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Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry

Dengyang Zhang, Tianzhu Sun, Jingyun Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway existed in multicellular organisms. It plays roles in normal human body development, human cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. The Notch negative regulatory region (NRR) is critical for Notch signaling, and cleavage at the S2 site in the NRR ultimately leads to the activation of Notch signaling. To study the function of human NRR1, we expressed the recombinant human NRR1 (rhNRR1) domain in Escherichia coli. After purification, rhNRR1 was obtained with approximately 94% purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Yang-Hua Tang, Zhen-Shuang Yue, Wen-Jie Zheng, Hong-Fei Shen, Lin-Ru Zeng, Zhong-Qing Hu, Zhen-Fei Xiong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common bone and joint disease with a wild range of risk factors, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The aim of our study was to discuss the possible mechanism of ER stress associated with OA in vivo and explore novel therapeutic method against OA. OA-induced damages in cartilage tissues were evaluated by HE, Safranin O/fast green and TUNEL staining. The inflammatory factors concentration and the expression of FAP, MMP2, MMP9, Bax, Bcl-2, CHOP and GRP78 were evaluated by ELISA, real-time PCR and western blot analysis...
January 11, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Nittaya Bunsanong, Wilaiwan Chotigeat, Panchalika Deachamag, Suchera Thananimit
A Dot-blot immunogold assay (DBIA) was developed to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the polyclonal antibody VP26 (anti-VP26). The anti-VP26 was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (Ab-AuNPs) and a nitrocellulose membrane was used as a detection pad. When the target WSSV bound to the Ab-AuNPs a reddish dots appeared on the surface of the membrane used within 2 to 5 minutes which could be seen with the naked eye. The test was able to detect WSSV at concentrations as low as 105 copies μl-1 of WSSV...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Alessandro Finazzi-Agrò
In the recent years it has become evident that most expressed and not yet expressed proteins do not show a stable folding. This apparently confusing disorder is instead a fundamental property of polypeptides enabling them to interact with different partners playing many different functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jaruwan Siritapetawee, Wanwisa Limphirat, Nawarat Nantapong, Dujdow Songthamwat
Recently, the development of 'green' methods for fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been emphasized, in view of their environmental safety, feasibility and low cost. In this study, a serine protease, EuP-82 from Euphorbia cf. lactea latex, was used to fabricate silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), under the influence of visible light. The fabricated nanoparticles had a maximal surface plasmon resonance absorption peak at 435 nm. The size of the AgCl-NPs, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, was 57 ± 14...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Ziba Najmi, Gholamhossein Ebrahimipour, Andrea Franzetti, Ibrahim M Banat
Since 60-80% of total costs of production are usually associated with downstream collection, separation and purification processes, it has become advantageous to investigate how to replace traditional methods with efficient and cost-effective alternative techniques for recovery and purification of biosurfactants. In the traditional techniques, large volumes of organic solvents are usually used increasing production cost and the overall environmental burden. In addition, traditional production and separation methods typically carried out in batch cultures reduce biosurfactant yields due to product inhibition and lower biosurfactants activity as a result of interaction with the organic solvents used...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Aysegul Ozer, Ugur Uzuner, Halil Ibrahim Guler, Fulya Ay Sal, Ali Osman Belduz, Ilhan Deniz, Sabriye Canakci
Chemical bleaching process of paper pulps gives off excessive amount of chlorinated organic wastes mostly released to environment without exposing complete bioremediaton. Recent alternative and eco-friendly approaches towards pulp bleaching appear more responsive to environmental awareness. Here we report, direct use of a recombinant Bacillus subtilis bacterium for pulp bleaching, endowed with three ligninolytic enzymes from various bacteria. In addition, efficient bleaching performance from GST biocatalyst tested for the first-time in pulp bleaching applications was also achieved...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Woei Kean Ng, Theam Soon Lim, Ngit Shin Lai
A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilise antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilisation were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal Fc receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites towards the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain...
December 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Li-Min Zhang, Li-Jun Zeng, Jing Deng, Yu-Qin Zhang, Yu-Jiao Wang, Tian-Yi Xie, Jiang-Hong Ling
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), especially myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY), are key to gastrointestinal motility. However, their role in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is unclear. Therefore, autophagy and differentiation of ICC-MY were investigated to elucidate the pathogenesis of gastric motility disorder in FD. METHODS: FD model was induced by chronic stress via tail clamping in rats, which was assessed by the vital signs of rats, gastric emptying rate result and histology...
December 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Fanfan Cao, Ying Wang, Bin Peng, Xue Zhang, Denghai Zhang, Limin Xu
To observe the effects of celastrol on Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, the changes of Tau hyperphosphorylation and the expression of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), HSP70 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) in SH-SY5Y cells treated with Aβ1-42 and celastrol were measured. Tau hyperphosphorylation and HSP90 expression induced by Aβ1-42 was also measured by western blotting after HSP70 or HSF-1 knockdown by siRNA. The interaction between HSP70 and Tau or HSP70 and carboxyl terminus of HSP70 interacting protein (CHIP) was measured by Co-immunoprecipitiation...
December 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Huirong Yang, Xuyan Zong, Chun Cui, Lixia Mu, Haifeng Zhao
Lys and Leu were generally considered as the key amino acids for brewer's yeast during beer brewing. In the present study, peptide Lys-Leu and a free amino acid (FAA) mixture of Lys and Leu (Lys+Leu) were supplemented in 24 °P wort to examine their effects on physiological activity and fermentation performance of brewer's yeast during very high-gravity (VHG) wort fermentation. Results showed that although both peptide Lys-Leu and their FAA mixture supplementations could increase the growth and viability, intracellular trehalose and glycerol content, wort fermentability, and ethanol content for brewer's yeast during VHG wort fermentation, and peptide was better than their FAA mixture at promoting growth and fermentation for brewer's yeast when the same dose was kept...
