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Histology and Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910075/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-are-any-of-the-morphological-molecular-markers-useful-in-clinical-management
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Lunardi, Elisabetta Balestro, Nazarena Nannini, Stefania Edith Vuljan, Federico Rea, Fiorella Calabrese
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common form of chronic interstitial lung disease, is a severe progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown aetiology. The disease has a heterogeneous clinical course, with frequent poor prognosis, similar to malignant disease. Correctly diagnosing IPF has become particularly important in view of the availability of more precise therapeutic indications, thus avoiding steroid treatment and allowing new approaches with novel drugs. To date we have limited information about biomarkers predictive of progressive disease and associated complications...
December 2, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905097/novel-biomarkers-in-primary-breast-core-biopsies-to-predict-poor-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-appearance-of-metastases
#2
Anna Novell, Serafin Morales, Joan Valls, Maria José Panadés, Antonieta Salud, Edelmiro Iglesias, Felip Vilardell, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Antonio Llombart-Cussac
Drug resistance has been one of the major obstacles limiting the success of cancer chemotherapy. In two thirds of breast cancer patients, large (>1cm) residual tumors are present after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). The residual tumor and involved nodes have been indicators of relapse and survival very important in breast cancer. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the predictive significance of a panel of molecular biomarkers, related with the response to treatment or drug resistance to NCT, as determined on the diagnostic tumor...
December 1, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900754/ezrin-and-moesin-expression-in-canine-and-feline-osteosarcoma
#3
Juraj Hlavaty, Birgitt Wolfesberger, Marlene Hauck, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Ingrid Miller, Ingrid Walter
Biological features of canine osteosarcomas (OS) differ markedly from those found in feline and resemble more human osteosarcomas, in particular for their high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. Ezrin, radixin and moesin are members of the ERM protein family and link the actin cytoskeleton with the cell membrane. Ezrin and moesin have been shown to be of prognostic significance in tumor progression due to their role in the metastatic process. The objective of this study was to analyze ezrin and moesin protein expression in a series of dog (n = 16) and cat (n = 8) osteosarcoma samples using immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques...
November 30, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868181/correlation-between-the-high-expression-levels-of-cancer-germline-genes-with-clinical-characteristics-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Xinfeng Chen, Liping Wang, Dongli Yue, Jinyan Liu, Lan Huang, Li Yang, Ling Cao, Guohui Qin, Anqi Li, Dan Wang, Meng Wang, Yu Qi, Bin Zhang, Pierre van der Bruggen, Yi Zhang
Antigens encoded by cancer-germline genes are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of cancer-germline genes, expression of the encoded proteins in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their correlations with clinical characteristics. In addition, the effects of downregulation cancer-germline genes on ESCC cells were assessed in vitro. Our results showed that cancer-germline genes were frequently expressed in ESCC samples...
November 21, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858399/a-modified-chemical-protocol-of-decellularization-of-rat-sciatic-nerve-and-its-recellularization-with-mesenchimal-differentiated-schwann-like-cells-morphological-and-functional-assessments
#5
M M García-Pérez, H G Martínez-Rodríguez, G G López-Guerra, A Soto-Domínguez, S L Said-Fernández, R Morales-Avalos, R E Elizondo-Omaña, R Montes-de-Oca-Luna, S Guzmán-López, M L Castillo-Galván, O F Mendoza-Lemus, F Vílchez-Cavazos
The functional reconstruction of large neural defects usually requires the use of peripheral nerve autografts, though these have certain limitations. As a result, interest in new alternatives for autograft development has risen. The acellular peripheral nerve graft is an alternative for peripheral nerve injury repair, but to date there is not a standardized chemical decellularization method widely accepted. The objective of this study was to propose a modified chemical protocol of decellularization of rat sciatic nerve and its recellularization in vitro with mesenchimal differentiated Schwann-like cells...
November 18, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854106/expression-of-cyclooxygenase-2-has-no-impact-on-survival-in-adenocarcinoma-of-the-esophagogastric-junction-but-is-associated-with-favourable-clinicopathologic-features
#6
Juliana Knief, Katharina Reddemann, Ekaterina Petrova, Tobias Herhahn, Ulrich Wellner, Christoph Thorns
: Background COX-2 expression induces carcinogenesis and is thought to be an adverse prognostic factor in gastric carcinomas while the prognostic value of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is still controversial. Concerning adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction, no comprehensive data regarding either factors are available as of yet. Objective We assessed expression of COX-2, MLH1 and MSH2 in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction in relation to patients' survival and various clinicopathologic features...
November 17, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848245/inflammatory-mediators-and-signalling-pathways-controlling-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#7
REVIEW
Stefania Elena Navone, Giovanni Marfia, Amedeo Giannoni, Matteo Beretta, Laura Guarnaccia, Roberta Gualtierotti, Daniele Nicoli, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is one of the major causes of back pain, a condition that represents a serious socio-economic burden. Deeper knowledge of the complex and fine relationship between IVD degeneration, tissue inflammation and pain, appears to be critical to improve the current therapies, which have so far proven themselves ineffective. Upon degeneration, IVD tissues become inflamed, and this inflammatory microenvironment is associated with a cascade of degenerative events that may eventually cause discogenic pain...
