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Clinical Biomechanics

Mohsen Shafizadeh, Robert Crowther, Jonathan Wheat, Keith Davids
BACKGROUND: In human behaviour, emergence of movement patterns is shaped by different, interacting constraints and consequently, individuals with motor disorders usually display distinctive lower limb coordination modes. OBJECTIVES: To review existing evidence on the effects of motor disorders and different task constraints on emergent coordination patterns during walking, and to examine the clinical significance of task constraints on gait coordination in people with motor disorders...
November 3, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Abouzar Moshfegh, Yi Qian, Martin K C Ng, Leonard Kritharides, Andy S C Yong
BACKGROUND: Pathological shear stress is associated with distinct pathogenic biological pathways relevant to coronary thrombosis and atherogenesis. Although the individual effects of lesion characteristics including stenosis severity, eccentricity and lesion length on coronary haemodynamics is known, their relative importance remains poorly understood. METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was implemented for haemodynamic analysis of 104 coronary arteries...
October 28, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
M C van der Steen, P A Andrei, B van Rietbergen, K Ito, A T Besselaar
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, clubfeet feel stiffer compared to healthy feet. Furthermore, the clinical impression is that stiffer clubfeet have a higher tendency to relapse. Until now, no objective measure has been available to determine the stiffness of clubfeet. The goal of the current project was to objectively quantify ankle and subtalar joint stiffness in clubfeet patients and to compare this stiffness between clubfeet patients and healthy controls using a newly developed measurement device...
October 27, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Philippe C Dixon, Sharleen Gomes, Richard A Preuss, Shawn M Robbins
BACKGROUND: Patients with knee osteoarthritis often present with varus thrust and muscular co-contraction during gait. It is unclear if these adaptations are related. The objective was to examine the relationship between muscle co-contraction and varus thrust during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis and to determine if these relationships are modulated by disease severity or history of knee ligament rupture. METHODS: Participants (n = 42, 23 women, mean age 58 years) with knee osteoarthritis completed gait trials at self-selected speeds...
October 23, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Sana Javed, Ayesha Sohail, Alessandro Nutini
BACKGROUND: Denosumab has been successfully used for the postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment. This research is focused on the computational analysis of the effect of denosumab on bone remodeling. METHODS: Inspired by the advancement in the field of multiscale modeling , this research encompasses on the cellular and molecular bone remodeling key players. The model is designed to cover all the dominant interacting factors and their respective gradients. During this research, we have performed numerical experiments to validate our mathematical model, by interfacing it with the parametric values available in the literature...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Anna Mîra, Ann-Katherine Carton, Serge Muller, Yohan Payan
BACKGROUND: Mammography is a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose X-rays to detect cancer in early stage. During the exam, the women breast is compressed between two plates in order to even out the breast thickness and to spread out the soft tissues. This technique improves exam quality but can be uncomfortable for the patient. The perceived discomfort can be assessed by the means of a breast biomechanical model. Alternative breast compression techniques may be computationally investigated trough finite elements simulations...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Keitaro Kubo
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine changes in tendon properties measured during ramp and ballistic contractions after static stretching and to elucidate the relationship between stretching-induced changes in tendon properties (particularly hysteresis) and collagen fiber orientation. METHODS: Thirteen males performed static stretching, in which the ankle was passively flexed to 36° dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after stretching, the stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures in the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Robert Pryce, Dean Kriellaars
BACKGROUND: There is an absence of information regarding the impact of central adiposity on loading during long duration, repetitive lifting, and very limited information of the impact of elevated body mass on mechanical loading of the lumbar spine. This information is important in evaluation of the validity of injury prevention standards and interventional approaches in this segment of the population. METHODS: This study evaluated the mechanical, physiological, and perceptual loading during repetitive lifting in participants with central adiposity compared to participants with normal body mass index...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Mark G Hines, Neale A Tillin, Jin Luo, Raymond Y W Lee
BACKGROUND: It has been found that alterations in passive muscle properties may be associated with low back pain, and these may be responsible for the altered gait parameters often observed in subjects with back pain. The purpose of the present study was to assess total hip and passive hip extensor moments in people with or without low back pain during the hip flexion component of walking. METHODS: 52 subjects volunteered for this study (low back pain group, n = 25 (male n = 13, female n = 12), control group, n = 27 (male n = 15, female n = 12))...
