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Metabolic Brain Disease

Fatih Gültekin, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Hasan Basri Savaş, Bilal Çiğ
The TRPV1 channel is activated in neurons by capsaicin, oxidative stress, acidic pH and heat factors, and these factors are attenuated by the antioxidant role of calorie restriction (CR). Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that the antioxidant roles of CR and food frequency (FF) may modulate TRPV1 activity and apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hippocampal (HIPPON) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN). We investigated the contribution of FF and CR to neuronal injury and apoptosis through inhibition of TRPV1 in rats...
July 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Luiza Valois Vieira, Livia Alves Carvalho Pedrosa, Viviane Sahade Souza, Cristiane Assis Paula, Raquel Rocha
To determine the occurrence of diarrhea and associated factors in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in use of nutritional therapy. Prospective cohort study conducted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a General Hospital reference in trauma. We evaluated TBI patients who stayed less than 72 h in the ICU, who were using EN for at least 48 h. Definition of diarrhea it was considered three or more episodes of liquid stools or semi-liquid at 24 h. For analysis were evaluated demographic, epidemiological, clinical and nutritional data...
July 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yanjie Qin, Nanxi Wang, Xinlin Zhang, Xuemei Han, Xuejia Zhai, Yongning Lu
Depression is highly prevalent worldwide and a leading cause of disabilty. However, the medications currently available to treat depression fail to adequately relieve depressive symptoms for a large number of patients. Research into the aberrant overactivation of the kynurenine pathway and the production of various active metabolites has brought new insight into the progression of depression. IDO and TDO are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the kynurenine pathway and regulate the production of active metabolites...
July 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
P Sneha, Tanzila U Zenith, Ummay Salma Abu Habib, Judith Evangeline, D Thirumal Kumar, C George Priya Doss, R Siva, Hatem Zayed
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by the mutations in survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). The molecular pathology of missense mutations in SMN1 is not thoroughly investigated so far. Therefore, we collected all missense mutations in the SMN1 protein, using all possible search terms, from three databases (PubMed, PMC and Google Scholar). All missense mutations were subjected to in silico pathogenicity, conservation, and stability analysis tools. We used statistical analysis as a QC measure for validating the specificity and accuracy of these tools...
July 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Birutė Tumienė, Borut Peterlin, Aleš Maver, Algirdas Utkus
Many inborn errors of metabolism may present with epilepsy or seizures, however, current scope of these diseases is unknown. Due to available precision medicine approaches in many inborn errors of metabolism and sophisticated traditional diagnostics, this group of disorders is of special relevance to clinicians. Besides, as current treatment is challenging and unsuccessful in more than 30% of all epilepsy patients, these diseases may provide valuable models for ictogenesis and epileptogenesis studies and potentially pave the ways to identification of novel treatments...
July 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yunhu Bai, Yayun Wang, Yanling Yang
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has been reported in more than 40% of patients with cirrhosis in clinical practice. HE changes mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy are important for maintaining and removing damaged mitochondria. We used molecular biology and morphology methods to evaluate changes in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy of the substantia nigra (SN) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in HE. In this study, we observed that HE increased mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy in the SN, which was not seen in the PFC...
July 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Khayelihle B Makhathini, Oualid Abboussi, Musa V Mabandla, William M U Daniels
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) affects the central nervous system (CNS) that may lead to the development of HIV-associated neuropathologies. Tat protein is one of the viral proteins that have been linked to the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Since many individuals living with HIV often experience significant adverse circumstances, the present study investigated whether exposure to stressful conditions would exacerbate harmful effects of tat protein on brain function. Tat protein (10 μg/10 μl) was injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of the animal using stereotaxic techniques...
July 10, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
D Thirumal Kumar, L Jerushah Emerald, C George Priya Doss, P Sneha, R Siva, W Charles Emmanuel Jebaraj, Hatem Zayed
The 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (2-HGA) is a rare neurometabolic disorder that leads to the development of brain damage. It is classified into three categories: D-2-HGA, L-2-HGA, and combined D,L-2-HGA. The D-2-HGA includes two subtypes: type I and type II caused by the mutations in D2HGDH and IDH2 proteins, respectively. In this study, we studied six mutations, four in the D2HGDH (I147S, D375Y, N439D, and V444A) and two in the IDH2 proteins (R140G, R140Q). We performed in silico analysis to investigate the pathogenicity and stability changes of the mutant proteins using pathogenicity (PANTHER, PhD-SNP, SIFT, SNAP, and META-SNP) and stability (i-Mutant, MUpro, and iStable) predictors...
July 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
D Thirumal Kumar, Hend Ghasan Eldous, Zainab Alaa Mahgoub, C George Priya Doss, Hatem Zayed
Gaucher's disease (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside accumulates in cells and specific organs. It is broadly classified into type I, type II and type III. Patients with GD are at high risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the clinical and pathological presentation of GD patients with PD is almost identical to idiopathic PD. Several experimental models like cell culture, animal models, and transgenic mice models were used to understand the molecular mechanism behind GD and PD association; however, such mechanism remains unclear...
July 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Xueying Ma, Yan Zhang, Shaohui Ma, Peng Li, Dun Ding, Hua Liu, Jixin Liu, Ming Zhang
Sleep disturbances are common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, the underlying neuropathological mechanisms are largely unclear. Previous studies have revealed the important role of the thalamus in the potential mechanisms of sleep disorders. We hypothesized that the sleep disturbances in ESRD patients may correspond to metabolic changes of thalamus and the uremic factors may have a vital contribution on these changes. We performed multi-voxel 1 H-MRS of bilateral thalami in 27 ESRD patients who currently receiving hemodialysis treatment and 21 age-matched healthy volunteers...
