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Histology and Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762232/morphofunctional-basis-of-the-different-types-of-angiogenesis-and-formation-of-postnatal-angiogenesis-related-secondary-structures
#1
REVIEW
L Díaz-Flores, R Gutiérrez, M P García-Suárez, F J Sáez, E Gutiérrez, F Valladares, J L Carrasco, L Díaz-Flores, J F Madrid
We review the morpho-functional basis of the different types of angiogenesis and report our observations, including the formation of angiogenesis-related secondary structures. First of all, we consider the following issues: a) conceptual differences between angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, b) incidence of angiogenesis in pre- and postnatal life, c) regions of vascular tree with angiogenic capacity, d) cells (endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34+ adventitial stromal cells of the microvasculature and inflammatory cells) and extracellular matrix components involved in angiogenesis, e) events associated with angiogenesis, f) different types of angiogenesis, including sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis, and other angiogenic or vascularization forms arising from endothelial precursor cells (postnatal vasculogenesis), vasculogenesis mimicry, vessel co-option and piecemeal angiogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748525/topically-applied-azaphenothiazines-inhibit-contact-sensitivity-to-oxazolone-in-mice
#2
Jolanta Artym, Maja Kocięba, Ewa Zaczyńska, Michał Zimecki, Małgorzata Jeleń, Beata Morak-Młodawska, Krystian Pluta, Katarzyna Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Jan P Madej, Piotr Kuropka, Jan Kuryszko
In this work we investigated the efficacy of two topically applied azaphenothiazine derivatives, 9-chloro-6-acetylaminobutylquinobenzo[3,2-b][1,4]thiazine (compound 4) and 6-chloroethylureidoethyldiquino[3,2-b;2';3'-e][1,4]thiazine (compound 5), in the amelioration of inflammatory symptoms of contact sensitivity (CS) to oxazolone in mice, in relation to the commercial ointment Protopic® (tacrolimus), the reference drug. The compounds were administered 24 h following elicitation of CS and, 24 h later, the parameters of inflammation, such as ear edema, blood composition, leukocyte level, numbers of cells in the draining lymph nodes, histological picture of the inflamed tissue, and the morphometric analysis, were analyzed...
July 27, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745393/beyond-an-oncogene-lin28-is-a-master-regulator-of-cancer-progression
#3
REVIEW
Xuefei Wang, Mingjiao Weng, Yinji Jin, Weiwei Yang, Xin Wang, Di Wu, Tianzhen Wang, Xiaobo Li
The RNA binding protein Lin28 is increased in most human malignancies, and elevated Lin28 is a biomarker for poor prognosis and contributes to cancer progression. Lin28 functions as a master oncogene and is involved in almost all hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we summarize the aberrant molecular expression mechanisms and pathological roles of Lin28 in cancer progression. Moreover, we elaborate on the established molecular mechanisms, from the transcriptional level to the post-transcriptional and translational levels, by which Lin28 regulates cancer progression...
July 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741286/interleukin-6-receptor-il-6r-was-an-independent-prognostic-factor-in-cervical-cancer
#4
Shaohong Luan, Zhijie An, Shuna Bi, Long Chen, Jun Fan
IL-6 has been found to be associated with poor response to chemoradiotherapy and poor overall prognosis of patients with cervical cancer. However, little is known about the clinicopathological significance of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression in the setting of cervical cancer. To investigate the clinicopathological meaning of IL-6R in cervical cancer, expression of IL-6R was detected using immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissue microarray composed of 98 cases of cervical cancer and paired normal controls...
July 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722102/expression-of-cd34-and-cd146-vascular-markers-contributes-to-the-immunological-function-of-the-human-palatine-tonsil
#5
Marko Jović, Verica Avramović, Predrag Vlahović, Aleksandra Veličkov, Vladimir Petrović
The fundamental function of the palatine tonsil is the immune response to airborne and foodborne pathogenic agents. Small blood vessels have an important role in the provision of a special microenvironment in which the immune response occurs. In this study, we investigated the expression of vascular markers CD34 and CD146 and basal lamina marker - type IV collagen - in the small blood vessels of the human palatine tonsil in the context of their role in the immunological function of the tonsil. The tonsils were collected after tonsillectomy from ten patients with chronic tonsillitis, aged 18-28 years...
