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Histology and Histopathology

Qianhui Li, Jiayu Wu, Shuo Chen, Yang Zhao
The introduction of the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has provided a new direction and perspective for our understanding of the nature and origin of tumors. Cancer stem cells are believed to be responsible for the treatment failure, drug tolerance, metastasis, and recurrence of tumors. However, it remains a challenge to identify or isolate tumor stem cells and determine their regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, further understanding of the biological characteristics and functions of CSCs is of great practical significance and value to develop new methods of tumor diagnosis and treatment, and may bring new hope patients with cancer...
May 21, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Irene Pla-Navarro, Damon Bevan, Mohammad K Hajihosseini, Martin Lee, Jelena Gavrilovic
The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialised interface separating the Central Nervous System (CNS) from circulating blood. Dysregulation of the BBB is a key early event in pathological conditions such as inflammation, in which the entry of activated leukocytes into the CNS is facilitated by BBB breakdown. The metzincin family of metalloproteinases (MPs) is one of the major contributors to BBB permeability as they cleave endothelial cell-cell contacts and underlying basal lamina components. However, the mechanisms by which MPs regulate BBB integrity has not yet been fully elucidated...
May 11, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Guoliang Zhang, Xinyang Liu, Jingjing Wu, Qikun Zhu, Hui Zeng, Tao Wang, Rui Wang
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type S is a tumor suppressor gene, located at chromosome 19p13.3, frequently inactivated through deletions or epigenetic mechanisms in many types of cancers. In this study, we investigate protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor S (PTPRS) expression level, clinicopathological and prognostic significance in 205 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Paraffin embedded tissue with immunohistochemistry methods was adopted to exam PTPRS expression in ESCC and paired normal esophageal mucosa tissues on Tissue Microarrays (TMAs)...
May 10, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Eun-Bee Park, Joo-Yeong Jeon, Chang-Jin Jeon
A growing number of studies have revealed the functional neuroarchitecture of the microbat retina and suggested that microbats can see using their eyes. To better understand the organization of the microbat retina, quantitative analysis of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) cells was conducted on the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) retina. As a result, PKCα immunoreactivity was observed in rod bipolar cells, consistent with previous studies on other mammalian retinas...
May 9, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Eduardo Peña-Mercado, Mario Garcia-Lorenzana, Nohra E Beltran
Damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa caused by ischemia - reperfusion is a significant clinical problem associated with various physiopathological conditions. Our group has conducted various studies in patients in critical conditions and in animal models to identify early damage to the gastric mucosa under ischemia using impedance spectroscopy. It is important to perform a quantitative histopathological analysis which can be linked to changes in impedance of the gastric mucosa under conditions of ischemia and I/R...
May 8, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Bianca Vezzani, Enrico Pierantozzi, Vincenzo Sorrentino
Adult stem cells represent a fundamental biological system that has fascinated scientists over the last decades, and are currently the subject of a large number of studies aimed at better defining the properties of these cells, with a prominent focus on improving their application in regenerative medicine. One of the most used adult stem cells in clinical trials are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent cells able to differentiate into mature cells of mesodermal lineages. Following the initial studies on MSCs isolated from bone marrow, similar cells were also isolated from a variety of fetal and adult human tissues...
May 7, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Cristina M Fernández-Díaz, Luis Escobar-Curbelo, J F López-Acosta, Carmen D Lobatón, Alfredo Moreno, Julián Sanz-Ortega, Germán Perdomo, Irene Cózar-Castellano
Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) is an endopeptidase that degrades insulin and glucagon. Ide gene has been associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). However, the physiological role(s) of IDE in glucose homeostasis and its potential therapeutic benefit remain not completely known. To contribute in the understanding of IDE's role in glucose metabolism, we analyzed IDE protein level in pancreatic islets from two hyperinsulinemic mouse models, db/db and high-fat diet (HFD) mice, as well as in human islets from DM2 patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) or insulin...
