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Histology and Histopathology

Jin Tan, Miaohong Wang, Shuling Song, Shuling Miao, Qiang Zhang
Proteinuria (albuminuria) is an important cause of aggravating tubulointerstitial injury. Previous studies have shown that autophagy activation can alleviate renal tubular epithelial cell injury caused by urinary protein, but the mechanism is not clear. Here, we investigated the role of clearance of damaged mitochondria in this protective effect. We found that albumin overload induces a significant increase in turnover of LC3-II and decrease in p62 protein level in renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells in vitro...
January 10, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Mario Simental-Mendía, Félix Vilchez-Cavazos, Rubén García-Garza, Jorge Lara-Arias, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Salvador Said-Fernández, Herminia G Martínez-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of autologous leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (LP-PRP) on the expression of markers involved in cartilage-extracellular matrix production and inflammation in cartilage explants bearing osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cartilage explants and LP-PRP were obtained from 10 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty. The explants were cultured in spinner flasks for 28 days in the presence of interleukin (IL)-1β and/or LP-PRP...
January 9, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Xiujie Fan, Chongjuan Wang, Xianhui Song, Huaqing Liu, Xue Li, Yuanfang Zhang
Cathepsin K, or CTSK, has been found to be involved in the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian carcinoma. However, the expression and clinicopathological significance of CTSK remains unknown in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of CTSK and its clinicopathological significance in EOC. CTSK expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in EOC tissue microarray. The expression of CTSK in EOC was displayed to be markedly higher than that of adjacent normal control...
January 5, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Serena Pollino, Maria Serena Benassi, Laura Pazzaglia, Amalia Conti, Nicoletta Bertani, Alberto Righi, Martina Piccinni-Leopardi, Piero Picci, Roberto Perris
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) remains unfavourable and new therapeutic strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the role of RhoGAP, XTP1/DEPDC1B and SDP35/DEPDC1A, as possible prognostic markers, to be used to identify candidate patients for more effective and personalized therapies. MATERIALS-METHODS: SDP35/DEPDC1A and XTP1/DEPDC1B transcriptional levels were evaluated by Real-Time PCR in 86 primary STS and 22 paired lung metastasis...
January 3, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Sung Han Kim, Boram Park, Jungnam Joo, Jae Young Joung, Ho Kyung Seo, Kang Hyun Lee, Weon Seo Park, Jinsoo Chung
Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (MCRNLMP) and multicystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) are morphologically indistinguishable. MCRNLMP is a tumor composed entirely of numerous cysts, the septa of which contain individual or groups of clear cells without expansile growth. However, unlike MCRCC, neither recurrence nor metastasis has been reported in MCRNLMP. The aim of this study was to identify significant differential pathological characteristics in resected specimens from patients diagnosed with MCRNLMP (n=13) and MCRCC (n=17) using immunohistochemistry of 25 tissue markers...
January 2, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Xiang-Liu Chen, Lan Lei, Lian-Lian Hong, Lian-Lian Ling
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows a cell with epithelial characteristics to transdifferentiate into a cell with mesenchymal characteristics, which is recognized as a key priming event for the initiation and evolvement of cancer metastasis. Accumulating data have shown that aberrant cancer metabolism contributes to the execution of EMT and cancer metastasis through multiple pathological pathways. Recently, the N-MYC downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), as a tumor suppressor and metabolism-related gene in various cancers, has been widely noted...
December 29, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Mima Shikanai, Michisuke Yuzaki, Takeshi Kawauchi
Rab family small GTPases play essential roles in various cellular events via the regulation of intracellular logistics comprising a large number of membrane traffic pathways. Emerging evidence reveals the physiological roles of Rab proteins in several tissues, including developing brains. Many Rab proteins, such as Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab8, Rab10, Rab11, Rab17 and Rab18, are shown to regulate neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and/or axon and dendrite formation in primary cultured neurons. Recent studies have also revealed in vivo roles of several Rab family small GTPases in brain development and its related neurological disorders...
December 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Xingjian Gu, Caixin Li, Feng Yin, Guanghua Yang
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common progressive joint disorder associated with disability in the world. As a chronic disease, KOA has multifactorial etiology. However, the poor self-healing ability of the articular cartilage due to its intrinsic tissue hypovascularity and hypocellularity seems to be directly incriminated in the physio-pathological mechanism of KOA. While conventional therapies result in unfavorable clinical outcomes, regenerative cell therapies have shown great promise in articular cartilage regeneration...
December 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Juan Sun, Yuanfang Xu, Yan Cui, Penggang Liu, Sijiu Yu, Junfeng He, Qian Zhang, Yufeng Huang, Xue Yang
This study aimed to describe the age-related morphological changes and the distribution of IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in yaks. The palatine tonsils of twenty clinically healthy yaks, viz. newborn juvenile, adult and aged, were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that the palatine tonsils found in two tonsillar sinus were elongated kidney-shaped structures. Some external crypts and internal crypts were present. The palatine tonsils were partially enclosed by a connective tissue capsule and had trabeculae extending into the organ...
December 14, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Giovanni Marfia, Elena Pirola, Stefania Elena Navone, Matteo Beretta, Laura Guarnaccia, Elena Trombetta, Andrea Franzini, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella
A 36-year-old white man presented with sudden-onset headache and rapid deterioration of consciousness. Computer tomography revealed a right capsular intra-parenchimal hemorrhage with an intraventricular component; therefore, emergency surgery was performed. Once the hematoma was evacuated, the cause of the hemorrhage was identified as a tumor mass and it was resected. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the surgical specimen disclosed a diagnosis of atypical central neurocytoma. By using a protocol recently set up in our laboratory, we succeeded in isolating and propagating, for the first time, human endothelial cells from central neurocytoma (CN-ECs)...