November 16, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844469/the-expression-of-smad-signaling-pathway-in-myocardium-and-potential-therapeutic-effects
#8
REVIEW
Yuping Duan, Wei Zhu, Min Liu, Muhammad Ashraf, Meifeng Xu
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening disease. The expression of Smad proteins in the ischemic myocardium changes significantly following myocardial infarction, suggesting a close relationship between Smad proteins and heart remodeling. Moreover, it is known that the expression of Smads is regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). Based on these findings, regulating the expression of Smad proteins by targeting TGF-β and BMP in the ischemic myocardium may be considered to be a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction...
November 15, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834058/emerging-relationship-between-cftr-actin-and-tight-junction-organization-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-epithelium
#9
REVIEW
Stefano Castellani, Maria Favia, Lorenzo Guerra, Annalucia Carbone, Anna Claudia Abbattiscianni, Sante Di Gioia, Valeria Casavola, Massimo Conese
Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common genetic disorders affecting primarily Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, encoding for a chloride channel also acting as regulator of other transmembrane proteins. In healthy subjects, CFTR is maintained in its correct apical plasma membrane location via the formation of a multiprotein complex in which scaffold proteins (such as NHERF1) and signaling molecules (such as cAMP and protein kinases) guarantee its correct functioning...
November 11, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830583/dynamin-related-protein-1-drp1-mediating-mitophagy-contributes-to-the-pathophysiology-of-nervous-system-diseases-and-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Qiong Wu, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
As the main source of energy (celluar ATP) in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are involved in cellular physiology and pathology. The balance of mitochondrial dynamic, fission and fusion regulated by quality control mechanisms, provides a guarantee for maintaining mitochondrial function, even celluar function. Worn out mitochondria would be removed through mitophagy which is regulated by autophagy related proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins. Drp1, dynamic-related protein 1, is regarded as one of the most important proteins to evaluate mitochondrial fission mediating mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases (eg...
November 10, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826954/critical-and-diverse-in-vivo-roles-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-in-animal-models-of-atherosclerosis-and-cholestatic-liver-injury
#11
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Akihide Tanimoto
Apoptosis plays pivotal in vivo roles in not only vital processes, such as cell turnover and embryonic development, but also various inflammatory disorders. However, the role of apoptosis by vascular and hepatic cells in the respective progression of atherosclerosis and liver injury remains controversial. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family member that is activated through distinct mechanisms in response to various cytotoxic stressors. ASK1, ubiquitously expressed, is situated in an important upstream position for many signal transduction pathways, which subsequently induce inflammation and/or apoptosis...
November 9, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824216/glucose-mediated-cytoprotection-in-the-gut-epithelium-under-ischemic-and-hypoxic-stress
#12
REVIEW
Chung-Yen Huang, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Single-layered intestinal epithelia play key roles in the maintenance of gut homeostasis and barrier integrity. Various types of epithelial cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis, have been detected in ischemic and hypoxic stress conditions, thus resulting in bacterial translocation and gut-derived septic complications. Cytoprotective strategies, such as enteral glucose uptake, rescue intestinal epithelium from cell death after ischemic and hypoxic injury. Although glucose metabolism and energy production are generally considered to be the key factors in cytoprotection, the precise modes and sites of action have not been clarified...
November 8, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808352/suppression-of-cartilage-degeneration-by-intra-articular-injection-of-heparan-sulfate-6-o-endosulfatase-in-a-mouse-osteoarthritis-model
#13
Shuhei Otsuki, Tomohiko Murakami, Yoshinori Okamoto, Yoshiaki Hoshiyama, Shuhei Oda, Masashi Neo
We previously reported that heparan sulfate 6-O endosulfatases (Sulfs) were expressed in articular cartilage, and that the Sulf-1 knockout mouse developed severe knee osteoarthritis. In this study, we hypothesised that intra-articular injection of Sulf-1 would prevent cartilage degeneration. After confirming that 1 mg/ml Sulf-1 did not induce ATDC5 cell death in vitro, gene expression of type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in the presence of Sulf-1 (1 100 ng/ml) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 3, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786352/targeting-mir-155-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-hl-60-cells-by-targeting-slug-puma-signal
#14
Hui Liang, Ziyan Dong, Jiang-Feng Liu, Wei Chuang, Li-Zhen Gao, Yu-Guo Ren
Recent studies have shown that high miR-155 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML). Furthermore, targeting miR-155 results in monocytic differentiation and apoptosis. However, the exact role and mechanisms of miR-155 in human AML remains speculative. HL-60 cells were treated with anti-miR-155 for 72 h. Cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were detected by MTT, BrdU proliferation, colony formation and flow cytometry assay. The effect of anti-miR-155 on growth of HL-60 cells was also evaluated in a leukemia mouse model...
