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Metabolic Brain Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924409/antioxidants-reverse-the-changes-in-energy-metabolism-of-rat-brain-after-chronic-administration-of-l-tyrosine
#1
Brena P Teodorak, Giselli Scaini, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Lara M Gomes, Letícia J Teixeira, Joyce Rebelo, Samira D T De Prá, Neila Zeni, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Tyrosinemia type II is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase and is associated with neurologic and development difficulties in numerous patients. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and that high concentrations of tyrosine provoke mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, in the present study we investigated the in vivo influence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, NAC; and deferoxamine, DFX) administration on the inhibitory effects on parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of rats, provoked by chronic administration of L...
December 6, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888375/hbk-14-and-hbk-15-with-antidepressant-like-and-or-memory-enhancing-properties-increase-serotonin-levels-in-the-hippocampus-after-chronic-treatment-in-mice
#2
Karolina Pytka, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlica-Gosiewska, Jadwiga Witalis, Anna Waszkielewicz
5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands might have antidepressant-like properties and improve cognitive function. We previously reported significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of two dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists in various behavioral tests in rodents. As a continuation of our previous experiments, in this study we aimed to investigate whether chronic administration of 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15) caused antidepressant-like effects and elevated serotonin levels in the murine hippocampus...
November 25, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885493/hepatic-encephalopathy-present-and-future
#3
EDITORIAL
Nathan Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882480/phenotype-biochemical-features-genotype-and-treatment-outcome-of-pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy
#4
Amal Al Teneiji, Theodora U J Bruun, Dawn Cordeiro, Jaina Patel, Michal Inbar-Feigenberg, Shelly Weiss, Eduard Struys, Saadet Mercimek-Mahmutoglu
We report treatment outcome of eleven patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy caused by pathogenic variants in ALDH7A1 (PDE-ALDH7A1). We developed a clinical severity score to compare phenotype with biochemical features, genotype and delays in the initiation of pyridoxine. Clinical severity score included 1) global developmental delay/ intellectual disability; 2) age of seizure onset prior to pyridoxine; 3) current seizures on treatment. Phenotype scored 1-3 = mild; 4-6 = moderate; and 7-9 = severe...
November 23, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#5
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838865/current-state-of-knowledge-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-part-v-clinical-efficacy-of-l-ornithine-l-aspartate-in-the-management-of-he
#6
Gerald Kircheis
In cirrhotic patients with portosystemic encephalopathy, OA has confirmed its efficacy both in uncontrolled clinical trials and more recently in placebo-controlled double-blind studies in patients with manifest hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. OA improved performance in Psyhometric Tests as well as mental state gradation. The therapy had little side effects, increasing with higher intravenously administered dosages, and was well tolerated after oral and parenteral administration.
November 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837366/hippocampus-specific-deficiency-of-il-15r%C3%AE-contributes-to-greater-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#7
Linda Nguyen, Joseph Bohlen, Janelle Stricker, Ikttesh Chahal, Hanting Zhang, Emidio E Pistilli
A hippocampus-specific IL15RαKO mouse (hipIl15ra (fl/fl) /Cre(+)) was generated to test the hypothesis that the targeted deletion of interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) in the hippocampus contributes to altered behavior, including greater levels of anxiety and ambulatory activity. Using Cre-loxP, exons 2 and 3 of the IL-15Rα gene were excised within the hippocampus, while normal expression was maintained within the rest of the brain. In the open field test (OFT), hipIl15ra (fl/fl) /Cre(+) spent a greater amount of time in the periphery and less time in the central portions of the chamber, and there was also a noticeable trend for decreased rearing activity; these behaviors are consistent with greater levels of anxiety-like behavior in these mice...
November 11, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830357/effects-of-ulinastatin-on-early-postoperative-cognitive-function-after-one-lung-ventilation-surgery-in-elderly-patients-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#8
Kai-Yuan Wang, Quan-Yong Yang, Peng Tang, Hui-Xia Li, Hong-Wei Zhao, Xiu-Bao Ren
We investigated the effects of ulinastatin on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after one-lung ventilation (OLV) surgery in elderly patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eighty elderly patients with preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy scheduling for radical esophagectomy under OLV were recruited. They were randomly divided into an ulinastatin pretreatment group (U group, n = 40) and a control group (C group, n = 40). The U group received 10,000 U/kg ulinastatin before anesthesia and 5000 U/kg daily on postoperative days 1 to 3, while C group received saline...
November 9, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830356/successful-treatment-of-a-patient-with-ethylmalonic-encephalopathy-by-intravenous-n-acetylcysteine
#9
Mustafa Kılıç, Özge Dedeoğlu, Rahşan Göçmen, Selman Kesici, Deniz Yüksel
Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is an autosomal recessive devastating metabolic disorder affecting the brain, gastrointestinal tract, peripheral vessels and rarely the other vascular organs. We report a 10-month-old girl who presented as a meningococcemia clinic but later diagnosed ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Molecular analyses revealed a homozygous c.554 T > G; p. L185R mutation in ETHE1 gene. She was only partially benefited from riboflavine, coenzyme Q10, metronidazole, N-acetylcysteine and symptomatic treatment and discharged from hospital with the sequela of oxygene dependance and developmental delay...
