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Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry

Fatemeh Faraji, Nader Tajik, Mahdi Behdani, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Fatemeh Shahhosseini, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi
CD22 is a B-cell-specific trans-membrane glycoprotein which is found on the surface of the most B-cells and modulates their function, survival, and apoptosis. Recently, targeting this cell surface biomarker in B-cell malignancies and disorders has attracted a lot of attention. The variable domain of camelid single chain antibodies (VHH, Nanobody) is a form of antibodies with novel properties including small size (15-17 kDa), thermal and chemical stability, high affinity and homology to human antibody sequences...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Nashbly Sarela Rosas-Galván, Fernando Martínez-Morales, Silvia Marquina-Bahena, Raunel Tinoco-Valencia, Leobardo Serrano-Carreón, Brandt Bertrand, Renato León-Rodríguez, Josefina Guzmán-Aparicio, Laura Alvaréz-Berber, María Del Refugio Trejo-Hernández
In this study the biosurfactant (Bs) production of two Serratia marcescens strains (SM3 and its isogenic SMRG-5 strain) was improved and the tenso-active agents were purified and characterized. A 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and carbon sources on the surface tension (ST) reduction and emulsion index (EI24 ) of the produced Bs. Optimum Bs production by SM3 was achieved at high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen, reducing ST to 26.5 ± 0.28 dynes/cm, with an EI24 of 79.9 ± 0...
February 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Min Liu, Qiang Yong, Shiyuan Yu
Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a powerful antioxidant, clears free radicals and exhibits many biological activities. Because contents of HT are low in natural sources, bioconversion of oleuropein (OLE) to HT is of increasing interest. A biotechnological process was investigated to produce HT from OLE presented in olive leaf extract. Enzymatic hydrolysis using two cellulases with high BG activity, Novozymes CTec2 and commercial cellulase KDN (Qingdao, China), was carried out at 50 °C for 12 h followed by raising the temperature to 90 °C for chemical hydrolysis...
February 10, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Umesh Kalathiya, Monikaben Padariya, Maciej Baginski
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is crucial for integration of viral DNA into the host genome and a promising target in development of antiretroviral inhibitors. In this work, six new compounds were designed by linking the structures of two different class of HIV-1 IN inhibitors (active site binders and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs)). Among newly designed compounds, INRAT10b was found most potent HIV-1 IN inhibitor considering different docking results. To further validate protein-ligand interactions obtained from dockings, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for inhibitor raltegravir and INRAT10b placed either at active site or allosteric site of HIV-1 IN (monomer or dimer)...
February 6, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Chengtuo Niu, Feiyun Zheng, Yongxian Li, Chunfeng Liu, Qi Li
β-amylase is of important biotechnological aid in maltose syrup production. In this study, the extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt and the optimal dosage of β-amylase in maltose syrup production were optimized using response surface methodology and uniform design method. The optimal extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt was comprised of 1:17 (g/v) material/liquid ratio, 44°C extraction temperature, pH6.4 buffer pH, 2.3 h extraction time and 1.64 g·L-1 NaSO3 dosage with a predicted β-amylase activity of 1290...
February 2, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jun Lu, Jinxin Li, Shihui Wang, Lu Yao, Wenxia Liang, Juan Wang, Wenyuan Gao
In this paper, we reviewed the advances in ginsenoside biosynthesis and metabolic regulation. To begin with, the application of elicitors in ginsenoside biosynthesis was discussed. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) and analogues have the best effect on accumulation of ginsenoside compared with other elicitors, and few biotic elicitors are applied in Panax genus plants tissue culture. In addition, so far, more than 40 genes encoding ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzymes have been cloned and identified from Panax genus, such as UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) genes UDPG, UGTAE2, UGT94Q2, UGTPg100 and UGTPg1...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Svetlana P Ikonomova, Megan T Le, Neha Kalla, Amy J Karlsson
Single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs) are attractive for use in applications that require high specificity and binding to a target, such as biosensors. Previously, we demonstrated that a variety of scFvs can be immobilized onto a streptavidin surface through in vivo biotinylation of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) or smaller AviTag fused to the scFvs. However, the BCCP constructs showed better immobilization than the AviTag constructs. In this work, we investigated whether the discrepancy between the biotinylation tags could be alleviated by incorporating flexible (G4 S)n linker of varying lengths or a rigid (EA3 K)3 linker between the biotinylation tags and the scFvs scFv13R4 and scFv5...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Rajender Vadija, Kiran Kumar Mustyala, Vasavi Malkhed, Ramasree Dulapalli, Hymavathi Veeravarapu, Ramesh Malikanti, Uma Vuruputuri
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the pathogen, which causes Tuberculosis (TB). Development of Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains in Mtb is due to an efflux mechanism of antibiotics in the bacteria. The efflux pump proteins in the bacteria are implicated in the active efflux of antibiotics. The efflux pump protein, 'Fluoroquinolones export ATP-binding protein Rv2688c' (FEAB), is considered as a potential therapeutic target to prevent Tuberculosis. In the present work, in silico protocols are applied to identify inhibitors for the FEAB protein to arrest the efflux mechanism...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jin-Jin Gu, Ying Zhou, Yan-Bin Tong, Jian-Jiang Lu, Bang-Ce Ye
Aliphatic polyester, poly (3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV), is commonly produced as a granular component in bacterial cells of various species. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, strain PJC48 was identified as a Bacillus species. The current study aimed to screen for a high-yield strain that can produce PHV efficiently and to increase PHV product yield by optimizing the fermentative process. We identified a high- producer strain based on Nile red staining. Characterization of the PHV produced by PJC48 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that it consisted of (R)-3-hydroxyvalerate monomers...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Biyao Mao, Lijuan Cheng, Sheng Wang, Jiaqi Zhou, Le Deng
