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Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875241/primary-formation-path-of-formaldehyde-in-hydrothermal-vents
#1
Satoshi Inaba
Formaldehyde is abundant in the universe and one of the fundamental molecules for life. Hydrothermal vents produce a substantial amount of hydrogen molecules by serpentinization and promote reductive reactions of single carbon compounds. The abundance of formaldehyde is expected to be low due to the high Gibbs free energy in hydrothermal vents. We consider two competing formation pathways of formaldehyde: (1) the reduction of CO by H2 and (2) the reduction of HCOOH by H2 to form a methanediol, followed by the dehydration of the methanediol...
September 5, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815473/publication-of-abstracts-and-full-papers-from-the-international-conference-on-the-origin-of-life-san-diego-2017
#2
EDITORIAL
Alan W Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812194/amorphous-silica-promoted-lysine-dimerization-a-thermodynamic-prediction
#3
Norio Kitadai, Kumiko Nishiuchi, Akari Nishii, Keisuke Fukushi
It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played a crucial role in the abiotic polymerization of amino acids that preceded the origin of life. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where the prebiotic process took place on the primitive Earth, because the amino acid-mineral interaction and its dependence on environmental conditions have yet to be understood adequately. Here we examined experimentally the adsorption of L-lysine (Lys) and its dimer (LysLys) on amorphous silica over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, adsorbate concentration, and the solid/water ratio, and determined the reaction stoichiometries and the equilibrium constants based on the extended triple-layer model (ETLM)...
August 15, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791552/mechanism-for-the-coupled-photochemistry-of-ammonia-and-acetylene-implications-for-giant-planets-comets-and-interstellar-organic-synthesis
#4
Thomas C Keane
Laboratory studies provide a fundamental understanding of photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres. Photochemical reactions taking place on giant planets like Jupiter and possibly comets and the interstellar medium are the subject of this research. Reaction pathways are proposed for the coupled photochemistry of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H2 (acetylene) within the context Jupiter's atmosphere. We then extend the discussion to the Great Red Spot, Extra-Solar Giant Planets, Comets and Interstellar Organic Synthesis...
August 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744686/polycondensation-of-asparagine-comprising-dipeptides-in-aqueous-media-a-simulation-of-polypeptide-formation-in-primordial-earth-hydrosphere
#5
Toratane Munegumi, Naoya Tanikawa
Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides...
July 26, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702783/origins-of-life-research-a-bibliometric-approach
#6
Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Zehra Taşkın
This study explores the collaborative nature and interdisciplinarity of the origin(s) of life (OoL) research community. Although OoL research is one of the oldest topics in philosophy, religion, and science; to date there has been no review of the field utilizing bibliometric measures. A dataset of 5647 publications that are tagged as OoL, astrobiology, exobiology, and prebiotic chemistry is analyzed. The most prolific authors (Raulin, Ehrenfreund, McKay, Cleaves, Cockell, Lazcano, etc.), most cited scholars and their articles (Miller 1953, Gilbert 1986, Chyba & Sagan 1992, Wȁchtershȁuser 1988, etc...
July 13, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689315/enantiomer-selective-photo-induced-reaction-of-protonated-tryptophan-with-disaccharides-in-the-gas-phase
#7
Thuc N Doan, Akimasa Fujihara
In order to investigate chemical evolution in interstellar molecular clouds, enantiomer-selective photo-induced chemical reactions between an amino acid and disaccharides in the gas phase were examined using a tandem mass spectrometer containing an electrospray ionization source and a cold ion trap. Ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectra of cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes of protonated tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers with disaccharides consisting of two D-glucose units, such as D-maltose or D-cellobiose, were obtained by photoexcitation of the indole ring of Trp...
July 8, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685374/environmental-adaptation-from-the-origin-of-life-to-the-last-universal-common-ancestor
#8
Marjorie D Cantine, Gregory P Fournier
Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA...
July 6, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674794/introduction-to-the-special-issue-a-personal-note
#9
EDITORIAL
Alan W Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660466/identity-elements-of-trna-as-derived-from-information-analysis
#10
Gabriel S Zamudio, Marco V José
The decipherment of the tRNA's operational code, known as the identity problem, requires the location of the sites in the tRNA structure that are involved in their correct recognition by the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. In this work, we determine the identity elements of each tRNA isoacceptor by means of the variation of information measure from information theory. We show that all isoacceptors exhibit sites associated with some bases of the anticodon. These sites form clusters that are scattered along the tRNA structure...
