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Metabolic Brain Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#1
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#2
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421304/increased-autophagic-degradation-contributes-to-the-neuroprotection-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Yuanjun Zhu, Mengyang Shui, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenhui Hu, Yinye Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous signal molecule, exhibits protective effect against ischemic injury. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We have recently reported that exogenous H2S decreases the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in mouse brain with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To further investigate whether this H2S-induced reduction of autophagic vacuoles is caused by the decreased autophagosome synthesis and/or the increased autophagic degradation inautophagic flux, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies using SH-SY5Y cells for the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and mice for the cerebral I/R, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405779/multidirectional-inhibition-of-cortico-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-by-kolaviron-treatment-in-rats
#4
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa, Blessing Oluwapelumi Moses, Christiana Bidemi Oyegbola
Earliest signs of neurodegenerative cascades in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, with pathological evidences in both cortical structures correlating with manifestation of behavioural and cognitive deficits. Despite the enormous problems associated with AD's clinical manifestations in sufferers, therapeutic advances for the disorder are still very limited. Therefore, this study examined cortico-hippocampal microstructures in models of AD, and evaluated the possible beneficial roles of kolaviron (Kv)-a biflavonoid complex in rats...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401330/cordycepin-confers-neuroprotection-in-mice-models-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-via-suppressing-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#5
Yijun Cheng, Yongxu Wei, Wenlei Yang, Yaying Song, Hanbing Shang, Yu Cai, Zhebao Wu, Weiguo Zhao
Neuroinflammation has been recognized as a major contributor to brain injury caused by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome acts as an important mediator of inflammatory response in various inflammation-related diseases including hemorrhagic insults. Cordycepin has recently been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effect; however, its role and the possible underlying mechanisms in ICH remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of cordycepin in mice models of ICH and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
April 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397153/meldna-score-is-associated-with-psychopathology-and-reduced-quality-of-life-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-a-liver-transplant-perspective
#6
Gabriele Cavaggioni, Edoardo Poli, Flaminia Ferri, Lucia Parlati, Valentina Monaco, Claudia Melcore, Barbara Lattanzi, Manuela Merli, Gianluca Mennini, Fabio Melandro, Massimo Rossi, Stefano Ginanni Corradini
Psychopathological symptoms and reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) are frequent in cirrhotics, but no data on their association with cirrhosis prognosis assessed by the MELDNa score are available. Prospective data on the long-term effect of deceased donor liver transplantation (LT) on psychopathological symptoms are needed. Before entering the LT waiting list, 44 consecutive LT cirrhotic candidates without a major psychiatric disorder underwent a psychopathological assessment, including Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ)...
April 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397152/neuroprotective-effect-of-moringa-oleifera-leaf-extract-on-aluminium-induced-temporal-cortical-degeneration
#7
Moses B Ekong, Mfon M Ekpo, Edet O Akpanyung, Dennis U Nwaokonko
Aluminium (Al), one of the metals implicated in neurodegeneration easily gain access to the nervous system through its presence in many manufactured foods, medicines and drinking water, and causes neurotoxicity utilizing the reactive oxygen specie pathway. The need to curtail these effects on the nervous system motivated the use of the plant Moringa oleifera (MO). This study thus, investigated the neuroprotective effects of MO leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration in rats. 24 male albino Wistar rats were grouped (n = 6) into control (1 ml/kg distilled water), l00 mg/kg aluminium chloride (AlCl3), 300 mg/kg MO, and 100 mg/kg AlCl3 and 300 mg/kg MO groups...
April 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397151/identification-of-novel-atp7a-mutations-and-prenatal-diagnosis-in-chinese-patients-with-menkes-disease
#8
Binbin Cao, Xiaoping Yang, Yinyin Chen, Qionghui Huang, Ye Wu, Qiang Gu, Jiangxi Xiao, Huixia Yang, Hong Pan, Junya Chen, Yu Sun, Li Ren, Chengfeng Zhao, Yanhua Deng, Yanling Yang, Xingzhi Chang, Zhixian Yang, Yuehua Zhang, Zhengping Niu, Juli Wang, Xiru Wu, Jingmin Wang, Yuwu Jiang
Menkes disease (MD) is a fatal X-linked multisystem disease caused by mutations in ATP7A. In this study, clinical and genetic analysis was performed in 24 male MD patients. Development delay, seizures, kinky coarse hair, and dystonia were found in 24, 22, 24, and 24 patients, respectively. Serum ceruloplasmin/copper tested in 19 patients was low. Abnormal classic features of MD presented in the MRI/MRA of 19 patients. Seventeen mutations of ATP7A were identified in 22 patients. Twelve were novel mutations including three small deletion/insertion, one missense mutation, two nonsense mutations, three splicing-site mutations, and three gross deletions...
