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Histology and Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632601/high-expression-of-gpnmb-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Hao Li, Yao Xiao, Cong-Cong Wu, Lei-Lei Yang, Ling-Yun Cao, De-Run Chen, Jun-Jie Zhou, Wen-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
Glycoprotein non-metastatic protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in several malignancies compared with its expression in matched healthy tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of GPNMB expression in tumor tissue derived from a cohort of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). GPNMB expression in human HNSCC, oral dysplasia and normal mucosal tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
January 11, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30628720/hydroxy-group-requirement-for-halofuginone-dependent-inhibition-of-muscle-fibrosis-and-improvement-of-histopathology-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Gili Wellner, Sharon Mordechay, Paul Evans, Olga Genin, Mark Pines, Orna Halevy
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive loss of muscle and its ability to function is associated with significant fibrosis, representing the major disease complication in patients. Halofuginone, a halogenated analog of the naturally occurring febrifugine, has been shown to prevent fibrosis in various animal models, including those of muscular dystrophies. Here, two optically active enantiomers of deoxyhalofuginone-a halofuginone analogue in which the hydroxy group in position 3 was removed from the piperidinyl entity-were evaluated with respect to their effect on muscle histopathology in mdx mice...
January 10, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30623968/trehalose-in-ophthalmology
#3
REVIEW
Cestmir Cejka, Sarka Kubinova, Jitka Cejkova
Trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is a naturally occurring nontoxic and nonreducing bioactive sugar. Trehalose is synthetized by many organisms when cells are exposed to stressful conditions, including dehydration, heat, oxidation, hypoxia or even anoxia. Although trehalose is not synthesized by mammalian cells, it has recently been demonstrated to have a number of important properties that indicate its utility in humans. Trehalose enables wound healing by protecting cells, especially cell membranes, from oxidative injury and dessication...
January 9, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620381/roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cancer-therapy-through-the-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Katherine Ting-Wei Lee, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
The vital need for Akt in maintaining basic cellular function has highlighted its importance in carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, Akt inhibitor development outcome has remained poor, as most of them have failed to show significant clinical benefit to cancer patients during the clinical trials. Recently, a new class of non-coding RNAs, known as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which show high tissue specificity, have demonstrated great influence in cancer progression and/or cancer inhibition. As both Akt signalling pathways and lncRNAs play such innate roles in carcinogenesis, identifying the specific roles that these lncRNAs play within this pathway may represent a novel research avenue for developing Akt inhibitors with better therapeutic properties...
January 8, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30600829/a-brief-review-of-chordomas-pathogenesis-prognostic-factors-and-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Bao Hai, Yunlong Ma, Xiaoguang Liu
Chordomas are rare but locally aggressive cancer, which originate from primitive notochord remnants. Guidelines have recently been proposed to include the option of choosing chordomas in different locations. However, there is still a great challenge in the modern management of chordomas, primarily due to the high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. On this basis, there is a high demand for new therapeutic approaches and reliable prognostic factors. Recent progress in studying the molecu¬lar basis of this specific type of cancer has deepened the understanding of this mechanism, which overall facilitates the discovery of specific biomarkers or indicators of the disease...
January 2, 2019: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30592501/braf-mutation-current-and-future-clinical-pathological-applications-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Jessica Yan-Seen Ng, Cu Tai Lu, Alfred King-Yin Lam
The aims are to review the relevance of the BRAF mutations in the clinical settings of colorectal carcinoma. All the literature concerning BRAF mutations and colorectal carcinoma published in PubMed from 2010 to 2018 was reviewed. Multiple variants of BRAF mutations exist in colorectal cancer, the most common type being V600E. The mutation is found in 5 to 15% of colorectal carcinomas and is less common in Asian populations. BRAF mutations are linked with older age, female gender, cigarette smoking and are more common in the right (proximal) portion of the large intestine...
December 28, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589059/morphological-rearrangement-of-the-cortical-region-in-aging-ovaries
#7
Verónica Díaz-Hernández, Ivette Caldelas, Luis M Montaño, Horacio Merchant-Larios
The ovary is a structurally dynamic organ that alters with age. Modifications in the paracrine status influence the capacity of aging oocytes to develop normal embryos. Despite the importance of understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism involved in the process of ovarian aging, histological changes remain poorly understood. Correlating the process of folliculogenesis and somatic cell function during ovarian aging is essential to explain the reproductive decline of aged mammalian species, including humans...
