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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110242/three-dimensional-analysis-of-tarsal-bone-response-to-axial-loading-in-patients-with-hallux-valgus-and-normal-feet
#1
Kota Watanabe, Yasutoshi Ikeda, Daisuke Suzuki, Atsushi Teramoto, Takuma Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Patients with hallux valgus present a variety of symptoms that may be related to the type of deformity. Weightbearing affects the deformities, and the evaluation of the load response of tarsal bones has been mainly performed using two-dimensional plane radiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare structural changes in the medial foot arch between patients with hallux valgus and normal controls using a computer image analysis technique and weightbearing computed tomography data...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110244/quantification-of-postural-control-deficits-in-patients-with-recent-concussion-an-inertial-sensor-based-approach
#2
Cailbhe Doherty, Liang Zhao, John Ryan, Yusuke Komaba, Akihiro Inomata, Brian Caulfield
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify postural control ability in a group with concussion compared with a healthy control group. METHOD: Fifteen concussion patients (4 females, 11 males) and a group of fifteen age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Participants were tested during the performance of the three stance variants (bilateral, tandem and unilateral) of the balance error scoring system standing on a force place, while wearing an inertial measurement unit placed at the posterior aspect of the sacrum...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110243/a-biomechanical-testing-system-to-determine-micromotion-between-hip-implant-and-femur-accounting-for-deformation-of-the-hip-implant-assessment-of-the-influence-of-rigid-body-assumptions-on-micromotions-measurements
#3
Steven Leuridan, Quentin Goossens, Jorg Roosen, Leonard Pastrav, Kathleen Denis, Michiel Mulier, Wim Desmet, Jos Vander Sloten
BACKGROUND: Accurate pre-clinical evaluation of the initial stability of new cementless hip stems using in vitro micromotion measurements is an important step in the design process to assess the new stem's potential. Several measuring systems, linear variable displacement transducer-based and other, require assuming bone or implant to be rigid to obtain micromotion values or to calculate derived quantities such as relative implant tilting. METHODS: An alternative linear variable displacement transducer-based measuring system not requiring a rigid body assumption was developed in this study...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095358/axial-and-torsional-stiffness-of-pediatric-prosthetic-feet
#4
Paolo Taboga, Alena M Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic stiffness likely affects the walking biomechanics of toddlers and children with leg amputations, but the actual stiffness values for prostheses are not reported by manufacturers or in standardized testing procedures. AIM: We measured axial (kA) and torsional (kT) stiffness from four brands of pediatric prosthetic feet (Trulife, Kingsley Mfg. Co., TRS Incorporated, and College Park Industries) over a range of foot sizes. METHODS: We applied forces and torques onto prostheses with a materials testing machine that replicated those exhibited in vivo by using the kinetics measured from four non-amputee toddlers (2-3years) during walking...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088014/reduced-complexity-of-force-and-muscle-activity-during-low-level-isometric-contractions-of-the-ankle-in-diabetic-individuals
#5
E Y Suda, P Madeleine, R P Hirata, A Samani, T T Kawamura, I C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the structure and amount of variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) patterns and ankle force data during low-level isometric contractions in diabetic subjects with different degrees of neuropathy. METHODS: We assessed 10 control subjects and 38 diabetic patients, classified as absent, mild, moderate, or severe neuropathy, by a fuzzy system based on clinical variables. Multichannel sEMG (64-electrode matrix) of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles were acquired during isometric contractions at 10%, 20%, and 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction, and force levels during dorsi- and plantarflexion were recorded...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073093/subject-specific-finite-element-analysis-of-the-carpal-tunnel-cross-sectional-to-examine-tunnel-area-changes-in-response-to-carpal-arch-loading
#6
Piyush Walia, Ahmet Erdemir, Zong-Ming Li
BACKGROUND: Manipulating the carpal arch width (i.e. distance between hamate and trapezium bones) has been suggested as a means to increase carpal tunnel cross-sectional area and alleviate median nerve compression. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the carpal tunnel and to determine an optimal force direction to maximize area. METHODS: A planar geometric model of carpal bones at hamate level was reconstructed from MRI with inter-carpal joint spaces filled with a linear elastic surrogate tissue...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068520/impact-loading-following-quadriceps-strength-training-in-individuals-with-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-and-varus-alignment
#7
Crystal O Kean, Rana S Hinman, Tim V Wrigley, Boon-Whatt Lim, Kim L Bennell
