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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316476/numerical-simulation-of-hemodynamics-in-membranous-obstruction-of-the-suprahepatic-inferior-vena-cava-based-on-a-subject-specific-budd-chiari-syndrome-model
#1
Deqiang Cheng, Yinping Zhuang, Qiqi Kou, Min Zhang, Yinghong Zhao, Cuiping Han, Jingjing Li, Yong Wang, Kai Xu, Fei Mo, Jiawei Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the hemodynamic changes of Budd-Chiari syndrome when the inferior vena vein membrane is developing. METHODS: A patient-specific Budd-Chiari syndrome vascular model was reconstructed based on magnetic resonance images using Mimics software and different degrees (16%, 37%, and 54%) of idealized membrane were built based on the Budd-Chiari syndrome vascular model using Geomagic software. Three membrane obstruction Budd-Chiari syndrome vascular models were established successfully and fluent software was used to simulate hemodynamic parameters, including blood velocity and wall shear stress...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309925/the-quantity-of-bone-cement-influences-the-anchorage-of-augmented-pedicle-screws-in-the-osteoporotic-spine-a-biomechanical-human-cadaveric-study
#2
Miguel Pishnamaz, Henning Lange, Christian Herren, Hong-Sik Na, Philipp Lichte, Frank Hildebrand, Hans-Christoph Pape, Philipp Kobbe
BACKGROUND: The aim of this comparative biomechanical human cadaveric study was to investigate the anchorage of augmented screws with two different volumes of bone cement. For this purpose the effect of cranio-caudal loadings on pedicle screws was evaluated and axial pullout tests were performed. METHODS: A total of 50 pedicle screws (25 augmented/25 non-augmented) were instrumented into osteoporotic vertebra of fresh human cadavers. The augmented screws were grounded by two different volumes of bone cement (1...
December 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306754/quantification-of-upper-limb-electromyographic-measures-and-dysfunction-of-breast-cancer-survivors-during-performance-of-functional-dynamic-tasks
#3
Rebecca L Brookham, Alan C Cudlip, Clark R Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Upper limb morbidities within the breast cancer population can interfere with completing daily life activities. Current knowledge of upper limb capabilities is limited; previous increases in muscle activation on the affected cancer side suggest this population works at a higher fraction of their capability. The purposes of this study were to describe upper limb capabilities and dysfunction of breast cancer survivors through muscle activation monitoring via surface electromyography and muscle-specific strength tests during functional tasks...
December 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287171/no-effect-of-conventional-vs-minimally-invasive-surgical-approach-on-clinical-outcome-and-migration-of-a-short-stem-total-hip-prosthesis-at-2-year-follow-up-a-randomized-controlled-study
#4
Michael Schwarze, Stefan Budde, Gabriela von Lewinski, Henning Windhagen, Marie Christina Keller, Frank Seehaus, Christof Hurschler, Thilo Floerkemeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291461/relationship-between-body-composition-and-postural-control-in-prepubertal-overweight-obese-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti, Ruth Cabeza-Ruiz, Pau Redón, Empar Lurbe, Xavier García-Massó
BACKGROUND: Excess body weight during childhood causes reduced motor functionality and problems in postural control, a negative influence which has been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, no information regarding the effect of body composition on the postural control of overweight and obese children is available. The objective of this study was therefore to establish these relationships. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to establish relationships between body composition and postural control variables obtained in bipedal eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in twenty-two children...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287172/upper-torso-pain-and-musculoskeletal-structure-and-function-in-women-with-and-without-large-breasts-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Deirdre E McGhee, Karly A Coltman, Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Julie R Steele
BACKGROUND: Women with large breasts frequently experience upper torso pain secondary to their breast size. Evidence is lacking on the underlying causes of this pain. This study investigated whether upper torso pain and musculoskeletal structure and function differed between women with large breasts and women with small breasts. METHODS: A linear regression, adjusting for body mass, compared the upper torso pain, thoracic flexion torque due to breast mass, thoracic kyphosis, shoulder active range-of-motion, and scapular retraction muscle strength of 27 women with large breasts (bilateral breast volume>1200ml, age 45...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274598/transmissibility-and-waveform-purity-of-whole-body-vibrations-in-older-adults
#7
Freddy Man Hin Lam, Chak-Yin Tang, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Marco Yiu Chung Pang
