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Metabolic Brain Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550500/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-intracerebroventricular-administration-of-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-cognitive-and-noncognitive-behaviors
#1
Luciane Taschetto, Giselli Scaini, Hugo G Zapelini, Ândrea C Ramos, Giulia Strapazzon, Vanessa M Andrade, Gislaine Z Réus, Monique Michels, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is biochemically characterized by elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids in tissue and biological fluids. Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities, whose mechanisms are still unknown, are typical of this metabolic disorder. In the present study, we evaluated the early effects (1 h after injection) and long-term effects (15 days after injection) of a single intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors...
May 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547077/effects-of-the-combined-treatment-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-with-mild-exercise-and-thyroid-hormone-on-brain-damage-and-apoptosis-in-a-mouse-focal-cerebral-ischemia-model
#2
Kobar Akhoundzadeh, Abedin Vakili, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Manouchehr Safari, Razieh Mohammadkhani
This study examined whether post-stroke bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) therapy combined with exercise (EX) and/or thyroid hormone (TH) could reduce brain damage in an experimental ischemic stroke in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced under Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) guide by 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 7 days of reperfusion in albino mice. BMSCs were injected into the right cerebral ventricle 24 h after MCAO, followed by daily injection of T3 (20 μg/100 g weight S...
May 25, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536937/effects-of-hypericum-scabrum-extract-on-learning-and-memory-and-oxidant-antioxidant-status-in-rats-fed-a-long-term-high-fat-diet
#3
Ahmad Ganji, Iraj Salehi, Masoumeh Nazari, Masoumeh Taheri, Alireza Komaki
A high-fat diet (HFD) causes deficits in learning and memory by increasing oxidative stress. Antioxidants are known to improve learning and memory. Since Hypericum scabrum (H. scabrum) extract is rich in antioxidants, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of H. scabrum extract on passive avoidance learning (PAL), novel object recognition (NOR), and locomotor activity in male rats on a HFD. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (weighing 220 ± 10 g) were divided into the following six groups: (1) Control (standard diet), (2) Ext100 (standard diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg extract once/day), (3) Ext300 (standard diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg extract once/day), (4) HFD (high-fat diet), (5) HFD + Ext100, and (6) HFD + Ext300...
May 24, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523568/role-of-dopamine-projections-from-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-reinforcement-behaviors-assessed-using-optogenetic-manipulation
#4
Xiao Han, Man-Yi Jing, Tai-Yun Zhao, Ning Wu, Rui Song, Jin Li
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are predicted to play important roles in reward. In pharmacological studies, the rewarding effects of methamphetamine are mediated by DA neurons localized in the VTA. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC) are the main projections from the VTA. However, the role of these projections remains unclear, particularly the mPFC projections. In the present study, DAT-Cre transgenic mice received an injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) or control vector into the VTA resulting in the selective expression of these opsins in DA neurons...
May 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523567/peripheral-viral-challenge-triggers-hippocampal-production-of-inflammatory-proteins
#5
Tiffany Petrisko, Gregory Konat
Peripheral viral infections increase seizure propensity and intensity in susceptible individuals. We have modeled this comorbidity by demonstrating that intraperitoneal (ip) injection of the conventional viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC), renders the brain hypersusceptible to seizures induced by kainic acid (KA). At the molecular level, the hippocampus, which is the ictal site of KA-induced seizures, exhibits upregulated expression of messages encoding several inflammatory genes. Here, we profiled temporal expression of these genes at the protein level...
May 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508341/mitochondrial-dna-levels-in-huntington-disease-leukocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts
#6
Paulina Jędrak, Magdalena Krygier, Katarzyna Tońska, Małgorzata Drozd, Magdalena Kaliszewska, Ewa Bartnik, Witold Sołtan, Emilia J Sitek, Anna Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Janusz Limon, Jarosław Sławek, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Sylwia Barańska
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the huntingtin gene. Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions in, and especially influence of the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on, development of this disease is unclear. Here, samples of blood from 84 HD patients and 79 controls, and dermal fibroblasts from 10 HD patients and 9 controls were analysed for mtDNA levels. Although the type of mitochondrial haplogroup had no influence on the mtDNA level, and there was no correlation between mtDNA level in leukocytes in HD patients and various parameters of HD severity, some considerable differences between HD patients and controls were identified...
May 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508340/comparative-effects-of-sertraline-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-treatments-on-ketamine-induced-changes-in-mouse-behaviours
#7
O J Onaolapo, T B Paul, A Y Onaolapo
Effects of sertraline, haloperidol or olanzapine administration on ketamine-induced behaviours in mice were examined. The aim was to ascertain the degree of reversal of such behaviours by sertraline, and compare its effectiveness to haloperidol and olanzapine. Ten-week old mice (N = 120) were equally divided into main groups; 1 (open-field, radial-arm maze and elevated plus maze {EPM} tests), and 2 (social interaction test). Mice in each main group were assigned into six groups of ten (n = 10) each. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i...