BACKGROUND: Greater impact loading at initial contact is postulated to play a role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Quadriceps weakness is common in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and may contribute to high impact loading. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of quadriceps strengthening on impact loading parameters. METHODS: Data from 97 individuals with knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized clinical trial examining effects of a 12-week quadriceps strengthening program was used to conduct this secondary exploratory analysis...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063273/mechanisms-of-compensation-in-the-gait-of-patients-with-drop-foot
#8
Michalina Błażkiewicz, Ida Wiszomirska, Katarzyna Kaczmarczyk, Grażyna Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Andrzej Wit
BACKGROUND: Drop foot is a complex syndrome, with multiple interactions between joints and muscles. Abnormalities in movement patterns can be measured using motion capture techniques, but identifying compensation mechanisms remains challenging. METHODS: In order to identify compensatory mechanisms in patients with drop foot, this study evaluated a sample of 15 such patients using a computerized gait analysis system, as compared to a group of 15 healthy subjects...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073094/the-role-of-lesser-trochanter-fragment-in-unstable-pertrochanteric-a2-proximal-femur-fractures-is-refixation-of-the-lesser-trochanter-worth-the-effort
#9
Christian Ehrnthaller, Alain Christoph Olivier, Florian Gebhard, Lutz Dürselen
BACKGROUND: Instability of osteoporotic pertrochanteric fractures is defined by loss of medial/lateral cortical integrity with the posteromedial fragment including the lesser trochanter being pivotal for load distribution. Literature addressing the importance of lesser trochanter refixation is scarce. To clarify the effect of lesser trochanter refixation on primary stability in these fractures, following study was performed. METHODS: 21 femora were match-paired in 3 groups and osteotomized, creating pertrochanteric fractures (AO-31A2)...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095359/gait-deviations-associated-with-plantar-heel-pain-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Adam Phillips, Shane McClinton
BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain is a common foot disorder associated with significant pain and gait-related disability. The aim of this systematic review was to identify gait deviations associated with plantar heel pain. METHODS: A systematic review of articles with quantitative gait variables in individuals with plantar heel pain was conducted using the CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Downs and Black criteria and used along with the number of studies per gait variable to determine level of evidence...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042977/full-can-test-mechanisms-of-a-positive-test-in-patients-with-shoulder-pain
#11
Mark K Timmons, Sevgi S Yesilyaprak, Jeff Ericksen, Lori A Michener
BACKGROUND: The full can test is theorized to produce compressive loads on the supraspinatus tendon within the subacromial space. Characterizing the width of the subacromial outlet, scapular orientation, and shoulder pain during the full can test will improve the mechanistic understanding of the positive full can test. METHODS: Cross-sectional repeated measures design. Participants with subacromial pain syndrome (n=30) were compared to a matched control group (n=30) during 2 conditions: passive support, and the full can test...
December 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040656/squat-test-performance-and-execution-in-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy
#12
M M Eken, J Harlaar, A J Dallmeijer, E de Waard, C A M van Bennekom, H Houdijk
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on lower extremity strength is imperative to informed decision making for children with cerebral palsy (CP) with mobility problems. However, a functional and clinically feasible test is not available. We aimed to determine whether the squat test is suitable for this purpose by investigating test performance and execution in children with cerebral palsy and typically developing (TD) peers. METHODS: Squat test performance, defined by the number of two-legged squats until fatigue (max 20), was assessed in twenty children with bilateral CP (6-19years; gross motor function classification system I-III) and sixteen TD children (7-16years)...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043037/stem-taper-mismatch-has-a-critical-effect-on-ceramic-head-fracture-risk-in-modular-hip-arthroplasty
#13
Julian Gührs, Mandy Körner, Maren Bechstedt, Annika Krull, Michael M Morlock
BACKGROUND: Modular total hip prostheses with ceramic heads are well established in orthopedic surgery and widely used. With the variety of different manufacturers and available designs, components are at risk for mismatch. Several case studies show the potentially devastating effects of mismatch. METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of one arbitrary component mismatch with commercially available components that appear to provide a stable fixation during assembly...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012304/work-of-separation-a-method-to-assess-intraperitoneal-adhesion-and-healing-of-parietal-peritoneum-in-an-animal-model
#14
Long-Xiang Lin, Fang Yuan, Hui-Hui Zhang, Yu-Long Sun
