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Histology and Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547742/increased-annexin-a2-and-decreased-%C3%AE-catenin-in-adenomyosis-contribute-to-adenomyosis-associated-dysmenorrhea
#1
Li Xue Liu, Yin Ga Wu, Jian Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and β-catenin in eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and their relationships with adenomyosis-associated dysmenorrhea. METHODS: From December 2013 to June 2014, ectopic endometrium (n=30) and eutopic endometrium (n=30) of adenomyosis were collected as experimental group, and endometrium (n=30) of uterine myoma as control group from the department of gynecology and obstetrics, the affiliated hospital of Inner Mongolia medical university...
May 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540715/the-role-of-endothelial-lipase-in-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Justine E Yu, Shu-Yan Han, Benjamin Wolfson, Qun Zhou
Endothelial lipase (LIPG) plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism, cytokine expression, and the lipid composition of cells. Thus far, the extensive investigations of LIPG have focused on its mechanisms and involvement in metabolic syndromes such as atherosclerosis. However, recent developments have found that LIPG plays a role in cancer. This review summarizes the field of LIPG study. We focus on the role of LIPG in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and highlight the recent insights in its involvement in tumor progression...
May 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524210/sulfur-dioxide-foe-or-friend-for-life
#3
REVIEW
Xin-Bao Wang, Hong Cui, Xiaohong Liu, Jun-Bao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO2 can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats...
May 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497438/a-qualitative-comparison-of-ten-tissue-clearing-techniques
#4
Michael Orlich, Friedemann Kiefer
The understanding of spatially complex biological systems are greatly aided by the availability of high resolution information on their tissue architecture, as is provided by optical sectioning microscopy like confocal and light sheet microscopy. In addition, genetically encoded fluorescent reporter proteins reveal tissue architecture without the need for staining procedures. Owing to opacity caused by scattering and absorption, light microscopy in tissue is limited to thin tissue layers of a few micrometers traditionally provided by histological sections...
May 12, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493257/expression-of-p53-and-selected-proliferative-markers-ki-67-mcm3-pcna-and-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-in-borderline-ovarian-tumors-correlation-with-clinicopathological-features
#5
Klaudiusz Ciepliński, Maciej Jóźwik, Anna Semczuk-Sikora, Marek Gogacz, Dorota Lewkowicz, Atanas Ignatov, Andrzej Semczuk
BACKGROUND: The expression of p53 has been studied not only in primary human ovarian carcinomas, but also in borderline ovarian tumors, however, the results were discordant. Expression patterns of proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis have been investigated in various human neoplasms, including female genital tract neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to assess the staining pattern and immunolocalization of p53 and selected proliferative markers (Ki-67, MCM3, PCNA, and topoisomerase IIα) in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs)...
May 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485004/sialic-acid-expression-in-human-fetal-skeletal-muscle-during-limb-early-myogenesis
#6
Mirca Marini, Erica Sarchielli, Giorgia Donata Zappoli Thyrion, Stefano Ambrosini, Eleonora Sgambati
Investigations on animal models demonstrated that changes of sialic acid (SA) expression, particularly the polymeric form, in the skeletal muscle during embryonic and post-natal development seem to be related to muscle differentiation and functionality onset. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monomeric and polymeric SA expression in human skeletal muscle during early stages of fetal development, when important morphofunctional events occur. Specimens of fetal skeletal muscle from limb, between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation (wg), were obtained from 19 pregnant women...
May 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#7
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452045/toxicity-of-malathion-at-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-kaup-1858-notochord-and-somatic-disruptions
#8
Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Emanuele Scala, Juana M Arellano, María Úbeda-Manzanaro, Carmen Sarasquete
The toxicity of malathion to Solea senegalensis was studied in a static renewal bioassay for 24, 48 and 72 h, with toxicant concentrations ranging from 1.56 until 100 µgL⁻¹. The LC₅₀ values of malathion for 48 and 72-h was 63.5 (95% C.I: 50.83-79.34) and 22.94 (95% C.I: 17.16-30.68) µgL⁻¹ respectively. The survival of larvae was non-affected by exposure to malathion at concentrations up to 25 µgL⁻¹ (24 h NOEC), 6.25 µgL⁻¹ (48 h NOEC) and <1.6 µg⁻¹ (72 h NOEC). At the end of the experiment, surviving larvae from concentrations smaller than the 72h-LC50 were chosen to study morphological changes during malathion exposure...
