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Clinical Biomechanics

Gisele Harumi Hotta, Paulo Otávio Pimenta Queiroz, Tenysson Will de Lemos, Denise Martineli Rossi, Ramon de Oliveira Scatolin, Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Given the changes in the patterns of muscular activation and scapular movement in individuals with subacromial pain syndrome, the use of neuromuscular training has been considered in rehabilitation protocols. There is currently no evidence of the effects of the use of three-dimensional (3D) kinematic biofeedback on individuals with subacromial pain syndrome. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of scapular motor control exercises using 3D kinematic biofeedback on the scapular kinematics, inter-segment coordination and pain of individuals with subacromial pain syndrome...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Andreas Fottner, Matthias Woiczinski, Manuel Kistler, Christian Schröder, Tobias F Schmidutz, Volkmar Jansson, Florian Schmidutz
BACKGROUND: Varus position of cementless stems is a common malalignment in total hip arthroplasty. Clinical studies have reported a low rate of aseptic loosening but an increased risk for thigh pain. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate these clinical observations from a biomechanical perspective. METHODS: A conventional cementless stem (CLS Spotorno) was implanted in a regular, straight (size 13.75) as well as in a varus position (size 11.25) in 6 composite femora (Sawbones), respectively...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Keisuke Matsuki, Hiroyuki Sugaya, Shota Hoshika, Norimasa Takahashi, Tomonori Kenmoku, Scott A Banks
BACKGROUND: Changes over time in shoulder kinematics and function after reverse shoulder arthroplasty have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder kinematics and function at 6 months and 1 year after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty patients with a mean age of 74 years (range, 63-91 years) were enrolled in this study. Fluoroscopic images during scapular plane elevation were recorded at the mean of 6 months (range, 5-8 months) and 14 months (range, 11-21 months)...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Cortney N Armitano, Steven Morrison, Daniel M Russell
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine coordination differences in walking between individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared with healthy matched controls. Predictions from the extended Haken, Kelso, and Bunz coupled oscillator model were tested in these populations. METHODS: Seventeen persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and 17 matched controls participated in the study. Sagittal plane angular knee displacement was recorded using electrogoniometers over the lateral right and left knee joints while participants walked at five walking speeds overground...
July 4, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hugo Giambini, Taku Hatta, Asghar Rezaei, Kai-Nan An
BACKGROUND: A torn rotator cuff tendon will retract over time causing changes in muscle properties and decreasing its extensibility, or deformation. During surgery, large tensile loads are applied to bring the torn tendon to the footprint. Poor muscle extensibility and large tensile stresses at the repair might lead to gap formation or re-tear of the repair. A quantitative evaluation of muscle properties could be used to predict the extensibility of the supraspinatus (SSP) muscle. METHOD: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured volumetric fat fraction and shear wave elastography (SWE)-measured elastic modulus of the SSP muscle were obtained on seventeen cadaveric shoulders...
