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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918003/relevance-of-adding-a-triangular-dynamic-cushion-on-a-traditional-chair-a-3d-analysis-of-seated-schoolchildren
#1
T Fettweis, M N Onkelinx, C Schwartz, C Demoulin, J L Croisier, M Vanderthommen
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is highly prevalent in the general population and is even reported as early as at primary school. A poor sitting position has been suggested as an etiologic factor. This study analysed, in primary schoolchildren, the influence of a triangular dynamic cushion that aims to help children maintain their physiological lumbar lordosis and to induce movement to reduce the static effect of the sitting position. METHODS: Thirty 8-year-old children took part in this study...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910722/analysis-of-in-vivo-articular-cartilage-contact-surface-of-the-knee-during-a-step-up-motion
#2
Peng Yin, Jing-Sheng Li, Willem A Kernkamp, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Seung-Hoon Baek, Ali Hosseini, Lin Lin, Peifu Tang, Guoan Li
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported on the tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact kinematics, however, no data has been reported on the articular cartilage geometry at the contact area. This study investigated the in-vivo tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact biomechanics during a dynamic step-up motion. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects were imaged using a validated magnetic resonance and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique during a step-up motion. Three-dimensional bone and cartilage models were constructed from the magnetic resonance images...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918002/effect-of-natural-sagittal-trunk-lean-on-standing-balance-in-untreated-scoliotic-girls
#3
Sébastien Leteneur, Émilie Simoneau-Buessinger, Franck Barbier, Charles-Hilaire Rivard, Paul Allard
BACKGROUND: Generally, scoliotic girls have a tendency to lean further back than a comparable group of non-scoliotic girls. To date, no study has addressed how standing balance in untreated scoliotic girls is affected by a natural backwardly or forwardly inclined trunk. METHODS: 27 able-bodied young girls and 27 young girls with a right thoracic curve were classified as leaning forward or backward according to the median of their trunk sagittal inclination. Participants stood upright barefoot...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898814/the-distribution-of-lumbar-intervertebral-angles-in-upright-standing-and-extension-is-related-to-low-back-pain-developed-during-standing
#4
Daniel Viggiani, Kaitlin M Gallagher, Michael Sehl, Jack P Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Lumbar lordosis measures are poorly related to clinical low back pain, however using a controlled exposure such as prolonged standing to identify pain groups may clarify this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of lumbar intervertebral angles in asymptomatic persons who do (pain developers) and do not (non-pain developers) develop low back pain during standing. METHODS: Sagittal plane lumbar spine radiographs of eight pain developers and eight non-pain developers were taken in three poses: upright standing, full extension and full flexion...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898815/biomechanical-evaluation-of-different-surgical-procedures-in-single-level-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-in-vitro
#5
Yuanwu Cao, Fubing Liu, Shengcheng Wan, Yun Liang, Chun Jiang, Zhenzhou Feng, Xiaoxing Jiang, Zixian Chen
BACKGROUNDS: A variety of improved surgical methods were adopted in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. A mechanical stability provides an ideal environment for the formation of a fusion mass and is the basis of their good outcomes. The object of this study is to evaluate the initial similarities and differences of four commonly-used posterior surgical procedures biomechanically. METHODS: Biomechanical testing was performed at L3-4 motion segment in 6 fresh-frozen human cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5), including the following sequentially tested configurations: 1) intact motion segment; 2) bilateral pedicle screw fixation; 3) unilateral pedicle screw fixation; 4) unilateral pedicle screw plus contralateral translaminar facet joint screw fixation according to the Magerl technique; and 5) bilateral pedicle screw fixation with bilateral facetectomies...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892670/the-influence-of-sex-and-obesity-on-gait-biomechanics-in-people-with-severe-knee-osteoarthritis-scheduled-for-arthroplasty
#6
K L Paterson, L Sosdian, R S Hinman, T V Wrigley, J Kasza, M Dowsey, P Choong, K L Bennell
BACKGROUND: Sex and body mass may influence knee biomechanics associated with poor total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to determine if gait differed between men and women, and overweight and class I obese patients with severe knee OA awaiting TKA. METHODS: 34 patients with severe knee OA (average age 70.0 (SD 7.2) years, body mass index 30.3 (4.1kg/m(2))) were recruited from a TKA waiting list. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed at self-selected walking speed...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898816/impaired-heel-to-toe-progression-during-gait-is-related-to-reduced-ankle-range-of-motion-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Michael Psarakis, David Greene, Mark Moresi, Michael Baker, Peter Stubbs, Matthew Brodie, Stephen Lord, Phu Hoang
