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Seminars in Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902388/phthisis-bulbi-a-clinicopathological-perspective
#1
Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Shreyas Temkar, Pradeep Sagar, Seema Kashyap, Neelam Pushker, Yog Raj Sharma
Phthisis bulbi denotes end-stage eye disease characterized by shrinkage and disorganization of the eye with the resultant functional loss. The major factors associated with the pathogenesis of phthisis are hypotony, deranged blood-ocular barriers, and inflammation. Common causes include trauma, surgery, infection, inflammation, malignancy, retinal detachment, and vascular lesions. A phthisical globe shows a small squared off shape, opaque and thickened cornea, thickened sclera, neovascularization of iris, cataract, cyclitic membrane, ciliochoroidal detachment, and retinal detachment...
June 14, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509052/comparison-of-central-corneal-thickness-with-ultrasound-pachymetry-noncontact-specular-microscopy-and-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Sevil Karaman Erdur, Goktug Demirci, Funda Dikkaya, Mehmet Selim Kocabora, Mustafa Ozsutcu
BACKGROUND: To determine the agreement of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements taken with ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and noncontact specular microscopy (NSM). METHODS: A prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was performed in the outpatient ophthalmology clinic. CCT was measured in a total of 147 eyes of 147 consecutive healthy patients with USP, NSM, and SD-OCT. Same examiner performed all examinations...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485320/decentration-and-tilt-of-intraocular-lens-after-posterior-capsulotomy
#3
Mehmet Murat Uzel, Serdar Ozates, Mustafa Koc, Ayse Guzin Taslipinar Uzel, Pelin Yılmazbaş
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and Neodymium-doped:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy on tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) at vertical and horizontal meridians. METHODS: The study included 64 eyes of 64 patients. IOL decentration and tilt were measured using a Scheimpflug camera before and 1 month after Nd:YAG capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and manifest refraction were also determined...
February 27, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482436/the-top-100-papers-of-25-years-of-macular-imaging-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
Robert Kromer, Julian Ueberschaar, Marc Schargus, Vasyl Druchkiv, Andreas Frings
We analyzed and quantified the 100 most frequently cited papers in macular imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The databases of the Institute for Scientific Information databases utilized for identification of articles in macular imaging using OCT over the last 25 years since the introduction of OCT in ophthalmology. All articles containing "optical coherence tomography" and "retina" without "glaucoma". The publication dates of the 100 most-cited articles ranged from 1991 to 2015, with the greatest number of articles published in the 2000s, while the total number of citations per article was greatest for articles published in the 1990s...
February 26, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388866/diagnostic-electron-microscopy-of-retina
#5
Rishikesh Kumar Gupta, Inderjeet Kaur, Tapas C Nag, Jay Chhablani
The electron microscopy techniques were used in various fields as an analytical technique under in vitro conditions, which provides the sufficient resolution for better visualization and interpretation. This review gives a brief overview of the analytical application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques and critical findings in different retinal pathologies. This review article aims to improvise understanding of retinal microstructures for clinicians which will help to improve the interpretation of the current advanced imaging techniques...
February 1, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341800/factors-associated-with-patient-satisfaction-in-an-outpatient-glaucoma-population
#6
Kamran Rahmatnejad, Jonathan S Myers, Megan E Falls, Sarah R Myers, Michael Waisbourd, Lisa A Hark
PURPOSE: To determine what metrics might impact satisfaction survey responses. METHODS: A 37-question survey was administered to 249 participants. Responses were correlated to demographics, clinical factors, weather conditions, and examination timing. RESULTS: Sample consists of 55.4% female and 73.9% white, and mean age was 65.1 years. Participants were assigned to: completely satisfied (77.9%) or not completely satisfied (22.1%) groups based on their rating of glaucoma specialist on a scale of 1-10, while 10 considered "completely satisfied" and less than 10 "not completely satisfied...
January 17, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336641/impact-of-forward-and-backward-scattering-and-corneal-higher-order-aberrations-on-visual-acuity-after-penetrating-keratoplasty
#7
Hidenaga Kobashi, Kazutaka Kamiya, Kimiya Shimizu
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship of forward and backward scattering and corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 25 eyes of 25 consecutive patients who underwent PK using the VisuMax femtosecond laser system and age-matched 25 eyes of 25 healthy subjects. We quantitatively assessed objective scattering index (OSI) using the double-pass instrument (OQAS II, Visiometrics), corneal densitometry (CD) and corneal HOAs with the Scheimpflug rotating camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus) 1 year postoperatively...
January 16, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308970/clinical-characteristics-of-17-patients-with-moraxella-keratitis
#8
Yui Tobimatsu, Noriko Inada, Jun Shoji, Satoru Yamagami
PURPOSE: To retrospectively investigate the clinical characteristics of Moraxella keratitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with Moraxella keratitis. Onset age, sex, predisposing factors, initial clinical presentations, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and management and outcome of medical treatment were investigated. RESULT: Moraxella keratitis was more common in patients older than 40 years of age, and its representative initial presentation was a round-shaped ulcer with endothelial plaque (70...
January 8, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420144/complications-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration-as-a-treatment-for-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Aubrey L Gilbert, Bart Chwalisz, Robert Mallery
There are a number of surgical options for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) when it is refractory to medical treatment and weight loss. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) is one of these options. Use of this procedure varies among centers due to experience with the procedure and concern for associated complications that can result in severe loss of vision. This review summarizes the literature concerning post-surgical complications of ONSF for IIH.