December 7, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Na Kyung Lee, Duk L Na, Jong Wook Chang
Neurodegenerative and muscle diseases bear both complex and multifactorial pathologies. An efficacious and robust therapeutic option to treat these diseases is yet to be elucidated. At such a time, mesenchymal stem cells have drawn significant attention due to their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. Accumulating evidence has proposed the capability of MSCs to serve multiple roles in a broad spectrum of diseases by secretion of trophic or paracrine factors. In the present review, we will look into the recent literature and discuss the therapeutic functions of MSCs and their potential to treat various neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease) and muscle (Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myopathy, and multiple sclerosis) diseases...
November 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Sang Eon Park, Na Kyung Lee, Duk L Na, Jong Wook Chang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory in addition to cortical atrophy. Despite decades of research and therapeutic trials in AD, an effective treatment is yet to be developed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of AD, and clinical trials have been completed or are in progress. MSCs secrete various cytotropic factors that may exert beneficial effects in AD. The route of administration is an important factor to enhance MSC based treatment effects for AD...
November 29, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Korehito Kashiwagi, Mai Yanagida, Daiki Matsui, Mizuko Tanaka, Kotaro Sugimoto, Honglei Chen, Naoki Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Shigeru Marubashi, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideki Chiba
Liver X receptors (LXRs) participate not only in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis but also in controlling cellular growth in many types of normal and tumor cells. We previously reported that LXRα was aberrantly expressed in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) tissues and cell lines, and that LXR stimulation led to significant reduction of proliferation of HOSCC cells via accelerating cholesterol efflux. Since LXRs and downstream proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism could be also applied as therapeutic targets in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we herein analyzed the distribution of LXR proteins in these refractory cancers as well as in normal human lung and pancreatic tissues...
November 28, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Miguel A Ortega, Ángel Asúnsolo, María J Álvarez-Rocha, Beatriz Romero, Juan De León-Luis, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Julia Buján, Natalio García-Honduvilla
Haemodynamic changes produced during pregnancy lead to elevated venous pressure in the legs and an increased resting consumption of oxygen. These events can cause varicose veins, or venous insufficiency (VI), which by creating an environment of hypoxia could affect the structure and function of the placental barrier. This study assesses the remodelling state of the placental villi by examining differences in collagens with a known role in villus structure and in placental barrier permeability between patients with and without VI...
November 24, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Irene Tadeo, Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Ana P Berbegall, Samuel Navarro, Adela Cañete, Rosa Noguera
Despite our deep understanding of neuroblastic tumors, some patients still suffer treatment failure, so pre-treatment risk stratification still requires improvement and the search for new therapeutic targets must continue. Here we correlated prognostic clinical and biological features of neuroblastic tumors with the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (the main components of the extracellular matrix 'ground substance'), in nearly 400 primary samples. We also studied the relationship between the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans and the expression of B3GALT6, an enzyme required for their synthesis...
November 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Teppei Nakamura, Osamu Ichii, Takao Irie, Tatsuya Mizoguchi, Akio Shinohara, Hirokazu Kouguchi, Yuji Sunden, Saori Otsuka-Kanazawa, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Chihiro Koshimoto, Ken-Ichi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Kon
Pharyngeal pouches in mammals develop into specific derivatives. If the differentiation of the pharyngeal pouches is anomalous, their remnants can result in cysts, sinuses, and fistulae in the differentiated organs or around the neck. In the present study, we found several pharyngeal pouch remnants, such as cystic structures in thymus and parathyroid gland and fossulae extended from the piriform fossa, in the inbred cotton rats maintained at Hokkaido Institute of Public Health (HIS/Hiph) and University of Miyazaki (HIS/Mz)...
November 21, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Tim Hohmann, Jacqueline Kessler, Urszula Grabiec, Matthias Bache, Dyrk Vordermark, Faramarz Dehghani
Radiation therapy belongs to the most common approaches for cancer therapy leading amongst others to DNA damage like double strand breaks (DSB). DSB can be used as a marker for the effect of radiation on cells. For visualization and assessing the extent of DNA damage the γH2AX foci assay is frequently used. The analysis of the γH2AX foci assay remains complicated as the number of γH2AX foci has to be counted. The quantification is mostly done manually, being time consuming and leading to person-dependent variations...
November 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Xuexin Lu, Zhijie Cui, Shuang Liu, Feng Yin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one kind of post-transcriptional modification, mediate transcriptional silencing of various metabolic enzymes that are involved in various life processes, including Parkinson's disease. At present, the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is not clear, although many studies suggest that miRNAs play a very important role in the progress of Parkinsonism. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of miRNAs and summarizes the progress of miRNAs in reference to the diagnosis and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease...
November 14, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Akiko Nakano-Doi, Rika Sakuma, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Takayuki Nakagomi
Endothelial cells (ECs) are a key component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Healthy ECs in the BBB form inter-endothelial junctions, including adherens junctions (AJs). Under pathological conditions, such as after ischemic stroke, the BBB may be functionally compromised. However, gene and protein expression patterns involving endothelial AJs have not been well studied. Because expression levels of endothelial AJs are considered to be related to BBB functionality, we investigated the expression pattern of a representative endothelial AJ marker, VE-cadherin, in healthy and diseased mice...
November 5, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
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