BACKGROUND: Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888109/biomechanical-compensations-of-the-trunk-and-lower-extremities-during-stepping-tasks-after-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#8
Amanda M Murray, Brecca M Gaffney, Bradley S Davidson, Cory L Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity movement compensations following transtibial amputation are well-documented and are likely influenced by trunk posture and movement. However, the biomechanical compensations of the trunk and lower extremities, especially during high-demand tasks such as step ascent and descent, remain unclear. METHODS: Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during step ascent and descent tasks for three groups of individuals: diabetic/transtibial amputation, diabetic, and healthy...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866442/passive-material-properties-of-stroke-impaired-plantarflexor-and-dorsiflexor-muscles
#9
Kristen L Jakubowski, Ada Terman, Ricardo V C Santana, Sabrina S M Lee
BACKGROUND: Following a stroke, intrinsic muscle properties such as stiffness may be altered, which is accompanied by increased spasticity and contractures. Previously, quantification of muscle stiffness has been based off of indirect measurements. Using shear wave ultrasound elastography, direct measurements of muscle material properties can be made. METHODS: Our aim was to evaluate material properties, specifically passive stiffness, using shear wave ultrasound elastography across a range of muscle lengths, in the medial gastrocnemius and the tibialis anterior in chronic stroke survivors...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863319/comparison-of-mechanical-compressive-properties-of-commercial-and-autologous-fibrin-glues-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#10
Matthew G Cravens, Anthony W Behn, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: Fibrin glues are widely used in orthopedic surgery as adhesives and hemostatic agents. We evaluated the compressive properties of selected fibrin glues in order to identify which are appropriate for tissue regeneration applications subject to compression. METHODS: Uniaxial unconfined compression tests were performed on fibrin gels prepared from commercial and autologous products: (1) Evicel (Ethicon), (2) Tisseel (Baxter), (3) Angel (Arthrex), and (4) ProPlaz (Biorich)...
August 23, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826010/effect-of-wrist-and-finger-flexion-in-relation-to-strain-on-the-tendon-origin-of-the-extensor-carpi-radialis-brevis-a-cadaveric-study-simulating-stretching-exercises
#11
Rikiya Shirato, Mitsuhiro Aoki, Kousuke Iba, Takuro Wada, Egi Hidaka, Mineko Fujimiya, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Stretching exercises based on wrist flexion-ulnar deviation with elbow extension, forearm pronation, and additional index or middle finger flexion have been used to stretch the wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to quantify the strain on the tendon origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis in cadaver specimens during these stretching exercises. METHODS: We used 8 fresh frozen/thawed cadaveric upper extremities...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843128/effect-of-neck-flexor-muscle-activation-on-impact-velocity-of-the-head-during-backward-falls-in-young-adults
#12
W J Choi, S N Robinovitch, S A Ross, J Phan, D Cipriani
Falls are a common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) across the lifespan. A proposed but untested hypothesis is that neck muscle activation influences impact severity and risk for TBI during a fall. We conducted backward falling experiments to test whether activation of the neck flexor muscles facilitates the avoidance of head impact, and reduces impact velocity if the head contacts the ground. Young adults (n=8) fell from standing onto a 30cm thick gymnastics mat while wearing a helmet. Participants were instructed to fall backward and (a) prevent their head from impacting the mat ("no head impact" trials); (b) allow their head to impact the mat, but with minimal impact severity ("soft impact" trials); and (c) allow their head to impact the mat, while inhibiting efforts to reduce impact severity ("hard impact" trials)...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830044/postural-orientation-and-standing-postural-alignment-in-ambulant-children-with-bilateral-cerebral-palsy
#13
Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Andrzej Szopa
BACKGROUND: Standing postural alignment in children with cerebral palsy is usually altered by central postural control disorders. The primary aim of this study is to describe body alignment in a quiet standing position in ambulatory children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared with children with typical development. METHODS: Fifty-eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy (aged 7-13years) and 45 age-matched children with typical development underwent a surface topography examination based on Moiré topography and were classified according to their sagittal postural profiles...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826012/effects-of-footwear-and-stride-length-on-metatarsal-strains-and-failure-in-running
