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Immunologic Research

Alexandru Tatomir, Cosmin A Tegla, Alvaro Martin, Dallas Boodhoo, Vinh Nguyen, Adam J Sugarman, Armugam Mekala, Freidrich Anselmo, Anamaria Talpos-Caia, Cornelia Cudrici, Tudor C Badea, Violeta Rus, Horea Rus
Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in active demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions may impede axonal regeneration and can modify immune reactions. Response gene to complement (RGC)-32 plays an important role in the mediation of TGF-β downstream effects, but its role in gliosis has not been investigated. To gain more insight into the role played by RGC-32 in gliosis, we investigated its involvement in TGF-β-induced ECM expression and the upregulation of the reactive astrocyte markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and nestin...
July 13, 2018: Immunologic Research
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Mohsen Saleh ElAlfy, Amira Abdel Moneam Adly, Fatma Soliman ElSayed Ebeid, Deena Samir Eissa, Eman Abdel Rahman Ismail, Yasser Hassan Mohammed, Manar Elsayed Ahmed, Aya Sayed Saad
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with alterations in immune phenotypes. CD4+ CD28null T lymphocytes have pro-inflammatory functions and are linked to vascular diseases. To assess the percentage of CD4+ CD28null T lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK), and IFN-gamma levels, we compared 40 children and adolescents with SCD with 40 healthy controls and evaluated their relation to disease severity and response to therapy. Patients with SCD steady state were studied, focusing on history of frequent vaso-occlusive crisis, hydroxyurea therapy, and IFN-gamma levels...
June 20, 2018: Immunologic Research
Pio Conti, Alessandro Caraffa, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Chiara M Conti, Spiros K Kritas, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Lucia Tettamanti, Theoharis C Theoharides
The purpose of this article is to study the involvement of inflammatory mast cells (MCs) in depression which may be inhibited by IL-37. We evaluate mast cells in depression on the basis of our previous experimental data, and using the most relevant studies reported in the literature. Dysfunction of mood, feelings, and thoughts is a major risk factor for several metabolic diseases and may influence the physiology of the body leading to depression. Depression, present in mastocytosis, is an important endogenous process that promotes the activation of meningeal cell receptors through a low-grade neurogenic chronic inflammation, and MCs...
June 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
Bjørn A Nexø
Recent genetic evidence points towards endogenous retroviruses as playing a pivotal role in the causation of multiple sclerosis and possibly other autoimmune diseases. We discuss various ways in which this association could be brought about. Specifically, we suggest that two endogenous retroviruses, HERV-Fc1 and HERV-K13, on chromosomes X and 19, respectively, contribute to the development of autoimmune T cells by transforming them in multiple sclerosis. Partially overlapping sets of endogenous retroviruses may play a role in other autoimmune diseases...
June 8, 2018: Immunologic Research
Maryam Azimi, Mojdeh Ghabaee, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Maryam Izad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by neuroaxonal degeneration in the central nervous system. Impaired function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is believed to be an underlying pathogenic mechanism in MS. Tregs is able to release exosomes, which contain a considerable amount of protein and RNA. Exosomes are capable of transporting their content to other cells where the released content exerts biological functions. Here, we investigated whether Tregs exosomes of RRMS patients or healthy controls might regulate the proliferation or survival of T lymphocytes...
June 7, 2018: Immunologic Research
Bingbing Kong, Xiaofeng Wang, Wenping Yang, Xin Zhao, Rong Zhang, Yu Wang
Simvastatin may be beneficial for treating sepsis due to its immune-regulating properties, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we hypothesized simvastatin may attenuate T cell dysfunction induced by sepsis. To test this hypothesis, we used a model based on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with simvastatin (0.2 μg/g of body weight) before CLP. The expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on splenic CD4+ T cells and T cell apoptosis, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by flow cytometry...
May 11, 2018: Immunologic Research
Vicki Modell, Jordan S Orange, Jessica Quinn, Fred Modell
Primary immunodeficiencies (PI) are genetic defects of the immune system that result in chronic, serious, and often life-threatening infections, if not diagnosed and treated. Many patients with PI are undiagnosed, underdiagnosed, or misdiagnosed. In fact, recent studies have shown that PI may be more common than previously estimated and that as many as 1% of the population may be affected with a PI when all types and varieties are considered. In order to raise awareness of PI with the overall goal of reducing associated morbidity and mortality, the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) established a network of specialized centers that could better identify, diagnose, treat, and follow patients with PI disorders...
