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Metabolic Brain Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754167/an-extract-of-synedrella-nodiflora-l-gaertn-exhibits-antidepressant-properties-through-monoaminergic-mechanisms
#1
Patrick Amoateng, Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, Jeffrey Amoako Mensah, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Samuel Adjei, Audrey Akyea Eklemet, Emmanuel Atsu Vinyo, Thomas K Karikari
Synedrella nodiflora (SNE) has been used traditionally for many neurological conditions and some of these neuroactive effects have been scientifically substantiated. The usefulness of SNE in depression has however not been investigated despite the availability of data in other disease models indicating it may be useful. The present study therefore examined the effect of SNE in acute murine models of depression and the possible mechanisms mediating its activities in these models. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) screening were conducted on SNE...
May 12, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752658/cytoplasmic-fmrp-interacting-protein-1-2-cyfip1-2-expression-analysis-in-autism
#2
Rezvan Noroozi, Mir Davood Omrani, Arezou Sayad, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting proteins 1 and 2 (CYFIP1/2) have been previously shown to be associated with central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Moreover, dysregulation of their expression levels results in disturbances in CNS maturation and neuronal interconnections. In the present study, we compared expression levels of CYFIP1/2 in peripheral blood of 30 ASD patients and 41 healthy subjects by means of real time PCR. Expression analysis showed significant over-expression of CYFIP1/2 in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (Fold change = 3...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752657/increased-adiponectin-is-associated-with-cerebral-white-matter-lesions-in-the-elderly-with-cognitive-impairment
#3
Youshi Fujita, Takashi Toyomoto, Tomomi Sakoh-Goshima, Yutaka Kohno, Masafumi Okada, Tadanori Hamano, Yasunari Nakamoto
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide that increases with age and is thought to protect against atherosclerotic vascular changes and organ damage. However, paradoxically, higher adiponectin levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. We investigated whether this adiponectin paradox occurs in elderly people with cognitive impairment. Fifty-two elderly participants with mild cognitive impairment or dementia (20 male and 32 female, aged 60-93 years, mean 80.0) were recruited...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730803/paroxysmal-ocular-movements-an-early-sign-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#4
Sofia Reis, Joana Matias, Raquel Machado, José Paulo Monteiro
The authors describe a 3-year-old female, diagnosed with GLUT1 deficiency Syndrome, with a previously unreported mutation in exon 7 of the SLC2A1 gene: c.968_972 + 3del P. (Val323Alafs*53), characterized by a classic phenotypic of acquired microcephaly, developmental delay, ataxia, spasticity, and epilepsy. Ketogenic diet was started at the age of 30 months with epilepsy improvement. She presented paroxysmal ocular movements in the first 12 months of life, recently defined as "aberrant gaze saccades", that are present in the early phase of visual system development, being one of the first disease signs, but easily disregarded...
May 5, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728895/lrp2-gene-variants-and-their-haplotypes-strongly-influence-the-risk-of-developing-neural-tube-defects-in-the-fetus-a-family-triad-study-from-south-india
#5
Rebekah Prasoona K, Sunitha T, Srinadh B, Muni Kumari T, Jyothy A
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the leading cause of infant deaths worldwide. Lipoprotein related receptor 2 (LRP2) has been shown to play a crucial role in neural tube development in mouse models. However, the role of LRP2 gene in the development of human NTDs is not yet known. In view of this, family-based triad approach has been followed considering 924 subjects comprising 124 NTD case-parent trios and 184 control-parent trios diagnosed at Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Hyderabad...
May 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725955/analysis-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-intracranial-hypertension-in-critical-patients-with-non-hepatic-hyperammonemia
#6
Alexandre Sanches Larangeira, Marcos Toshiyuki Tanita, Marcos Antonio Dias, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz Cardoso, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho Grion
Hyperammonemia in adults is generally associated with cerebral edema, decreased cerebral metabolism, and increased cerebral blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between non-hepatic hyperammonemia and intracranial hypertension assessed by Doppler flowmetry and measurement of the optic nerve sheath. A prospective cohort study in critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units of a University Hospital between March 2015 and February 2016. Clinical data and severity scores were collected and the Glasgow coma scale was recorded...
May 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721772/telmisartan-attenuates-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptosis-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#7
Guan Tao Du, Xuan Ke, Guo Liang Meng, Guang Jun Liu, Hui Ying Wu, Jin Hong Gong, Xiao Dan Qian, Jin Luo Cheng, Hao Hong
The present study investigated the protective actions of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARBs), against the cell apoptosis induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in differentiated PC12 cells. Preincubation of PC12 cells with telmisartan prevented H2 O2 -induced cytotoxicity as indicated by increased MTT (3,(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) reduction, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and improved morphological changes. Hoechst 33,258 staining showed that telmisartan markedly reduced shrunken nuclei of the cells, and Western blot analysis indicated that telmisartan significantly attenuated caspase-3 activity, as indicated by decreased ratio of cleaved Caspase-3 to its precursor and increased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax...
May 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721771/oxidative-stress-stimulates-invasive-potential-in-rat-c6-and-human-u-87-mg-glioblastoma-cells-via-activation-and-cross-talk-between-pkm2-enpp2-and-ape1-enzymes
#8
Ravi P Cholia, Monisha Dhiman, Raj Kumar, Anil K Mantha
Maintaining genomic integrity is essential for cell survival and viability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction results in oxidative stress leading to the genomic instability via generation of small base lesions in DNA and these unrepaired DNA damages lead to various cellular consequences including cancer. Recent data support the concept "oxidative stress is an indispensable participant in fostering proliferation, survival, and migration" in various cancer cell types including glioblastoma cells...
