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Histology and Histopathology

Michela Ferrucci, Gloria Lazzeri, Marina Flaibani, Francesca Biagioni, Federica Cantini, Michele Madonna, Domenico Bucci, Fiona Limanaqi, Paola Soldani, Francesco Fornai
Counting motor neurons within the spinal cord and brainstem represents a seminal step to comprehend the anatomy and physiology of the final common pathway sourcing from the CNS. Motor neuron loss allows to assess the severity of motor neuron disorders while providing a tool to assess disease modifying effects. Counting motor neurons at first implies gold standard identification methods. In fact, motor neurons may occur within mixed nuclei housing a considerable amount of neurons other than motor neurons. In the present review, we analyse various approaches to count motor neurons emphasizing both the benefits and bias of each protocol...
March 14, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Tulio Diniz-Fernandes, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Maria Cristina Santo, Pedro Pontin, Caio Augusto Alves Pereira, Yuri Justi Jardim, Ana Paula Pereira Velosa, Nicola Maffulli, Walcy Rosolia Teodoro, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Posterior tibial tendinopathy (PTT) can lead to acquired flatfoot in adults. Many patients develop PTT without any identifiable risk factors. Molecular changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphism may influence the risk of developing PTT. We aim to investigate the association between matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and (MMP-8) gene polymorphisms with changes in collagen I, III and V in PTT. A case-control study with 22 patients and 5 controls was performed. The MMP-1 (2G/2G) and MMP-8 (T/T) genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
March 13, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Verica Lj Milošević, Walter B Severs, Nataša M Ristić, Milica N Manojlović-Stojanoski, Florina V Popovska-Perčinić, Branka T Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo B Pendovski, Svetlana L Trifunović, Marko Š Miler, Vladimir Z Ajdžanović
Genistein (G) and related soy phytoestrogens have been studied for potential usefulness in different chronic diseases, and may ameliorate signs of aging. They have a profound influence on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study utilized the rat model of mild andropause to thoroughly evaluate the effects of G and soy extract on the adrenal gland and related blood hormones. Adult male rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham operated (SO). Orx rats received daily subcutaneous injections for 3 weeks of solvent, or G (Orx+G, 30 mg/kg), or commercial soy extract (Orx+Soy, 30 mg/kg)...
March 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Hadi Rezaeeyan, Saeid Shahrabi, Trevor D McKee, Najmaldin Saki
OBJECTIVE: The clusters of differentiations (CDs) are among the surface markers expressed on different cells in the body, which are involved in the communication of cells with each other and the induction of signaling. Moreover, the evaluation of the ectopic expression of these markers in solid tumors has led to the detection of disease in early stages. In this paper, we have examined the effect of CD markers expression on the function of cancer cells, as well as their importance as the diagnostic and prognostic factors for monitoring the progression of solid tumors...
March 6, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Abderrahman Ouban
Tight junction proteins are essential for sealing the cellular sheets and controlling para-cellular ion flux. Our understanding of the role that tight junction proteins, particularly claudins, play in cellular functions and pathologic conditions is continuously expanding. Particularly, the role of claudin-1 in oncogenesis in multiple locations in the human body is coming to light. This review will shed light on the role of claudin-1 in colon cancer. It will address the mechanisms through which claudin-1 becomes dysregulated in colon cancer...
March 1, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Liejun Jiang, Xiliu Zhang, Chenglin Xiang, Joseph Geradts, Qiang Wei, Yuanzi Liang, Huayi Huang, Jun-Fa Xu
CELSR2 is postulated to be a receptor involved in contact-mediated communication; however, its expression and function in cancer remain unknown. ING4 is a tumor suppresor encoded by the ING4 gene which inhibits cell growth. The expression of CELSR2 and ING4 in breast tumors and in benign epithelial cells have been analyzed and correlated with HER2, ER, and PR status. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of CELSR2 and ING4 protein in breast tumors and benign epithelial cells. The differential cellular localization of both markers was analyzed and results were also correlated with HER2, ER, and PR status...
February 28, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Rui Zou, Wanting Wan, Jingjing Li, Chanyuan Du, Yijie Wang, Tian Qian, Lin Niu
BACKGROUND: Collagen I (Col-I) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) have been implicated in the regeneration and remodeling of the periodontium. Studies have shown that enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) and mechanical stimuli can promote the synthesis and degradation, respectively, of Col-I and MMP-1. However, the effects of the combination of EMPs and mechanical stimuli on human periodontal ligament are not known. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test the combined effects of EMPs and mechanical stimuli on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) and Col-I and MMP-1 mRNA expression...
February 27, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Zequn Li, Wenyu Jia, Jun Niu, Lining Zhang
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2 or TNFAIP8L2) is a novel identified negative regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity, which participates in immune homeostasis. TIPE2 is expressed in both immune tissues and non-immune tissues. It is significantly down-regulated in patients with infectious and autoimmune diseases, and the depletion of TIPE2 causes severe inflammatory disease. In recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that TIPE2 serves as an ideal biomarker and as a tumour suppressor in several tumour types...
February 26, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Saeid Shahrabi, Masumeh Maleki Behzad, Kaveh Jaseb, Najmaldin Saki
Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias...
