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Histology and Histopathology

Teppei Nakamura, Osamu Ichii, Takao Irie, Tatsuya Mizoguchi, Akio Shinohara, Hirokazu Kouguchi, Yuji Sunden, Saori Otsuka-Kanazawa, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Chihiro Koshimoto, Ken-Ichi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Kon
Pharyngeal pouches in mammals develop into specific derivatives. If the differentiation of the pharyngeal pouches is anomalous, their remnants can result in cysts, sinuses, and fistulae in the differentiated organs or around the neck. In the present study, we found several pharyngeal pouch remnants, such as cystic structures in thymus and parathyroid gland and fossulae extended from the piriform fossa, in the inbred cotton rats maintained at Hokkaido Institute of Public Health (HIS/Hiph) and University of Miyazaki (HIS/Mz)...
November 21, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Tim Hohmann, Jacqueline Kessler, Urszula Grabiec, Matthias Bache, Dyrk Vordermark, Faramarz Dehghani
Radiation therapy belongs to the most common approaches for cancer therapy leading amongst others to DNA damage like double strand breaks (DSB). DSB can be used as a marker for the effect of radiation on cells. For visualization and assessing the extent of DNA damage the γH2AX foci assay is frequently used. The analysis of the γH2AX foci assay remains complicated as the number of γH2AX foci has to be counted. The quantification is mostly done manually, being time consuming and leading to person-dependent variations...
November 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Xuexin Lu, Zhijie Cui, Shuang Liu, Feng Yin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one kind of post-transcriptional modification, mediate transcriptional silencing of various metabolic enzymes that are involved in various life processes, including Parkinson's disease. At present, the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease is not clear, although many studies suggest that miRNAs play a very important role in the progress of Parkinsonism. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of miRNAs and summarizes the progress of miRNAs in reference to the diagnosis and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease...
November 14, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Satoshi Tajima, Morikuni Tobita, Hiroshi Mizuno
Many bone regeneration therapies have been developed for clinical use and have variable outcomes and serious limitations. The goal of bone regeneration is to repair a bone defect in a stable and durable manner. Cellular strategies play an important role in bone tissue engineering. Clinical factors important for successful bone regeneration are the recruitment of cells to the defect site and the production of a suitable extracellular matrix consistent with bone tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with little donor site morbidity or patient discomfort...
November 2, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Pamella Campos-Silva, Waldemar S Costa, Francisco J B Sampaio, Bianca M Gregorio
Here, we evaluated the effects of a high-fat diet during the prenatal and/or postnatal period on the metabolic parameters and testes of 4-month-old Wistar rats. The experimental groups, composed of male Wistar rats, were: C/C (n=8), HF/HF (n=8) (pups with the same diet as their dams, after weaning), C/HF (n=8), and HF/C (n=9) (pups with a different diet after weaning, from that of their dams). The biometric parameters, blood glucose levels, serum levels, the gonadosomatic index, sperm parameters, testes, and genital fat deposits were evaluated...
October 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Laura Koivusalo, Antti Kaipia, Paula Kujala, Jorma Isola, Teemu T Tolonen
Initial reports about the length of bilaterally pooled biopsies showed alarming tissue loss compared to individual biopsies, but the current understanding of "noodle biopsies" and better embedding techniques may have improved their quality. Here, we implemented digital image analysis to study the differences in tissue surface areas between individual and pooled cores. Prostate biopsy reports from 1242 consecutive patients were reviewed. Urologist-dependent bias on the biopsy quality was eliminated by identifying four urologists who submitted equally individual and bilaterally pooled biopsies...
October 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Dan-Dan Song, Jun-Hao Zhou, Rui Sheng
Sphingosine kinase functions to phosphorylate sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) to keep balance in the metabolites of sphingolipids. There are two isoforms of sphingosine kinase, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2). Although SphK1 and SphK2 share high sequence similarity, SphK2 has distinct distribution, regulation and function. SphK2 is involved in the pathological processes of varieties of diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, cardiovascular diseases and inflammation...
October 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Jaime P Rodrigues, Leonor David, Raquel Almeida, Rita Barros, Teresa Freitas, Joana Silva, Ana Ponte, Mafalda Sousa, João Carlos Silva, João Carvalho
The gastrointestinal tract is an organized structure originating from the three embryonic germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm. Morphological changes that accompany its formation are relatively well known, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. Intestinal metaplasia, resulting from an epithelial transdifferentiation process, is considered a precursor lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma, a malignancy with serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
October 13, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Dominik Bettenworth, Arne Bokemeyer, Christopher Poremba, Nik Sheng Ding, Steffi Ketelhut, Philipp Lenz, Björn Kemper
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by a chronic relapsing disease course. As uncontrolled intestinal inflammation can result in severe disease complications, recent treatment targets of IBD evolved toward seeking the absence of mucosal and histological inflammation. However, this approach requires adequate histological evaluation of IBD disease activity. The diagnostic challenge of histological examination of intestinal inflammation is documented by the multitude of proposed histological scoring systems...
October 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Shinichi Umeda, Mitsuro Kanda, Yasuhiro Kodera
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients with HCC generally present at an advanced stage resulting in death within 6-20 months. Therefore, novel treatment modalities and sensitive prognostic markers that can decrease the mortality rate of HCC are required. HCC is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with multiple genetic aberrations. It has been well described that accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes leads to the clonal selection of cancer cells harboring aggressive tumor behavior...