December 27, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30566207/the-effect-of-chronic-stress-and-obesity-on-sperm-quality-and-testis-histology-in-male-rats-a-morphometric-and-immunohistochemical-study
#8
Tuba Demirci, Elvan Sahin
OBJECTIVE: Stress and obesity lead structural and functional abnormalities in many organs. This research investigated the effect of these two risk factors on sperm parameters and histologic structure of testis in rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group as control, stress, obesity, and stress-obesity groups. The rats of obesity and stress-obesity groups were fed high-fat diet for 12-week and obesity was created...
December 19, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30561754/reduction-of-pgrn-increased-fibrosis-during-skin-wound-healing-in-mice
#9
Shan-Shan Li, Mei-Xiang Zhang, Yue Wang, Wei Wang, Chun-Ming Zhao, Xiao-Ming Sun, Guo-Kai Dong, Zhou-Ru Li, Wen-Jiang Yin, Bo Zhu, Hong-Xing Cai
Progranulin (PGRN) is a multi-functional growth factor known to be involved in regulating of development, cell cycle progression, cell motility, tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Research has revealed that PGRN is a crucial mediator of skin wound healing. Nonetheless, the role of PGRN in the fibrosis process of cutaneous wound healing has not been identified. In the present study, mice with excisional wounds were treated with si-m-PGRN or physiological saline. We observed the expression of PGRN in intact and post-injury skin by immunohistochemistry...
December 18, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556579/safety-of-isotretinoin-treatment-as-measured-by-liver-parameters
#10
B F Thomazini, C A Lamas, M A H Dolder
Isotretinoin is an analogue of vitamin A and by suppressing the sebaceous glands it is often prescribed in cases of severe acne treatment. The treatment for the average patient is carried out during two to ten months. This study was designed to investigate liver structure, hepatic enzyme levels and the stress oxidative parameter after isotretinoin treatment during a similar period and using the dosages of 1 mg/kg and another one of 10 mg/kg in young male Wistar rats. We have analyzed the blood serum biochemical levels to determine hepatic function and lipid peroxidation, hepatic tissue levels of hepatic enzymes, histology and ultrastructure...
December 17, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543383/histopathology-of-human-small-intestinal-and-colonic-ischemia-reperfusion-experiences-from-human-ir-models
#11
REVIEW
Claire Aji Leenarts, Joep Grootjans, Inca H Hundscheid, Dirk Hsm Schellekens, Kaatje Lenaerts, Wim A Buurman, Cornelis Hc Dejong, Joep Pm Derikx
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a frequent, but potentially life-threatening condition. Although much has been learned about its pathophysiology from animal IR models, the translation to the human setting is imperative for better understanding of its etiology. This could provide us with new insight into development of early detection and potential new therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, we have studied the pathophysiology of human small intestinal and colonic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in newly developed human in vivo IR models...
December 13, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540129/parkinson-s-disease-a-short-story-of-200-years
#12
REVIEW
L Cuenca, A L Gil-Martinez, L Cano-Fernandez, C Sanchez-Rodrigo, C Estrada, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero
After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Thus, early diagnosis is not available, nor are there efficient therapies that can stop neurodegeneration...
December 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516266/the-distribution-and-time-dependent-expression-of-hipk2-during-the-repair-of-contused-skeletal-muscle-in-mice
#13
Miao Zhang, Meng-Zhou Zhang, Shu-Heng Wen, Ying-Fu Sun, Peng-Hao Jiang, Lin-Lin Wang, Rui Zhao, Chang-Liang Wang, Shu-Kun Jiang, Da-Wei Guan
HIPK2 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and is considered a co-regulator of an increasing number of transcription factors modulating a variety of cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle injuries repair is an overlapping event between inflammation and tissue repair. There are no reports about HIPK2 expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. A foundational study on distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 was performed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR, which is expected to obtain a preliminary insight into the functions of HIPK2 during the repair of contused skeletal muscle in mice...
December 5, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506545/correlation-of-securin-and-ki67-in-invasive-breast-carcinoma
#14
Iman Mamdouh Talaat, Rifat Akram Hamoudi, Nada Mahmoud Yakout, Nagwa Youssef Oweiss, Abbas Mohammed Omar
AIMS: To identify the role of securin (PTTG) as a prognostic marker in invasive breast carcinoma and its possible relation to ki67 and to evaluate the use of ImmunoRatio® as a tool for calculating ki67 and securin labelling indices. METHODS: Securin and ki67 immunohistochemical staining were performed on tissue microarray sections representative of 118 patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma from 2005 to 2011. Assessment of immunohistochemical staining was carried out using both visual counting and ImmunoRatio®...