April 28, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447336/review-of-recent-molecular-landscape-knowledge-of-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Dai Shimizu, Mitsuro Kanda, Yasuhiro Kodera
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and its prognosis remains dismal. One reason for poor outcomes of GC patients is that most are diagnosed when the cancer has already advanced. Novel biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity are needed to diagnose GC in the early stage. In addition, to improve the outcome of patients with GC, patient stratification according to prognostic factors and sensitivity to chemo(radio)therapy are necessary. Appropriate follow-up criteria and individualized treatment will contribute to improvement in prognosis...
April 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444679/membranes-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-stem-cells-as-novel-bioengineered-tissue-like-constructs
#10
B D Jaimes-Parra, I Garzón, V Carriel, D Durand-Herrera, M A Martín-Piedra, J M García, M C Sánchez-Quevedo, M Alaminos, A Campos
Cell-derived matrices were recently described as novel biomaterials generated by human cells allowed to grow and synthetize their own extracellular matrix in culture. In the present work, we generated and evaluated a novel tissue-like substitute (WDM) consisting of a membrane derived from cultured human Wharton's jelly stem cells. WDM were evaluated ex vivo and in vivo by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for several mesenchymal cell markers and fibrillar and non-fibrillar extracellular matrix components...
April 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439872/are-non-muscle-actin-isoforms-functionally-equivalent
#11
REVIEW
Aleksandra Simiczyjew, Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz, Antonina Joanna Mazur, Dorota Nowak
Actin is highly conserved and it is the most widespread protein in eukaryotic cells. One of the most important features of actin, which allows it to have many different functions, is its ability to polymerize and interact with many other proteins. Actins are the major constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, which is an important system that is involved in various aspects of cell function, including cell motility, structure, integrity, regulation of signal transduction and transcription. Six mammal actin isoforms are highly conserved and share common functions...
April 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397197/neurons-other-than-motor-neurons-in-motor-neuron-disease
#12
Riccardo Ruffoli, Francesca Biagioni, Carla L Busceti, Anderson Gaglione, Larisa Ryskalin, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandro Frati, Francesco Fornai
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS...
April 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374408/morphological-alterations-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-for-down-syndrome-correlate-with-structural-plasticity-markers
#13
Olga Villarroya, Raúl Ballestín, Rosa López-Hidalgo, Maria Mulet, José Miguel Blasco-Ibáñez, Carlos Crespo, Juan Nacher, Javier Gilabert-Juan, Emilio Varea
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy. Although trisomy on chromosome 21 can display variable phenotypes, there is a common feature among all DS individuals: the presence of intellectual disability. This condition is partially attributed to abnormalities found in the hippocampus of individuals with DS and in the murine model for DS, Ts65Dn. To check if all hippocampal areas were equally affected in 4-5 month adult Ts65Dn mice, we analysed the morphology of dentate gyrus granule cells and cornu ammonis pyramidal neurons using Sholl method on Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons...
April 4, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345127/zoledronate-promotes-bone-formation-by-blocking-osteocyte-osteoblast-communication-during-bone-defect-healing
#14
Pingping Cui, Hongrui Liu, Jing Sun, Norio Amizuka, Qinfeng Sun, Minqi Li
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are potent antiresorptive drugs and their actions on osteoclasts have been studied extensively. Recent studies have suggested that N-BPs also target bone-forming cells. However, the precise mechanism of N-BPs in osteoblasts is paradoxical, and the specific role of osteocytes is worthy of in-depth study. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of N-BPs regulating bone defect healing by zoledronate (ZA). Bone histomorphometry confirmed an increase in new bone formation by systemic ZA administration...