February 20, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Eduardo Peña-Mercado, Mario Garcia-Lorenzana, Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Claudia H González-De la Rosa, Nohra E Beltran
Gastrointestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) generates pathological alterations that could lead to death. Early ischemic damage markers could be used to guide therapy and improve outcomes. AIM: To relate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to gastric impedance changes due to I/R damage. METHODS: Experimental animals were randomly distributed into 3 groups: control, ischemia (30 min) and I/R (60 min)...
February 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Juan Jin, Meiyu Ye, Li Zhao, Wenli Zou, Wei Shen, Hongjuan Zhang, Jianguang Gong, Qiang He
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most common and severe complications in Systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and the mechanism underlining the pathogenesis of LN is still unknown. Autophagy plays vital roles in maintaining cell homeostasis and is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in the progression of LN. METHODS: Autophagic activities in podocytes of both LN patients (Class IV and V) and mice were evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Joonas Haapasalo, Kristiina Nordfors, Kirsi J Granberg, Tomi Kivioja, Matti Nykter, Hannu Haapasalo, Ylermi Soini
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), DJ1 and sulfiredoxin 1 (SRXN1) are transcription factors which protect cells from the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species and, on the other hand, are associated with resistance to cancer treatments. The immunohistochemical expression of NRF2, DJ1 and SRNX1 was assessed in human grade II - IV astrocytic gliomas. Their association to clinicopathologic and essential molecular factors was evaluated. The RNA expression levels and genetic alterations were analyzed from publicly available datasets...
February 14, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Clara M Korstjens, Sjoerd Rutten, Peter A Nolte, Marion A van Duin, Jenneke Klein-Nulend
Disturbed vascularity leads to impaired fracture healing. Since low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) increases new bone formation in delayed-unions, we investigated whether LIPUS increases blood supply in delayed-unions of the osteotomized fibula, and if LIPUS-increased bone formation is correlated to increased blood supply. Blood vessel parameters were analysed using histology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis as well as their correlation with bone formation and resorption parameters...
February 13, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Xiaoyun Shi, Yajing Bai, Yilang Ke, Ruiqi Chen, Xiaohong Lin, Lianglong Chen, Huashan Hong
The effects of hypertension on vascular remodelling, ageing and calcification are not fully understood. In this study, we monitored the dynamic changes of aorta remodelling, senescence and calcification in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) during ageing. RESULTS: Vascular remodelling and senescence cells occurred in SHR aortas at 24 w. The calcium content and calcium deposition of the aorta increased in SHRs at 48 w. All of these changes became increasingly significant with ageing...
February 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Uwe Rauch, Eva Bengtsson, Isabel Gonçalves, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson
The clinical consequences of arterial atherosclerotic lesions depend, apart from their size, on their composition of cellular and extracellular components. While an intact endothelium at the interface of atherosclerotic plaques towards the blood can prevent its erosion, underlying smooth muscle cells within the plaque can reduce the risk of plaque ruptures, due to the deposition of stabilizing extracellular matrix. Basement membranes underlay and support the function of endothelial cells, and embed smooth muscle cells in the media, the source of most smooth muscle cells within atherosclerotic plaques...
February 6, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Shuo Chen, Yang Zhao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are widely found in eukaryotic cells. They form a covalently closed, continuous stable loop structure without 3' or 5' tails, which are different from linear RNAs. As new members of the ncRNAs, circRNAs' formation, function, and mechanism are attracting increased research attention. CircRNAs play important roles in all kinds of cancer and may be potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer treatment through their function as microRNA (miRNA) molecular "sponges", RNA-binding protein (RBP) sponges, protein translators, and gene transcription regulators...
February 2, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Zhen Wang, Li-Min Guo, Hong-Kang Zhou, Hong-Ke Qu, Shu-Chao Wang, Feng-Xia Liu, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
February 1, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Chenlu Liu, Beiyu Wang, Li Xiao, Yefu Li, Lin Xu, Zhihe Zhao, Lin Zhang
Understanding the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) provides invaluable information in the search of therapeutic targets for the development of disease-modifying OA drugs. Emerging results from investigations demonstrate that the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes plays important roles in protecting articular cartilages from being degraded. Thus, maintaining the structural integrity of the pericellular matrix may be an effective approach to prevent the development of osteoarthritic joints. In this review article, we discuss the consequences of lacking one or more components of the pericellular matrix, and biological effects of the destruction of the pericellular matrix in the development of OA...
January 23, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Jiaxiang Zhang, Yong Zhu, Ruilan Wang
Recently developed RNA microarrays and high-throughput sequencing techniques have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes. Emerging evidence has confirmed the relevance of lncRNAs to diverse types of human disease, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss the important functions of lncRNAs in respiratory diseases. Because the reviewed studies have mainly focused on non-small cell lung cancer, future work will need to extend the studies into other respiratory diseases...
January 22, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva, Luiz Otávio Pereira Carvalho, Flávia de Oliveira Cardoso, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros Dorval, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Maria Isabel Doria Rossi, Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle
Leishmania amazonensis is a major etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas; nevertheless there are some reports of this species causing visceral disease in dogs and men. In the present work we have studied a Leishmania strain isolated from a human case of visceral leishmaniasis. We have infected different mouse strains and analyzed the development of the disease, studying the parasite's ability to visceralize and whether this ability is influenced by host genetics. Female BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, CBA, DBA/2, and C3H/He mice were subcutaneously infected with 104 L...
January 18, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
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