October 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Sam Van Rossom, Nidal Khatib, Cathy Holt, Dieter Van Assche, Ilse Jonkers
BACKGROUND: Healthy cartilage is essential for optimal joint function. Although, articular cartilage defects are highly prevalent in the active population and hamper joint function, the effect of articular cartilage defects on knee loading is not yet documented. Therefore, the present study compared knee contact forces and pressures between patients with tibiofemoral cartilage defects and healthy controls. Potentially this provides additional insights in movement adaptations and the role of altered loading in the progression from defect towards OA...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Mario Inacio, Rob Creath, Mark W Rogers
BACKGROUND: Age-related neuromuscular changes in the hip abductor-adductor muscles lead to reduced performance, especially in the rate of force development and power production. These alterations may impair weight transfer control and lateral balance recovery through protective stepping. This study compared the effects of eight weeks of low-dose hip abductor-adductor power and strength training on the performance of isometric maximal voluntary contractions, and lateral balance recovery at different initial weight-bearing conditions in older individuals...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Steffen Schröter, Tobias Hoffmann, Stefan Döbele, Bastian Welke, Christof Hurschler, Michael Schwarze, Ulrich Stöckle, Thomas Freude, Atesch Ateschrang
BACKGROUND: Open wedge high tibial osteotomy is widespread in treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Bone healing of the gap and the necessity of bone substitutes are under discussion. Increasing movement of the osteotomy gap can improve bone healing, while excessive movement should be avoided. It was hypothesised that the use of dynamic locking screws, compared to standard locking screws, will increase interfragmental motion while construct stability persists. METHODS: In 20 tibia sawbones open wedge high tibial osteotomy was performed using standard locking screws or dynamic locking screws...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hiroaki Shoji, Atsushi Teramoto, Daisuke Suzuki, Yohei Okada, Yuzuru Sakakibara, Takashi Matsumura, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Kota Watanabe, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Suture-button (SB) fixation has been widely performed for syndesmosis injuries, but it has been reported unstable in some biomechanical studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of the syndesmosis using SB fixation with anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament augmentation using suture-tape (ST). METHODS: Eight normal fresh-frozen cadaveric legs were used. After initial tests of intact and injured models, SB fixation, SB fixation with ST augmentation, ST augmentation alone, and screw fixation were performed sequentially for each specimen...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Roger Erivan, Sylvain Aubret, Guillaume Villatte, Régis Cueff, Aurélien Mulliez, Stéphane Descamps, Stéphane Boisgard
The objective of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of the fascia lata and the effects of three preservation methods: freezing, cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide solution and lyophilization; and to compare the effects of low-dose (11 kGy) and normal-dose (25 kGy) gamma-ray sterilization versus no irradiation. 248 samples from 14 fasciae latae were collected. Freezing samples were frozen at -80 °C. Cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide solution samples were frozen with 10 cl dimethylsulfoxide solution at -80 °C...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Yifei Yao, Emily Grandy, Peter J Evans, William H Seitz, Zong-Ming Li
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a compression neuropathy at the wrist associated with compromised median nerve mobility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radioulnar wrist compression on median nerve longitudinal mobility within the carpal tunnel in carpal tunnel syndrome patients as well as healthy subjects. METHODS: Dynamic ultrasound images captured longitudinal median nerve motion in the carpal tunnel during radioulnar wrist compression force application in 11 healthy subjects and 11 carpal tunnel syndrome patients...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Liujun Zhao, Jianqing Chen, Jiayong Liu, Lina Elsamaloty, Xiaochen Liu, Jie Li, Hossein Elgafy, Jihui Zhang, Leining Wang
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical trans-pedicle screw fixation was introduced to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. In vitro biomechanical studies on the trans-pedicle screw fixation have shown excellent pull-out strength and favorable stability. Comprehensive biomechanical performance studies on the trans-pedicle screw fixation, however, are lacking. METHODS: The control computed tomography images (C2-T2) were obtained from a 22-year-old male volunteer...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Laura Cerón-Lorente, Marie Carmen Valenza, José Manuel Pérez-Mármol, María Del Carmen García-Ríos, Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez, María Encarnación Aguilar-Ferrándiz
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic disease consisting of widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairments, among other symptoms, which affect daily physical activity. However, the influence of functional status on physical activity involved in leisure, household and work activities has not been researched previously. The main objective was to evaluate balance, strength, spinal mobility, mechanosensitivity and function levels as related factors of physical activity in female with fibromyalgia...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
M B Ogurkowska, A Błaszczyk
BACKGROUND: The human spine, in particular the lumbar spine, is subject to significant compressive and bending stresses, which affect the structure of the bone tissue of the vertebrae. The more heterogeneous the structure of the spongy bone tissue, the less resistant the whole vertebral body. It is therefore necessary to establish variations in bone strength parameters within one particular vertebral body. METHODS: The research material comprised human L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae sampled from 15 donors aged 29-35...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Roman Frederik Karkosch, Max Ettinger, Samuel Bachmaier, Coen A Wijdicks, Tomas Smith
BACKGROUND: This biomechanical cadaveric in vitro study aimed to evaluate and compare the dynamic elongation behavior and ultimate failure strength of tibial adjustable-length loop cortical button versus interference screw fixation in quadriceps tendon-based anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Sixteen human quadriceps tendons were harvested and fixed into porcine tibiae using either biodegradable interference screw (n = 8) or adjustable loop device (n = 8) fixation...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
O Martinez-Manzanera, T F Lawerman, H J Blok, R J Lunsing, R Brandsma, D A Sival, N M Maurits
BACKGROUND: During childhood, many conditions may impact coordination. Examples are physiological age-related development and pathological conditions, such as early onset ataxia and developmental coordination disorder. These conditions are generally diagnosed by clinical specialists. However, in absence of a gold phenotypic standard, objective reproducibility among specialists appears limited. METHODS: We investigated whether quantitative analysis of an upper limb coordination task (the finger-to-nose test) could discriminate between physiological and pathological conditions impacting coordination...
October 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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