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Metabolic Brain Disease

Rami B Kassab, Maha S Lokman, Ehab A Essawy
Due to its ability to cross blood brain barrier and placenta, dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is expected to cause severe side effects to the central nervous system of animals and humans. A little data is available about the potential DBP neurotoxicity; therefore, this work was designed to investigate the brain tissue injury induced by DBP exposure. Forty Wister albino rats were allocated randomly into 4 groups (10 rats each). Group 1 served as control and the rats administered with physiological saline (0...
November 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zahra Jahangiri, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mahmoud Hosseini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fastest growing neurodegenerative condition with no standard treatment. There are growing evidence about the beneficial effects of exercise in brain health promotion and slowing the cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to review the protective mechanisms of treadmill exercise in different models of rodent memory deficits. Online literature database, including PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Google scholar were searched from 2003 till 2017. Original article with English language were chosen according to following key words in the title: (exercise OR physical activity) AND (memory OR learning)...
November 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Cheol Woo Park, Young Eun Park, Jae-Chul Lee, Jun Hwi Cho, Young-Myeong Kim, In Koo Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Joon Ha Park
The degree of transient ischemic damage in the cerebral hemisphere is different according to duration of transient ischemia and cerebral regions. Mongolian gerbils show various lesions in the hemisphere after transient unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery (UOCCA) because they have different types of patterns of anterior and posterior communicating arteries. We examined differential regional damage in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the gerbil after 30 min of UOCCA by using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, cresyl violet (CV) Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B) fluorescence staining, and NeuN immunohistochemistry 5 days after UOCCA...
November 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yanping Cui, Shan Guan, Jie Ding, Yukai He, Qingfang Li, Sikui Wang, Huiling Sun
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious complication of liver disease. To establish a model for predicting 3-month mortality in patients with HE in China. This retrospective study included 609 patients with HE admitted to the Peoples' Hospital, Liaocheng City, China (August 2006 to January 2016). Patients were allocated to a modeling (n = 409) or validation (n = 200) group. Demographic/clinical characteristics, laboratory test results, Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score were extracted from medical records...
November 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Chang Chen, Baomei Xia, Lili Tang, Wei Wu, Juanjuan Tang, Yan Liang, Hui Yang, Zhennian Zhang, Yan Lu, Gang Chen, Ye Yang, Yang Zhao
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic neurodegenerative disease and greatly affects the quality of PD patients' life. Current symptomatic treatment of PD is limited. There are no effective treatment and drugs that could radically cure PD. Increasing experimental evidence has proven a causal relationship between alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein, α-syn) and the neuropathology of Parkinson's diseases, although the exact pathophysiological role of α-synuclein is not fully clarified. Previous studies showed that monomers and polymers of α-synuclein were secreted from damaged nerve cells via exocytosis and occupied healthy nerve cells via endocytosis, which afford evidence for the prion-like role of α-synuclein...
November 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Javad Fahanik-Babaei, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Farnaz Nikbakht, Mehrdad Roghani
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common phenotype of dementia. Trigonelline is an alkaloid found in medicinal plants such as fenugreek seeds and coffee beans with neuroprotective potential and according to existing evidences, a favorable agent for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, the possible protective effect of trigonelline against intracerebral Aβ(1-40) as a model of AD in the rat was investigated. For induction of AD, aggregated A(1-40) (10 μg/2 휇l for each side) was bilaterally microinjected into the hippocampal CA1 area...
November 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Timothy D Foley, Kari S Koval, Alexandria G Gallagher, Stefan H Olsen
The biochemical pathways by which aberrant psychophysiological stress promotes neuronal damage and increases the risks for central nervous system diseases are not well understood. In light of previous findings that psychophysiological stress, modeled by animal restraint, can increase the activities and expression levels of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in multiple brain regions, we examined the effects of restraint, for up to 6 h, on levels of S-nitrosylated proteins and NOx (nitrite + nitrate), a marker for high-level nitric oxide generation, in the brains of rats...
November 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kaiyue Sun, Yuting Bai, Rong Zhao, Zijiao Guo, Xiang Su, Peiqi Li, Pengyu Yang
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of matrine (MAT) on scopolamine (SCOP)-induced learning and memory impairment. After successive oral administration of MAT to mice for three days at doses of 0.4, 2, and 10 mg/kg, we assessed improvements in learning and memory and investigated the mechanism of action of SCOP-induced amnesia. Donepezil at a dose of 3 mg/kg was used as a standard memory enhancer. MAT significantly improved SCOP-induced learning and memory impairment in novel object recognition and Y-maze tests at doses of 0...
November 7, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Faezeh Rafieipour, Elham Hadipour, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Javad Asili, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Alzheimer's disease is a type of cerebrovascular problem with progressive mental disabilities for the patient. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of safranal on toxicity and oxidative damage induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in PC12 cells as an appropriate model of Alzheimer's cell damage. PC12 cells pretreated with saffron extract (2.5-40 μg/ml), essential oil (2.5-40 μg/ml), safranal (2.5-5-40 μM) and donepezil (5, 10 and 20 μM) for 120 min. Then exposed to either Aβ (25 μM) for 48 h or H2 O2 (150 μM) for 24 h...
November 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Mohamed Salama, Sara El-Desouky, Aziza Alsayed, Mahmoud El-Hussiny, Abdelrahman Moustafa, Yasmeen Taalab, Wael Mohamed
Leigh syndrome (LS) is one of the most puzzling mitochondrial disorders, which is also known as subacute necrotizing encephalopathy. It has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births worldwide with poor prognosis. Currently, there is a poor understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease without any available effective treatment. Hence, the inevitability for developing suitable animal and cellular models needed for the development of successful new therapeutic modalities. In this short report, we blocked FOXRED1 gene with small interfering RNA (siRNA) using C57bl/6 mice...
