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Clinical Biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886590/pelvic-floor-dynamics-during-high-impact-athletic-activities-a-computational-modeling-study
#1
Nicholas Dias, Yun Peng, Rose Khavari, Nissrine A Nakib, Robert M Sweet, Gerald W Timm, Arthur G Erdman, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence is a significant problem in young female athletes, but the pathophysiology remains unclear because of the limited knowledge of the pelvic floor support function and limited capability of currently available assessment tools. The aim of our study is to develop an advanced computer modeling tool to better understand the dynamics of the internal pelvic floor during highly transient athletic activities. METHODS: Apelvic model was developed based on high-resolution MRI scans of a healthy nulliparous young female...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#2
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846395/mid-term-functional-outcome-of-a-total-arthroplasty-of-the-first-metatarsophalangeal-joint
#3
Corina Nüesch, Annegret Mündermann, Monika Horisberger
BACKGROUND: Arthroplasty of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is an alternative treatment option for end-stage hallux rigidus to the current gold standard of arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mid-term functional outcome of an anatomically shaped prosthesis for the first metatarsophalangeal joint using pedobarography. METHODS: Ten patients (12 affected feet; age at surgery: 62.1 (SD: 7.2) years) were investigated preoperatively and 52 (SD: 3) months postoperatively using pedobarography (EMED, novel GmbH, Munich, Germany)...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821274/perception-of-symmetry-and-asymmetry-in-individuals-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#4
Jaimie A Roper, Matthew J Terza, Chris J Hass
BACKGROUND: Changes in the quantity, quality and integration of sensory information are thought to persist long after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and completion of physical therapy. Our purpose was to investigate the ability of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to perceive imposed asymmetry and symmetry while walking. METHODS: Twenty participants with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and 20 controls walked on a split-belt treadmill while we assessed the ability to detect symmetry and asymmetry at fast and slow speeds...
October 31, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825053/intra-operative-measurement-of-applied-forces-during-anterior-scoliosis-correction
#5
H Fairhurst, J P Little, C J Adam
BACKGROUND: Spinal instrumentation and fusion for the treatment of scoliosis is primarily a mechanical intervention to correct the deformity and halt further progression. While implant-related complications remain a concern, little is known about the magnitudes of the forces applied to the spine during surgery, which may affect post-surgical outcomes. In this study, the compressive forces applied to each spinal segment during anterior instrumentation were measured in a series of patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis...
October 30, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825052/identification-of-potential-compensatory-muscle-strategies-in-a-breast-cancer-survivor-population-a-combined-computational-and-experimental-approach
#6
Jaclyn N Chopp-Hurley, Rebecca L Brookham, Clark R Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical models are often used to estimate the muscular demands of various activities. However, specific muscle dysfunctions typical of unique clinical populations are rarely considered. Due to iatrogenic tissue damage, pectoralis major capability is markedly reduced in breast cancer population survivors, which could influence arm internal and external rotation muscular strategies. METHODS: Accordingly, an optimization-based muscle force prediction model was systematically modified to emulate breast cancer population survivors through adjusting pectoralis capability and enforcing an empirical muscular co-activation relationship...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821273/characteristics-of-thoracic-and-lumbar-movements-during-gait-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-patients-before-and-after-decompression-surgery
#7
Wataru Kuwahara, Masataka Deie, Naoto Fujita, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Toru Sunagawa, Makoto Asaeda, Haruka Nakamura, Yoshifumi Kono, Mitsuo Ochi
BACKGROUND: Although gait analysis has been previously conducted for lumbar spinal stenosis patients, the vertebral segmental movements, such as of the thoracic and lumbar regions, and whether the spinal movement during gait changes after decompression surgery remain unclear. METHODS: Ten patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and 10 healthy controls participated. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842233/optimizing-finite-element-predictions-of-local-subchondral-bone-structural-stiffness-using-neural-network-derived-density-modulus-relationships-for-proximal-tibial-subchondral-cortical-and-trabecular-bone
#8
S Majid Nazemi, Morteza Amini, Saija A Kontulainen, Jaques S Milner, David W Holdsworth, Bassam A Masri, David R Wilson, James D Johnston
BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomography based subject-specific finite element modeling has potential to clarify the role of subchondral bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis initiation, progression, and pain. However, it is unclear what density-modulus equation(s) should be applied with subchondral cortical and subchondral trabecular bone when constructing finite element models of the tibia. Using a novel approach applying neural networks, optimization, and back-calculation against in situ experimental testing results, the objective of this study was to identify subchondral-specific equations that optimized finite element predictions of local structural stiffness at the proximal tibial subchondral surface...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821275/biaxial-quantification-of-deep-layer-transverse-carpal-ligament-elastic-properties-by-sex-and-region
#9
Bryan Mathers, Anne Agur, Michele Oliver, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: The transverse carpal ligament is a major component of the carpal tunnel and is an important structure in the etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome. The current study aimed to quantify biaxial elastic moduli of the transverse carpal ligament and compare differences between sex and region (Radial and Ulnar). METHODS: Biaxial testing of radial and ulnar samples from twenty-two (thirteen male, nine female) human fresh frozen cadaveric transverse carpal ligaments was performed...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816022/lesser-tuberosity-osteotomy-and-subscapularis-tenotomy-repair-techniques-during-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-cadaveric-studies
#10
John B Schrock, Matthew J Kraeutler, Darby A Houck, Gina G Provenzano, Eric C McCarty, Jonathan T Bravman
BACKGROUND: Numerous techniques have been used to mobilize and repair the subscapularis tendon during total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study is to perform a detailed comparison of subscapularis tenotomy and lesser tuberosity osteotomy repairs during total shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched two databases (PubMed and the Cochrane Library) to find cadaveric studies comparing the biomechanical strength of various subscapularis repair techniques following total shoulder arthroplasty...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794259/an-evaluation-of-fluid-immersion-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-pressure-ulcers
#11
P R Worsley, B Parsons, D L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with impaired mobility can spend prolonged periods on support surfaces, increasing their risk of developing pressure ulcers. Manufacturers have developed mattresses to maximise contact area. The present study evaluated both the biomechanical and physiological responses to lying postures on a Fluid Immersion Simulation mattress. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited to evaluate the mattress during three prescribed settings of immersion (high, medium and low)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771606/the-in-situ-force-in-the-calcaneofibular-ligament-and-the-contribution-of-this-ligament-to-ankle-joint-stability
#12
Takuma Kobayashi, Satoshi Yamakawa, Kota Watanabe, Kei Kimura, Daisuke Suzuki, Hidenori Otsubo, Atsushi Teramoto, Mineko Fujimiya, Hiromichi Fujie, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Numerous biomechanical studies of the lateral ankle ligaments have been reported; however, the isolated function of the calcaneofibular ligament has not been clarified. We hypothesize that the calcaneofibular ligament would stabilize the ankle joint complex under multidirectional loading, and that the in situ force in the calcaneofibular ligament would change in each flexed position. METHODS: Using seven fresh frozen cadaveric lower extremities, the motions and forces of the intact ankle under multidirectional loading were recorded using a 6-degree-of-freedom robotic system...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750079/biomechanical-analysis-of-proximal-junctional-failure-following-adult-spinal-instrumentation-using-a-comprehensive-hybrid-modeling-approach
#13
Leo Fradet, Xiaoyu Wang, Lawrence G Lenke, Carl-Eric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional failure is a severe proximal junctional complication following adult spinal instrumentation and involving acute proximal junctional kyphotic deformity, mechanical failure at the upper instrumented vertebra or just above, and/or proximal junctional osseoligamentous disruption. Clinical studies have identified potential risk factors, but knowledge on their biomechanics is still lacking for addressing the proximal junctional failure issues. The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive computational modeling and simulation techniques to investigate proximal junctional failure...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744005/paravertebral-spinal-injection-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-degenerative-facet-osteoarthropathy-evidence-of-motor-performance-improvements-based-on-objective-assessments
#14
Nima Toosizadeh, Homayoon Harati, Tzu-Chuan Yen, Cindy Fastje, Jane Mohler, Bijan Najafi, Michael Dohm