July 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Song Luo, Xiang Kong, Jin Rong Wu, Chun Yan Wang, Ying Tian, Gang Zheng, Yun Yan Su, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang, Gui Fen Yang
Neuroinflammation has an important influence in pathogenesis of acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE). 11 C-PK11195 and 18 F-DPA-714 targeted to translocator protein (TSPO) have potential application in positron emission tomography (PET) as a molecular probe of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to compare these two radiotracers and their effectiveness in detecting neuroinflammation for the imaging of AHE rat models. Furthermore, using the new radiotracer 18 F-DPA-714, we analyzed the effectiveness of therapeutic treatment for neuroinflammation in AHE...
July 2, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zhanyun Lv, Liangchen Hu, Yan Yang, Kui Zhang, Zuzhen Sun, Jing Zhang, Lipan Zhang, Yanlei Hao
MicroRNAs are not widely studied in familial Alzheimer's disease cases, whether the microRNA profilings in familial Alzheimer's disease patients are similar to the sporadic AD patients is not known. This study aims to investigate the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EO-FAD) in a Chinese family. We performed the gene mutation analysis in a family clinically diagnosed of EO-FAD. Micro-arrays were used to profile the miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid of 2 affected members, 2 unaffected carriers and 2 mutation negative controls...
July 1, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Husniye Yucel, Çiğdem Seher Kasapkara, Meltem Akcaboy, Erhan Aksoy, Gülseren Evirgen Sahin, Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Saliha Senel, Serdar Ceylaner
Argininemia is a rare hereditary disease due to a deficiency of hepatic arginase, which is the last enzyme of the urea cycle and hydrolyzes arginine to ornithine and urea. Herein we report a patient with arginase I (ARG1) deficiency who presented with recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus and liver failure. A novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.703_707delGGACTinsAGACTGGACC (p.G235Rfs*20) was detected.
June 30, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Ali Yadollahpour, Faezeh Rendi, Mostafa Jalilifar
Numerous studies indicate that one of the bad effects of epilepsy is cognitive impairment. In this study we focused on the effect of LFS as a potential anticonvulsant agent, during epileptogenesis on cognitive impairments induced by amygdala kindling in rat. Twenty-one adult rats were divided into 3 groups including control (n = 7), kindled (n = 7), and Kindled+LFS (KLFS) (n = 7). Animals in the kindled group received kindling stimulation in a rapid kindling manner (a 3 s train of 50 Hz monophasic pulses of 1 ms duration, 12 times a day) in amygdala whereas control animals had no stimulation...
June 29, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Qi Zhou, Hong Zheng, Jiuxia Chen, Chen Li, Yao Du, Huanhuan Xia, Hongchang Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with the disturbance of brain glucose metabolism. The present study investigates brain glucose metabolism using 13 C NMR metabolomics in combination with intravenous [1-13 C]-glucose infusion in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of amyloid pathology at 10 months of age. We found that brain glucose was significantly accumulated in APP/PS1 mice relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Reductions in 13 C fluxes into the specific carbon sites of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediate (succinate) as well as neurotransmitters (glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and aspartate) from [1-13 C]-glucose were also detected in the brain of APP/PS1 mice...
June 26, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yanhong Zhang, Guofang Shu, Ying Bai, Jie Chao, Xufeng Chen, Honghong Yao
Methamphetamine is a popular psychostimulant worldwide which causes neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. Although previous studies have characterized potential associations between addictive drugs and fasting blood glucose, the influence of methamphetamine on the blood glucose is still largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the change of fasting blood glucose of methamphetamine abusers and to confirm the impairment of liver and kidney. Fasting blood glucose was significantly decreased in methamphetamine abusers and in a high-fat diet mouse model with methamphetamine treatment discontinuation...
June 26, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Andrea V Maglione, Patrícia Taranto, Bruno Hamermesz, Janaina S Souza, Eduardo M Cafarchio, Cristiana A Ogihara, Rui M B Maciel, Gisele Giannocco, Monica A Sato
Exercise reduces sympathetic activity (SA), arterial pressure and heart rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Exercise increases oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation is implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and progression of hypertension. To unravel these effects of exercise and considering that SA is driven by medullary areas, we hypothesized that swimming exercise (SW) affects the gene expression (g.e.) of proteins involved in inflammation and OS in the commissural Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (cNTS) and Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which control the sympathetic outflow in SHR...
June 26, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Isaac Karimi, Shima Motamedi, Fatemeh Ranjbar
The association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a member of neurotrophin family and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been proposed, however basic evidence necessary to prove (or disprove) this association in non-genetic animal model is rare. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of encephalic BDNF gene expression in a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD) induced MetS. To translate MetS, male NMRI mice (9 weeks old; N = 13) fed on a HFD including suet powder (37.50%) and granulated sugar (19...
June 25, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lixia Xue, Jiankang Huang, Ting Zhang, Xiuzhe Wang, Jianliang Fu, Zhi Geng, Yuwu Zhao, Hao Chen
Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological response to cerebral ischemia. PTEN is a lipid phosphatase whose loss activates PI3K/Akt signaling, which is related to HIF-1α upregulation and enhanced angiogenesis in human cancer cells. However, the specific roles of PTEN in endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia remain unknown. Therefore, we sought to examine the potential effects of PTEN inhibition on post-ischemic angiogenesis in human blood vessel cells and to determine the underlying mechanism...
June 24, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Josef Finsterer, Claudia Stöllberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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