November 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Roberto Meza-Romero, Gil Benedek, Grant Gerstner, Gail Kent, Ha Nguyen, Halina Offner, Arthur A Vandenbark
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with a strong inflammatory component that affects more than 2 million people worldwide (and at least 400,000 in the United States). In MS, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT) enhance the inflammatory event as a result of their interaction with their cognate receptor CD74. Therefore, the search for new agents aimed at blocking this interaction is critical for therapeutic purposes and will be of paramount importance for the treatment of MS...
October 23, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Sarah Silverstein, Aravindhan Veerapandiyan, Caroline Hayes-Rosen, Xue Ming, Jeffrey Kornitzer
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defects in the mitochondrial glycine cleavage system. Most patients present soon after birth with seizures and hypotonia, and infants that survive the newborn period often have profound intellectual disability and intractable seizures. Here we present a case report of a 4-year-old girl with NKH as well as hyperammonemia, an uncommon finding in NKH. Genetic analysis found a previously unreported homozygous mutation (c.878-1 G > A) in the AMT gene...
October 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
J Almeida, J Costa, P Coelho, V Cea, M Galesio, J P Noronha, M S Diniz, C Prudêncio, R Soares, C Sala, Rúben Fernandes
Gliomas represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults, with an extremely poor prognosis. Among several risk factors, lifestyle was also recently identified as a major risk factor for the development of primary glioma. In the present study, we explore the relationship between obesity and glioma in a cellular model. Thus, we have study the influence of adipocytes secretome on glioma cell line GL261. Using the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line, and its conditioned medium (adipokines-enriched medium), we showed that adipocyte-released factors relate with glioma angiogenic, growth, hormones and metabolic behavior by MALDI-TOF-MS and proteomic array analysis...
October 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Caiping Yang, Hai Wang, Chaojiu Li, Huiyan Niu, Shunkui Luo, Xingzhi Guo
Studies have showed that high clusterin (CLU) concentration was associated with increased risk of dementia. However, the results based on small samples remained controversial. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between CLU concentration and the late-life cognitive outcomes including mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), Parkinson's disease related dementia (PDD), Lewy body dementia (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A comprehensive search was conducted to screen the eligible studies in online database PubMed, Web of Science and Embase from 1950 to January 2017 according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist...
October 5, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Allison L Brichacek, Candice M Brown
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the U.S., with more than 100,000 deaths annually. There are a multitude of risks associated with stroke, including aging, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and immune suppression. One of the many challenges, which has so far proven to be unsuccessful, is the identification of a cost-effective diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for stroke. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), an enzyme first discovered in the 1920s, has been evaluated as a potential biomarker in many disorders, including many of the co-morbidities associated with stroke...
October 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Qingqing Xia, Hui Wang, Hongqiang Yin, Zhuo Yang
Corticosterone (CORT) is a kind of corticosteroid produced by cortex of adrenal glands. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperfunction leads to excessive CORT, which is associated with depression. Few studies have investigated the role of CORT in voltage-gated ion channels and its upstream signaling pathway in central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of excessive CORT resulting in brain impairment on voltage-gated ion channels, and its upstream signaling effectors in hippocampal CA1 neurons...
October 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Raja Sekhar Sanna, Subramanyam Muthangi, Chandrasekhar Sagar B K, Sambe Asha Devi
It is frequently accepted that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are efficient antioxidants and beneficial in improving cognitive functions. However, diabetes (T1DM)-associated declines in learning and memory and the possibilities of GSPs in overcoming this loss needs to be examined. The present study was designed to examine the correlation, if one exists, between cognitive behavior and neuronal survival in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats as well as to further clarify whether the correlation exists...
October 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ji-Xiao Zhu, Jia-Ling Shan, Wei-Qiong Hu, Jin-Xiang Zeng, Ji-Cheng Shu
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound. Previous study has shown that gallic acid possessed significant antidepressant-like activity in mice, which was partly mediated by increasing serotonin and catecholamine levels. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of gallic acid on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling activation. Mice were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) and orally administrated with gallic acid for four weeks...
October 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Rafeeq Alam Khan, Muhammad Ali Rajput, Tahira Assad
From prehistoric time till today herbal medications are supposed to have neuroprotective effects both by inhibiting acetyl cholinesterase enzyme or antioxidant ability and are also affordable. Thus extensive studies are necessary to investigate the pharmacological effects of herbal plants. The goal of the present study was to ascertain the outcome of Nelumbo nucifera fruit (NNF) on scopolamine induced amnestic rats along with motor coordination in mice in order to explore its pharmacological use in disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
October 1, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Sohaila Erfani, Ali Moghimi, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mehdi Khaksari
Nesfatin-1 is a novel peptide with anorexigenic and anti-hyperglycemic properties. According to previous studies, this multi-functional peptide protects dopaminergic cells against neurotoxicity via anti-apoptotic effects. In addition, Nesfatin-1 protects myocardial tissue after myocardial infarction via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of nesfatin-1 against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in the CA1 area of hippocampus in rats. 56 male Wistar rats (240-270 g) were randomly selected and allocated into four groups: (1) sham, (2) nesfatin-1, (3) ischemia/reperfusion, (4) ischemia/reperfusion+nesfatin-1...
September 30, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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