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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806590/how-multi-segmental-patterns-deviate-in-spastic-diplegia-from-typical-developed
#1
Matteo Zago, Chiarella Sforza, Alessia Bona, Veronica Cimolin, Pier Francesco Costici, Claudia Condoluci, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: The relationship between gait features and coordination in children with Cerebral Palsy is not sufficiently analyzed yet. Principal Component Analysis can help in understanding motion patterns decomposing movement into its fundamental components (Principal Movements). This study aims at quantitatively characterizing the functional connections between multi-joint gait patterns in Cerebral Palsy. METHODS: 65 children with spastic diplegia aged 10.6 (SD 3...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806591/immediate-mechanical-stability-of-threaded-and-porous-implant-systems
#2
Do-Gyoon Kim, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Hua-Hong Chien, Amanda M Agnew, Jin Whan Lee, Hai Bo Wen
BACKGROUND: Primary stability of a dental implant system is an essential factor to maintain its long-term success. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether primary stability is different between threaded and porous dental implant systems placed in artificial bone blocks and human cadaveric mandibular bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two threaded and 42 highly porous dental implants were placed in artificial polyurethane bone foams with 7 different thicknesses (3...
August 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806592/validation-of-simplified-centre-of-mass-models-during-gait-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#3
Andrew H Huntley, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Anthony Aqui, Avril Mansfield
BACKGROUND: The feasibility of using a multiple segment (full-body) kinematic model in clinical gait assessment is difficult when considering obstacles such as time and cost constraints. While simplified gait models have been explored in healthy individuals, no such work to date has been conducted in a stroke population. The aim of this study was to quantify the errors of simplified kinematic models for chronic stroke gait assessment. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with chronic stroke (>6months), outfitted with full body kinematic markers, performed a series of gait trials...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797673/trunk-kinetic-effort-during-step-ascent-and-descent-in-patients-with-transtibial-amputation-using-angular-momentum-separation
#4
Brecca M M Gaffney, Cory L Christiansen, Amanda M Murray, Bradley S Davidson
BACKGROUND: Patients with transtibial amputation adopt trunk movement compensations that alter effort and increase the risk of developing low back pain. However, the effort required to achieve high-demand tasks, such as step ascent and descent, remains unknown. METHODS: Kinematics were collected during bilateral step ascent and descent tasks from two groups: 1) seven patients with unilateral transtibial amputation and 2) seven healthy control subjects. Trunk kinetic effort was quantified using translational and rotational segmental moments (time rate of change of segmental angular momentum)...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779695/increased-lower-limb-muscle-coactivation-reduces-gait-performance-and-increases-metabolic-cost-in-patients-with-hereditary-spastic-paraparesis
#5
Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Silvia Conforto, Giovanni Martino, Francesco Draicchio, Carmela Conte, Tiwana Varrecchia, Fabiano Bini, Carlo Casali, Francesco Pierelli, Mariano Serrao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. METHODS: Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783492/shoulder-muscle-atrophy-and-its-relation-to-strength-loss-in-obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy
#6
Christelle Pons, Frances T Sheehan, Hyun Soo Im, Sylvain Brochard, Katharine E Alter
BACKGROUND: Treatment/prevention of shoulder muscle strength imbalances are major therapeutic goals for children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. The study aims were to characterize muscle atrophy in children/adolescents with unilateral obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, to quantify the agonist-antagonist muscle volume balance and the association between muscle volume and strength. METHODS: Eight boys and four girls (age=12.1, standard deviation=3.3) participated in this case-control study...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783491/adaptation-of-postural-recovery-responses-to-a-vestibular-sensory-illusion-in-individuals-with-parkinson-disease-and-healthy-controls
#7
Mark E Lester, James T Cavanaugh, K Bo Foreman, Scott W Shaffer, Robin Marcus, Leland E Dibble
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. METHODS: This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755611/fixed-and-mobile-bearing-total-ankle-prostheses-effect-on-tibial-bone-strain
#8
Alexandre Terrier, Caroline Sieger Fernandes, Maïka Guillemin, Xavier Crevoisier
