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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128742/corrigendum-to-harmony-as-a-convergence-attractor-that-minimizes-the-energy-expenditure-and-variability-in-physiological-gait-and-the-loss-of-harmony-in-cerebellar-ataxia-clin-biomech-48-2017-15-23
#1
Mariano Serrao, Giorgia Chini, Marco Iosa, Carlo Casali, Giovanni Morone, Carmela Conte, Fabiano Bini, Franco Marinozzi, Gianluca Coppola, Francesco Pierelli, Francesco Draicchio, Alberto Ranavolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129332/aerosol-deposition-predictions-in-computed-tomography-derived-skeletons-from-severe-asthmatics-a-feasibility-study
#2
REVIEW
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Sally E Wenzel, Ching-Long Lin
BACKGROUND: The authors numerically investigated the correlation between airway skeletons of severe asthmatic human subjects and predicted aerosol deposition to shed light on the effect of environmental factors on asthma risk. We hypothesized that there are asthmatic subjects whose airway skeletal structure can expose the subject to a risk of higher local aerosol deposition compared to subjects with a more common/normal branching pattern. METHODS: From a population of severe asthmatics studied at total lung capacity via computed tomography we randomly selected 8 subjects whose Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s, percent predicted fell below 45% predicted...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144991/finite-element-simulation-on-posterior-tibial-tendinopathy-load-transfer-alteration-and-implications-to-the-onset-of-pes-planus
#3
Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Yan Wang, Aaron Kam-Lun Leung, Ming Yang, Ming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Posterior tibial tendinopathy is a challenging foot condition resulting in pes planus, which is difficult to diagnose in the early stage. Prior to the deformity, abnormal internal load transfer and soft tissue attenuation are anticipated. The objective of this study was to investigate the internal load transfer and strain of the ligaments with posterior tibial tendinopathy, and the implications to pes planus and other deformities. METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images of a 28-year-old normal female...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127887/pullout-strength-of-cement-augmented-and-wide-suture-transosseous-fixation-in-the-greater-tuberosity
#4
Brendan Y Shi, Miguel Diaz, Stephen M Belkoff, Uma Srikumaran
BACKGROUND: Obtaining strong fixation in low-density bone is increasingly critical in surgical repair of rotator cuff tears because of the aging population. To evaluate two new methods of improving pullout strength of transosseous rotator cuff repair in low-density bone, we analyzed the effects of 1) using 2-mm suture tape instead of no. 2 suture and 2) augmenting the lateral tunnel with cement. METHODS: Eleven pairs of osteopenic or osteoporotic cadaveric humeri were identified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101894/computational-fluid-dynamics-evaluation-of-excessive-dynamic-airway-collapse
#5
Shahab Taherian, Hamid Rahai, Bernardo Gomez, Thomas Waddington, Farhad Mazdisnian
BACKGROUND: Excessive dynamic airway collapse, which is often caused by the collapse of the posterior membrane wall during exhalation, is often misdiagnosed with other diseases; stents can provide support for the collapsing airways. The standard pulmonary function tests do not necessarily show change in functional breathing condition for evaluation of these type of diseases. METHODS: Flow characteristics through a patient's airways with excessive dynamic airway collapse have been numerically investigated...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132027/evaluation-of-interference-fit-and-bone-damage-of-an-uncemented-femoral-knee-implant
#6
Sanaz Berahmani, Maartje Hendriks, Joost J A de Jong, Joop P W van den Bergh, Thomas Maal, Dennis Janssen, Nico Verdonschot
BACKGROUND: During implantation of an uncemented femoral knee implant, press-fit interference fit provides the primary stability. It is assumed that during implantation a combination of elastic and plastic deformation and abrasion of the bone will occur, but little is known about what happens at the bone-implant interface and how much press-fit interference fit is eventually achieved. METHODS: Five cadaveric femora were prepared and implantation was performed by an experienced surgeon...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100187/mechanical-muscle-and-tendon-properties-of-the-plantar-flexors-are-altered-even-in-highly-functional-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#7
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik, Markus Tilp
BACKGROUND: Recent ultrasound studies found increased passive muscle stiffness and no difference in tendon stiffness in highly impaired children and young adults with cerebral palsy. However, it is not known if muscle and tendon mechanical properties are already altered in highly functional children with cerebral palsy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical and material properties of the plantar flexors in highly functional children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100186/biomechanics-of-anterior-plating-failure-in-treating-distractive-flexion-injury-in-the-caudal-subaxial-cervical-spine