June 28, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593333/survival-and-adaptation-of-the-thermophilic-species-geobacillus-thermantarcticus-in-simulated-spatial-conditions
#11
Paola Di Donato, Ida Romano, Vincenza Mastascusa, Annarita Poli, Pierangelo Orlando, Mariagabriella Pugliese, Barbara Nicolaus
Astrobiology studies the origin and evolution of life on Earth and in the universe. According to the panspermia theory, life on Earth could have emerged from bacterial species transported by meteorites, that were able to adapt and proliferate on our planet. Therefore, the study of extremophiles, i.e. bacterial species able to live in extreme terrestrial environments, can be relevant to Astrobiology studies. In this work we described the ability of the thermophilic species Geobacillus thermantarcticus to survive after exposition to simulated spatial conditions including temperature's variation, desiccation, X-rays and UVC irradiation...
June 8, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663449/effects-of-glycine-water-ammonia-and-ammonium-bicarbonate-on-the-oligomerization-of-methionine
#12
Rui Huang, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Tsubasa Otake, Takeshi Kakegawa
The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473494/glycine-polymerization-on-oxide-minerals
#13
Norio Kitadai, Hiroyuki Oonishi, Koichiro Umemoto, Tomohiro Usui, Keisuke Fukushi, Satoru Nakashima
It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461254/assessment-of-the-forward-contamination-risk-of-mars-by-clean-room-isolates-from-space-craft-assembly-facilities-through-aeolian-transport-a-model-study
#14
Luc van Heereveld, Jonathan Merrison, Per Nørnberg, Kai Finster
The increasing number of missions to Mars also increases the risk of forward contamination. Consequently there is a need for effective protocols to ensure efficient protection of the Martian environment against terrestrial microbiota. Despite the fact of constructing sophisticated clean rooms for spacecraft assembly a 100 % avoidance of contamination appears to be impossible. Recent surveys of these facilities have identified a significant number of microbes belonging to a variety of taxonomic groups that survive the harsh conditions of clean rooms...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383153/editorial-reworking-drake
#15
EDITORIAL
Alan W Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271107/enantioselective-collision-activated-dissociation-of-gas-phase-tryptophan-induced-by-chiral-recognition-of-protonated-l-alanine-peptides
#16
Akimasa Fujihara, Hiroki Matsuyama, Michiko Tajiri, Yoshinao Wada, Shigeo Hayakawa
Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of L-alanine peptides (L-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H(+)(D-Trp)(L-Ala n ) and homochiral H(+)(L-Trp)(L-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033201/biomex-experiment-ultrastructural-alterations-molecular-damage-and-survival-of-the-fungus-cryomyces-antarcticus-after-the-experiment-verification-tests
#17
Claudia Pacelli, Laura Selbmann, Laura Zucconi, Jean-Pierre De Vera, Elke Rabbow, Gerda Horneck, Rosa de la Torre, Silvano Onofri
The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025932/the-first-space-related-study-of-a-kombucha-multimicrobial-cellulose-forming-community-preparatory-laboratory-experiments
#18
O Podolich, I Zaets, O Kukharenko, I Orlovska, O Reva, L Khirunenko, M Sosnin, A Haidak, S Shpylova, I Rohutskyy, A Kharina, М Skoryk, M Kremenskoy, D Klymchuk, R Demets, J-P de Vera, N Kozyrovska
Biofilm-forming microbial communities are known as the most robust assemblages that can survive in harsh environments. Biofilm-associated microorganisms display greatly increased resistance to physical and chemical adverse conditions, and they are expected to be the first form of life on Earth or anywhere else. Biological molecules synthesized by biofilm -protected microbiomes may serve as markers of the nucleoprotein life. We offer a new experimental model, a kombucha multimicrobial culture (KMC), to assess a structural integrity of a widespread microbial polymer - cellulose - as a biosignature of bacteria-producers for the multipurpose international project "BIOlogical and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)", which aims to study the vitality of pro- and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of organic biomolecules in contact with minerals to analyze the detectability of life markers in the context of a planetary background...
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907768/formation-of-hexamethylenetetramine-comment
#19
EDITORIAL
Vassilissa Vinogradoff, Albert Rimola, Fabrice Duvernay, Gregoire Danger, Patrice Theulé, Thierry Chiavassa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484901/racemization-of-valine-by-impact-induced-heating
#20
Yoshihiro Furukawa, Atsushi Takase, Toshimori Sekine, Takeshi Kakegawa, Takamichi Kobayashi
Homochirality plays an important role in all living organisms but its origin remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether such chiral molecules survived terrestrial heavy impact events. Impacts of extraterrestrial objects on early oceans were frequent and could have affected the chirality of oceanic amino acids when such amino acids accumulated during impacts. This study investigated the effects of shock-induced heating on enantiomeric change of valine with minerals such as olivine ([Mg0.9, Fe0.1]2SiO4), hematite (Fe2O3), and calcite (CaCO3)...
May 9, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
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