BACKGROUND: Total ankle replacement is associated to a high revision rate. To improve implant survival, the potential advantage of prostheses with fixed bearing compared to mobile bearing is unclear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fixed and mobile bearing prostheses are associated with different biomechanical quantities typically associated to implant failure. METHODS: With a validated finite element model, we compared three cases: a prosthesis with a fixed bearing, a prosthesis with a mobile bearing in a centered position, and a prosthesis with mobile bearing in an eccentric position...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811046/effect-of-real-time-biofeedback-on-peak-knee-adduction-moment-in-patients-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-is-direct-feedback-effective
#9
Rosie E Richards, Josien C van den Noort, Martin van der Esch, Marjolein J Booij, Jaap Harlaar
BACKGROUND: Gait modifications can reduce the knee adduction moment, a representation of knee loading. Reduced loading may help to slow progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to investigate the response of patients with medial knee osteoarthritis to direct feedback on the knee adduction moment as a method for modifying the gait pattern, before and after training with specific gait modifications. METHODS: Forty patients with medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3D gait analysis on an instrumented-treadmill, while receiving real-time feedback on the peak knee adduction moment...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728077/comparison-of-spinal-stability-following-motor-control-and-general-exercises-in-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-patients
#10
MohammadBagher Shamsi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Navid Arjmand, Farshid Ghezelbash
BACKGROUND: Motor control exercise was claimed to improve spinal stability in patients with chronic non-specific back pain, but to investigate the effectiveness of this exercise, other outcome measures have been used rather than spinal stability itself. The aim of our study is to assess motor control exercise effects on spinal stability using a biomechanical model. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were assigned to either motor control or general exercises. Before and after trainings, participants were tested for spinal stability at seven isometric tasks...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719806/effect-of-cage-design-supplemental-posterior-instrumentation-and-approach-on-primary-stability-of-a-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-biomechanical-in-vitro-study
#11
Werner Schmoelz, Sabrina Sandriesser, Oded Loebl, Marlies Bauer, Dietmar Krappinger
BACKGROUND: There are various techniques and approaches for lumbar interbody fusion differing in access, cage type and type of supplemental posterior instrumentation. While a transforaminal access usually includes a hemifacetectomy, the facet joint can be preserved with a more lateral extraforaminal access. The supplemental posterior instrumentation required for both fusion techniques is still debated. The purpose of the present study was to compare primary stability of the two accesses for two different cage types with none, unilateral and bilateral supplemental posterior instrumentation...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728078/femoral-head-necrosis-a-finite-element-analysis-of-common-and-novel-surgical-techniques
#12
Myriam Cilla, Sara Checa, Bernd Preininger, Tobias Winkler, Carsten Perka, Georg N Duda, Matthias Pumberger
BACKGROUND: Femoral head necrosis is a common cause of secondary osteoarthritis. At the early stages, treatment strategies are normally based on core decompression techniques, where the number, location and diameter of the drilling holes varies depending on the selected approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of femoral head, neck and subtrochanteric fracture following six different core decompression techniques. MATERIALS: Five common and a newly proposed techniques were analyzed in respect to their biomechanical consequences using finite element analysis...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728076/age-explains-limited-hip-extension-recovery-at-one-year-from-total-hip-arthroplasty
#13
Davide Mazzoli, Erika Giannotti, Maria Longhi, Paolo Prati, Stefano Masiero, Andrea Merlo
BACKGROUND: To investigate the dependency of the one-year recovery in gait after total hip arthroplasty on age and preoperative conditions. METHODS: Longitudinal retrospective study on 20 elderly patients with unilateral total hip arthroplasty consequent to hip osteoarthritis, assessed by gait analysis before surgery (T0), 2weeks (T1), 6 (T2) and 12months (T3) post-surgery. A set of variables assessing primary gait deviations and compensatory mechanisms were extracted from gait analysis data...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704694/harmony-as-a-convergence-attractor-that-minimizes-the-energy-expenditure-and-variability-in-physiological-gait-and-the-loss-of-harmony-in-cerebellar-ataxia
#14
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Marco Iosa, Carlo Casali, Giovanni Morone, Carmela Conte, Fabiano Bini, Franco Marinozzi, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli, Francesco Draicchio, Alberto Ranavolo
