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Clinical Biomechanics

Jörn Kircher, Felix Schmidt, Thelonius Hawellek, Jan Hubert, Achim Hedtmann, Klaus Püschel, Michael Hahn, Andreas Niemeier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
D Belaid, T Vendeuvre, A Bouchoucha, F Brémand, C Brèque, P Rigoard, A Germaneau
BACKGROUND: Treatment for fractures of the tibial plateau is in most cases carried out by stable fixation in order to allow early mobilization. Minimally invasive technologies such as tibioplasty or stabilization by locking plate, bone augmentation and cement filling (CF) have recently been used to treat this type of fracture. The aim of this paper was to determine the mechanical behavior of the tibial plateau by numerically modeling and by quantifying the mechanical effects on the tibia mechanical properties from injury healing...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois, Silvia Mena-Del Horno, Enrique Viosca-Herrero, Celedonia Igual-Camacho, Beatriz Gisbert-Morant
BACKGROUND: A major goal in stroke rehabilitation is the establishment of more effective physical therapy techniques to recover postural stability. Functional Principal Component Analysis provides greater insight into recovery trends. However, when missing values exist, obtaining functional data presents some difficulties. The purpose of this study was to reveal an alternative technique for obtaining the Functional Principal Components without requiring the conversion to functional data beforehand and to investigate this methodology to determine the effect of specific physical therapy techniques in balance recovery trends in elderly subjects with hemiplegia post-stroke...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Emily J Osborn, Christine L Farnsworth, Joshua D Doan, Eric W Edmonds
BACKGROUND: Classic implants for operative intervention of mid-shaft clavicle fractures in adolescents can become symptomatic, requiring removal. This study compares 1) biomechanical properties and 2) clinical outcomes in adolescents of mid-shaft clavicle fracture fixation with bioabsorbable versus metal implants. METHODS: Six synthetic clavicles with mid-shaft fractures underwent bioabsorbable plating. A testing frame applied 10 non-destructive torsion and 10 axial compression cycles, followed by cantilever bending to failure...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hayley R Moody, Isaac O Afara, Sanjleena Singh, Adekunle Oloyede
BACKGROUND: Histological evaluation of articular cartilage, such as using the Mankin scoring system, is the gold standard for characterization of tissue integrity. This scoring system takes into account several parameters indicative of the tissue's health; however, the collagen integrity, which is a primary indicator of cartilage health is not taken into consideration. Thus, there is need to enhance histological grading of articular cartilage by incorporating explicit scoring of collagen degeneration into the Modified Mankin grading system...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Christian Balkovec, Jim Veldhuis, John W Baird, G Wayne Brodland, Stuart M McGill
BACKGROUND: Disc height loss and osteophytes change the local mechanical environment in the spine; while previous research has examined kinematic dysfunction under degenerative change, none has looked at the influence of disc height loss and osteophytes throughout movement. METHODS: Twenty patients with pain related to the head, neck or shoulders were imaged via videofluoroscopy as they underwent sagittal-plane flexion and extension. A clinician graded disc height loss and osteophytes as "severe/moderate", "mild", or "none"...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Daniel M Dressler, Christopher R Dennison, Tom Whyte, Peter A Cripton
BACKGROUND: Head-first impacts with an aligned cervical spine cause some of the most severe types of injuries due to the risk of fractures and associated spinal cord injury. Sports, such as football, mountain biking and horseback riding, contribute to the incidence of spinal cord injury but there is potential to reduce the risk of these injuries through a helmet-mounted device. METHODS: A novel device, the Pro-Neck-Tor mechanism, was incorporated into a commercial football helmet and tested in head-first impact experiments...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Carolyn W Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jason R Kerrigan
While rollover crashes are rare, approximately one third of vehicle occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes. Most severe-to-fatal injuries resulting from rollover crashes occur in the head or neck region, due to head and neck interaction with the roof during the crash. While many studies have used anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) to predict head and neck injury, the biofidelity of ATDs in rollover has not been established. This study aims to build on previous research to compare the dynamic response and injuries sustained by four post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to those predicted by six different ATDs in full-scale rollover crash tests...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Rinat Friedman, Ayelet Haimy, Amit Gefen, Yoram Epstein
BACKGROUND: The rate of eye injury is steadily rising during military conflicts of the century, with thermal burns being the most common type of injury to the eyes. The present study focuses on assessing the heat resistance properties of military protective goggles using three-dimensional (3D) finite element head modeling fitted with the tested protective gear. METHODS: A computational thermal impact was applied onto a 3D biomimetic human head model fitted with two goggle models - sports (Type 1) and square (Type 2)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Nicholas DeVogel, Anjishnu Banerjee, Narayan Yoganandan
BACKGROUND: In automotive events, head injuries (skull fractures and/or brain injuries) are associated with head contact loading. While the widely-used head injury criterion is based on frontal bone fracture and linear accelerations, injury risk curves were not developed from original datasets. OBJECTIVES: Develop skull fracture-based risk curves for using previously published data and apply resampling techniques to assess their qualities. METHODS: Force, deflection, energy, and stiffness data from thirteen human cadaver head impact tests were used to develop risk curves using parametric survival analysis...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Takashi Nagai, Nathaniel A Bates, Timothy E Hewett, Nathan D Schilaty
