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Metabolic Brain Disease

Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios Giampatzis, Stella D Bouziana, Marianna Spanou, Stavroula Kostaki, Maria Papadopoulou, Stella-Maria Angelopoulou, Maria Tsopozidi, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
Although dyslipidemia increases the risk for ischemic stroke, previous studies reported conflicting data regarding the association between lipid levels and stroke severity and outcome. To evaluate the predictive value of major lipids in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively studied 790 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke (41.0 % males, age 79.4 ± 6.8 years). The severity of stroke was assessed at admission with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)...
October 23, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
FangFang, Hongyan Li, Tingting Qin, Min Li, Shiping Ma
The impaired insulin signaling has been recognized as a common pathogenetic mechanism between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the progression of AD, brain is characterized by defective insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased oxidative stress. Thymol, a monoterpene phenol isolated from medicinal herbs, has exhibited robust neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of thymol on HFD-induced cognitive deficits, and explore the possible mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kevin D Mullen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Nicolas Weiss, Matteo Rosselli, Sarah Mouri, Damien Galanaud, Louis Puybasset, Banwari Agarwal, Dominique Thabut, Rajiv Jalan
Although hepatic encephalopathy (HE) on the background of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high mortality rates, it is unknown whether this is due to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Specific gravity of cerebrospinal fluid measured by CT is able to estimate blood-cerebrospinal fluid-barrier permeability. This study aimed to assess cerebrospinal fluid specific gravity in acutely decompensated cirrhosis and to compare it in patients with or without ACLF and with or without hepatic encephalopathy...
October 11, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Gavin Wright, Mark Swain, Djillali Annane, Faouzi Saliba, Didier Samuel, Vicente Arroyo, Sharon DeMorrow, Anne Witt
At the recent ISHEN ('International Symposium of Hepatic Encephalopathy & Nitrogen Metabolism') conference in London, a whole session was dedicated to our increasing awareness of the importance of inflammation in the brain - termed 'neuroinflammation', in the development of Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) - the neurological manifestations of advanced liver disease. In this review our ISHEN speakers further discuss the content of their sessional presentations and more broadly we discuss our understanding of the role of neuroinflammation in HE pathogenesis...
October 11, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Meredith Meyer, Attila D Kovács, David A Pearce
Infantile CLN1 disease, also known as infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene. CLN1 encodes a soluble lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), and it is still unclear why neurons are selectively vulnerable to the loss of PPT1 enzyme activity in infantile CLN1 disease. To examine the effects of PPT1 deficiency on several well-defined neuronal signaling and cell death pathways, different toxic insults were applied in cerebellar granule neuron cultures prepared from wild type (WT) and palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1-deficient (Ppt1 (-/-) ) mice, a model of infantile CLN1 disease...
October 8, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Daniela Delwing-de Lima, Monique Fröhlich, Leticia Dalmedico, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia Aurélio, Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Eduardo Manoel Pereira, Angela T S Wyse
We evaluated the in vitro effects of galactose at 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl content, on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats. We also investigated the influence of the antioxidants (each at 1 mM), α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested...
October 6, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Cicely Proctor, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Luisa Baker, Bernard Lanz, Fausto Andreola, Javier Ampuero, Anisha Wijeyesekera, Elaine Holmes, Nicolaas Deutz
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which frequently accompanies acute or chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms of different severity such as cognitive deficits and impaired motor functions. Currently, HE is seen as a consequence of a low grade cerebral oedema associated with the formation of cerebral oxidative stress and deranged cerebral oscillatory networks. However, the pathogenesis of HE is still incompletely understood as liver dysfunction triggers exceptionally complex metabolic derangements in the body which need to be investigated by appropriate technologies...
September 30, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Xiao-Ming Li, Qi Yang, Xu-Bo Li, Qiang Cheng, Kun Zhang, Jing Han, Jian-Ning Zhao, Gang Liu, Ming-Gao Zhao
Isopsoralen is a type of furocoumarin that exhibits estrogen-like activities. The aim of this study was to determine the estrogen-like neuroprotection of isopsoralen in an animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Results indicated that isopsoralen (intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg per day for two weeks) significantly enhanced the hindlimb locomotor functions of mice with SCI, as revealed in the BMS score and angle of inclined plane tests. Morphological data showed that isopsoralen significantly attenuated the injury of the gray matter of spinal cord and induced the up-regulation of ERα levels...