April 10, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391551/predicting-posttraumatic-hydrocephalus-derivation-and-validation-of-a-risk-scoring-system-based-on-clinical-characteristics
#9
Hao Chen, Fang Yuan, Shi-Wen Chen, Yan Guo, Gan Wang, Zhi-Feng Deng, Heng-Li Tian
Posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a disorder of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It can lead to brain metabolic impairment and dysfunction and has a high risk of clinical deterioration and worse outcomes. The incidence and risk factors for the development of PTH after decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been assessed in previous studies, but rare studies identify patients with higher risk for PTH among all TBI patients. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk scoring system to predict PTH after TBI...
April 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389991/genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-18-egyptian-patients-with-glutaric-acidemia-type-i
#10
Ahmed Mosaeilhy, Magdy M Mohamed, George Priya Doss C, Heba S A El Abd, Radwa Gamal, Osama K Zaki, Hatem Zayed
Glutaric acidemia I (GAI) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme (GCDH). Patients with GAI are characterized by macrocephaly, acute encephalitis-like crises, dystonia and frontotemporal atrophy. In this study, we investigated 18 Egyptian patients that were diagnosed with GAI based on their clinical, neuroradiological, and biochemical profiles. Of the 18 patients, 16 had developmental delay and/or regression, dystonia was prominent in 75% of the cases, and three patients died...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386663/a-child-with-phenylketonuria-and-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-the-bright-side-of-proteinuria
#11
Fatma Rabah, Khalid Al-Thihli, Mohamed El-Naggari, Ibtisam B Elnour
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Phenylalanine hydroxylase is the underlying deficient enzyme. If left untreated, growth failure, microcephaly, global developmental delay, seizures and severe intellectual impairment would characterize the clinical picture of PKU. On the other side of protein homeostasis lies nephrotic syndrome. It is a well-known quantitative defect due to significant proteinuria. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a special congenital variant affecting children and adults...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382573/serum-global-metabolomics-profiling-reveals-profound-metabolic-impairments-in-patients-with-mps-iiia-and-mps-iiib
#12
Haiyan Fu, Aaron S Meadows, Ricardo J Pineda, Robert P Mohney, Steve Stirdivant, Douglas M McCarty
The monogenic defects in specific lysosomal enzymes in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) III lead to lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans and complex CNS and somatic pathology, for which the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, serum samples from patients with MPS IIIA (age 2-9 yr) and MPS IIIB (2-13 yr) and healthy controls (age 2-9 yr) were assayed by global metabolomics profiling of 658 metabolites using mass spectrometry. Significant alterations were detected in 423 metabolites in all MPS III patients, of which 366 (86...
April 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378106/plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-links-obesity-and-thrombotic-cerebrovascular-diseases-the-roles-of-pai-1-and-obesity-on-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Rui Chen, Jinchuan Yan, Peijing Liu, Zhongqun Wang, Cuiping Wang
One of the global socioeconomic phenomena occurred during the last decades is the increased prevalence of obesity, with direct consequence on the risk of developing thrombotic disorders. As the physiological inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is well known for its role in fibrinolysis. More and more evidences have shown that PAI-1 involves in physiopathologic mechanisms of many diseases and metabolic disorder. Increased serum level of PAI-1 has been observed in obesity and it also contributes to the development of adipose tissue and then has effects on obesity...