October 27, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782295/nitrergic-and-opioidergic-systems-affect-radiographic-density-%C3%A2-and-histomorphometric-indices-in-bile-duct-ligated-cirrhotic-rats
#15
Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini, Yasaman Kheirandish, Abolfazl Golestani
Metabolic bone disease is a major issue in chronic liver disease. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and elevation of endogenous opioids have been suggested to occur during cholestasis/cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in bone loss after bile-duct-ligation (BDL) in rats using optical density (OD) evaluation and histomorphometric analysis. BDL- and sham-operated (SO) rats received injections of 3mg/kg Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl-ester-hydrochloride (L-NAME) as an NO-synthase inhibitor, 10mg/kg naltrexone (NTX) as an opioid-receptors antagonist or saline once daily for 28 days...
October 26, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779297/expression-of-aurora-kinases-predictor-of-tumor-dissemination-in-uterine-carcinosarcoma
#16
Kyung Hee Han, Min A Kim, Noh Hyun Park
Uterine carcinosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, and biphasic tumor. It comprises carcinomatous and sarcomatous components, and mitosis-associated factors are thought to discriminate these two lesions. Aurora kinases are mitotic enzymes that are highly expressed in uterine malignancies. To identify the clinical significance of aurora kinase expression, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays using cores selected from areas with typical carcinomatous and sarcomatous characteristics. A total of 24 samples were included, from patients at Seoul National University Hospital diagnosed with uterine carcinosarcoma, and who undergone a staging operation between 1997 and 2012...
October 25, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775777/the-emerging-role-of-m-tor-up-regulation-in-brain-astrocytoma
#17
Larisa Ryskalin, Fiona Limanaqi, Francesca Biagioni, Alessandro Frati, Vincenzo Esposito, Maria Teresa Calierno, Paola Lenzi, Francesco Fornai
The present manuscript is an overview of various effects of mTOR up-regulation in astrocytoma with an emphasis on its deleterious effects on the proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme. The manuscript reports consistent evidence indicating the occurrence of mTOR up-regulation both in experimental and human astrocytoma. The grading of human astrocytoma is discussed in relationship with mTOR up-regulation. In the second part of the manuscript, the biochemical pathways under the influence of mTOR are translated to cell phenotypes which are generated by mTOR up-regulation and reverted by its inhibition...
October 24, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723025/model-of-human-recurrent-respiratory-papilloma-on-chicken-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-for-tumor-angiogenesis-research
#18
Virgilijus Uloza, Alina Kuzminienė, Jolita Palubinskienė, Ingrida Balnytė, Ingrida Ulozienė, Angelija Valančiūtė
We aimed to develop a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of recurrent respiratory papilloma (RPP) and to evaluate its morphological and morphometric characteristics, together with angiogenic features. Fresh RRP tissue samples obtained from 13 patients were implanted in 174 chick embryo CAMs. Morphological, morphometric, and angiogenic changes in the CAM and chorionic epithelium were evaluated up until 7 days after the implantation. Immunohistochemical analysis (34βE12, Ki-67, MMP-9, PCNA, and Sambucus nigra staining) was performed to detect cytokeratins and endothelial cells and to evaluate proliferative capacity of the RRP before and after implantation on the CAM...
October 10, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714708/clinical-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-the-metabolic-oncogene-fatty-acid-synthase-in-her2-breast-cancer
#19
Bruna Corominas-Faja, Luciano Vellon, Elisabet Cuyàs, Maria Buxó, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Dolors Serra, Jordi García, Javier A Menendez, Ruth Lupu
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key lipogenic enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and a druggable metabolic oncoprotein that is activated in most human cancers. We evaluated whether the HER2-driven lipogenic phenotype might represent a biomarker for sensitivity to pharmacological FASN blockade. A majority of clinically HER2-positive tumors were scored as FASN overexpressors in a series of almost 200 patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Re-classification of HER2-positive breast tumors based on FASN gene expression predicted a significantly inferior relapse-free and distant metastasis-free survival in HER2+/FASN+ patients...
October 7, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709599/cathepsin-k-expression-in-melanoma-is-associated-with-metastases
#20
Slavica Juric Petricevic, Antonia Pavlovic, Vesna Capkun, Kristijan Becic, Merica Glavina Durdov
Introduction Melanoma of the skin shows a tendency to metastasize via lymph or blood secreting matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins, which enable penetration through the dermis. Cathepsin K acts in cytoplasm of atypical melanocytes and completely cleaves internalized collagen. Materials and methods Expression of cathepsin K was analyzed immunohistochemically in 45 melanomas and correlated to morphological and clinical parameters. Results During six years follow up, 13 patients developed lymph node metastases and three of them distant metastases...
October 6, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
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