July 3, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Md Anamul Islam, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Morufu Olusola Ibitoye, Nazirah Hasnan, Ahmad Khairi Abdul Wahab, Glen M Davis
BACKGROUND: Investigation of muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury using dynamometry has limited capability to characterize the fatigue state of individual muscles. Mechanomyography has the potential to represent the state of muscle function at the muscle level. This study sought to investigate surface mechanomyographic responses evoked from quadriceps muscles during FES-cycling, and to quantify its changes between pre- and post-fatiguing conditions in individuals with spinal cord injury...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Federica Corona, Giuseppina Pilloni, Federico Arippa, Micaela Porta, Carlo Casula, Giovanni Cossu, Massimiliano Pau
BACKGROUND: In clinical routine, upper limb motor disorders of people with Parkinson's disease are commonly assessed using scale- or timed tests, but such tools are not fully suitable for providing detailed information about their type and magnitude. To partly overcome these limitations, the present study aims to quantitatively investigate upper limb functional impairments through quantitative analysis of the "hand-to-mouth" task. METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with Parkinson's disease and 20 age-matched healthy individuals underwent a kinematic analysis of the hand-to-mouth task from which spatio-temporal and kinematic measures, including summary measures (Arm Variable Score and Arm Profile Score), were calculated and correlated with clinical scores (Hoehn & Yahr, H&Y and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS)...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Michael J Del Bel, Teresa E Flaxman, Kenneth B Smale, Tine Alkjaer, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
BACKGROUND: Sex-related neuromuscular differences have been linked to greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Despite this, it remains unclear if sex-related differences are present after injury. This study sought to determine if sex differences are present in the functional roles of knee joint muscles in an anterior cruciate ligament deficient population. METHODS: An isometric, weight-bearing, force-generation protocol required injured and healthy males and females to modulate ground reaction forces...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Silvia Pancani, Wendy Tindale, Pamela J Shaw, Claudia Mazzà, Christopher J McDermott
BACKGROUND: The Head Up collar is a cervical orthosis designed to be adaptable to a patient's needs using adjustable removable supports. The aim of this study was to characterise the ability of this orthosis to provide head support and facilitate the control of head movements in people living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. METHODS: Thirteen patients (6 females, age range: 45-74 years old, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale range: 13-44) with neck muscle weakness due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis were enrolled in the study...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Andreia S P Sousa, Márcia Silva, Samuel Gonzalez, Rubim Santos
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the magnitude of bilateral compensatory postural adjustments in response to a unilateral sudden inversion perturbation in subjects with chronic ankle instability. METHODS: 24 athletes with chronic ankle instability (14 with functional ankle instability, 10 with mechanical ankle instability) and twenty controls participated in this study. The bilateral electromyography of ankle muscles was collected during a unilateral sudden ankle inversion to assess the magnitude of subcortical and voluntary compensatory postural adjustments in both the perturbed and the contralateral limb (support limb)...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hang Xu, MaryEllen Hunt, K Bo Foreman, Jie Zhao, Andrew Merryweather
BACKGROUND: Persons with Parkinson's disease are at high risk for fall-related injuries with a large proportion of falls occurring while walking, especially when the walking environments are complex. The aim of this study was to characterize gait parameters on irregular surface for persons with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted for nine persons with Parkinson's disease and nine healthy age-matched adults on both regular and irregular surfaces...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Namika Miura, Keiichi Tagomori, Hisashi Ikutomo, Norikazu Nakagawa, Kensaku Masuhara
BACKGROUND: Asymmetrical loading during functional performance can occur after total hip arthroplasty. We hypothesized that during sit-to-stand movements, the loading of the limbs of patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty is more asymmetrical than that of those who do not. The objective of the present study was to compare asymmetrical loading during the sit-to-stand movements of patients at 1 year after undergoing total hip arthroplasty, and that of healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients at 1 year after undergoing total hip arthroplasty and 16 healthy adults were included...
June 25, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Takeshi Shoji, Takuma Yamasaki, Soutarou Izumi, Mifuji Kenji, Mikiya Sawa, Yuji Yasunaga, Nobuo Adachi
BACKGROUND: There is little description of the effect of cup position on the hip range of motion in total hip arthroplasty. The purpose is to evaluate the effect of cup medialization/lateralization with a compensatory increase/decrease in femoral offset on the hip range of motion, and whether the bone morphology of the anterior inferior iliac spine affects hip range of motion in total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Using the CT data of 100 patients (male; 30, female; 70), 3D-dynamic motion analysis was performed in four scenarios with cup medialization/lateralization with the same/decreased global offset...