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament injury can disrupt one's mechanoreceptors and result in decreased proprioception such as joint position sense and ultimately altered motor function. The application of localized vibration has been used to investigate the integrity of the sensorimotor system and the mechanisms of quadriceps function after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate joint position sense with and without vibration and compare among anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed, contralateral, and control limbs...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Rebecca L Brookham, Alan C Cudlip, Clark R Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities within the breast cancer population can reduce quality of life. Current breast cancer survivor upper limb kinematic strategies unfortunately lack robust connection with performing important activities of daily living. METHODS: Accordingly, fifty breast cancer survivors performed 88 dynamic tasks (divided into range of motion-reach, range of motion-rotate, activity of daily living, and work tasks). Humerothoracic and scapulothoracic angles were extracted from motion capture data...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Megan C Kirkland, Alice Chen, Matthew B Downer, Brett J Holloway, Elizabeth M Wallack, Evan J Lockyer, Natasha C M Buckle, Courtney L Abbott, Michelle Ploughman
BACKGROUND: People with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) often report subtle deficits in balance and cognition but display no measurable impairment on clinical assessments. We examined whether hopping to a metronome beat had the potential to detect anticipatory motor control deficits among people with mild MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤ 3.5). METHODS: Participants with MS (n = 13), matched controls (n = 9), and elderly subjects (n = 13) completed tests of cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) and motor performance (Timed 25 Foot Walk Test (T25FWT))...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Chung-Ying Tsai, Michael L Boninger, Sarah R Bass, Alicia M Koontz
BACKGROUND: Using proper technique is important for minimizing upper limb kinetics during wheelchair transfers. The objective of the study was to 1) evaluate the transfer techniques used during toilet transfers and 2) determine the impact of technique on upper limb joint loading for two different toilet configurations. METHODS: Twenty-six manual wheelchair users (23 men and 3 women) performed transfers in a side and front wheelchair-toilet orientation while their habitual transfer techniques were evaluated using the Transfer Assessment Instrument...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
David C Morgenroth, Michelle Roland, Alison L Pruziner, Joseph M Czerniecki
BACKGROUND: Intact limb knee osteoarthritis is a prevalent secondary disability in transfemoral amputees. Walking down a ramp may increase this risk due to excessive limb loading. We sought to determine whether intact limb loading differed between transfemoral amputees and controls during down slope ambulation, and the compensatory strategies transfemoral amputees used to modify intact limb loading. Secondarily, we sought to determine the effect of prosthetic knee type. METHODS: Five unilateral transfemoral amputees and five non-amputee controls walked down a ramp and the following outcome measures were compared between amputees and controls and across prosthetic knee type (C-leg versus Power Knee): step length, walking speed, leading limb ground reaction forces, and trailing and leading limb ankle and knee energy absorption...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Ilaria Pacifici, Claudia Condoluci, Chiarella Sforza, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: A slip occurs when the required friction (RCOF) to prevent slipping at the foot/floor interfaces exceeds the available friction. The RCOF is dependent upon the biomechanics features of individuals and their gait. On the other hand, the available friction depends on environmental features. Once individuals with crouch gait have their biomechanics of gait completely altered, how do they interact with a supporting surface? The aim was to quantify the RCOF in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) and crouch gait...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Stephen Mattucci, Jason Speidel, Jie Liu, Brian K Kwon, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Thomas R Oxland
The wide variability, or heterogeneity, in human spinal cord injury is due partially to biomechanical factors. This review summarizes our current knowledge surrounding the patterns of human spinal column injury and the biomechanical factors affecting injury. The biomechanics of human spinal injury is studied most frequently with human cadaveric models and the features of the two most common injury patterns, burst fracture and fracture dislocation, are outlined. The biology of spinal cord injury is typically studied with animal models and the effects of the most relevant biomechanical factors - injury mechanism, injury velocity, and residual compression, are described...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Tobias Reiner, Martin Schwarze, Benjamin Panzram, Matthias C Klotz, Rudi G Bitsch, Sebastian Jaeger
BACKGROUND: The twin peg femoral component was introduced for the cemented Oxford unicondylar knee to increase implant stability. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of the twin peg design on femoral interface temperature and maximum load to failure in comparison to the single peg design. METHODS: In this experimental study medial Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty was performed in 12 pairs of fresh-frozen human knees. A cemented femoral single peg component was implanted on the one side (group A) and a cemented twin peg component on the other side (group B)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Joseph F Cusick, Frank A Pintar, Joseph S Cheng, Jason I Lifshutz, Narayan Yoganandan
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical/anatomic limitations may limit the successful implantation, maintenance, and risk acceptance of posterior cervical plate/rod fixation for one stage decompression-fusion. A method of posterior fixation (crisscross) that resolves biomechanical deficiencies of previous facet wiring techniques and not reliant upon screw implantation has been devised. The biomechanical performance of the new method of facet fixation was compared to the traditional lateral mass plate/screw fixation method...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Sarah Stewart, Matthew Carroll, Angela Brenton-Rule, Monique Keys, Libby Bell, Nicola Dalbeth, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether region-specific foot pain may influence plantar pressure in people with established rheumatoid arthritis. The aim was to determine the association between region-specific foot pain and region-specific plantar pressure. METHODS: Twenty-one people with rheumatoid arthritis and 19 age- and sex-matched controls participated in this study. Self-reported foot pain in the toes, forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot was assessed using foot diagrams...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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