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420143/complications-of-intravitreous-injections-in-patients-with-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Aditi Gupta, Jennifer K Sun, Paolo S Silva
Intravitreous injections are presently the second most frequently performed ophthalmic procedure and the most common vitreoretinal procedure. In diabetic patients, intravitreous injections are frequently performed for the treatment of center-involved diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, or other co-existing retinal vascular disease. Diabetic patients may be at higher risk of adverse events compared to non-diabetic individuals, given frequent systemic comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and renal disease and increased susceptibility to infection...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215958/postoperative-complications-of-pars-plana-vitrectomy-for-diabetic-retinal-disease
#11
REVIEW
Gary L Yau, Paolo S Silva, Paul G Arrigg, Jennifer K Sun
Despite recent advances in the medical management of diabetic retinal disease, there remain established indications for vitreoretinal surgery in the treatment of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy. These include non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. Advances in surgical instrumentation, technique, and experience have led to improved visual outcomes, as well as a corresponding decrease in the incidence of postoperative complications. However, the presence of systemic and ocular factors in diabetic patients increases the risk of adverse events compared to non-diabetic individuals...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211548/aqueous-drainage-device-erosion-a-review-of-rates-risks-prevention-and-repair
#12
REVIEW
Upneet Bains, Ambika Hoguet
Aqueous drainage device tube erosions require prompt intervention to prevent endophthalmitis. As the use of drainage devices in glaucoma surgery continues to increase, recognizing and managing tube erosions is a pertinent issue. This review provides a comprehensive overview of tube erosions, including the rates of erosion with various types of patch grafts, the risk factors associated with erosion, and approaches to repair in order to counsel and treat our patients to prevent endophthalmitis.
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193991/diplopia-after-strabismus-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Medha Sharma, David G Hunter
Diplopia is a disappointing and, at times, unanticipated consequence of what might otherwise be considered anatomically successful strabismus surgery. In this study, we review the existing literature regarding diplopia after strabismus surgery in the context of the senior author's experience. We divide postoperative diplopia types into cases that occur in the setting of normal binocular vision (or "normal" suppression) vs. cases that are the consequence of rare or anomalous sensorial adaptations. We then discuss how to identify patients at greatest risk based on history and preoperative testing, and we offer strategies for managing these sometimes-challenging cases...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185844/postoperative-complications-of-scleral-buckling
#14
REVIEW
Thanos D Papakostas, Demetrios Vavvas
Scleral buckling has an important role in the repair of certain categories of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. These include detachments in young phakic patients, detachments associated with dialysis, and also in conjuction with vitrectomy in patients who have sustained trauma or have developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy. However, it can be associated with significant postoperative complications. The most important ones are refractive change, intrusion or extrusion, infection, globe ischemia, and choroidal detachments, amongst others...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185838/cataract-surgery-complications-in-uveitis-patients-a-review-article
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie M Llop, George N Papaliodis
Uveitis is a leading causes of blindness worldwide, and the development of cataracts is common due to both the presence of intraocular inflammation and the most commonly employed treatment with corticosteroids. The management of these cataracts can be very challenging and often requires additional procedures that can compromise surgical results. The underlying disease affects a relatively young population at higher risk of complications. Preoperative control of inflammation/quiescent disease for at least three months is generally accepted as the minimum amount of time prior to surgical intervention...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172937/panretinal-photocoagulation-a-review-of-complications
#16
REVIEW
Shivani V Reddy, Deeba Husain
Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is a mainstay of therapy for retinal ischemic disease. The procedure involves creating thermal burns in the peripheral retina leading to tissue coagulation, the overall consequence of which is improved retinal oxygenation. While highly effective, there have been concerns historically regarding the anatomic effects and visual complications following PRP, the most common of which include choroidal effusions, exudative retinal detachments, macular edema, visual field deficits, and night vision defects...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172876/limbal-stem-cell-transplantation-and-complications
#17
REVIEW
Jia Yin, Ula Jurkunas
Corneal epithelial stem cells are adult somatic stem cells located at the limbus and represent the ultimate source of transparent corneal epithelium. When these limbal stem cells become dysfunctional or deficient, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) develops. LSCD is a major cause of corneal scarring and is particularly prevalent in chemical and thermal burns of the ocular surface. LSCD leads to conjunctivalization of the corneal surface, neovascularization, recurrent or persistent epithelial defects, ocular surface inflammation, and scarring that, in turn, lead to decreased vision, pain, and impaired quality of life...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172849/postoperative-endophthalmitis-a-review-of-risk-factors-prophylaxis-incidence-microbiology-treatment-and-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Safa Rahmani, Dean Eliott
Postoperative endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications of intraocular surgery. The most common types of intraocular surgeries performed worldwide are cataract extraction, glaucoma drainage implants/trabeculectomy, and pars plana vitrectomy. This review will focus on the clinical features, risk factors, prophylaxis, and treatment of endophthalmitis in these three main intraocular surgeries.
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144846/anticoagulation-in-glaucoma-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Shiraaz I Rahman, Angela Turalba
Anticoagulation medications are used commonly, particularly in an elderly population. There are many systemic diseases and scenarios that require modulation of coagulation to prevent serious adverse outcomes. While there is some consensus about their use in cataract surgery, there is less certainty about their management with glaucoma surgery. Glaucoma surgery presents a unique challenge when considering anticoagulation. Currently, there is great diversity in surgeon practices regarding anticoagulation in glaucoma surgery...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144839/distinguishing-benign-from-malignant-circumscribed-orbital-tumors-in-children
#20
Yufei Tu, Frederick A Jakobiec, Katherine Leung, Suzanne K Freitag
An orbital neoplasm in children is an uncommon clinical finding. Clinical suspicion should be based on many factors, including its location, the nature of onset, associated systemic signs and symptoms, family and social histories, examination findings, and radiographic characteristics. We present two cases of young children of similar age with a rapid-onset orbital mass. In both cases, a circumscribed round lesion was found in the superomedial orbit. An orbital schwannoma, a benign and usually slow growing tumor, was found in the first patient...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
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