June 24, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Ricky Watari, Sean Osis, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Objectively identifying patients at baseline who may not respond well to a generic muscle strengthening intervention could improve clinical practice by optimizing treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pelvic acceleration measures during running, and clinical and demographic variables could classify patellofemoral pain patients according to their response to a 6-week hip/core and knee exercise-based rehabilitation protocol. METHODS: Forty-one individuals with patellofemoral pain participated in a 6-week exercise intervention program and were sub-grouped into treatment Responders (n = 28) and Non-responders (n = 13) based on self-reported pain and function measures...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Jürgen Freiwald, Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Wilhelm Beermann, Jarek Krajewski, Christian Baumgart
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of thermotherapy on analgesia and relaxation are widely known for various diseases. To date, however, thermotherapy in chronic low back pain is not explicitly recommended in international guidelines. The effects of thermotherapy on biomechanical parameters within a multimodal back pain treatment concept are also unknown. METHODS: Within a multimodal treatment concept, 176 patients with chronic low back pain were treated either with or without supplemental heat wrap therapy...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Zhirong Wang, Wen Zhang, Hao Xu, Aiqing Lu, Huilin Yang, Zong-Ping Luo
BACKGROUND: Cannulating fenestrated pedicle screws are effective for fixating osteoporotic vertebrae. However, a major limitation is the excessive pressure required to inject a sufficient amount of cement into the vertebral body through the narrow hole of a pedicle screw. We have recently proposed a new cannulating fenestrated pedicle screw with a large hole diameter and a matched inner pin for screw-strength maintenance. Our purpose was to determine whether the new screw can significantly reduce bone-cement perfusion pressure during cement augmentation, METHODS: Two different methods were used to examine perfusion pressure...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Yongchang Gao, Zhenxian Chen, Zhifeng Zhang, Shibin Chen, Zhongmin Jin
BACKGROUND: Steep inclination and excessive anteversion angles of acetabular cups could result in adverse edge-loading. This, in turn, increases contact pressure and impingement risk for traditional artificial hip joints. However, the influence of high inclination and anteversion angles on both the kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants has rarely been examined. METHODS: This study focuses on investigating both the kinematics and contact mechanics of a dual mobility hip implant under different inclination and anteversion angles using a dynamic explicit finite element method developed in a previous study...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Michelle C LaPlaca, M Christian Lessing, Gustavo R Prado, Runzhou Zhou, Ciara C Tate, Donna Geddes-Klein, David F Meaney, Liying Zhang
BACKGROUND: An increases in plasma membrane permeability is part of the acute pathology of traumatic brain injury and may be a function of excessive membrane force. This membrane damage, or mechanoporation, allows non-specific flux of ions and other molecules across the plasma membrane, and may ultimately lead to cell death. The relationships among tissue stress and strain, membrane permeability, and subsequent cell degeneration, however, are not fully understood. METHODS: Fluorescent molecules of different sizes were introduced to the cerebrospinal fluid space prior to injury and animals were sacrificed at either 10 min or 24 h after injury...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Allison White, Hannah Abbott, Alfonse T Masi, Jacqueline Henderson, Kalyani Nair
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis is a degenerative and inflammatory rheumatologic disorder that primarily affects the spine. Delayed diagnosis leads to debilitating spinal damage. This study examines biomechanical properties of non-contracting (resting) human lower lumbar myofascia in ankylosing spondylitis patients and matched healthy control subjects. METHODS: Biomechanical properties of stiffness, frequency, decrement, stress relaxation time, and creep were quantified from 24 ankylosing spondylitis patients (19 male, 5 female) and 24 age- and sex-matched control subjects in prone position on both sides initially and after 10 min rest...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Guanjun Zhang, Xianpan Deng, Fengjiao Guan, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao, Haojie Mao
BACKGROUND: The use of saline in preserving bone specimens may affect the mechanical properties of specimens. Yet, the reported effects varied and contradicted to each other, with a lack of investigating constitutive material parameters. Therefore, we quantified the effects of preservation time on the constitutive properties of cortical bone. METHODS: We collected 120 specimens from the mid-diaphysis of six male bovine femora, which were assigned to five groups, including fresh-frozen for 60 days (-20 °C), storage in saline for 3, 10, 36 and 60 days (25 °C)...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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