December 3, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499583/cytokeratin-expression-profiles-of-canine-epithelial-tissues
#15
Tina Rickmeyer, Kathrin Jäger, Sandra Schöniger, H-A Schoon
Cytokeratins (CKs) are intermediate filaments of epithelial cells. In humans, different types of epithelia as well as their neoplasms show distinct CK expression profiles. The aim of this study was to establish a panel of CKs for the identification of specialized canine epithelia that can be integrated in a routine diagnostic setting. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 42 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) canine unaltered tissues including all epithelial tissues by using an antibody panel detecting CKs 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 19 and 20 and the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3...
November 30, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480312/immunohisto-cyto-chemistry-an-old-time-classic-tool-driving-modern-oncological-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Tomer Cooks, Sofia Dp Theodorou, Eleni Paparouna, Sophia V Rizou, Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Ioannis S Pateras
In the era of precision medicine immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) share some of the highlights in personalized treatment. Survival data obtained from clinical trials shape the cut-offs and IHC scoring that serve as recommendations for patient selection both for targeted and conventional therapies. Assessment of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors along with HER2 status has been among the first approved immunostaining assays revolutionizing breast cancer treatment. Similarly, ALK positivity predicts the efficacy of ALK inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
November 27, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475382/stim-promotes-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-podocytes-through-regulation-of-fc%C3%AE-rii-activity-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Juan Jin, Meiyu Ye, Kang Hu, Jianguan Gong, Qiang He
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication in diabetic patients and has been considered as the main cause of end-stage renal disease. However, there are no studies on the role of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) and its two subtypes, STIM1 and STIM2, in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of podocytes induced by diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The present study suggests for the first time that STIM inhibition decreases DKD-induced EMT. METHODS: All DKD patients were diagnosed based on renal biopsies carried out at the Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital and selected using the Mayo Clinic/Renal Pathology Society Consensus Report on Pathologic Classification, Diagnosis, and Reporting of GN...
November 26, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467824/next-generation-sequencing-based-characterization-of-the-invasion-by-anatomical-contiguity-in-a-primary-osseous-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-correlation-between-the-genetic-profile-of-the-malignancy-and-the-clinical-outcome-of-the-patient
#18
Florin Zaharie, Laura-Ancuta Pop, Bobe Petrushev, Ancuta Jurj, Mihai-Stefan Muresan, Dan Eniu, Bogdan Fetica, Bozhidar Petkov, Sergiu Pasca, Doina Piciu, Ioana Rus, Dalma Deak, Delia Dima, Minodora-Silvia Desmirean, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Primary bone lymphoma is now a well-described entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone as a malignancy of the lymphoid tissue, with at least one mass within bone, without involvement of supraregional lymph nodes or other extranodal sites. In the current paper, we describe the complete characterization of the mutational landscape of a diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBLCL) of the tibial plateau. Currently, there is very little data about the genetic landscape of primary osseous lymphomas and about the genetic background of this type of malignancy, resistant to chemotherapy and invading the surrounding tissues...
November 23, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452079/epstein-barr-virus-association-with-plasma-cell-neoplasms
#19
Ali Nael, William W Wu, Imran Siddiqi, Xiaohui Zhao, Kanwarpal S Kahlon, Sherif A Rezk
AIMS: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expression has been reported in several hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic disorders but its expression in plasma cell neoplasms has been largely limited to immunodeficiency-related cases such as in the setting of post-organ transplantation or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of EBV with plasma cell neoplasms, mainly in immunocompetent patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 147 cases of patients with different plasma cell neoplasms (109 plasma cell myelomas, 22 plasmacytomas, and 16 monoclonal gammopathy cases)...
November 19, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444523/melatonin-promotes-self-renewal-and-nestin-expression-in-neural-stem-cells-from-the-retina
#20
Yuhua Gao, Li Ma, Chunyu Bai, Xiangyang Zhang, Wancai Yang
Although melatonin has been shown to exhibit a wide variety of biological functions, its effects on promoting self-renewal in retinal stem cells remain unknown. We found that melatonin can significantly increase proliferation and enhance expression of a stem cell marker, nestin, in retinal neural stem cells (NSCs) via melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). The ERK pathway inhibitor SCH772984 and TGF-β pathway inhibitor SB431542 were used to study the melatonin-mediated molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation in NSCs...
November 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
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