September 29, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Koji Okudela, Yoko Kojima, Mai Matsumura, Hiromasa Arai, Shigeaki Umeda, Yoko Tateishi, Hideaki Mitsui, Takehisa Suzuki, Michihiko Tajiri, Takashi Ogura, Kenichi Ohashi
Lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) have been roughly divided into two groups: the terminal respiratory unit (TRU) type and non-TRU type. These ADCs appear to develop through exclusive carcinogenetic pathways because of differences in their cellular morphologies and the profiles of protein expression and genetic alterations. The TRU type develops from atypical adenomatous hyperplasia as a precursor. On the other hand, the histogenesis of the non-TRU type has not yet been defined in detail. We herein investigated histopathological changes in the non-tumor lung tissues of patients with non-TRU-type ADCs in order to define their potential histogenesis...
September 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Aleksandra Rył, Iwona Rotter, Andrzej Kram, Leszek Teresiński, Marcin Słojewski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Anna Lubkowska, Małgorzata Piasecka, Maria Laszczyńska
INTRODUCTION: Apoptosis and proliferation of prostate cells are associated with both physiological increase and hyperplasia of the prostate. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of metabolic syndrome to the processes of apoptosis and proliferation in gland epithelial cells and prostatic stromal cells in men with BPH. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 151 men, aged 52-89 years, receiving pharmacological treatment for BPH. The men were divided into two groups: those with and those without metabolic syndrome...
September 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Gang Chen, Shengcai Qi, Xi Yang, Wantao Chen
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) is a member of receptor protein tyrosine kinase-like molecules, which is involved in tumorigenesis. However, the association between PTK7 expression and its pathological significance in survival prognosis remains under investigation. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to clarify the prognostic value of PTK7 expression in human malignancies. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed in databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library...
September 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
N Anghel, H Herman, C Balta, M Rosu, M S Stan, D Nita, A Ivan, Z Galajda, A Ardelean, A Dinischiotu, A Hermenean
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but its efficiency is seriously limited by the risk of developing cardiomyopathy. The most recognized cardiotoxic effect is left ventricular (LF) dysfunction, but MRI and echocardiography data demonstrated significant right ventricle (RV) function impairment. In order to clarify this aspect, the present study investigated the potential of DOX to induce acute RV cardiotoxicity at the same time as LV impairment. Rats were intraperitoneally (i...
September 18, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Yuhua Feng, Meizuo Zhong, Yiping Liu, Leyuan Wang, Youhong Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of TIM-3 and LAG-3 in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), and evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of TIM-3 and LAG-3 in ENKTL. METHODS: A total of 61 human paraffin-embedded specimens including 41 ENKTL and 20 rhinitis were involved. We performed immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of TIM-3 and LAG-3. We analyzed correlation between expression of TIM-3 and LAG-3 and clinicopathological features of ENKTL...
September 13, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
C García-Vásquez, S Gómez García de Las Heras, C Pastor Idoate, D De Pablo, M J Fernández-Aceñero
BACKGROUND: TachoSil® is a fibrin sponge that contains fibrinogen and thrombin and is a useful adjuvant to enhance control of air leaks in thoracic surgery and to control bleeding in vascular and general surgery. Its use in intestinal surgery to prevent suture dehiscence is currently under investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report the results of a prospective randomized experimental study on 33 large white pigs in which a high-risk suture was created by induction of ischemia...
September 7, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Allini Mafra da Costa, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani, Paula Roberta Aguiar Pastrez, Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Cristovam Scapulatempo Neto, Denise Peixoto Guimarães, Kelly Menezio Giordina de Oliveira, Said Abdala Zemi Neto, Emily Montosa Nunes, Silvaneide Ferreira, Laura Sichero, Luisa Lina Villa, Kari Juhani Syrjanen, Adhemar Longatto-Filho
The first publication that associated Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and esophageal cancer was published in 1982. However, data are still contradictory and require further investigation. The aim of this study was to identify high risk HPV DNA in esophageal tissue of patients with and without esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and correlate HPV presence with classical risk factors. METHODS: Invited patients signed the informed consent form, and interviews were conducted in order to obtain information about sociodemographic and lifestyle behavior...
September 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Dóra Júlia Szabó, Richárd Nagymihály, Zoltán Veréb, Natasha Josifovska, Agate Noer, Petra Liskova, Andrea Facskó, Morten C Moe, Goran Petrovski
INTRODUCTION: Multilamellar bodies (MLBs) are concentric cytoplasmic membranes which form through an autophagy-dependent mechanism. In the cornea, the presence of MLBs is associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). Ex vivo 3D modelling of the corneal stroma and SCD can help study pathogenesis and resolution of the disorder. METHODS: Corneal stroma explants were isolated from cadavers and cultivated long-term for more than 3 months to achieve spontaneous 3D outgrowth of corneal stroma-derived mesenchymal stem-like cells (CSMSCs)...
September 5, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
Juliana D Lourenço, Juliana T Ito, Daniela A B Cervilha, Davi S Sales, Alyne Riani, Camila L Suehiro, Isabella S Genaro, Adriana Duran, Luciano Puzer, Milton A Martins, Sérgio D Sasaki, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development and cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is considered an important approach to reproduce in rodents this human disease. We have previously shown that in an elastase-induced model of emphysema, the administration of a protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) prevented and attenuated tissue destruction in mice. Thus, in this study we aimed to verify the effects of rBmTI-A administration on the physiopathological mechanisms of CS-induced emphysema...
September 4, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
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