November 9, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807673/correlation-of-geographic-distributions-of-haptoglobin-alleles-with-prevalence-of-multiple-sclerosis-ms-a-narrative-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Vladimir V Bamm, Arielle M Geist, George Harauz
We have proposed that the myelin damage observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be partly mediated through the long-term release and degradation of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and the products of its oxidative degradation [Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71, 1789-1798, 2014]. The protein haptoglobin (Hpt) binds extracellular Hb as a first line of defense, and can serve as a vascular antioxidant. Humans have two different Hpt alleles: Hpt1 and Hpt2, giving either homozygous Hpt1-1 or Hpt2-2 phenotypes, or a heterozygous Hpt1-2 phenotype...
November 2, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796565/effects-of-jiaotaiwan-on-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice-after-lipopolysaccharide-administration
#11
Qian Zhe, Wang Sulei, Tao Weiwei, Long Hongyan, Wang Jianwei
Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), has been usually used for insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The previous study shown that JTW was benefit for depression-like behavior, but the possible mechanism is not clear. This study is to determine whether JTW was benefit for the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and explore its possible mechanism. All drugs were intragastrically administered once daily for 7 consecutive days. On the 7th day, LPS was injected into mice 30 min after drug administration...
October 30, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785705/attenuation-of-acute-restraint-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-alterations-with-protocatechuic-acid-treatment-in-mice
#12
Vishnu N Thakare, Valmik D Dhakane, Bhoomika M Patel
Protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA), a phenolic compound, exhibits neuroprotective effects through improving endogenous antioxidant enzymatic and nonezymatic system. Based on the role of oxidative stress in modulating depressive disorders and the relationship between neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of PCA, we studied if its antidepressant like effect is associated by modulation of cerebral cortex and hippocampal antioxidant alterations. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is known to induce depressive like behavior by neuronal oxidative damage in mice...
October 26, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771869/prognostic-significance-of-major-lipids-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios Giampatzis, Stella D Bouziana, Marianna Spanou, Stavroula Kostaki, Maria Papadopoulou, Stella-Maria Angelopoulou, Maria Tsopozidi, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
Although dyslipidemia increases the risk for ischemic stroke, previous studies reported conflicting data regarding the association between lipid levels and stroke severity and outcome. To evaluate the predictive value of major lipids in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively studied 790 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke (41.0 % males, age 79.4 ± 6.8 years). The severity of stroke was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)...
October 23, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761760/thymol-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice-via-ameliorating-brain-insulin-resistance-and-upregulating-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#14
FangFang, Hongyan Li, Tingting Qin, Min Li, Shiping Ma
The impaired insulin signaling has been recognized as a common pathogenetic mechanism between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the progression of AD, brain is characterized by defective insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased oxidative stress. Thymol, a monoterpene phenol isolated from medicinal herbs, has exhibited robust neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of thymol on HFD-induced cognitive deficits, and explore the possible mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747462/introduction-current-state-of-knowledge-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
Kevin D Mullen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734188/cortical-damage-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-with-good-prognosis-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#16
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730496/modification-in-csf-specific-gravity-in-acutely-decompensated-cirrhosis-and-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-independent-of-encephalopathy-evidences-for-an-early-blood-csf-barrier-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis
#17
Nicolas Weiss, Matteo Rosselli, Sarah Mouri, Damien Galanaud, Louis Puybasset, Banwari Agarwal, Dominique Thabut, Rajiv Jalan
Although hepatic encephalopathy (HE) on the background of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high mortality rates, it is unknown whether this is due to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Specific gravity of cerebrospinal fluid measured by CT is able to estimate blood-cerebrospinal fluid-barrier permeability. This study aimed to assess cerebrospinal fluid specific gravity in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and to compare it in patients with or without ACLF and with or without hepatic encephalopathy...
October 11, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726053/neuroinflammation-in-liver-disease-sessional-talks-from-ishen
#18
Gavin Wright, Mark Swain, Djillali Annane, Faouzi Saliba, Didier Samuel, Vicente Arroyo, Sharon DeMorrow, Anne Witt
At the recent ISHEN ('International Symposium of Hepatic Encephalopathy & Nitrogen Metabolism') conference in London, a whole session was dedicated to our increasing awareness of the importance of inflammation in the brain - termed 'neuroinflammation', in the development of Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) - the neurological manifestations of advanced liver disease. In this review our ISHEN speakers further discuss the content of their sessional presentations and more broadly we discuss our understanding of the role of neuroinflammation in HE pathogenesis...
October 11, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722792/decreased-sensitivity-of-palmitoyl-protein-thioesterase-1-deficient-neurons-to-chemical-anoxia
#19
Meredith Meyer, Attila D Kovács, David A Pearce
Infantile CLN1 disease, also known as infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene. CLN1 encodes a soluble lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), and it is still unclear why neurons are selectively vulnerable to the loss of PPT1 enzyme activity in infantile CLN1 disease. To examine the effects of PPT1 deficiency on several well-defined neuronal signaling and cell death pathways, different toxic insults were applied in cerebellar granule neuron cultures prepared from wild type (WT) and palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient (Ppt1 (-/-) ) mice, a model of infantile CLN1 disease...
October 8, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714582/galactose-alters-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-the-cerebrum-of-rats-protective-role-of-antioxidants
#20
Daniela Delwing-de Lima, Monique Fröhlich, Leticia Dalmedico, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia Aurélio, Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Eduardo Manoel Pereira, Angela T S Wyse
We evaluated the in vitro effects of galactose at 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl content, on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats. We also investigated the influence of the antioxidants (each at 1 mM), α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested...
October 6, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
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