Biofilms are the main reason for a large number deaths and high health costs. Their better protection compared to planktonic form against conventional antibiotics leads to poor treatment efficiency. Nanoagent-targeted delivery is a promising avenue for disease therapeutic, but its application targeting biofilms has not been reported currently. The roles, if any, of aptamers acting as delivery carrier and targeting factor, the graphene oxide (GO), and GO modified with aptamers against biofilms were then systematically evaluated...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Dengyang Zhang, Tianzhu Sun, Jingyun Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway existed in multicellular organisms. It plays roles in normal human body development, human cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. The Notch negative regulatory region (NRR) is critical for Notch signaling, and cleavage at the S2 site in the NRR ultimately leads to the activation of Notch signaling. To study the function of human NRR1, we expressed the recombinant human NRR1 (rhNRR1) domain in Escherichia coli. After purification, rhNRR1 was obtained with approximately 94% purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Yang-Hua Tang, Zhen-Shuang Yue, Wen-Jie Zheng, Hong-Fei Shen, Lin-Ru Zeng, Zhong-Qing Hu, Zhen-Fei Xiong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common bone and joint disease with a wild range of risk factors, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The aim of our study was to discuss the possible mechanism of ER stress associated with OA in vivo and explore novel therapeutic method against OA. OA-induced damages in cartilage tissues were evaluated by HE, Safranin O/fast green and TUNEL staining. The inflammatory factors concentration and the expression of FAP, MMP2, MMP9, Bax, Bcl-2, CHOP and GRP78 were evaluated by ELISA, real-time PCR and western blot analysis...
January 11, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Nittaya Bunsanong, Wilaiwan Chotigeat, Panchalika Deachamag, Suchera Thananimit
A Dot-blot immunogold assay (DBIA) was developed to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the polyclonal antibody VP26 (anti-VP26). The anti-VP26 was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (Ab-AuNPs) and a nitrocellulose membrane was used as a detection pad. When the target WSSV bound to the Ab-AuNPs a reddish dots appeared on the surface of the membrane used within 2 to 5 minutes which could be seen with the naked eye. The test was able to detect WSSV at concentrations as low as 105 copies μl-1 of WSSV...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Alessandro Finazzi-Agrò
In the recent years it has become evident that most expressed and not yet expressed proteins do not show a stable folding. This apparently confusing disorder is instead a fundamental property of polypeptides enabling them to interact with different partners playing many different functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jaruwan Siritapetawee, Wanwisa Limphirat, Nawarat Nantapong, Dujdow Songthamwat
Recently, the development of 'green' methods for fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been emphasized, in view of their environmental safety, feasibility and low cost. In this study, a serine protease, EuP-82 from Euphorbia cf. lactea latex, was used to fabricate silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), under the influence of visible light. The fabricated nanoparticles had a maximal surface plasmon resonance absorption peak at 435 nm. The size of the AgCl-NPs, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, was 57 ± 14...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Ziba Najmi, Gholamhossein Ebrahimipour, Andrea Franzetti, Ibrahim M Banat
Since 60-80% of total costs of production are usually associated with downstream collection, separation and purification processes, it has become advantageous to investigate how to replace traditional methods with efficient and cost-effective alternative techniques for recovery and purification of biosurfactants. In the traditional techniques, large volumes of organic solvents are usually used increasing production cost and the overall environmental burden. In addition, traditional production and separation methods typically carried out in batch cultures reduce biosurfactant yields due to product inhibition and lower biosurfactants activity as a result of interaction with the organic solvents used...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Aysegul Ozer, Ugur Uzuner, Halil Ibrahim Guler, Fulya Ay Sal, Ali Osman Belduz, Ilhan Deniz, Sabriye Canakci
Chemical bleaching process of paper pulps gives off excessive amount of chlorinated organic wastes mostly released to environment without exposing complete bioremediaton. Recent alternative and eco-friendly approaches towards pulp bleaching appear more responsive to environmental awareness. Here we report, direct use of a recombinant Bacillus subtilis bacterium for pulp bleaching, endowed with three ligninolytic enzymes from various bacteria. In addition, efficient bleaching performance from GST biocatalyst tested for the first-time in pulp bleaching applications was also achieved...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Woei Kean Ng, Theam Soon Lim, Ngit Shin Lai
A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilise antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilisation were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal Fc receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites towards the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain...
December 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Li-Min Zhang, Li-Jun Zeng, Jing Deng, Yu-Qin Zhang, Yu-Jiao Wang, Tian-Yi Xie, Jiang-Hong Ling
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), especially myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY), are key to gastrointestinal motility. However, their role in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is unclear. Therefore, autophagy and differentiation of ICC-MY were investigated to elucidate the pathogenesis of gastric motility disorder in FD. METHODS: FD model was induced by chronic stress via tail clamping in rats, which was assessed by the vital signs of rats, gastric emptying rate result and histology...
December 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Fanfan Cao, Ying Wang, Bin Peng, Xue Zhang, Denghai Zhang, Limin Xu
To observe the effects of celastrol on Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, the changes of Tau hyperphosphorylation and the expression of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), HSP70 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) in SH-SY5Y cells treated with Aβ1-42 and celastrol were measured. Tau hyperphosphorylation and HSP90 expression induced by Aβ1-42 was also measured by western blotting after HSP70 or HSF-1 knockdown by siRNA. The interaction between HSP70 and Tau or HSP70 and carboxyl terminus of HSP70 interacting protein (CHIP) was measured by Co-immunoprecipitiation...
December 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
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