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Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896547/chemical-analysis-of-a-miller-type-complex-prebiotic-broth-part-ii-gas-oil-water-and-the-oil-water-interface
#1
Sabrina Scherer, Eva Wollrab, Luca Codutti, Teresa Carlomagno, Stefan Gomes da Costa, Andreas Volkmer, Amela Bronja, Oliver J Schmitz, Albrecht Ott
We have analyzed the chemical variety obtained by Miller-Urey-type experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy, gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GCxGC/MS). In the course of a running Miller-Urey-type experiment, a hydrophobic organic layer emerged besides the hydrophilic aqueous phase and the gaseous phase that were initially present...
November 28, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864699/an-experimental-framework-for-generating-evolvable-chemical-systems-in-the-laboratory
#2
David A Baum, Kalin Vetsigian
Most experimental work on the origin of life has focused on either characterizing the chemical synthesis of particular biochemicals and their precursors or on designing simple chemical systems that manifest life-like properties such as self-propagation or adaptive evolution. Here we propose a new class of experiments, analogous to artificial ecosystem selection, where we select for spontaneously forming self-propagating chemical assemblages in the lab and then seek evidence of a response to that selection as a key indicator that life-like chemical systems have arisen...
November 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807660/encapsulation-of-nucleic-acids-into-giant-unilamellar-vesicles-by-freeze-thaw-a-way-protocells-may-form
#3
Hai Qiao, Na Hu, Jin Bai, Lili Ren, Qing Liu, Liaoqiong Fang, Zhibiao Wang
Protocells are believed to consist of a lipid membrane and encapsulated nucleic acid. As the lipid membrane is impermeable to macromolecules like nucleic acids, the processes by which nucleic acids become encapsulated inside lipid membrane compartments are still unknown. In this paper, a freeze-thaw method was modified and applied to giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in mixed solution resulting in the efficient encapsulation of 6.4 kb plasmid DNA and similar length linear DNA into GUVs...
November 2, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783188/interaction-at-ambient-temperature-and-80%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-between-minerals-and-artificial-seawaters-resembling-the-present-ocean-composition-and-that-of-4-0-billion-years-ago
#4
Cristine E A Carneiro, Antonio C Stabile, Frederico P Gomes, Antonio C S da Costa, Cássia T B V Zaia, Dimas A M Zaia
Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur-because of degradation of the minerals-other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised...
October 25, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771860/can-an-imidazole-be-formed-from-an-alanyl-seryl-glycine-tripeptide-under-possible-prebiotic-conditions
#5
Alberto Vázquez-Salazar, George Tan, Amanda Stockton, Renato Fani, Arturo Becerra, Antonio Lazcano
The five-membered heterocyclic imidazole group, which is an essential component of purines, histidine and many cofactors, has been abiotically synthesized in different model experiments that attempt to simulate the prebiotic environment. The evolutionary significance of imidazoles is highlighted not only by its presence in nucleic acid components and in histidine, but also by experimental reports of its ability to restore the catalytic activity of ribozymes. However, as of today there are no reports of histidine in carbonaceous chondrites, and although the abiotic synthesis of His reported by Shen et al...
October 22, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766455/tardigrades-in-space-research-past-and-future
#6
Erdmann Weronika, Kaczmarek Łukasz
To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group...
October 20, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757771/the-influence-of-mineral-matrices-on-the-thermal-behavior-of-glycine
#7
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663450/prebiotic-synthesis-of-glycine-from-ethanolamine-in-simulated-archean-alkaline-hydrothermal-vents
#8
Xianlong Zhang, Ge Tian, Jing Gao, Mei Han, Rui Su, Yanxiang Wang, Shouhua Feng
Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition...
September 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663449/effects-of-glycine-water-ammonia-and-ammonium-bicarbonate-on-the-oligomerization-of-methionine
#9
Rui Huang, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Tsubasa Otake, Takeshi Kakegawa
The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively...
September 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663448/low-pressure-tolerance-by-methanogens-in-an-aqueous-environment-implications-for-subsurface-life-on-mars
#10
R L Mickol, T A Kral
The low pressure at the surface of Mars (average: 6 mbar) is one potentially biocidal factor that any extant life on the planet would need to endure. Near subsurface life, while shielded from ultraviolet radiation, would also be exposed to this low pressure environment, as the atmospheric gas-phase pressure increases very gradually with depth. Few studies have focused on low pressure as inhibitory to the growth or survival of organisms. However, recent work has uncovered a potential constraint to bacterial growth below 25 mbar...
September 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628464/measuring-enthalpy-of-sublimation-of-volatiles-by-means-of-piezoelectric-crystal-microbalances
#11
Fabrizio Dirri, Ernesto Palomba, Andrea Longobardo, Emiliano Zampetti
Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment...