December 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Vincenzo De Filippis, Laura Acquasaliente, Giulia Pontarollo, Daniele Peterle
The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed to site-specifically insert, delete or mutate almost any amino acid in a given protein, significantly improving our knowledge of protein structure, stability and function. Nevertheless, a quantitative description of the physical and chemical basis that makes a polypeptide chain to efficiently fold into a stable and functionally active conformation is still elusive. This mainly originates from the fact that nature combined, in a yet unknown manner, different properties (i...
December 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jing Sun, Lina Wei, Yanzi Wang, Zhiping Zhao, Wenfang Liu
In recent years, the application of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2 removal has attracted great interest. However, obtaining high enzyme recovery activity is difficult in existing immobilization techniques. In this work, water plasma-treated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified via 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (KH550) or γ-(2, 3-epoxypropoxy) propyl trimethoxy silane (KH560), and then CA was attached. The immobilization process was optimized and the catalytic properties of PVDF-attached CA were characterized...
December 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
João Vitor Dutra Molino, André Moreni Lopes, Daniela de Araújo Viana Marques, Priscila Gava Mazzola, Joas Lucas da Silva, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo Hirata, Maria Silvia Viccari Gatti, Adalberto Pessoa Júnior
Viral vectors are important in medical approaches, such as disease prevention and gene therapy, and their production depends on efficient pre-purification steps. In the present study, an aqueous two-phase micellar system (ATPMS) was evaluated to extract human adenovirus type 5 particles from a cell lysate. Adenovirus was cultured in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells to a concentration of 1.4 x 1010 particles/mL. Cells were lysed and the system formed by direct addition of Triton X-114 in a 23 full factorial design with center points...
December 4, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jiraporn Lueangsakulthai, Santi Phosri, Tinnakorn Theansungnoen, Nisachon Jangpromma, Theeranan Temsiripong, John E Mckendrick, Watcharee Khunkitti, Sompong Klaynongsruang
Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides were isolated from hydrolysates of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin. Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysates (CHHs) were obtained by pepsin digestion at different incubation times (2, 4, 6 and 8 H) at 37 °C and subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity assessment. CHH obtained by 2-H hydrolysis (2H-CHH) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with respect to decreasing nitric oxide (NO) production, while the strongest antioxidant activity was found for 6-H hydrolysis (6H-CHH) against nitric oxide radicals...
November 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Kiyoung Kim
The clot gene is required for the biosynthesis of drosopterins, the red components of Drosophila eye pigments. However, the enzymatic role of Clot in Drosophila eye pigment formation and the molecular mechanisms underlying Clot function are not fully elucidated. In this study, we cloned and characterized Clot derived from Drosophila cDNA, and results showed that Clot exhibited ∼30% sequence identity with mammalian TRP14. In addition, we reported the three-dimensional (3D) structure of Drosophila Clot based on homology modeling...
October 28, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Chaoji Huangfu, Jinchao Zhang, Yuyuan Ma, Junting Jia, Jingxuan Li, Maomin Lv, Xiaowei Ma, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is widely used to treat patients with congenital AAT deficiency. Cohn Fraction IV (Cohn F IV) is normally discarded during the manufacturing process of albumin but contains approximately 33% of plasma AAT. We established a new process for large-scale purification of AAT from it. LC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC were applied for qualitative identification and composition analysis, respectively. Stabilizers were optimized for AAT activity protection during lyophilization and dry-heat. Virus inactivation by dry-heat and solvent/detergent (S/D) was validated on a range of viruses...
October 26, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Yunfei Gao, Xiaoqing Hu, Jianli Wang, Huazhong Li, Xiaoyuan Wang
Mycolic acid plays important role in C. glutamicum, but the key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acid in C. glutamicum ATCC13869 has not been characterized. Since the locus BBD29_RS14045 in C. glutamicum ATCC13869 shows high similarity to the gene Cgl2871 which encodes Pks13, the key enzyme for synthesizing mycolic acid in C. glutamicum ATCC13032, it was deleted, resulting in the mutant WG001. Compared with the wild type ATCC1369, mycolic acid was not synthesized in WG001, but more phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol containing longer unsaturated fatty acids were produced...
October 26, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Chih-Jung Hsu, Harsh V Jain, Abasha Williams, Julie Wang, Scott C Lute, Serge L Beaucage, Kurt A Brorson
A rapid and cost-effective transient transfection method for mammalian cells is essential for screening biopharmaceuticals in early stages of development. A library of 25 amphipathic trans-acting oligodeoxythymidine phosphorothioate triester (dTtaPS) transfection reagents, carrying positively charged and lipophilic groups, has been constructed for this purpose. High-throughput screening of the library, using an imaging cytometer and an automated microbioreactor system, has led to the identification of dTtaPS(10+) as a potent transfection reagent...
October 10, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Hani A Alhadrami
Biosensors are devices that combine a biological material with a suitable platform for detection of pathogenic organisms, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and/or toxic chemicals or for reporting a biological effect. In recent years, an enormous number of different types of biosensors have been constructed and developed for several medical applications. The reason for that was primarily due to the numerous advantages and applications that can be offered by biosensors. This review article has been started with demonstrating the power of biosensor technologies versus analytical and conventional techniques...
October 10, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
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