March 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337739/intraductal-neoplasms-of-the-bile-duct-a-new-challenge-to-biliary-tract-tumor-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Yasuni Nakanuma, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Shiro Miyayama, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Masayuki Ohtsuka
Invasive biliary tract carcinomas are usually tubular adenocaricnomas with abundant desmoplastic reactions and frequent ductal and periductal invasion at the time of the diagnosis. Recently, several intraductal neoplasms of the bile duct, particularly at a pre-invasive stage, have been recognized. They include intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), and others, such as intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the bile duct. IPNBs are grossly visible predominantly intraductal-growing papillary neoplasms covered by well-differentiated neoplastic epithelium with fine fibrovascular cores in the dilated bile ducts...
March 24, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332699/mitotic-index-matter-how-to-improve-the-assessment-of-mitosis-in-order-to-better-classify-g2-breast-cancer-and-luminal-a-category
#16
Rachele Del Sordo, Guido Bellezza, Ivana Ferri, Anjuta Pireddu, Renato Colella, Angelo Sidoni
G2 ductal infiltrating carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours with ambiguous clinical significance. This is because G2 carcinomas are almost always the largest category and poorly reproducible. Mitotic count (MC) is one of the causes of poor histological grading reproducibility. The phosphoistone H3 (PPH3) antibody improves identification of mitotic figures. The aim of our study is to demonstrate whether using a new histological grading system based on PPH3 immunostaining to assess MC can re-stratify G2 category...
March 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328009/microenvironmental-factors-that-regulate-mesenchymal-stem-cells-lessons-learned-from-the-study-of-heterotopic-ossification
#17
REVIEW
Chen Kan, Lijun Chen, Yangyang Hu, Haimei Lu, Yuyun Li, John A Kessler, Lixin Kan
Bone marrow contains a non-hematopoietic, clonogenic, multipotent population of stromal cells that are later called mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Similar cells that share many common features with MSC are also found in other organs, which are thought to contribute both to normal tissue regeneration and to pathological processes such as heterotopic ossification (HO), the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue. Understanding the microenvironmental factors that regulate MSC in vivo is essential both for understanding the biology of the stem cells and for effective translational applications of MSC...
March 22, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287251/cisplatin-induced-apoptosis-of-ovarian-cancer-a2780s-cells-by-activation-of-erk-p53-puma-signals
#18
Hao Song, Mei Wei, Wenfen Liu, Shulin Shen, Jiaqun Li, Liming Wang
Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors, including ovarian cancer. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to cell apoptosis remain obscure. In this study, the signaling pathways involved in CDDP -induced apoptosis were examined using CDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer A2780s cells. A2780s cells were treated with CDDP (1...
March 13, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281276/duodenal-mucosa-foxp3-expression-in-different-etiologies-of-lymphocytic-duodenosis
#19
Luis Vaquero, Laura Rodríguez-Martín, Mercedes Hernando, Marcos Jiménez, Luz Monteserín, Begoña Alvarez-Cuenllas, Jose M Ruiz de Morales, Sara Calleja, Santiago Vivas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In celiac disease there is an increase of lymphocytes expressing FOXP3 in the intestinal mucosa associated with varying degrees of villous atrophy. Our aim was to evaluate FOXP3 expression in duodenal mucosa with lymphocytic enteritis according to aetiology and correlation with lymphocytes T-γδ. METHODS: We compared three adult patient groups suffering lymphocytic enteritis: celiacs following a gluten-free diet (n=12), first-degree relatives of celiac patients with genetic risks (n=14) and patients with functional dyspepsia (n=14), along with a control group not suffering from duodenal enteritis (n=16)...
March 10, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276034/are-synchronous-and-metachronous-bilateral-breast-cancers-different-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-focused-on-cell-cycle-regulation
#20
Elżbieta Senkus, Jolanta Szade, Beata Pieczyńska, Michał Kunc, Agnieszka Pliszka, Jacek Jassem
INTRODUCTION: The biology and pathomechanisms of bilateral breast cancers is not fully understood. We compared the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of primary tumors in patients with synchronous (sBBC) and metachronous bilateral breast cancers (mBBC), with special focus on cell cycle regulation and its correlation with markers determining intrinsic phenotype. METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of p16Ink4A, p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27Kip1, p53, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and cyclin E was assessed in tissue microarrays containing primary breast tumor cores from 113 mBBC and 61 sBBC...
March 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
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