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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628801/evaluation-of-midcarpal-capitate-contact-mechanics-in-normal-injured-and-post-operative-wrists
#1
Saman Modaresi, Madhan S Kallem, Phil Lee, Terence E McIff, E Bruce Toby, Kenneth J Fischer
BACKGROUND: Scapholunate ligament injury is a commonly occurring carpal ligament injury. Pathology associated with scapholunate ligament injury depends on several factors such as the time after injury, type of injury (instability) and the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare contact mechanics in the lunocapitate and scaphocapitate joints in the normal, injured (scapholunate dissociation) and repaired (postoperative) wrist. METHODS: Four human subjects with scapholunate ligament dissociation participated in this study...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618311/predicting-knee-osteoarthritis-risk-in-injured-populations
#2
Michael J Long, Enrica Papi, Lynsey D Duffell, Alison H McGregor
BACKGROUND: Individuals who suffered a lower limb injury have an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. Early diagnosis of osteoarthritis and the ability to track its progression is challenging. This study aimed to explore links between self-reported knee osteoarthritis outcome scores and biomechanical gait parameters, whether self-reported outcome scores could predict gait abnormalities characteristic of knee osteoarthritis in injured populations and, whether scores and biomechanical outcomes were related to osteoarthritis severity via Spearman's correlation coefficient...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628800/increased-internal-femoral-torsion-can-be-regarded-as-a-risk-factor-for-patellar-instability-a-biomechanical-study
#3
Peter Kaiser, Werner Schmoelz, Philip Schoettle, Marit Zwierzina, Christian Heinrichs, Rene Attal
BACKGROUND: Increased internal femoral torsion is regarded as a risk factor for patellar instability. Biomechanical investigations confirming this hypothesis are missing. METHODS: Eight fresh-frozen cadaver knees were tested on a specially designed simulator. Patellar motion and patellofemoral pressure were evaluated for 0°, 10°, and 20° of increased internal and external femoral torsion with native and with transected medial patellofemoral ligaments used to simulate patellar instability...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618309/exertion-and-pain-do-not-alter-coordination-variability-in-runners-with-iliotibial-band-syndrome
#4
Jocelyn F Hafer, Allison M Brown, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse running injury which results in altered mechanics. While injuries alter discrete mechanics, they may also cause a change in coordination variability, the stride-to-stride organization of runners' movement patterns. Uninjured and injured runners may experience a change in coordination variability during a run to exertion due to fatigue, pain, or a combination of these factors. The aim of the current study was to determine if runners with iliotibial band syndrome and uninjured runners display different segment coordination variability across the course of a run to exertion...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618310/bilateral-changes-in-3-d-scapular-kinematics-in-individuals-with-chronic-stroke
#5
Maíra Carolina Lixandrão, Paula Rezende Camargo, Caroline Evelin Neves Scarpa, Christiane Lanatovitz Prado-Medeiros, Tania Fátima Salvini
BACKGROUND: Stroke can lead to altered scapular motion that may limit the ability to perform activities of daily living. The aims were to evaluate scapular kinematics of individuals with chronic stroke and the correlation with paretic arm function. METHODS: Scapular kinematics was assessed in thirty-four individuals (Chronic stroke=17; controls=17) during arm elevation and lowering in scapular and self-selected planes, and during hair combing. The use of the paretic arm to perform activities of daily living was assessed by the Motor Activity Log (MAL-30)...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618308/supplementary-medial-locking-plate-fixation-of-ludloff-osteotomy-versus-sole-lag-screw-fixation-a-biomechanical-evaluation
#6
Panagiotis E Chatzistergos, George C Karaoglanis, Stavros K Kourkoulis, Minos Tyllianakis, Emmanouil D Stamatis
BACKGROUND: The Ludloff oblique osteotomy is inherently unstable, which might lead to delayed union and loss of correction. Supplementary fixation to two lag screw fixation has been proposed. The hypothesis is that the osteotomy fixation constructs supplemented by a mini locking plate provide greater resistance to osteotomy gaping and loss of angular correction in response to cyclic loading. METHODS: Twenty fourth generation composite 1st metatarsals were used and underwent a Ludloff osteotomy...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600995/high-spatial-resolution-pressure-distribution-of-the-vaginal-canal-in-pompoir-practitioners-a-biomechanical-approach-for-assessing-the-pelvic-floor
#7
