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Clinical Biomechanics

Takuma Kobayashi, Satoshi Yamakawa, Kota Watanabe, Kei Kimura, Daisuke Suzuki, Hidenori Otsubo, Atsushi Teramoto, Mineko Fujimiya, Hiromichi Fujie, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Numerous biomechanical studies of the lateral ankle ligaments have been reported; however, the isolated function of the calcaneofibular ligament has not been clarified. We hypothesize that the calcaneofibular ligament would stabilize the ankle joint complex under multidirectional loading, and that the in situ force in the calcaneofibular ligament would change in each flexed position. METHODS: Using seven fresh frozen cadaveric lower extremities, the motions and forces of the intact ankle under multidirectional loading were recorded using a 6-degree-of-freedom robotic system...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Leo Fradet, Xiaoyu Wang, Lawrence G Lenke, Carl-Eric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional failure is a severe proximal junctional complication following adult spinal instrumentation and involving acute proximal junctional kyphotic deformity, mechanical failure at the upper instrumented vertebra or just above, and/or proximal junctional osseoligamentous disruption. Clinical studies have identified potential risk factors, but knowledge on their biomechanics is still lacking for addressing the proximal junctional failure issues. The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive computational modeling and simulation techniques to investigate proximal junctional failure...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Nima Toosizadeh, Homayoon Harati, Tzu-Chuan Yen, Cindy Fastje, Jane Mohler, Bijan Najafi, Michael Dohm
BACKGROUND: This study examined short- and long-term improvements in motor performance, quantified using wearable sensors, in response to facet spine injection in degenerative facet osteoarthropathy patients. METHODS: Adults with confirmed degenerative facet osteoarthropathy were recruited and were treated with medial or intermediate branch block injection. Self-report pain, health condition, and disability (Oswestry), as well as objective motor performance measures (gait, balance, and timed-up-and-go) were obtained in five sessions: pre-surgery (baseline), immediately after the injection, one-month, three-month, and 12-month follow-ups...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Armaghan Mahmoudian, Jaap H van Dieen, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Isabel Ac Baert, Gert S Faber, Frank P Luyten, Sabine Mp Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Varus thrust, defined as an abrupt increase of the knee varus angle during weight-bearing in gait, has been shown to be present in patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis and is considered to be one of the risk factors for progression of symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the presence and magnitude of varus thrust and its relation with the Knee Adduction Moment in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, and compared it to that in a group of controls and in a group of subjects with established medial knee osteoarthritis...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Karen J Mickle, Peter Caputi, Jan M Potter, Julie R Steele
BACKGROUND: Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve toe flexor strength in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: After baseline testing, 85 men and women (age range 60-90years) were randomized to either a supervised, progressive resistance training (n=43) or a home-based exercise (n=42) group for 12weeks...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Xiaoyu Wang, Laure Boyer, Franck Le Naveaux, Richard M Schwend, Carl-Eric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Differential rod contouring is used to achieve 3-dimensional correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis instrumentations. How vertebral rotation correction is correlated with the amount of differential rod contouring is still unknown; too aggressive differential rod contouring may increase the risk of bone-screw connection failure. The objective was to assess the 3-dimensional correction and bone-screw forces using various configurations of differential rod contouring. METHODS: Computerized patient-specific biomechanical models of 10 AIS cases were used to simulate AIS instrumentations using various configurations of differential rod contouring...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Ruozhou Zhou, Zhiping Huang, Xiang Liu, Jie Tong, Wei Ji, Sheting Liu, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Polyetheretherketone rod constructs provide adequate spinal stability. Kinematics and load sharing of anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction with polyetheretherketone rods under preload remains unknown. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to a pure moment of 5.0Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, and flexion-extension with a compressive preload of 300N. An anterior reconstruction of L1 corpectomy was conducted with a surrogate bone graft and anterior rod constructs (polyetheretherketone or titanium rods)...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Signe Rosenlund, Leif Broeng, Søren Overgaard, Carsten Jensen, Anders Holsgaard-Larsen
BACKGROUND: The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Allison M Brown, Rebecca A Zifchock, Howard J Hillstrom, Jinsup Song, Carole A Tucker
BACKGROUND: Altered hip and knee kinematics and joint coupling have been documented in runners with iliotibial band syndrome. Symptoms often present themselves after several minutes of running, yet the effect of fatigue warrants further exploration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a run to fatigue in runners with iliotibial band syndrome, as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty uninjured and 12 female runners with iliotibial band syndrome performed a treadmill run to fatigue...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Fon-Yih Tsuang, Chia-Hsien Chen, Lien-Chen Wu, Yi-Jie Kuo, Shang-Chih Lin, Chang-Jung Chiang
BACKGROUND: Failure of pedicle screw is a major concern in spinal surgery. The threaded and unthreaded portions of the pedicle screw provide the ability to anchor and squeeze the surrounding bone, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the anchoring and squeezing effects of different design of the threaded/unthreaded portions of a pedicle screw to vertebrae. METHODS: Four variations (one fully and three partially threaded, with a 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 unthreaded designs at the proximal portion) of screws were used to measure pullout strength and withdrawn energy using synthetic and porcine specimens...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Dennis Hamacher, Margit Rudolf, Christoph Lohmann, Lutz Schega