May 4, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Silvija Mašić, Luka Brčić, Božo Krušlin, Ana Šepac, Biserka Pigac, Dinko Stančić-Rokotov, Marko Jakopović, Sven Seiwerth
Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (DMPM) is the most common primary malignant pleural neoplasm still posing major diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic challenges. Plakophilins are structural proteins considered to be important for cell stability and adhesion in both tumor and normal tissues. Plakophilin 3 is a protein present in desmosomes of stratified and simple epithelia of normal tissues with presence in malignant cells of various tumors where it participates in the process of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of plakophilin 3 protein in DMPM, but also to study its prognostic significance and relation to histologically accessible parameters of aggressive growth...
May 3, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
J Liu, Q Zhou, C P Wu, Y W Xu, W L Liu, H F Zhao, W P Li
INTRODUCTION: Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs), the Ki-67 index and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with diverse human malignancies, including glioma. SPHK2, a subtype of SPHKs, has not been assessed in glioma or correlated with the Ki-67 index or TAM infiltration. We tested the hypothesis that expression of SPHK2 correlates with the Ki-67 index and TAM infiltration in patients with glioma. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Western blot analysis was performed on protein lysates prepared from human astrocyte (HA) and glioma cell lines...
April 26, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Mirca Marini, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Telocytes (TCs) represent a new distinct type of cells found in the stromal compartment of many organs, including the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. TCs are morphologically defined as interstitial cells with a small cellular body from which arise very long (up to hundreds of micrometers) and thin moniliform processes (named telopodes) featuring the alternation of slender segments (called podomers) and small dilated portions (called podoms) accommodating some organelles. Although these stromal cells are mainly characterized by their ultrastructural traits, in the last few years TCs have been increasingly studied for their immunophenotypes, microRNA profiles, and gene expression and proteomic signatures...
April 25, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Fernanda Franco Munari, Adriana Cruvinel Carloni, Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Kari Syrjanen, Rui Manuel Reis, Adhemar Longatto-Filho
A supposed role for persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) etiology has been suggested by a number of studies. Concomitantly, megaesophagus induced by the Trypanosoma cruzi cell-cycle activity also shows a potential association with ESCC. This review discusses esophageal cancer and the potential association between chagasic megaesophagus and HPV as risk factors for ESCC development.
April 24, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Manuel Garrosa, Pilar Jiménez, Damián Córdoba-Díaz, Verónica García-Recio, Sara Gayoso, María Ángeles Rojo, Manuel J Gayoso, Tomás Girbés
Ebulin f is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) present in green fruits of the dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L). Since dwarf elder fruits are used for food and as a medicine, we assessed the study of toxicological effects and safety of ebulin f in elderly mice, comparing these results with those reported in young animals and with other RIPs. Female Swiss mice aged 6 and 12 months of age were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose from 1.4 to 4.5 mg/kg ebulin f. Heart, stomach, intestines, lung, kidney, liver, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, uterus, ovary and brain were studied...
April 23, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Ali Fuat Cicek, Melih Kilinc, Mukerrem Safali, Omer Gunhan
BACKGROUND: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a maturation defect characterized by immature woven bones and stroma. However, especially in craniofacial bones, lamellation can be seen and this is associated with the maturation. AIM: To show maturation in FD and discuss the factors that may affect the maturation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five FD cases were divided into three subgroups according to the lamellation percentage as Groups 1, 2 and 3 (low, moderate and high lamellation, respectively)...
April 20, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Lara Cristóbal, Miguel A Ortega, Ángel Asúnsolo, Beatriz Romero, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Julia Buján, Andrés A Maldonado, Natalio García-Honduvilla
Despite advances in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, human skin substitutes remain a clear goal to achieve. Autografts remain the principal clinical option. The long-term changes in dermis, as well as its response after injuries, are not well known. Research in this field has been hindered by a lack of experimental animal models. This study analyzes the architectural dermal scaffold (collagen and elastin fibers plus fibrillin-microfibrils) changes in a model of human skin pressure ulcers in mice...