#8
Zhong Wang, Hui Zhao, Ji-Ming Liu, Rui Chao, Tai-Bang Chen, Li-Wen Tan, Feng Zhu, Jian-Hua Zhao, Peng Liu
BACKGROUND: Operative level is a potential biomechanical risk factor for construct failure during anterior fixation for distractive flexion injury. No biomechanical study of this concept has been reported, although it is important in clinical management. METHODS: To explore the mechanism of this concept, a previously validated three-dimensional C2-T1 finite element model was modified to simulate surgical procedure via the anterior approach for treating single-level distractive flexion injury, from C2-C3 to C7-T1...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100185/numerical-evaluation-of-bone-remodelling-and-adaptation-considering-different-hip-prosthesis-designs
#9
Ievgen Levadnyi, Jan Awrejcewicz, José Eduardo Gubaua, Jucélio Tomás Pereira
BACKGROUND: The change in mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone tissue surrounding the stem of the hip endoprosthesis is one of the causes of implant instability. We present an analysis used to determine the best conditions for long-term functioning of the bone-implant system, which will lead to improvement of treatment results. METHODS: In the present paper, a finite element method coupled with a bone remodelling model is used to evaluate how different three-dimensional prosthesis models influence distribution of the density of bone tissue...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100184/does-a-not-so-recent-ankle-sprain-influence-interjoint-coordination-during-walking
#10
Philippe Dedieu, Rima Chamoun, Guilhaume Lacaud, Thibault Moulinat, Maxime Queron, Pier-Giorgio Zanone
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains are common joint injuries in daily and sports activities, whose underlying mechanisms have been amply studied. If joint structures are directly damaged, neuromuscular activity can be affected, particularly in the time domain. This study aims to establish whether previous ankle injury correlates with changes in the inter-joint synergy of the entire lower limb and in the muscle activity pattern during walking. METHODS: Three-dimensional walking-gait analysis was conducted on twenty-four adults...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065349/assessing-muscle-compliance-in-stroke-with-the-myotonometer
#11
Xiaoyan Li, Henry Shin, Ya Zong, Sheng Li, Ping Zhou
BACKGROUND: This study explores changes of the intrinsic biomechanical property in the biceps brachii muscle after a hemispheric stroke using the Myotonometry technique. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with chronic hemiplegia participated in the study. Myotonometer was used to measure tissue displacement when compression force was applied at 8 levels from 2.45N to 19.6N. Muscle displacement and compliance were determined and averaged over multiple trials. FINDINGS: Statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in muscle displacement and compliance in the spastic muscles compared with the contralateral side (muscle displacements: spastic: 4...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079097/assessing-the-relationship-between-movement-and-airflow-in-the-upper-airway-using-computational-fluid-dynamics-with-motion-determined-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Alister J Bates, Andreas Schuh, Gabriel Amine-Eddine, Keith McConnell, Wolfgang Loew, Robert J Fleck, Jason C Woods, Charles L Dumoulin, Raouf S Amin
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics simulations of respiratory airflow in the upper airway reveal clinically relevant information, including sites of local resistance, inhaled particle deposition, and the effect of pathological constrictions. Unlike previous simulations, which have been performed on rigid anatomical models from static medical imaging, this work utilises ciné imaging during respiration to create dynamic models and more closely represent airway physiology. METHODS: Airway movement maps were obtained from non-rigid image registration of fast-cine MRI and applied to high-spatial-resolution airway surface models...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054030/measurement-of-strain-and-tensile-force-of-the-supraspinatus-tendon-under-conditions-that-simulates-low-angle-isometric-elevation-of-the-gleno-humeral-joint-influence-of-adduction-torque-and-joint-positioning
#13
Hiroki Miyamoto, Mitsuhiro Aoki, Egi Hidaka, Mineko Fujimiya, Eiichi Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Recently, supraspinatus muscle exercise has been reported to treat rotator cuff disease and to recover shoulder function. However, there have been no report on the direct measurement of strain on the supraspinatus tendon during simulated isometric gleno-humeral joint elevation. METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with the rotator cuff complex left intact were used as experimental models. Isometric gleno-humeral joint elevation in a sitting position was reproduced with low angle of step-by-step elevation in the scapular plane and strain was measured on the surface layer of the supraspinatus tendon...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055245/biomechanical-analysis-of-an-interference-screw-and-a-novel-twist-lock-screw-design-for-bone-graft-fixation
#14
S Asnis, J Mullen, P D Asnis, N Sgaglione, T LaPorta, D A Grande, N O Chahine