April 4, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378105/effect-of-magnolol-on-cerebral-injury-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#14
Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoling Chen, Yuanjun Zhu, Kewei Wang, Yinye Wang
Magnolol, a neolignan compound isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Magnolia officinalis, has a potentially therapeutic influence on ischemic stroke. Previous studies have demonstrated that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are involved in the pathogeneses of stroke. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro studies were designed to investigate the effects of magnolol on I-R-induced neural injury and BBB dysfunction. In cerebral I-R model of mice, cerebral infarct volumes, brain water content, and the exudation of Evans blue were significantly reduced by intravenous injection with magnolol at the doses of 1...
April 4, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374238/antioxidant-effects-of-rice-bran-oil-mitigate-repeated-haloperidol-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-in-male-rats
#15
Noreen Samad, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs such as D2 antagonist haloperidol (HP). The chronic use of HP is involved in the causation of free radicals and/or oxidative stress. In view of the nootropic, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory-like effects of rice bran oil (RBO) in a variety of investigations, we assessed the protective properties of RBO on HP-induced TD and neurochemical alteration. Rats treated with HP orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374237/sex-specific-nonlinear-associations-between-serum-lipids-and-different-domains-of-cognitive-function-in-middle-to-older-age-individuals
#16
Yanhui Lu, Yu An, Huanling Yu, Fengyuan Che, Xiaona Zhang, Hongguo Rong, Yuandi Xi, Rong Xiao
To examine how serum lipids relates to specific cognitive ability domains between the men and women in Chinese middle to older age individuals. A complete lipid panel was obtained from 1444 individuals, ages 50-65, who also underwent a selection of cognitive tests. Participants were 584 men and 860 women from Linyi city, Shandong province. Multiple linear regression analyses examined serum lipids level as quadratic predictors of sex-specific measure of performance in different cognitive domains, which were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374236/novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-a-patient-with-short-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#17
Chiplunkar, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Madhu Nagappa, Bobby Baby Panikulam, Hanumanthapura R Arvinda, Periyasamy Govindaraj, M M Srinivas Bharath, Narayanappa Gayathri, J N Jessiena Ponmalar, Pavagada S Mathuranath, Sanjib Sinha, Arun B Taly
Reports on magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS), are limited. Many asymptomatic carriers of ACAD variants have also been described necessitating careful evaluation of clinical and biochemical findings for an accurate diagnosis. Here we report a an infant with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency diagnosed based on the characteristic biochemical findings and confirmed by genetic testing...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361262/the-interrelationship-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-focus-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-kill-two-birds-with-one-stone
#18
REVIEW
Shima Motamedi, Isaac Karimi, Fariba Jafari
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) like Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and depression. If one factor plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of two diseases, it can be concluded that there might be a common root in these two diseases, as well. This review was aimed to highlight the crucial roles of BDNF in the pathogenesis of MetS and NDD and to introduce sole prophylactic or therapeutic applications, BDNF gene therapy and BDFN administration, in controlling MetS and NDD...
March 30, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361261/diabetic-brain-or-retina-visual-psychophysical-performance-in-diabetic-patients-in-relation-to-gaba-levels-in-occipital-cortex
#19
Mafalda Sanches, Sulaiman I Abuhaiba, Otília C d'Almeida, Bruno Quendera, Leonor Gomes, Carolina Moreno, Daniela Guelho, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Visual impairment is one of the most feared complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of occipital cortex γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a predictor of visual performance in type 2 diabetes. 18 type 2 diabetes patients were included in a longitudinal prospective one-year study, as well as 22 healthy age-matched controls. We collected demographic data, HbA1C and used a novel set of visual psychophysical tests addressing color, achromatic luminance and speed discrimination in both groups...
March 30, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357639/ghrelin-ameliorates-nerve-growth-factor-dysmetabolism-and-inflammation-in-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Yuxing Zhao, Zhaoxing Shen, Dongling Zhang, Huiqiong Luo, Jinliang Chen, Yue Sun, Qian Xiao
Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation, deficient neurotrophic support, and neuronal and synaptic loss. Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is associated with neuromodulation and cognitive improvement, which has been considered as a potential protective agent for several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we sought to investigate the role of ghrelin in preventing diabetic-related neuropathology. We found that ghrelin attenuated astrocytic activation and reduced levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
March 30, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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