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Journal of Biological Rhythms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816086/inducible-knockout-of-mouse-zfhx3-emphasizes-its-key-role-in-setting-the-pace-and-amplitude-of-the-adult-circadian-clock
#1
Ashleigh G Wilcox, Lucie Vizor, Michael J Parsons, Gareth Banks, Patrick M Nolan
The transcription factor zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) plays a key role in coupling intracellular transcriptional-translational oscillations with intercellular synchrony in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). However, like many key players in central nervous system function, ZFHX3 serves an important role in neurulation and neuronal terminal differentiation while retaining discrete additional functions in the adult SCN. Recently, using a dominant missense mutation in mouse Zfhx3, we established that this gene can modify circadian period and sleep in adult animals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770653/simple-lighting-manipulations-facilitate-behavioral-entrainment-of-mice-to-18-h-days
#2
Thijs J Walbeek, Michael R Gorman
In an invariantly rhythmic world, a robust and stable mammalian circadian clock is presumed to confer fitness advantages. In shift-work or after rapid transmeridian travel, however, a stable clock might be maladaptive and a more flexibly resettable clock may have advantages. The rate at which rodents can adjust to simulated time zone travel and the range of entrainment can be markedly increased through simple light manipulations, namely, by exposing animals to extremely dim light (<0.01 lux) at night or by bifurcating rhythms under 24-h light-dark-light-dark (LDLD) cycles...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766460/revealing-oft-cited-but-unpublished-papers-of-colin-pittendrigh-and-coworkers
#3
Michael C Tackenberg, Carl H Johnson, Terry L Page, Serge Daan
Among the scientific resources that Colin Pittendrigh passed on to his colleagues after his death in 1996 were two unpublished papers. These manuscripts, developed first in the mid-1960s and continually updated and refined through the late 1970s, centered on the development and experimental exploration of a model of circadian entrainment combining aspects of the well-known parametric (continuous) and nonparametric (discrete) models of entrainment. These texts reveal the experimental work surrounding Pittendrigh's determination of the limits of entrainment and the explanation of the bistability phenomenon...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745147/early-birds-by-light-at-night-effects-of-light-color-and-intensity-on-daily-activity-patterns-in-blue-tits
#4
Maaike de Jong, Samuel P Caro, Phillip Gienapp, Kamiel Spoelstra, Marcel E Visser
Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651478/interval-timing-is-preserved-despite-circadian-desynchrony-in-rats-constant-light-and-heavy-water-studies
#5
Christian C Petersen, Ralph E Mistlberger
The mechanisms that enable mammals to time events that recur at 24-h intervals (circadian timing) and at arbitrary intervals in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) are thought to be distinct at the computational and neurobiological levels. Recent evidence that disruption of circadian rhythmicity by constant light (LL) abolishes interval timing in mice challenges this assumption and suggests a critical role for circadian clocks in short interval timing. We sought to confirm and extend this finding by examining interval timing in rats in which circadian rhythmicity was disrupted by long-term exposure to LL or by chronic intake of 25% D2O...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651468/human-adolescent-phase-response-curves-to-bright-white-light
#6
Stephanie J Crowley, Charmane I Eastman
Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631524/the-association-between-social-jetlag-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-general-population-the-new-hoorn-study
#7
Anitra D M Koopman, Simone P Rauh, Esther van 't Riet, Lenka Groeneveld, Amber A van der Heijden, Petra J Elders, Jacqueline M Dekker, Giel Nijpels, Joline W Beulens, Femke Rutters
Only a few studies have investigated the metabolic consequences of social jetlag. Therefore, we examined the association of social jetlag with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort. We used cross-sectional data from the New Hoorn Study cohort ( n = 1585, 47% men, age 60.8 ± 6 years). Social jetlag was calculated as the difference in midpoint sleep (in hours) between weekdays and weekend days. Poisson and linear regression models were used to study the associations, and age was regarded as a possible effect modifier...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816632/the-liver-circadian-clock-modulates-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-to-metformin
#8
Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Erin K Soto, Anna Kriebs, Megan E Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Alanna B Chan, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan E Afetian, Katja A Lamia
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to lower blood glucose. Although metformin is a relatively safe and effective drug, its clinical efficacy is variable and under certain circumstances it may contribute to life-threatening lactic acidosis. Thus, additional understanding of metformin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could provide important information regarding therapeutic use of this widely prescribed drug. Here we report a significant effect of time of day on acute blood glucose reduction in response to metformin administration and on blood lactate levels in healthy mice...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627300/reduced-effective-emotion-regulation-in-night-owls
#9
Alexandra L Watts, Ray Norbury
Previous research has demonstrated a clear link between late chronotype and depression. The vulnerability factors underpinning this link, however, are unclear. Here the relationship between two specific emotion regulation strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and chronotype was investigated using multiple regression. Two hundred and forty participants (age range 18-80, 189 females) completed validated self-report questionnaires assaying chronotype, neuroticism, depressive symptomatology, sleep quality, and emotion regulation...