May 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497360/neuroprotective-effects-of-nigella-sativa-extract-upon-the-hippocampus-in-ptu-induced-hypothyroidism-juvenile-rats-a-stereological-study
#8
Farimah Asiaei, Alireza Fazel, Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam
This study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) in the hippocampus of propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats during neonatal and juvenile growth. Twenty- five pregnant rats from early gestation (GD 0) were divided into five groups: (1) control (received drinking water), (2) PTU (received 0.005% PTU in drinking water), (3-5) PTU + NS 0.05%, PTU + NS 0.1%, PTU + NS 0.2% (along with PTU, received 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% W/V of N. sativa respectively) and treatment continued until postnatal day 60 (PN 60)...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497359/the-pattern-of-thalamocortical-and-brain-stem-projections-to-the-vibrissae-related-sensory-and-motor-cortices-in-de-whiskered-congenital-hypothyroid-rats
#9
Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Gila Behzadi
The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497358/predictive-value-of-selected-biomarkers-related-to-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Osima M Alnakhli
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive behavior. Several and reproducible studies have suggested that oxidative stress may represent one of the primary etiological mechanism of ASD that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, multiple regression and combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to search for a relationship between impaired energy and oxidative metabolic pathways in the etiology of ASD and to find the linear combination that maximizes the partial area under a ROC curve for a pre-identified set of markers related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484884/neuropilin-2-rs849563-gene-variations-and-susceptibility-to-autism-in-iranian-population-a-case-control-study
#11
Marziyeh Hosseinpour, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi, Zivar Salehi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disruptions usually diagnosed in the first three years of child's life that characterized by some impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, problems in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. The neuropilin-2 (NRP2) gene has been shown to both guide axons and control neuronal migration in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study the association between the NRP2 gene and autism using a cohort of 120 Iranian children (50 cases with autism and 70 control cases) was analyzed...
May 8, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477202/acute-and-chronic-treatment-with-quetiapine-induces-antidepressant-like-behavior-and-exerts-antioxidant-effects-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Zuleide M Ignácio, Gislaine Z Réus, Helena M Abelaira, Airam B de Moura, Thays G de Souza, Danyela Matos, Mariana P Goldim, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Fabricia Petronilho, João Quevedo
Many studies note that changes in oxidative balance are involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the success of some antidepressants. Quetiapine exerts a therapeutic response and induces changes in physiological mechanisms that appear to underlie MDD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant and antioxidant effects of quetiapine (20 mg /kg) in adult animals. Sixty minutes after an acute treatment or the last administration of chronic treatment (14 days) with quetiapine, animals were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) to evaluate mobility parameters...
May 6, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466389/erratum-to-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-a-patient-with-short-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#13
Shwetha Chiplunkar, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Madhu Nagappa, Bobby Baby Panikulam, Hanumanthapura R Arvinda, Periyasamy Govindaraj, M M Srinivas Bharath, Narayanappa Gayathri, J N Jessiena Ponmalar, Pavagada S Mathuranath, Sanjib Sinha, Arun B Taly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466388/macroangiopathy-is-a-typical-phenotypic-manifestation-of-melas
#14
EDITORIAL
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462474/brain-heparan-sulphate-proteoglycans-are-altered-in-developing-foetus-when-exposed-to-in-utero-hyperglycaemia
#15
M S Sandeep, C D Nandini
In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin...
May 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451781/13-novel-putative-mutations-in-atp7a-found-in-a-cohort-of-25-italian-families
#16
Paola de Gemmis, Maria Vittoria Enzo, Elisa Lorenzetto, Paola Cattelan, Daniela Segat, Uros Hladnik
ATP7A is a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase whose loss of function leads to the Menkes disease, an X-linked copper metabolism multi-organ disorder (1 in 100.000 births). Here we document our experience with the ATP7A linked diseases in Italy. We analyzed the exonic structure of the ATP7A gene in 25 unrelated Italian families and studied the variants of unknown significance. We identified 22 different DNA alterations, 13 of which first reported in this study. The classical Menkes phenotype was present in 21 of the 25 families and was linked with highly damaging mutations (7 nonsense; 4 frame-shift; 2 small in-frame deletions, 2 splice site alterations, 2 gross deletions, and 1 gross duplication)...
April 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451780/effects-of-repeated-restraint-stress-and-wifi-signal-exposure-on-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#17
Haifa Othman, Mohamed Ammari, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh Abdelmelek
Today, due to technology development and aversive events of daily life, Human exposure to both radiofrequency and stress is unavoidable. This study investigated the co-exposure to repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal on cognitive function and oxidative stress in brain of male rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint stress occurred 2 h (h)/day during 20 days. Subsequently, various tests were carried out for each group, such as anxiety in elevated plus maze, spatial learning abilities in the water maze, cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum...
April 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#19
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421304/increased-autophagic-degradation-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Yuanjun Zhu, Mengyang Shui, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenhui Hu, Yinye Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous signal molecule, exhibits protective effect against ischemic injury. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have recently reported that exogenous H2S decreases the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in mouse brain with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To further investigate whether this H2S-induced reduction of autophagic vacuoles is caused by the decreased autophagosome synthesis and/or the increased autophagic degradation inautophagic flux, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies using SH-SY5Y cells for the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and mice for the cerebral I/R, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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