BACKGROUND: This study examined the transmission power and waveform purity of vertical (synchronous) whole-body vibrations upon its propagation in the human body among older adults. METHODS: Forty community-dwelling older adults participated in the study (33 women; mean age: 60.3 (SD 5.7) years). Four vibration frequencies (25, 30, 35, 40Hz), two amplitudes (0.6 and 0.9mm), and six different postures were tested. Skin-mounted tri-axial accelerometers were placed at the medial malleolus, tibial tuberosity, greater trochanter, third lumbar vertebra, and forehead...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245139/scapular-focused-exercise-treatment-protocol-for-shoulder-impingement-symptoms-three-dimensional-scapular-kinematics-analysis
#8
Gisele Harumi Hotta, Adriane Lopes Santos, Kevin James McQuade, Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the effects of a periscapular strengthening and neuromuscular training protocol in three-dimensional scapular kinematics and resting positioning in participants with shoulder impingement symptoms. Self-reported function was also evaluated. METHOD: The study group comprised 50 subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome (control group, n=25; treatment group, n=25). The treatment group underwent 8weeks of neuromuscular training and periscapular strengthening...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232570/development-of-an-orthosis-for-simultaneous-three-dimensional-correction-of-clubfoot-deformity
#9
Kanwaljit S Khas, Pulak M Pandey, Alok R Ray
BACKGROUND: Clubfoot is a three-dimensional deformity of the foot in which the foot is twisted in three mutually perpendicular planes from the normal shape of the foot. Of the various treatment methods that are available to manage clubfoot, non-operative approaches are preferred. The conventional non-operative method of treatment is to apply a series of casts to the infant's clubfoot to gradually manipulate its position. However, prolonged use of casts can result in skin rash, skin dehydration and ulcers on the soft skin of an infant...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227919/a-subject-specific-biomechanical-control-model-for-the-prediction-of-cervical-spine-muscle-forces
#10
Maxim Van den Abbeele, Fan Li, Vincent Pomero, Dominique Bonneau, Baptiste Sandoz, Sébastien Laporte, Wafa Skalli
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to propose a subject-specific biomechanical control model for the estimation of active cervical spine muscle forces. METHODS: The proprioception-based regulation model developed by Pomero et al. (2004) for the lumbar spine was adapted to the cervical spine. The model assumption is that the control strategy drives muscular activation to maintain the spinal joint load below the physiological threshold, thus avoiding excessive intervertebral displacements...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277028/are-we-simplifying-balance-evaluation-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#11
Saba Pasha, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Clinical evaluation of the postural balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been measured by sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance. The impact of the scoliotic deformity in three planes on balance has not been fully investigated. METHODS: 47 right thoracic and left lumbar curves adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 10 non-scoliotic controls were registered prospectively. 13 spinopelvic postural parameters were calculated from the 3-dimantional reconstructions of X-rays...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217332/revisiting-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-vitro-and-in-silico-in-neonatal-conductive-airways
#12
REVIEW
Katrin Bauer, Eliram Nof, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillatory ventilation is often used for lung support in premature neonates suffering from respiratory distress syndrome. Despite its broad use in neonatal intensive care units, there are to date no accepted protocols for the choice of appropriate ventilation parameter settings. In this context, the underlying mass transport mechanisms are still not fully understood. METHODS: We revisit the question of flow phenomena under conventional mechanical ventilation and high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an anatomically-inspired model of neonatal conductive airways spanning the first few airway generations...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179033/validation-of-the-arm-profile-score-in-assessing-upper-limb-functional-impairments-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Federica Corona, Elisa Gervasoni, Giancarlo Coghe, Eleonora Cocco, Maurizio Ferrarin, Massimiliano Pau, Davide Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Although upper limb (UL) impairments are widespread in people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS), there is limited quantitative evidence concerning their specific features. The aim of this study is to validate a synthetic measure based on kinematic data to define the degree of deviation from a physiologic pattern during the "hand to mouth" (HTM) task. METHODS: Twenty pwMS (mean age 51.2 SD 11.1) years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score in the range 2-6...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202310/variation-inflation-factor-based-regression-modeling-of-anthropometric-measures-and-temporal-spatial-performance-modeling-approach-and-implications-for-clinical-utility