May 2, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717375/cerebellar-atrophy-is-common-among-mitochondrial-disorders
#9
EDITORIAL
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713919/phosphodiesterase-4-and-7-inhibitors-produce-protective-effects-against-high-glucose-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-via-modulation-of-the-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-inflammation-pathways
#10
Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Saeedeh Saberi Firouzi, Reza Falak, Mohammad Yahya Karimi, Mohammad Davoodzadeh Gholami, Akram Rangbar, Asieh Hosseini
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common diabetic complication. It is estimated diabetic population will increase to 592 million by the year 2035. This is while at least 50-60% of all diabetic patients will suffer from neuropathy in their lifetime. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation are crucial pathways in development and progression of DN. Since there is also no selective and effective therapeutic agent to prevent or treat high glucose (HG)-induced neuronal cell injury, it is crucial to explore tools by which one can reduce factors related to these pathways...
April 30, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704081/antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-urtica-dioica-leaves-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#11
Sita Sharan Patel, R S Ray, Arun Sharma, Vineet Mehta, Anju Katyal, Malairaman Udayabanu
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) extract against chronic diabetes mediated anxiogenic and depressive like behavior in mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD leaves extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 8 weeks. STZ induced chronic diabetes significantly induced anxiety and depressive like behavior in mice. Chronic diabetes significantly downregulated BDNF (p < 0...
April 27, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681010/impaired-tissue-barriers-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Xin Fang
The blood-brain barrier and the intestinal barrier show signs of disruption in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration, and likewise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) models. A substantial body of evidence shows that defects in epithelial membrane barriers, both in the gut and within the cerebral vasculature, can result in increased vulnerability of tissues to external factors potentially participating in the pathogenesis of PD and ALS. As such, restoration of tissue barriers may prove to be a novel therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disease...
April 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681009/effect-of-trigonella-foenum-graecum-linn-seeds-methanol-extract-on-learning-and-memory
#13
Tahira Assad, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Muhammad Ali Rajput
Prevention and delay in the onset of memory disorders will have a great impact on society by reducing the disease burden and finances. Drugs available for the treatment of learning and memory disorders are few. There is need to develop a better drug, several studies have shown the therapeutic effectiveness of herbal extracts for the learning and memory disorders because of their neuroprotective effects, hence herbs should be evaluated scientifically to form a basis for the future discovery of newer drugs. In this study, effect of Trigonella-foenum graecum L...
April 21, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671210/indian-ginseng-withania-somnifera-supplementation-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-experimental-model-of-stroke
#14
Abhilasha Sood, Arpit Mehrotra, Devinder K Dhawan, Rajat Sandhir
Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers...
April 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671209/the-radish-raphanus-sativus-l-var-caudatus-reduces-anxiety-like-behavior-in-mice
#15
Afshan Siddiq, Ishrat Younus
Inclusion of vegetables in the diet not only provides dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, trace elements but also significantly reduces the risk of several diseases. Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus belongs to the family Brassicaceae are pods of Radish, and are commonly known as Mungra or Sungra in Pakistan and India. The English name for this species is Rat-tailed radish. This variety of radish is unique, less familiar to the population, and not commonly used as a food source. Furthermore there have been very few studies that report on the potential antioxidant and anti-cancer capabilities of this radish...
April 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667108/5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor-6-antagonist-sb258585-exerts-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Siamak Shahidi, Sara Soleimani-Asl, Alireza Komaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline. It has been suggested that 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (5-HT6R) might be involved in AD pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6R antagonist on cognition, learning, memory, and hippocampal apoptosis in an experimental rat model of AD. AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg, 10 μL, twice). Adult, male rats were divided into the following groups: control, sham, AD (saline treatment, 1 μL icv for 30 days), and AD + SB258585 (5-HT6R antagonist, 1 μg/μL icv for 30 days)...
April 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658057/combined-effects-of-rat-schwann-cells-and-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#17
Zeinab Namjoo, Fateme Moradi, Roya Aryanpour, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Yusef Abbasi, Amir Hosseini, Sajad Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Taklimie, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI...
April 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#18
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656334/four-gaucher-disease-type-ii-patients-with-three-novel-mutations-a-single-centre-experience-from-turkey
#19
Fatma Derya Bulut, Deniz Kör, Berna Şeker-Yılmaz, Özlem Hergüner, Serdar Ceylaner, Ferda Özkınay, Sebile Kılavuz, Neslihan Önenli-Mungan
Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage disorder due to glucosylceramidase enzyme deficiency. There are three subtypes of the disease. Neurological involvement accompanies visceral and haematological findings only in type II and type III Gaucher patients. Type II is the acute progressive neuronopathic form which is the most severe and rare subtype. Clinical findings are recognized prenatally or in the first months of life and followed by death within the first two years of age. Among our 81 Gaucher patients, we identified 4 (4,9%) type II patients in our metabolic centre...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654499/cortical-and-subcortical-gray-matter-structural-alterations-in-normoglycemic-obese-and-type-2-diabetes-patients-relationship-with-adiposity-glucose-and-insulin
#20
Gabriel Bernardes, Richard G IJzerman, Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Frederik Barkhof, Michaela Diamant, Dick J Veltman, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Eelco van Duinkerken
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with structural cortical and subcortical alterations, although it is insufficiently clear if these alterations are driven by obesity or by diabetes and its associated complications. We used FreeSurfer5.3 and FSL-FIRST to determine cortical thickness, volume and surface area, and subcortical gray matter volume in a group of 16 normoglycemic obese subjects and 28 obese T2DM patients without clinically manifest micro- and marcoangiopathy, and compared them to 31 lean normoglycemic controls...
April 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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