May 9, 2018: Immunologic Research
Khalaf Kridin, Kyle Amber, Mogher Khamaisi, Doron Comaneshter, Erez Batat, Arnon D Cohen
The association of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) with autoimmune diseases is controversial. While these agents were proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for several inflammatory diseases by blocking T cell proliferation and cytokine production, they were found to trigger inflammatroy bowel disease, inflammatory arthritis and bullous pemphigoid. Our objective is to examine the association between DPP4i and autoimmune diseases. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study utilizing the database of Clalit Health Services...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Mateus Dalcin Luchese, Mariana Lopes Dos Santos, Angelica Garbuio, Roselaine Campos Targino, Carla Ploeger Mansueli, Lilian Rumi Tsuruta, Wagner Quintilio, Ana Maria Moro
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates the homeostasis of immune responses; its exacerbated production is associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Anti-TNFα drugs have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Currently, a worldwide race is on stage for the production of biosimilars moved by patent expiration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), such as anti-TNFα adalimumab...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Min Pan, QiongXiu Zhou, ShuBei Zheng, XiaoHan You, Duo Li, Ji Zhang, ChaoSheng Chen, FeiFei Xu, ZhanYuan Li, ZhiHong Zhou, JianNa Zhang
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an autoimmune disease associated with complement activation. It is unclear whether the ratio of serum C3 and C4 concentrations (C3/C4 ratio) can predict renal outcomes in IgAN patients. A total of 1503 patients diagnosed with IgAN via renal biopsy were recorded in this study. Poor renal outcomes were defined as > 50% decrease in the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during follow-up. In total, 712 patients meeting the exclusion/inclusion criteria were selected, and the mean follow-up period was 40...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Lisa K Peterson, Troy D Jaskowski, Sonia L La'ulu, Anne E Tebo
The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and significance of antibodies targeting the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 activating enzyme (SAE) in patients under serologic evaluation for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Patient sera (n = 17) recognizing bands at approximately 40 (SAE1) and 90 (SAE2) kDa were identified in 6445 consecutive samples for myositis autoantibody evaluation by immunoprecipitation (IP) of S35 -labeled K562 cell lysate. All 17 positive samples, 176 disease, and 67 healthy controls were evaluated for SAE1 antibodies using a line immunoblot assay (LIA)...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Jian Lu, Jing Wu, Jie Tian, Shengjun Wang
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by most cells. They are composed of a lipid bilayer containing transmembrane proteins and enclosing cytosolic proteins and RNA, mediating intercellular communication between different cell types in the body, and thus influencing various physiological and pathological functions of both recipient and parent cells. For their nanolevel structures with a stable nature and various biological functions, studies of exosomes have been the subject of increasing interest in the past few years...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Sophia Heiman, Merav Weil, Lester M Shulman, Amos J Simon, Atar Lev, Raz Somech, Tali Stauber
Infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are at risk of developing severe life-threatening infections if they are inadvertently given attenuated live vaccines. Concomitant appearance of two live vaccine-associated complications in one person is rarely reported. In this study, we present two SCID infants, who received BCG and oral polio vaccines according to their local immunization schedule early in life, before the diagnosis of immunodeficiency was made. Their clinical presentation, extensive immunological workup, genetic tests, and clinical disease course are presented...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Le Yang, Lin Yang, Chengbin Dong, Liying Li
Scavenger receptors, which are expressed on monocyte/macrophages, play a central role in many pathogenic processes. Here, we examined the role of the class D scavenger receptor (CD68) in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophages (BMMs) in chronic liver injury. The expression pattern of multiple scavenger receptors in two liver injury models (methionine-choline-deficient and high fat (MCDHF), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )) were analyzed by qRT-PCR. CD68 expression was characterized by flow cytometric analysis, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Melvin Cohn
The goal of this essay is to take the reader through the logic that would predict universal graft acceptance. The story begins with what we learned from an experiment performed 65 years ago and develops that information in greater depth. The pathway of the analysis leads to the conclusion that controlling the immune system at the level of the T-helper would be the best way to approach a general solution to the problem of graft acceptance.
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Longjie Li, Haiseng Zhang, Shengli Jin, Chang Liu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by the irreversible joint destruction resulted from the attack of inflammatory cells to the joints. Recent studies demonstrated that crocin is able to alleviate arthritis and suppress inflammatory responses, implying crocin as a potential promising antiarthritic agent. In this study, we confirmed the effect of crocin on RA and revealed its underlying mechanism by measuring lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production in presence or absence of crocin...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Lazaros I Sakkas, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Carlo Perricone, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
IL-35 is a relatively new cytokine that emerges as an important immunomodulator. IL-35 belongs to IL-12 cytokine family that includes IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35. These cytokines are heterodimers that share subunits and their receptors also share subunits. Whereas IL-12 and IL-23 are clearly proinflammatory cytokines, the role of IL-35 is less clear. In mice, IL-35 appears to be anti-inflammatory and to protect from autoimmune inflammatory diseases. IL-35 induces the expansion of a subset of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Bregs and mediates their suppressive function and inhibits Th17 cells...
June 2018: Immunologic Research
Maria Infantino, M Manfredi, M Merone, V Grossi, M Benucci, F Li Gobbi, F Bandinelli, A Damiani, P Soda
Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a heterogeneous group of antibodies, quite specific for SLE. Their variability is related to the assay used, the immunoglobulin class secondary antibody, and the dsDNA source. The standardization of measuring anti-dsDNA antibodies is still poor and different methods yield different results. Several novel technologies were developed during the last decades that represent viable alternatives to the traditional methods such as the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) and multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI)...
April 5, 2018: Immunologic Research
Julian Ramírez-Bello, Daniel Cadena-Sandoval, Jorge Flavio Mendoza-Rincón, Rosa Elda Barbosa-Cobos, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Luis M Amezcua-Guerra, Mónica Sierra-Martínez, Silvia Jiménez-Morales
The TNF -238G/A (rs361525) and -308G/A (rs1800629) polymorphisms have consistently been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in several populations; however, these findings have not been verified in all populations. Here, we aimed to examine whether the TNF -238G/A, -308G/A, -376G/A (rs1800750), and -1031T/C (rs1799964) polymorphisms confer SLE or lupus nephritis (LN) susceptibility in a Mexican population. Our study included 442 patients with SLE and 495 controls. For genotyping, we used the TaqMan 5' allele discrimination assay...
April 2, 2018: Immunologic Research
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