April 17, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
F Jiménez-Trejo, I Coronado-Mares, M Boeta, I González-Santoyo, R Vigueras-Villaseñor, C Arriaga-Canon, L Herrera-Montalvo, M Tapia-Rodríguez
Assisted reproductive techniques have been used on several domestic animals to preserve desirable traits in strains of high genetic and commercial value; however in equines its efficiency rate is relatively low. To increase the conception ratio in stallions, some research groups have used pharmacological treatments which promote sperm hyperactivation in order to increase male's fertility rates. In this way, our previous work suggests that serotonin (5-HT) could be a good pharmacological candidate that facilitates conception rate in domestic horses...
April 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
D L Wachter, D Neureiter, V Câmpean, K F Hilgers, M Büttner-Herold, C Daniel, K Benz, K Amann
AIMS: Mast cells (MC) and dendritic cells (DC) have immune modulatory function and can influence T-cell activity. Both cell types have been found in atherosclerotic plaques and are thought to play an important role for plaque stability. Compared to matched segments of the non-renal population, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) show a more pronounced and more aggressive course of atherosclerosis with higher plaque calcification and significantly higher complications rates. It was the aim of this study to analyze the number and localization of MCs and DCs, macrophages, T- and B-cells as well as the expression of markers of inflammation such as CRP and NFκB in calcified and non-calcified atherosclerotic plaques of patients with CKD and control patients...
April 4, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Ioanna Akrida, Sofia Nikou, Konstantinos Gyftopoulos, Marianna Argentou, Sofia Kounelis, Vassiliki Zolota, Vasiliki Bravou, Helen Papadaki
Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast constitute an uncommon group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions with ambiguous biologic behavior. Recent evidence suggests that epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a driving force of cancer progression is implicated in PTs pathogenesis. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a focal adhesion kinase, has been implicated in cancer and EMT and represents a novel cancer therapeutic target. In this study, we aimed to investigate ILK and EMT markers expression in phyllodes breast tumors in relation to tumor grade...
April 2, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Ran Zhang, Jinwen Jiao, Huijun Chu, Hongjuan Yang, Liming Wang, Nana Gao
Double primary endometrioid endometrial and ovarian carcinomas (DPEEOCs) are the most common multiple gynecological carcinomas. In recent years, gene sequential comparison analysis has strongly supported the opinion that sporadic double endometrioid endometrial and ovarian cancers (DEEOCs) are clonally related in both primary and metastatic tumors. In order to find more clonal evidence for DPEEOC, we investigated cancer stem cells (CSCs). SOX2 and OCT4 are two common factors in CSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA)-145, a small non-coding RNA, has effects in regulating gene expression and tumorigenesis in CSCs...
March 23, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Toru Hachisuga
Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is closely associated with advanced age in patients. The p53 signature (p53S) is considered the earliest indication for the presence of carcinogenesis of USC. Based on our previous studies, the presence of p53Ss have almost always been found in elderly women and are suspected of being responsible for the imbalance between the proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial epithelial cells with advanced age. We have summarized the current state of knowledge regarding the association between age and cancer and propose an age-related type of endometrial cancer instead of Type II estrogen-independent endometrial cancer...
March 22, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Michela Ferrucci, Gloria Lazzeri, Marina Flaibani, Francesca Biagioni, Federica Cantini, Michele Madonna, Domenico Bucci, Fiona Limanaqi, Paola Soldani, Francesco Fornai
Counting motor neurons within the spinal cord and brainstem represents a seminal step to comprehend the anatomy and physiology of the final common pathway sourcing from the CNS. Motor neuron loss allows to assess the severity of motor neuron disorders while providing a tool to assess disease modifying effects. Counting motor neurons at first implies gold standard identification methods. In fact, motor neurons may occur within mixed nuclei housing a considerable amount of neurons other than motor neurons. In the present review, we analyse various approaches to count motor neurons emphasizing both the benefits and bias of each protocol...
March 14, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
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