BACKGROUND: Malpositioning of an anterior cruciate ligament graft during reconstruction can occur during screw fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the fixation biomechanics of a conventional interference screw with a novel Twist Lock Screw, a rectangular shaped locking screw that is designed to address limitations of graft positioning and tensioning. METHODS: Synthetic bone (10, 15, 20lb per cubic foot) were used simulating soft, moderate, and dense cancellous bone...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055244/a-pilot-study-comparing-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilages-and-various-endogenous-cartilages
#15
Andrew K Pappa, Sajjad Soleimani, Montserrat Caballero, Alexandra E Halevi, John A van Aalst
BACKGROUND: Mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage and a variety of endogenous cartilage were measured. The main goal was to evaluate if the tissue-engineered cartilage have similar mechanical characteristics to be replaced with rib cartilage in microtia reconstruction. Such study lays the foundation for future human clinical trials for microtia reconstruction. METHOD: Atomic force microscopy and compression testing were used to measure the viscoelasticity of tissue-engineered cartilage (stem cell seeded on Poly lactic co-glycolytic acid nanofibers and Pellet) and endogenous cartilage: conchal bowl, microtic ears, preauricular remnants, and rib...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049951/the-mechanics-of-dental-occlusion-and-disclusion
#16
Thomas R Katona, George J Eckert
BACKGROUND: The mechanical environment associated with occluding teeth is the foundation for a wide range of research topics, clinical practice and dogma, product development and marketing, and medico-legal issues. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the relationships between occlusal factors and their impact on the associated contact forces. METHODS: Matching pairs of 0°, 20°, 33° and 40° cusp first molar denture teeth were placed into Class I, II and III molar relationships...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032307/biomechanical-properties-of-different-techniques-used-in-vitro-for-suturing-mid-substance-achilles-tendon-ruptures
#17
Carlos De la Fuente, Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Helen L Schimidt, Hugo Henríquez, Sebastián Ruidiaz, Felipe P Carpes
BACKGROUND: The Dresden technique preserves the paratenon during Achilles tendon repair and may improve the plantarflexor mechanism when combined with mobilization during early rehabilitation. However, the surgical repair design for Achilles tendon ruptures can affect rates of re-rupture or lengthening. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of the Krackow, Double-Kessler, Double-Dresden, and Triple-Dresden techniques used for repairing mid-substance Achilles tendon ruptures during cyclical and maximum traction...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074148/geometry-and-airflow-dynamics-analysis-in-the-nasal-cavity-during-inhalation
#18
REVIEW
Kiao Inthavong, Jiawei Ma, Yidan Shang, Jingliang Dong, Annicka S R Chetty, Jiyuan Tu, Dennis Frank-Ito
BACKGROUND: A major issue among computational respiratory studies is the wide variety of nasal morphologies being studied, caused by both inter-population and inter-subject variations. METHOD: Six nasal cavity geometries exhibiting diverse geometry variations were subjected to steady inhalation flow rate of 15L/min. to determine if any consistent flow behaviour could be found. FINDINGS: Despite vastly different geometries we were able to identify consistent flow patterns including relatively high velocity in the nasal valve region, followed by flow continuing predominantly in the inferior half of the airway...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987874/quantifying-the-in-vivo-quasi-static-response-to-loading-of-sub-dermal-tissues-in-the-human-buttock-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Rami M A Al-Dirini, John Nisyrios, Matthew P Reed, Dominic Thewlis
BACKGROUND: The design of seating systems to improve comfort and reduce injury would benefit from improved understanding of the deformation and strain patterns in soft tissues, particularly in the gluteal region. METHODS: Ten healthy men were positioned in a semi-recumbent posture while their pelvic and thigh region was scanned using a wide-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Independent measurements of deformation for muscles and fat were taken for the transition from non-weight-bearing to weight-bearing loads in three stages...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987871/quantification-of-gravity-induced-skin-strain-across-the-breast-surface
#20
Amy Sanchez, Chris Mills, Steve Haake, Michelle Norris, Joanna Scurr
BACKGROUND: Quantification of the magnitude of skin strain in different regions of the breast may help to estimate possible gravity-induced damage whilst also being able to inform the selection of incision locations during breast surgery. The aim of this study was to quantify static skin strain over the breast surface and to estimate the risk of skin damage caused by gravitational loading. METHODS: Fourteen participants had 21 markers applied to their torso and left breast...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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