Licia P Cacciari, Anice C Pássaro, Amanda C Amorim, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: Pompoir is a technique poorly studied in the literature that claims to improve pelvic floor strength and coordination. This study aims to investigate the pelvic floor muscles' coordination throughout the vaginal canal among Pompoir practitioners and non-practitioners by describing a high resolution map of pressure distribution. METHODS: This cross-sectional, study included 40 healthy women in two groups: control and Pompoir. While these women performed both sustained and "waveform" pelvic floor muscle contractions, the spatiotemporal pressure distribution in their vaginal canals was evaluated by a non-deformable probe fully instrumented with a 10×10 matrix of capacitive transducers...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582642/movement-of-the-sacroiliac-joint-during-the-active-straight-leg-raise-test-in-patients-with-long-lasting-severe-sacroiliac-joint-pain
#8
Thomas J Kibsgård, Stephan M Röhrl, Olav Røise, Bengt Sturesson, Britt Stuge
BACKGROUND: The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600994/differences-in-lumbar-spine-and-lower-extremity-kinematics-during-a-step-down-functional-task-in-people-with-and-people-without-low-back-pain
#9
Alejandra Hernandez, Karlie Gross, Sara Gombatto
BACKGROUND: When functional movements are impaired in people with low back pain, they may be a contributing factor to chronicity and recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to examine lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremity kinematics during a step down functional task between people with and without a history of low back pain. METHODS: A 3-dimensional motion capture system was used to analyze kinematics during a step down task. Total excursion of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremity segments in each plane were calculated from the start to end of the task...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600996/lower-limb-alignment-and-laxity-measures-before-during-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Jon V Clarke, Angela H Deakin, Frederic Picard, Philip E Riches
BACKGROUND: This study compared knee alignment and laxity in patients before, during and after total knee arthroplasty, using methodologically similar procedures, with an aim to help inform pre-operative planning. METHODS: Eighteen male and 13 female patients were recruited, mean age 66years (51-82) and mean body mass index of 33 (23-43). All were assessed pre- and postoperatively using a non-invasive infrared position capture system and all underwent total knee arthroplasty using a navigation system...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575704/muscle-function-in-women-with-systemic-sclerosis-association-with-fatigue-and-general-physical-function
#11
Amanda Cristina Justo, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Arthur Sá Ferreira, Mauricio Santos Soares, Priscila Santos Bunn, Agnaldo José Lopes
BACKGROUND: Individuals with systemic sclerosis have muscle functions with varying degrees of muscle weakness and atrophy, which in turn can have a negative impact on functional and health-related quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate peripheral muscle performance using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee in women with systemic sclerosis and to correlate peripheral muscle dysfunction with disability levels and general fatigue. METHODS: Twenty-six women with systemic sclerosis and a matched control group with an equal number of women underwent knee isokinetic dynamometry at angular speeds of 75°/s and 240°/s, isometric handgrip strength, the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and the Fatigue Impact Scale...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554052/acute-effects-of-spinal-bracing-on-scapular-kinematics-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#12
Gozde Gur, Elif Turgut, Cigdem Ayhan, Gul Baltaci, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Bracing is the most common nonsurgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spinal braces affect glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion because they restrict trunk movements. However, the potential spinal-bracing effects on scapular kinematics are unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the acute effects of spinal bracing on scapular kinematics in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: Scapular kinematics, including scapular internal/external rotation, posterior/anterior tilting, and downward/upward rotation during scapular plane elevation, were evaluated in 27 in-brace and out-of-brace adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with a three-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554054/military-personnel-with-self-reported-ankle-injuries-do-not-demonstrate-deficits-in-dynamic-postural-stability-or-landing-kinematics
#13
Heather M Bansbach, Mita T Lovalekar, John P Abt, Deirdre Rafferty, Darcie Yount, Timothy C Sell
BACKGROUND: The odds of sustaining non-contact musculoskeletal injuries are higher in Special Operations Forces operators than in infantry soldiers. The ankle is one of the most commonly injured joints, and once injured can put individuals at risk for reinjury. The purpose of this study was to determine if any differences in postural stability and landing kinematics exist between operators with a self-reported ankle injury in the past one year and uninjured controls. METHODS: A total of 55 Special Operations Forces operators were included in this analysis...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554053/radiographic-evaluation-of-acute-distal-radius-fracture-stability-a-comparative-cadaveric-study-between-a-thermo-formable-bracing-system-and-traditional-fiberglass-casting
