeBruyne, Derk-Jan Dijk, Luciano DiTacchio, Francis J Doyle, Giles E Duffield, Jay C Dunlap, Kristin Eckel-Mahan, Karyn A Esser, Garret A FitzGerald, Daniel B Forger, Lauren J Francey, Ying-Hui Fu, Frédéric Gachon, David Gatfield, Paul de Goede, Susan S Golden, Carla Green, John Harer, Stacey Harmer, Jeff Haspel, Michael H Hastings, Hanspeter Herzel, Erik D Herzog, Christy Hoffmann, Christian Hong, Jacob J Hughey, Jennifer M Hurley, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Carl Johnson, Steve A Kay, Nobuya Koike, Karl Kornacker, Achim Kramer, Katja Lamia, Tanya Leise, Scott A Lewis, Jiajia Li, Xiaodong Li, Andrew C Liu, Jennifer J Loros, Tami A Martino, Jerome S Menet, Martha Merrow, Andrew J Millar, Todd Mockler, Felix Naef, Emi Nagoshi, Michael N Nitabach, Maria Olmedo, Dmitri A Nusinow, Louis J Ptáček, David Rand, Akhilesh B Reddy, Maria S Robles, Till Roenneberg, Michael Rosbash, Marc D Ruben, Samuel S C Rund, Aziz Sancar, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Amita Sehgal, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Debra J Skene, Kai-Florian Storch, Joseph S Takahashi, Hiroki R Ueda, Han Wang, Charles Weitz, Pål O Westermark, Herman Wijnen, Ying Xu, Gang Wu, Seung-Hee Yoo, Michael Young, Eric Erquan Zhang, Tomasz Zielinski, John B Hogenesch
Genome biology approaches have made enormous contributions to our understanding of biological rhythms, particularly in identifying outputs of the clock, including RNAs, proteins, and metabolites, whose abundance oscillates throughout the day. These methods hold significant promise for future discovery, particularly when combined with computational modeling. However, genome-scale experiments are costly and laborious, yielding "big data" that are conceptually and statistically difficult to analyze. There is no obvious consensus regarding design or analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954576/a-model-based-approach-to-optimizing-ultradian-forced-desynchrony-protocols-for-human-circadian-research
#15
Nora Stack, David Barker, Mary Carskadon, Cecilia Diniz Behn
The human circadian system regulates internal 24-h rhythmicity and plays an important role in many aspects of human health and behavior. To investigate properties of the human circadian pacemaker such as intrinsic period and light sensitivity, experimental researchers have developed forced desynchrony (FD) protocols in which manipulations of the light-dark (LD) cycle are used to desynchronize the intrinsic circadian rhythm from the rest-activity cycle. FD protocols have typically been based on exposure to long LD cycles, but recently, ultradian FD protocols with short LD cycles have been proposed as a new methodology for assessing intrinsic circadian period...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954569/the-dorsal-medial-habenula-minimally-impacts-circadian-regulation-of-locomotor-activity-and-sleep
#16
Yun-Wei A Hsu, Jennifer J Gile, Jazmine G Perez, Glenn Morton, Miriam Ben-Hamo, Eric E Turner, Horacio O de la Iglesia
In nocturnal rodents, voluntary wheel-running activity (WRA) represents a self-reinforcing behavior. We have previously demonstrated that WRA is markedly reduced in mice with a region-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a), which leads to an ablation of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb). The decrease in WRA in these dMHb-lesioned (dMHb(CKO)) mice suggests that the dMHb constitutes a critical center for conveying reinforcement by exercise. However, WRA also represents a prominent output of the circadian system, and the possibility remains that the dMHb is a source of input to the master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946788/the-hepato-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-renal-axis-mathematical-modeling-of-cortisol-s-production-metabolism-and-seasonal-variation
#17
Kamau Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
Cortisol dynamics are governed by the integration of influences from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and metabolic enzymes, such as the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) family, which are highly expressed in hepatic and renal tissue. The coordinated regulation of cortisol dynamics is essential for the maintenance of a healthy state, and aberrant cortisol circadian rhythms are associated with various pathophysiological conditions. The duration of the light-dark cycle, or photoperiod, which regulates SCN activity, varies seasonally, and the shorter photoperiod winter season is associated with elevated cortisol levels, peak inflammatory disease incidence, and symptom exacerbation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920512/rhythmic-three-part-harmony-the-complex-interaction-of-maternal-placental-and-fetal-circadian-systems
#18
Peter J Mark, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Brendan J Waddell
From the perspective of circadian biology, mammalian pregnancy presents an unusual biological scenario in which an entire circadian system (i.e., that of the fetus) is embodied within another (i.e., that of the mother). Moreover, both systems are likely to be influenced at their interface by a third player, the placenta. Successful pregnancy requires major adaptations in maternal physiology, many of which involve circadian changes that support the high metabolic demands of the growing fetus. A functional role for maternal circadian adaptations is implied by the effects of circadian disruption, which result in pregnancy complications including higher risks for miscarriage, preterm labor, and low birth weight...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#19
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862076/timing-the-microbes-the-circadian-rhythm-of-the-gut-microbiome
#20
Xue Liang, Garret A FitzGerald
The mammalian circadian clock system, which includes the master clock and peripheral clocks, times different biological processes in reaction to external cues, such as the light-dark cycle. However, the chronobiology of prokaryotic cells is less well understood, except for in cyanobacteria. The recent blooming of gut microbiome research has revealed a critical role for the trillions of microbes residing in the vertebrate gut in determining both health and disease in the host. The question of whether the gut microbiome exhibits circadian oscillation and how it synchronizes with the host circadian clock has attracted considerable interest...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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