BACKGROUND: Pain has disruptive effects on cognitive functions leading to a decreased capability to multi task. This might be the reason why pain is a fall risk factor in dual-task situations. This study aims to relate a decrease/increase in pain severity with a decrease/increase in dual-task costs of gait variability, which is associated with fall risk, in patients with osteoarthritis prior to and 6-8weeks after total knee replacement. METHODS: We assessed the variability of minimum toe clearance in normal walking and dual-task walking in 36 patients (14 male and 22 female participants; age=mean 64...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Yoshihisa Tanaka, Shinichiro Nakamura, Shinichi Kuriyama, Hiromu Ito, Moritoshi Furu, Richard D Komistek, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a computer simulation with simple models can estimate individual in vivo knee kinematics, although some complex models have predicted the knee kinematics. The purposes of this study are first, to validate the accuracy of the computer simulation with our developed model during a squatting activity in a weight-bearing deep knee bend and then, to analyze the contact area and the contact stress of the tri-condylar implants for individual patients. METHODS: We compared the anteroposterior (AP) contact positions of medial and lateral condyles calculated by the computer simulation program with the positions measured from the fluoroscopic analysis for three implanted knees...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
L Sosdian, R S Hinman, T V Wrigley, K L Paterson, M Dowsey, P Choong, K Bennell
BACKGROUND: Varus-valgus thrust is a biomechanical characteristic linked to knee osteoarthritis disease progression. This study aimed to determine: i) direction of thrust in individuals awaiting total knee arthroplasty versus controls, ii) whether thrust and related parameters differed between groups, iii) differences between osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery with varus and valgus thrust. METHODS: 44 patients scheduled for surgery and 40 asymptomatic participants were recruited...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Saied Jalal Aboodarda, Phillip A Page, David George Behm
BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance has been commonly used in the therapeutic and fitness setting; however, the ability of elastic resistance to overload and activate muscles has been questioned because of linear increase in elastic resistance as the device is elongated. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the available literature on muscle activation associated with isoinertial and elastic resistance exercises, and to provide a quantitative summary comparing the two resistance training modes...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Arielle G Fischer, Alon Wolf
BACKGROUND: Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
David W Edmonds, Jenny McConnell, Jay R Ebert, Tim R Ackland, Cyril J Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most debilitating diseases associated with aging, and is estimated to affect 9% of men and 18% of women over 65years of age. Knee osteoarthritis affects the condylar surfaces of the joint and if left untreated generally leads to the slow and painful degeneration of the joint and surrounding structures. With few non-invasive treatment options for osteoarthritis patients, this study investigated the effect of therapeutic taping on knee pain in combination with spatiotemporal, kinematic, kinetic and muscle activation measures...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Christopher A Bailey, Davide D Bardana, Patrick A Costigan
BACKGROUND: Evaluating the dynamic knee function of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a challenge. A variety of objective tests have been developed but for various reasons few are regularly used in the clinic. It may be practical to perform the step-up-and-over test with an accelerometer. METHODS: A control group (N=26) and an experimental group with a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (N=25) completed questionnaires quantifying subjective knee function and fear of re-injury and then completed the step-up-and-over test...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Franck Le Navéaux, A Noelle Larson, Hubert Labelle, Xiaoyu Wang, Carl-Éric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Optimal implant densities and configurations for thoracic spine instrumentation to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remain unknown. The objective was to computationally assess the biomechanical effects of implant distribution on 3D curve correction and bone-implant forces. METHODS: 3D patient-specific biomechanical spine models based on a multibody dynamic approach were created for 9 Lenke 1 patients who underwent posterior instrumentation (main thoracic Cobb: 43°-70°)...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Elif Turgut, Irem Duzgun, Gul Baltaci
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the dynamic three-dimensional scapular kinematics and scapular asymmetry in participants with and without shoulder impingement syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants with shoulder impingement syndrome, have been suffering from unilateral shoulder pain at the dominant arm lasting more than six weeks and thirty-seven healthy controls participated in the study. Scapular kinematics was measured with an electromagnetic tracking device during shoulder elevation in the sagittal plane...
September 3, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Matthew S Harkey, Laura E Stanley, J Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua, Brian Pietrosimone
BACKGROUND: Alterations in mechanical loading following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may lead to the development of knee osteoarthritis. Feedback that cues a change in knee kinematics during walking gait may influence mechanical loading, yet it remains unknown if knee kinematics predict kinetics during walking gait. Our aim was to determine if sagittal plane knee kinematics predict kinetics during walking gait in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed individuals. METHODS: Forty-one individuals with a history of primary, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction completed a motion capture walking gait analysis...
August 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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