BACKGROUND: The harmony of the human gait was recently found to be related to the golden ratio value (ϕ). The ratio between the duration of the stance and that of the swing phases of a gait cycle was in fact found to be close to ϕ, which implies that, because of the fractal property of autosimilarity of that number, the gait ratios stride/stance, stance/swing, swing/double support, were not significantly different from one another. We studied a group of patients with cerebellar ataxia to investigate how the differences between their gait ratios and the golden ratio are related to efficiency and stability of their gait, assessed by energy expenditure and stride-to-stride variability, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708989/sex-specific-hip-osteoarthritis-associated-gait-abnormalities-alterations-in-dynamic-hip-abductor-function-differ-in-men-and-women
#15
Kharma C Foucher
BACKGROUND: Hip osteoarthritis results in abnormal gait mechanics, but it is not known whether abnormalities are the same in men and women. The hypothesis tested was that gait abnormalities are different in men and women with hip osteoarthritis vs. sex-specific asymptomatic groups. METHODS: 150 subjects with mild through severe radiographic hip osteoarthritis and 159 asymptomatic subjects were identified from an Institutional Review Board-approved motion analysis data repository...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668552/the-effect-of-an-8-week-stabilization-exercise-program-on-the-lumbopelvic-rhythm-and-flexion-relaxation-phenomenon
#16
Ali Shahvarpour, Sharon M Henry, Richard Preuss, Hakim Mecheri, Christian Larivière
BACKGROUND: Lumbar stabilization exercise programs should normalize the aberrant movements patterns often observed in patients with low back pain. This study aimed to determine the effect of an 8-week lumbar stabilization program on EMG/kinematics measures of the aberrant movement patterns in such patients. A secondary goal was to assess the 8-week test-retest reliability of these measures. METHODS: The patients followed an 8-week lumbar stabilization program while no intervention was carried out on the controls...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662423/biomechanical-research-on-contour-cage-with-transacetabular-screws-fixation-in-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty
#17
Haobo Wu, Chiyuan Ma, Jisheng Ran, Danfeng Xu, An Liu, Miao Sun, Lidong Wu, Shigui Yan
BACKGROUND: Use biomechanical technique to access the strain distribution and stability of Contour anti-protrusion cage with or without the whole circumference acetabular cup fixation by the transacetabular screws. METHODS: Pelvic specimens from 10 male cadavers were used for the biomechanical test. The models of type C bone defect were copied according to the AAOS classification. Group 1: the contour reconstruction ring was fixed only by flange screws; Group 2: the contour reconstruction ring was fixed both by flange screws and transacetabular screws in dome...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668553/the-recovery-response-to-a-novel-unannounced-laboratory-induced-slip-the-first-trial-effect-in-older-adults
#18
Xuan Liu, Sasha Reschechtko, Shuaijie Wang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
BACKGROUND: After a single slip, older adults rapidly make adaptive changes to avoid or eliminate further backward loss of balance or a fall. This rapid adaptation has been termed the "single trial effect". The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the motor errors subjects experienced upon a novel slip and the selection and execution of corrective response by which they modified their ongoing gait pattern and turned it into a protective step. METHODS: A forward slip was induced in the laboratory among 145 community-living older (≥65year old) adults who were protected by an overhead full body harness system...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641199/influence-of-weight-bearing-visual-feedback-on-movement-symmetry-during-sit-to-stand-task
#19
Sumayeh Abujaber, Federico Pozzi, Joseph Zeni
BACKGROUND: Weight-bearing asymmetry is common in individuals with hip osteoarthritis and after total hip arthroplasty. Including symmetry training to the rehabilitation programs may normalize movement strategies during dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate influences of real-time visual feedback of weight distribution on the interlimb movement symmetry during the sit-to-stand task, before and after total hip arthroplasty, and to determine whether physical impairments affect the response to visual feedback...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618309/exertion-and-pain-do-not-alter-coordination-variability-in-runners-with-iliotibial-band-syndrome
#20
Jocelyn F Hafer, Allison M Brown, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse running injury which results in altered mechanics. While injuries alter discrete mechanics, they may also cause a change in coordination variability, the stride-to-stride organization of runners' movement patterns. Uninjured and injured runners may experience a change in coordination variability during a run to exertion due to fatigue, pain, or a combination of these factors. The aim of the current study was to determine if runners with iliotibial band syndrome and uninjured runners display different segment coordination variability across the course of a run to exertion...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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