BACKGROUND: Adhesion grades and adhesion breaking strength are widely used to assess severity of intraperitoneal adhesion in animal models. However, the results of adhesion grades have the large deviations due to vary personal experience. Adhesion breaking strength ignores the details of adhesion. This study introduced work of separation, the energy consumption during breakage of adhesion, to better evaluate intraperitoneal adhesion. METHODS: The intraperitoneal adhesion was induced by traumas created at rat cecum and adjacent abdominal wall...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012303/relationship-between-body-composition-and-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-obese-children-when-walking
#15
Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Pilar Serra-Añó, Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Luis-Millán Gonzalez, Xavier García-Massó
BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a serious worldwide challenge, especially in children. This condition can cause a number of different health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders, some of which are due to mechanical stress caused by excess body weight. The aim of this study was to determine the association between body composition and the vertical ground reaction force produced during walking in obese children. METHODS: Sixteen children participated in the study, six females and ten males [11...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042976/distinctions-of-introarticular-force-distribution-between-genesis-ii-posterior-stabilized-and-cruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty-an-intraoperative-comparative-study-of-45-patients
#16
Hao Tang, Hong Chen, Dejin Yang, Yi Jiang, Chunyu Zhang, Yixin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Although both the posterior stabilized and cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty have been proven to effectively relieve pain and restore basic functions, the joint gap width during flexion was reported to be different due to the presence or absence of posterior cruciate ligament, which may lead to different intra-articular force distribution. In this study, we investigated the distinctions in intra-articular force distribution between the two types of TKA designs in patients with varus knee osteoarthritis...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992779/achilles-tendon-morphology-plantar-flexors-torque-and-passive-ankle-stiffness-in-spastic-hemiparetic-stroke-survivors
#17
Bruno Freire, Caroline Pieta Dias, Natália Batista Albuquerque Goulart, Camila Dias de Castro, Jefferson Becker, Irênio Gomes, Marco Aurélio Vaz
BACKGROUND: The present study compared the Achilles tendon morphological characteristics, plantar flexor toque and passive ankle stiffness between hemiparetic spastic stroke survivors and healthy subjects. METHODS: The Achilles tendon length was measured at the affected and contralateral limbs of twelve hemiparetic stroke survivors with ankle spasticity and twelve healthy subjects. The ankle was held at three different angles (20° plantar flexion, 0° and maximum dorsiflexion) while an ultrasound system was used to capture images from the Achilles tendon...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992778/comparison-of-lumbo-pelvic-kinematics-during-trunk-forward-bending-and-backward-return-between-patients-with-acute-low-back-pain-and-asymptomatic-controls
#18
Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G Salt, Quenten Hooker, Linda R Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported differences in lumbo-pelvic kinematics during a trunk forward bending and backward return task between individuals with and without chronic low back pain; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic kinematics of patients with acute low back pain is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was set to investigate lumbo-pelvic kinematics in this cohort. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to investigate the differences in pelvic and thoracic rotation along with lumbar flexion as well as their first and second time derivatives between females with and without acute low back pain...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960138/influence-of-different-sizes-of-composite-femora-on-the-biomechanical-behavior-of-cementless-hip-prosthesis
#19
Florian Schmidutz, Mathias Woiczinski, Manuel Kistler, Christian Schröder, Volkmar Jansson, Andreas Fottner
BACKGROUND: For the biomechanical evaluation of cementless stems different sizes of composite femurs have been used in the literature. However, the impact of different specimen sizes on test results is unknown. METHODS: To determine the potential effect of femur size the biomechanical properties of a conventional stem (CLS Spotorno) were examined in 3 different sizes (small, medium and large composite Sawbones®). Primary stability was tested under physiologically adapted dynamic loading conditions measuring 3-dimensional micromotions...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940174/assessment-of-evertor-weakness-in-patients-with-chronic-ankle-instability-functional-versus-isokinetic-testing
#20
Romain Terrier, Francis Degache, François Fourchet, Boris Gojanovic, Nicolas Forestier
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is the most common sport-related injury and eccentric weakness of ankle evertors is regarded as a significant muscular deficit related to chronic ankle instability. However, the eccentric performance of the evertors is rarely assessed by clinicians because procedures used for research purposes (i.e. isokinetic tests) are not easily applicable in daily practice. METHODS: The present study assessed the ability of two different testing procedures to distinguish between groups of 12 healthy subjects or 12 patients suffering from chronic ankle instability...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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