#14
Colin R Firminger, Anita Fung, Lindsay L Loundagin, W Brent Edwards
BACKGROUND: The metatarsal bones of the foot are particularly susceptible to stress fracture owing to the high strains they experience during the stance phase of running. Shoe cushioning and stride length reduction represent two potential interventions to decrease metatarsal strain and thus stress fracture risk. METHODS: Fourteen male recreational runners ran overground at a 5-km pace while motion capture and plantar pressure data were collected during four experimental conditions: traditional shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length, and minimalist shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869812/the-effects-of-prosthetic-foot-stiffness-on-transtibial-amputee-walking-mechanics-and-balance-control-during-turning
#15
Courtney E Shell, Ava D Segal, Glenn K Klute, Richard R Neptune
BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists regarding how prosthesis design characteristics affect performance in tasks that challenge mediolateral balance such as turning. This study assesses the influence of prosthetic foot stiffness on amputee walking mechanics and balance control during a continuous turning task. METHODS: Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected from eight unilateral transtibial amputees as they walked overground at self-selected speed clockwise and counterclockwise around a 1-meter circle and along a straight line...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865300/technical-feasibility-of-personalized-articulating-knee-joint-distraction-for-treatment-of-tibiofemoral-osteoarthritis
#16
T Struik, J E N Jaspers, N J Besselink, P M van Roermund, S Plomp, M J Rudert, F P J G Lafeber, S C Mastbergen
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent degenerative joint disorder characterized by joint tissue damage and pain. Knee joint distraction has been introduced as a joint preserving surgical procedure to postpone knee arthroplasty. An often used standard externally fixation device for distraction poses a burden to patients due to the absence of joint flexion during the 6weeks treatment. Therefore, a personalized articulating distraction device was developed. The aim of this study was to test technical feasibility of this device...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806590/how-multi-segmental-patterns-deviate-in-spastic-diplegia-from-typical-developed
#17
Matteo Zago, Chiarella Sforza, Alessia Bona, Veronica Cimolin, Pier Francesco Costici, Claudia Condoluci, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: The relationship between gait features and coordination in children with Cerebral Palsy is not sufficiently analyzed yet. Principal Component Analysis can help in understanding motion patterns decomposing movement into its fundamental components (Principal Movements). This study aims at quantitatively characterizing the functional connections between multi-joint gait patterns in Cerebral Palsy. METHODS: 65 children with spastic diplegia aged 10.6 (SD 3...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806591/immediate-mechanical-stability-of-threaded-and-porous-implant-systems
#18
Do-Gyoon Kim, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Hua-Hong Chien, Amanda M Agnew, Jin Whan Lee, Hai Bo Wen
BACKGROUND: Primary stability of a dental implant system is an essential factor to maintain its long-term success. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether primary stability is different between threaded and porous dental implant systems placed in artificial bone blocks and human cadaveric mandibular bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two threaded and 42 highly porous dental implants were placed in artificial polyurethane bone foams with 7 different thicknesses (3...
August 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892671/kinematic-and-kinetic-gait-deviations-in-males-long-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#19
Giovanni Milandri, Mike Posthumus, T J Small, Adam Bothma, Willem van der Merwe, Reshma Kassanjee, Sudesh Sivarasu
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical deviations long (approx. 5years) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have not been quantified in males, despite their distinct risk profile as compared to females. These deviations can indicate altered joint loading during chronic, repetitive motions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, comparing kinematic and kinetic variables between 15 male anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients and 15 healthy controls. During walking and running gait, measurements were taken of impact dynamics, knee and hip sagittal plane angles and moments, and knee varus angles and adduction moments...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779695/increased-lower-limb-muscle-coactivation-reduces-gait-performance-and-increases-metabolic-cost-in-patients-with-hereditary-spastic-paraparesis
#20
Martina Rinaldi, Alberto Ranavolo, Silvia Conforto, Giovanni Martino, Francesco Draicchio, Carmela Conte, Tiwana Varrecchia, Fabiano Bini, Carlo Casali, Francesco Pierelli, Mariano Serrao
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. METHODS: Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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