September 26, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Rune Gangsoy Kristiansen
Alterations in interorgan metabolism of ammonia play an important role in the onset of hyperammonemia in liver failure. Glutamine synthetase (GS) in muscle is an important target for ammonia removal strategies in hyperammonemia. Ornithine Phenylacetate (OP) is hypothesized to remove ammonia by providing glutamate as a substrate for increased GS activity and hence glutamine production. The newly generated glutamine conjugates with phenylacetate forming phenylacetylglutamine which can be excreted in the urine, providing an excretion pathway for ammonia...
September 21, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Carmina Montoliu, Vicente Felipo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Iwona Zarnowska, Jarogniew J Luszczki, Tomasz Zarnowski, Piotr Wlaz, Stanislaw J Czuczwar, Maciej Gasior
Among non-pharmacological treatments, the ketogenic diet (KD) has the strongest demonstrated evidence of clinical success in drug resistant epilepsy. In an attempt to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD pre-clinically, the present study assessed the effects of the KD against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. After confirming that exposure to the KD for 2 weeks resulted in stable ketosis and hypoglycemia, mice were exposed to electroshocks of various intensities to establish general seizure susceptibility...
September 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Tahira Assad, Rafeeq Alam Khan
Currently available anxiolytics cause numerous adverse effects and show craving and tolerance during long term treatment. Currently traditional medicines have been re-evaluated widely through work on various plant species. Numerous plants in traditional system show pharmacological activity with unlimited prospective for therapeutic use. Hence we planned to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of T. foenum-graecum L. seeds on anxiety, sedation and motor coordination in mice at different doses following 15 days of oral feeding...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Mark J W McPhail, Sara Montagnese, Manuela Villanova, Hamza El Hadi, Piero Amodio, Mary M E Crossey, Roger Williams, I Jane Cox, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
To date urinary metabolic profiling has been applied to define a specific metabolic fingerprint of hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of cirrhosis. Its utility for the stratification of other complications of cirrhosis, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), remains to be established. Urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra were acquired and NMR data from 52 patients with cirrhosis (35 male; 17 female, median (range) age [60 (18-81) years]) and 17 controls were compared. A sub-set of 45 patients (33 male; 12 female, [60 (18-90) years, median model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score 11 (7-27)]) were fully characterised by West-Haven criteria, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and electroencephalogram (EEG), and defined as overt HE (OHE, n = 21), covert HE (cHE, n = 7) or no HE (n = 17)...
September 17, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Marsha Y Morgan
Nonabsorbable disaccharides have been the mainstay of treatment for hepatic encephalopathy since introduced into clinical practice in 1966. Their beneficial effects reflect their ability to reduce the intestinal production/absorption of ammonia. A recent Cochrane review confirmed the efficacy and safety of nonabsorbable disaccharides for the treatment and prevention of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. The findings were robust and support the use of nonabsorbable disaccharides as a first line treatment for hepatic encephalopathy, in this patient population, and for its prevention...
September 16, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kadir Demirci, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, İshak Suat Övey, Hasan Balaban
A potent antioxidant, selenium might modulate dementia-induced progression of brain and blood oxidative and apoptotic injuries. The present study explores whether selenium protects against experimental dementia (scopolamine, SCOP)-induced brain, and blood oxidative stress, apoptosis levels, and cytokine production in rats. Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as an untreated control. The second group was treated with SCOP to induce dementia. The third and fourth groups received 1...
September 15, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Huanhuan Wang, Bing Wang, Hongping Yin, Guoqing Zhang, Liping Yu, Xiangmin Kong, Haiying Yuan, Xingyue Fang, Qibing Liu, Cuiqing Liu, Liyun Shi
Neurodegeneration is considered one of the possible complications of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Much evidence has shown the close relationship between HFD and dementia at comparatively later stage of neuronal injury. It is so far not clear that the initial events of neuronal injury resulting from HFD and obesity. In the present research, obese mouse model achieved by 3-month HFD was applied for the investigation of the possible neuronal deficiency before the obvious cognitive decline. We found that 3-month HFD has already increased the average level of body weight of mice...
September 13, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ismail O Ishola, Folasade M Adamson, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) basal forebrain cholinergic neurons appear to be targeted primarily in early stages of the disease. Scopolamine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) has been used for decades to induce working and reference memory impairment in rodents. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola seeds extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment/oxidative stress. Rats were pretreated with kolaviron (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg p...
September 8, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
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