BACKGROUND: This study examined short- and long-term improvements in motor performance, quantified using wearable sensors, in response to facet spine injection in degenerative facet osteoarthropathy patients. METHODS: Adults with confirmed degenerative facet osteoarthropathy were recruited and were treated with medial or intermediate branch block injection. Self-report pain, health condition, and disability (Oswestry), as well as objective motor performance measures (gait, balance, and timed-up-and-go) were obtained in five sessions: pre-surgery (baseline), immediately after the injection, one-month, three-month, and 12-month follow-ups...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744006/varus-thrust-in-women-with-early-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-and-its-relation-with-the-external-knee-adduction-moment
#15
Armaghan Mahmoudian, Jaap H van Dieen, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Isabel Ac Baert, Gert S Faber, Frank P Luyten, Sabine Mp Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Varus thrust, defined as an abrupt increase of the knee varus angle during weight-bearing in gait, has been shown to be present in patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis and is considered to be one of the risk factors for progression of symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the presence and magnitude of varus thrust and its relation with the Knee Adduction Moment in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, and compared it to that in a group of controls and in a group of subjects with established medial knee osteoarthritis...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780109/efficacy-of-a-progressive-resistance-exercise-program-to-increase-toe-flexor-strength-in-older-people
#16
Karen J Mickle, Peter Caputi, Jan M Potter, Julie R Steele
BACKGROUND: Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve toe flexor strength in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: After baseline testing, 85 men and women (age range 60-90years) were randomized to either a supervised, progressive resistance training (n=43) or a home-based exercise (n=42) group for 12weeks...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792950/hallux-valgus-surgery-affects-kinematic-parameters-during-gait
#17
Jitka Klugarova, Miroslav Janura, Zdenek Svoboda, Zdenek Sos, Nicholas Stergiou, Miloslav Klugar
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to compare spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during the walking in patients with hallux valgus before and after surgery and in relation to a control group. METHODS: Seventeen females with hallux valgus, who underwent first metatarsal osteotomy, constituted our experimental group. The control group consisted of thirteen females. Kinematic data during walking were obtained using the Vicon MX system...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750078/how-does-differential-rod-contouring-contribute-to-3-dimensional-correction-and-affect-the-bone-screw-forces-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-instrumentation
#18
Xiaoyu Wang, Laure Boyer, Franck Le Naveaux, Richard M Schwend, Carl-Eric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Differential rod contouring is used to achieve 3-dimensional correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis instrumentations. How vertebral rotation correction is correlated with the amount of differential rod contouring is still unknown; too aggressive differential rod contouring may increase the risk of bone-screw connection failure. The objective was to assess the 3-dimensional correction and bone-screw forces using various configurations of differential rod contouring. METHODS: Computerized patient-specific biomechanical models of 10 AIS cases were used to simulate AIS instrumentations using various configurations of differential rod contouring...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816023/kinematics-and-kinetics-during-stair-ascent-in-individuals-with-gluteal-tendinopathy
#19
Kim Allison, Bill Vicenzino, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Alison Grimaldi, Paul W Hodges
BACKGROUND: Individuals with gluteal tendinopathy commonly report lateral hip pain and disability during stair ascent. This study aimed to compare kinematics and kinetics between individuals with and without gluteal tendinopathy during a step up task. METHODS: 35 individuals with unilateral gluteal tendinopathy and 35 pain-free controls underwent three-dimensional motion analysis of stance phase during stair ascent. An analysis of covariance was performed to compare hip, pelvis and trunk kinematic and kinetic variables between groups...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756005/kinematics-and-load-sharing-of-an-anterior-thoracolumbar-spinal-reconstruction-construct-with-peek-rods-an-in-vitro-biomechanical-study
#20
Ruozhou Zhou, Zhiping Huang, Xiang Liu, Jie Tong, Wei Ji, Sheting Liu, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Polyetheretherketone rod constructs provide adequate spinal stability. Kinematics and load sharing of anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction with polyetheretherketone rods under preload remains unknown. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to a pure moment of 5.0Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, and flexion-extension with a compressive preload of 300N. An anterior reconstruction of L1 corpectomy was conducted with a surrogate bone graft and anterior rod constructs (polyetheretherketone or titanium rods)...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
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