September 15, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473494/glycine-polymerization-on-oxide-minerals
#12
Norio Kitadai, Hiroyuki Oonishi, Koichiro Umemoto, Tomohiro Usui, Keisuke Fukushi, Satoru Nakashima
It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures...
July 29, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461254/assessment-of-the-forward-contamination-risk-of-mars-by-clean-room-isolates-from-space-craft-assembly-facilities-through-aeolian-transport-a-model-study
#13
Luc van Heereveld, Jonathan Merrison, Per Nørnberg, Kai Finster
The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently there is a need for effective protocols to ensure efficient protection of the Martian environment against terrestrial microbiota. Despite the fact of constructing sophisticated clean rooms for spacecraft assembly a 100 % avoidance of contamination appears to be impossible. Recent surveys of these facilities have identified a significant number of microbes belonging to a variety of taxonomic groups that survive the harsh conditions of clean rooms...
July 26, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394670/review-on-the-role-of-planetary-factors-on-habitability
#14
A Kereszturi, L Noack
In this work various factors on the habitability were considered, focusing on conditions irrespective of the central star's radiation, to see the role of specific planetary body related effects. These so called planetary factors were evaluated to identify those trans-domain issues where important information is missing but good chance exit to be filled by new knowledge that might be gained in the next decade(s). Among these strategic knowledge gaps, specific issues are listed, like occurrence of radioactive nucleides in star forming regions, models to estimate the existence of subsurface liquid water from bulk parameters plus evolutionary context of the given system, estimation on the existence of redox gradient depending on the environment type etc...
July 9, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383153/editorial-reworking-drake
#15
Alan W Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337974/planet-topers-planets-tracing-the-transfer-origin-preservation-and-evolution-of-their-reservoirs
#16
V Dehant, D Asael, R M Baland, B K Baludikay, J Beghin, J Belza, M Beuthe, D Breuer, S Chernonozhkin, Ph Claeys, Y Cornet, L Cornet, A Coyette, V Debaille, C Delvigne, M H Deproost, N De WInter, C Duchemin, F El Atrassi, C François, J De Keyser, C Gillmann, E Gloesener, S Goderis, Y Hidaka, D Höning, M Huber, G Hublet, E J Javaux, Ö Karatekin, J Kodolanyi, L Lobo Revilla, L Maes, R Maggiolo, N Mattielli, M Maurice, S McKibbin, A Morschhauser, W Neumann, L Noack, L B S Pham, L Pittarello, A C Plesa, A Rivoldini, S Robert, P Rosenblatt, T Spohn, J -Y Storme, N Tosi, A Trinh, M Valdes, A C Vandaele, F Vanhaecke, T Van Hoolst, N Van Roosbroek, V Wilquet, M Yseboodt
The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.
June 23, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311962/which-type-of-planets-do-we-expect-to-observe-in-the-habitable-zone
#17
Vardan Adibekyan, Pedro Figueira, Nuno C Santos
We used a sample of super-Earth-like planets detected by the Doppler spectroscopy and transit techniques to explore the dependence of orbital parameters of the planets on the metallicity of their host stars. We confirm the previous results (although still based on small samples of planets) that super-Earths orbiting around metal-rich stars are not observed to be as distant from their host stars as we observe their metal-poor counterparts to be. The orbits of these super-Earths with metal-rich hosts usually do not reach into the Habitable Zone (HZ), keeping them very hot and inhabitable...
June 16, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271107/enantioselective-collision-activated-dissociation-of-gas-phase-tryptophan-induced-by-chiral-recognition-of-protonated-l-alanine-peptides
#18
Akimasa Fujihara, Hiroki Matsuyama, Michiko Tajiri, Yoshinao Wada, Shigeo Hayakawa
Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of L-alanine peptides (L-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H(+)(D-Trp)(L-Ala n ) and homochiral H(+)(L-Trp)(L-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n...
June 7, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271006/thermodynamics-disequilibrium-evolution-far-from-equilibrium-geological-and-chemical-considerations-for-origin-of-life-research
#19
L M Barge, E Branscomb, J R Brucato, S S S Cardoso, J H E Cartwright, S O Danielache, D Galante, T P Kee, Y Miguel, S Mojzsis, K J Robinson, M J Russell, E Simoncini, P Sobron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251366/dissolved-divalent-metal-and-ph-effects-on-amino-acid-polymerization-a-thermodynamic-evaluation
#20
Norio Kitadai
Polymerization of amino acids is a fundamentally important step for the chemical evolution of life. Nevertheless, its response to changing environmental conditions has not yet been well understood because of the lack of reliable quantitative information. For thermodynamics, detailed prediction over diverse combinations of temperature and pH has been made only for a few amino acid-peptide systems. This study used recently reported thermodynamic dataset for the polymerization of the simplest amino acid "glycine (Gly)" to its short peptides (di-glycine and tri-glycine) to examine chemical and structural characteristics of amino acids and peptides that control the temperature and pH dependence of polymerization...
June 1, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
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