#14
Jason T Long, Smriti Neogi, Cailee M Caldwell, Matthew P DeLange
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship of underlying anthropometry to temporal-spatial performance is critical to appropriate assessment of patients with ambulatory dysfunction. The current body of literature has established the importance of limb length in this relationship. This study sought to re-examine these relationships in light of recent trends in body habitus and obesity, using Variation Inflation Factor analysis to optimize the model. METHODS: Elementary school children (n=452; ages 5-13) were tested during walking at a self-selected speed across an instrumented walkway...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175672/effect-of-minimally-invasive-implantation-of-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-on-cement-penetration-and-biomechanical-stability-an-experimental-study-in-human-tibiae
#15
C Scheele, M F Pietschmann, C Schröder, T Grupp, M Holderied, V Jansson, P E Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169684/airway-morphology-and-inspiratory-flow-features-in-the-early-stages-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Tristan Van de Moortele, Ute Goerke, Chris H Wendt, Filippo Coletti
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Inhaled pollutants are the prime risk factor, but the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased is poorly understood. Most studies on the disease onset and trajectory have focused on genetic and molecular biomarkers. Here we investigate the role of the airway anatomy and the consequent respiratory fluid mechanics on the development of COPD. METHODS: We segmented CT scans from a five-year longitudinal study in three groups of smokers (18 subjects each) having: (i) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with declining lung function at year five; (ii) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with stable function, and (iii) normal and stable lung function over the five year period...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169117/3d-correction-over-2years-with-anterior-vertebral-body-growth-modulation-a-finite-element-analysis-of-screw-positioning-cable-tensioning-and-postoperative-functional-activities
#17
Nikita Cobetto, Stefan Parent, Carl-Eric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Anterior vertebral body growth modulation is a fusionless instrumentation to correct scoliosis using growth modulation. The objective was to biomechanically assess effects of cable tensioning, screw positioning and post-operative position on tridimensional correction. METHODS: The design of experiments included two variables: cable tensioning (150/200N) and screw positioning (lateral/anterior/triangulated), computationally tested on 10 scoliotic cases using a personalized finite element model to simulate spinal instrumentation, and 2years growth modulation with the device...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179032/lower-limb-muscle-volume-estimation-from-maximum-cross-sectional-area-and-muscle-length-in-cerebral-palsy-and-typically-developing-individuals
#18
Inti M Vanmechelen, Adam P Shortland, Jonathan J Noble
BACKGROUND: Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174453/correlation-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-outlet-area-with-gas-clearance-and-pressure-in-adult-upper-airway-replicas
#19
REVIEW
Charles P Moore, Ira M Katz, Georges Caillibotte, Warren H Finlay, Andrew R Martin
BACKGROUND: Primary benefits of high flow nasal cannula therapy include washout of carbon dioxide rich exhaled gas and increased airway pressures during tidal breathing. This work reports on the influence of high flow nasal cannula outlet area on upper airways gas clearance and tracheal pressures using measurements in five realistic adult nose-throat airway replicas. METHODS: Two commercial high flow nasal cannulas and one generic nasal cannula of varying size were compared...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157654/an-innovative-lung-model-for-multiple-breath-washout-testing-in-health-and-disease
#20
Pinelopi Anagnostopoulou, Sarah Vomsattel, Anne-Christiane Kentgens, Marisa Guidi, Severin Binggeli, Lena Kohler, Florian Singer, Philipp Latzin, Dominik Obrist
BACKGROUND: Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a lung function test that identifies the degree of ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) in the lungs. In vitro validation of MBW devices is recommended. So far, plastic lung models for MBW validation ignored variable degrees of VI. Our primary aim was to create a plastic lung model applicable for physiological lung volumes and variable VI. METHODS: A plastic box divided in two chambers was filled with water and ventilated in various lung volumes and respiratory rates...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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