July 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696497/role-of-ca2-and-ion-channels-in-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#6
REVIEW
Miaohong Wang, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Hypoxia is a kind of common pathological condition existing in various diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can precipitate the onset of diseases through inducing cell apoptosis. Ca²⁺ is the ubiquitous message in cell. Given the crucial role of Ca2²⁺ in physiology, intracellular Ca²⁺ overload is a significant regulator of apoptosis. Numerous experiments show that hypoxia may cause changes of multiple cellular Ca²⁺ channels, for instance, Na⁺/ Ca²⁺ Exchanger (NCX), L-type voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel (L-VDCC), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and so on, which contribute to intracellular Ca²⁺ overload, thus eventually triggering cell apoptosis...
July 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691729/in-vitro-differentiation-of-primordial-germ-cells-and-oocyte-like-cells-from-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
José J N Costa, Glaucinete B Souza, Maria A A Soares, Regislane P Ribeiro, Robert van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes...
July 10, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681373/the-role-of-tumor-associated-macrophage-in-breast-cancer-biology
#8
REVIEW
Junjeong Choi, Jones Gyamfi, Haerin Jang, Ja Seung Koo
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in women worldwide and contributes significantly as the primary cause of female cancer related mortality. Hence, research is focused on discovering new and effective treatment targets. The breast tumor microenvironment (TME) comprising of recruited host stromal cells and tumor cells, has recently emerged as an important player in tumor progression, with the potential for future treatment. The TME comprises immune system elements (such as macrophages and lymphocytes), cells composing blood vessel, fibroblast, myofibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM)...
July 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671243/time-dependent-and-lesion-dependent-hmgb1-selective-localization-in-brains-of-patients-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#9
Takahiko Umahara, Toshiki Uchihara, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Kentaro Hirao, Soichiro Shimizu, Takao Hashimoto, Hiroo Terasi, Haruo Hanyu
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has multiple functions, including the maintenance of nucleosomes and the regulation of gene transcription. HMGB1 is released from activated macrophages, resulting in the induction of inflammatory cytokines. Recently, much research about the role of HMGB1 in cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. In an animal model, HMGB1 neutralization ameliorates brain infarction, there is an early release of HMGB1 from neurons, and HMGB1 antibody attenuates delayed cerebral vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage...
July 3, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664531/the-role-of-rhoc-in-malignant-tumor-invasion-metastasis-and-targeted-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Xue Guan, Shuo Chen, Yang Zhao
As an important member of the RhoGTPase family, RhoC has various biological functions, such as regulating cytoskeleton reorganization, influencing cell adhesion, and migration. During recent decades, RhoC has been proven to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor and is thus a promising target of tumor therapy. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism of RhoC in invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors, as well as its research prospects as a potential target for tumor therapy.
June 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649694/immunohistochemical-expression-profiles-of-mucin-antigens-in-salivary-gland-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-muc4-and-muc6-negative-expression-predicts-a-shortened-survival-in-the-early-postoperative-phase
#11
Kie Honjo, Tsubasa Hiraki, Michiyo Higashi, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Mitsuharu Nomoto, Takuya Yoshimura, Surinder K Batra, Suguru Yonezawa, Ichiro Semba, Norifumi Nakamura, Akihide Tanimoto, Sohsuke Yamada
In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs...
June 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604942/micrornas-regulate-apobec-gene-expression
#12
REVIEW
Wei Cao, Wei Wu
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) is a family of evolutionarily conserved cytidine deaminases, encoded by eleven genes located in the human genome. APOBECs play key roles in innate immunity through their ability to mutagenize viral DNA and restrict rival replication. Recent cancer genomics revealed APOBEC3 subtype-mediated APOBEC-signature mutations are common in a broad spectrum of human cancers. The pervasive APOBEC3 activation in the host genome which converts cytosine to uracile during RNA editing has been suggested to depend on ATR/chk1 pathways...
June 12, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585678/human-sperm-motility-capacitation-and-acrosome-reaction-are-impaired-by-2-arachidonoylglycerol-endocannabinoid
#13
M M Francou, J L Girlea, A De Juan, J Ten, R Bernabeu, J De Juan
The endocannabinoids are cannabinoids synthesized by mammalian tissues. These compounds are closely related to the regulation of the male reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects produced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) on in vitro human sperm functions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects produced by 2AG on fresh human sperm and in the capacitation technique. Semen samples from healthy young men were exposed to different concentrations of 2AG before and during capacitation technique...