#14
Brandon G Santoni, Jazmine R Aira, Miguel A Diaz, T Kyle Stoops, Peter Simon
BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries and many can be treated non-operatively with cast immobilization. A thermo-formable brace has been developed for management of such fractures, but no data exist regarding its comparative stabilizing efficacy to fiberglass casting. METHODS: A worst-case distal radius fracture was created in 6 cadaveric forearms. A radiolucent loading fixture was created to apply cantilever bending/compression loads ranging from 4...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528237/skin-deformation-during-shoulder-movements-and-upper-extremity-activities
#15
Weiqing Ge, Alison Sfara, Brittany Hians
BACKGROUND: The necessity of sternal precautions for patients following cardiac surgery with median sternotomy has been questioned by clinicians, researchers, and even patients. The primary purpose was to determine if sternal skin deformation during shoulder movements and upper extremity activities is compressive or distractive and if there are any significant differences between the skin deformation at different positions during shoulder movements and upper extremity activities. The secondary purpose was to determine if sternal skin deformation is correlated with scapular stabilizer muscle strength...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528238/effects-of-grab-bar-on-utilized-friction-and-dynamic-stability-when-elderly-people-enter-the-bathtub
#16
Yusuke Sekiguchi, Tomohisa Kato, Keita Honda, Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Shin-Ichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. METHODS: Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514698/clinical-outcomes-and-frontal-plane-two-dimensional-biomechanics-during-the-30-second-single-leg-stance-test-in-patients-before-and-after-hip-abductor-tendon-reconstructive-surgery
#17
Rose E Huxtable, Timothy R Ackland, Gregory C Janes, Jay R Ebert
BACKGROUND: Hip abductor tendon tears are a common cause of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome. Conservative treatments are often ineffective and surgical reconstruction may be recommended. This study investigated the improvement in clinical outcomes and frontal plane two-dimensional biomechanics during a 30-second single leg stance test, in patients undergoing reconstruction. We hypothesized that clinical scores and pertinent biomechanical variables would significantly improve post-surgery, and these outcomes would be significantly correlated...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511104/lumbar-extensor-muscle-force-control-is-associated-with-disability-in-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#18
Adrian Pranata, Luke Perraton, Doa El-Ansary, Ross Clark, Karine Fortin, Tim Dettmann, Adam Bryant
BACKGROUND: The ability to control lumbar extensor force output is necessary for daily activities. However, it is unknown whether this ability is impaired in chronic low back pain patients. Similarly, it is unknown whether lumbar extensor force control is related to the disability levels of chronic low back pain patients. METHODS: Thirty-three chronic low back pain and 20 healthy people performed lumbar extension force-matching task where they increased and decreased their force output to match a variable target force within 20%-50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501788/dynamic-femoral-head-translations-in-dysplastic-hips
#19
Tatsuya Sato, Hiromasa Tanino, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiroshi Ito, Takeo Matsuno, Scott A Banks
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip is an important disease leading to osteoarthritis. Recently, researchers have focused on hip instability as a potentially important dynamic factor for osteoarthritis, but the detailed kinematics of dysplastic hips during weight-bearing gait have not been reported. The purpose of this research is to contrast femoral translation in contralateral healthy hips and dysplastic hips during weight-bearing stepping. METHODS: Twelve dysplastic hips and eight healthy hips were investigated...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500909/development-and-testing-of-a-moment-based-coactivation-index-to-assess-complex-dynamic-tasks-for-the-lumbar-spine
#20
Peter Le, Alexander Aurand, Jonathan S Dufour, Gregory G Knapik, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
BACKGROUND: Many methods exist to describe coactivation between muscles. However, most methods have limited capability in the assessment of coactivation during complex dynamic tasks for multi-muscle systems such as the lumbar spine. The ability to assess coactivation is important for the understanding of neuromuscular inefficiency. In the context of this manuscript, inefficiency is defined as the effort or level of coactivation beyond what may be necessary to accomplish a task (e.g., muscle guarding during postural stabilization)...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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