August 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569119/skin-temperature-rhythms-in-humans-respond-to-changes-in-the-timing-of-sleep-and-light
#10
Marc Cuesta, Philippe Boudreau, Nicolas Cermakian, Diane B Boivin
Body temperature is known to vary with circadian phase and to be influenced by factors that can mask its circadian expression. We wanted to test whether skin temperature rhythms were sensitive to an abrupt shift of the sleep schedule and to the resetting effects of light. Nineteen healthy subjects spent 6 days in time isolation and underwent a simulated night-shift procedure. They were assigned to either a control group ( n = 10) or bright light group ( n = 9) and measurements were taken under a baseline day-oriented schedule and during the 4(th) cycle of a night-oriented schedule...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569118/analysis-of-nonstationary-time-series-for-biological-rhythms-research
#11
Tanya L Leise
This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistics topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article on time series analysis for biological rhythms, we describe some methods for assessing the rhythmic properties of time series, including tests of whether a time series is indeed rhythmic. Because biological rhythms can exhibit significant fluctuations in their period, phase, and amplitude, their analysis may require methods appropriate for nonstationary time series, such as wavelet transforms, which can measure how these rhythmic parameters change over time...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553739/anatomical-and-behavioral-investigation-of-c1ql3-in-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#12
Kylie S Chew, Diego C Fernandez, Samer Hattar, Thomas C Südhof, David C Martinelli
Many biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes such as glucose metabolism, body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles show regular daily rhythms. These circadian rhythms are adjusted to the environmental light-dark cycle by a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in order for the processes to occur at appropriate times of day. Here, we investigated the expression and function of a synaptic organizing protein, C1QL3, in the SCN. We found that C1ql3 is robustly expressed in the SCN...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480817/plasticity-in-the-period-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-induced-by-phase-dispersion-of-its-constituent-cellular-clocks
#13
Domien G M Beersma, Kim A Gargar, Serge Daan
The mammalian circadian pacemaker is commonly thought to be a rigid oscillator that generates output under a variety of circumstances that differ only in phase, period, and/or amplitude. Yet the pacemaker is composed of many cells that each can respond to varying circumstances in different ways. Computer simulations demonstrate that networks of such pacemaker cells behave differently under a light-dark cycle compared with constant darkness. The differences demonstrate that the circadian pacemaker is plastic: The pacemaker shapes its properties in response to the circumstances...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466676/daily-rhythm-in-plasma-n-acetyltryptamine
#14
Peter S Backlund, Henryk F Urbanski, Mark A Doll, David W Hein, Marjan Bozinoski, Christopher E Mason, Steven L Coon, David C Klein
Normal physiology undergoes 24-h changes in function that include daily rhythms in circulating hormones, most notably melatonin and cortical steroids. This study focused on N-acetyltryptamine, a little-studied melatonin receptor mixed agonist-antagonist and the likely evolutionary precursor of melatonin. The central issue addressed was whether N-acetyltryptamine is physiologically present in the circulation. N-acetyltryptamine was detected by LC-MS/MS in daytime plasma of 3 different mammals in subnanomolar levels (mean ± SEM: rat, 0...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452287/akt1-controls-the-timing-and-amplitude-of-vascular-circadian-gene-expression
#15
Amelia K Luciano, Jeans M Santana, Heino Velazquez, William C Sessa
The AKT signaling pathway is important for circadian rhythms in mammals and flies ( Drosophila). However, AKT signaling in mammals is more complicated since there are 3 isoforms of AKT, each performing slightly different functions. Here we study the most ubiquitous AKT isoform, Akt1, and its role at the organismal level in the central and vascular peripheral clocks. Akt1(-/-) mice exhibit relatively normal behavioral rhythms with only minor differences in circadian gene expression in the liver and heart. However, circadian gene expression in the Akt1(-/-) aorta, compared with control aorta, follows a distinct pattern...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452286/clock-gene-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-hibernating-arctic-ground-squirrels
#16
Tomoko Ikeno, Cory T Williams, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan
Most organisms have a circadian system, entrained to daily light-dark cycles, that regulates 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. It is unclear, however, how circadian systems function in animals that exhibit seasonal metabolic suppression, particularly when this coincides with the long-term absence of a day-night cycle. The arctic ground squirrel, Urocytellus parryii, is a medium-sized, semi-fossorial rodent that appears above-ground daily during its short active season in spring and summer before re-entering a constantly dark burrow for 6 to 9 months of hibernation...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452285/daily-light-exposure-patterns-reveal-phase-and-period-of-the-human-circadian-clock
#17
Tom Woelders, Domien G M Beersma, Marijke C M Gordijn, Roelof A Hut, Emma J Wams
Light is the most potent time cue that synchronizes (entrains) the circadian pacemaker to the 24-h solar cycle. This entrainment process is an interplay between an individual's daily light perception and intrinsic pacemaker period under free-running conditions. Establishing individual estimates of circadian phase and period can be time-consuming. We show that circadian phase can be accurately predicted (SD = 1.1 h for dim light melatonin onset, DLMO) using 9 days of ambulatory light and activity data as an input to Kronauer's limit-cycle model for the human circadian system...
June 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470124/andreas-oksche
#18
Horst-Werner Korf, David C Klein, Josephine Arendt, Paul Pévet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470123/carbachol-induces-phase-dependent-phase-shifts-of-per1-transcription-rhythms-in-cultured-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-slices
#19
Kumiko Dojo, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Jean-Michel Fustin, Masao Doi, Masaki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Okamura
Among nonphotic stimulants, a classic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, is known to have a strong and unique phase-resetting effect on the circadian clock: Intracerebroventricular carbachol treatment causes phase delays during the subjective early night and phase advances in the subjective late night, but the effects of this drug on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in vivo and in vitro are still controversial. In the present study, we succeeded in reproducing the biphasic phase-shifting effect of carbachol on clock gene expression in organotypic SCN slices prepared from mice carrying a Per1-promoter fused luciferase gene ( Per1-luc)...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470122/daily-cycles-in-body-temperature-in-a-songbird-change-with-photoperiod-and-are-weakly-circadian
#20
Alistair Dawson
Although it is well known that body temperature (Tb) is higher during the day in diurnal birds than at night, no data are available regarding exactly how Tb varies during a 24-h period, how this differs under different photoperiods, and how it responds to a change in photoperiod. This study used implanted temperature loggers in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) to address these questions. The duration of elevated Tb was directly related to photoperiod, but the amplitude of the daily cycle was significantly greater under shorter photoperiods...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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