June 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580566/animal-models-for-disc-degeneration-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Li Jin, Gary Balian, Xudong Joshua Li
Intervertebral disc degeneration is considered a major cause of back pain that places a heavy burden on society, both because of its effect on the physiology of individuals and its consequences on the world economy. During the past few decades, research findings in the pre-clinical setting have led to a significant increase in the understanding of intervertebral disc degeneration, although many aspects of the disease remain unclear. The goal of this review is to summarize existing animal models for disc degeneration studies and the difficulties that are associated with the use of such models...
June 5, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567716/bariatric-surgery-influences-%C3%AE-cell-turnover-in-non-obese-rats
#15
Alonso Camacho-Ramírez, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, M Carmen Segundo-Iglesias, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Gonzalo M Pérez-Arana, J Arturo Prada-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the different bariatric surgeries and pancreatic β-cell turnover. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used healthy adult male Wistar rats to undergo the different techniques. Three surgical techniques were developed (malabsorptive, Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-Y Gastric Bypass-), together with two control groups (Sham and fasting control). Pancreatic β-cell mass was measured, as well as apoptosis, proliferation and neogenesis related to cellular turnover...
June 1, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560711/recent-advances-in-hypertrophic-scar
#16
REVIEW
Julei Zhang, Yan Li, Xiaozhi Bai, Yuehua Li, Jihong Shi, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are predominant diseases after burn and trauma, which cause severe physiological and psychological problems. HTS have been researched for decades, and our knowledge about the mechanisms of HTS formation process has been increasing. However, the effects of currently available prevention and treatment strategies are limited. In this review, we summarize currently known mechanisms and recent studies of HTS, including extracellular matrix, matrix metalloproteinases, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and their contraction ability, keratinocytes, growth factors, inflammatory and immune response, and stem cell treatment, hoping for a better understanding of HTS generation, development and effective translation to treatment strategies...
May 31, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555715/the-dexamethasone-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-dental-follicle-cells
#17
REVIEW
Christian Morsczeck, Torsten E Reichert
Mesenchymal stem cells are excellent for in vitro studies about biological processes during the differentiation of osteogenic progenitor cells into mineralizing cells such as osteoblasts. Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are dental mesenchymal stem cells and they can be isolated from third molar teeth. Because DFCs are the genuine progenitor cells of periodontal tissue cells, they have been used for the evaluation of molecular mechanisms during the differentiation of undifferentiated stem cells into alveolar osteoblasts and cementoblasts...
May 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547742/increased-annexin-a2-and-decreased-%C3%AE-catenin-in-adenomyosis-contribute-to-adenomyosis-associated-dysmenorrhea
#18
Li Xue Liu, Yin Ga Wu, Jian Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and β-catenin in eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and their relationships with adenomyosis-associated dysmenorrhea. METHODS: From December 2013 to June 2014, ectopic endometrium (n=30) and eutopic endometrium (n=30) of adenomyosis were collected as experimental group, and endometrium (n=30) of uterine myoma as control group from the department of gynecology and obstetrics, the affiliated hospital of Inner Mongolia medical university...
May 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540715/the-role-of-endothelial-lipase-in-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Justine E Yu, Shu-Yan Han, Benjamin Wolfson, Qun Zhou
Endothelial lipase (LIPG) plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism, cytokine expression, and the lipid composition of cells. Thus far, the extensive investigations of LIPG have focused on its mechanisms and involvement in metabolic syndromes such as atherosclerosis. However, recent developments have found that LIPG plays a role in cancer. This review summarizes the field of LIPG study. We focus on the role of LIPG in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and highlight the recent insights in its involvement in tumor progression...
May 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990624/vascular-mimicry-in-glioblastoma-following-anti-angiogenic-and-anti-20-hete-therapies
#20
Kartik Angara, Mohammad H Rashid, Adarsh Shankar, Roxan Ara, Asm Iskander, Thaiz F Borin, Meenu Jain, Bhagelu R Achyut, Ali S Arbab
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one hypervascular and hypoxic tumor known among solid tumors. Antiangiogenic therapeutics (AATs) have been tested as an adjuvant to normalize blood vessels and control abnormal vasculature. Evidence of relapse exemplified in the progressive tumor growth following AAT reflects development of resistance to AATs. Here, we identified that GBM following AAT (Vatalanib) acquired an alternate mechanism to support tumor growth, called vascular mimicry (VM). We observed that Vatalanib induced VM vessels are positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) matrix but devoid of any endothelium on the inner side and lined by tumor cells on the outer-side...
September 2017: Histology and Histopathology
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