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Histology and Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722102/expression-of-cd34-and-cd146-vascular-markers-contributes-to-the-immunological-function-of-the-human-palatine-tonsil
#1
Marko Jović, Verica Avramović, Predrag Vlahović, Aleksandra Veličkov, Vladimir Petrović
The fundamental function of the palatine tonsil is the immune response to airborne and foodborne pathogenic agents. Small blood vessels have an important role in the provision of a special microenvironment in which the immune response occurs. In this study, we investigated the expression of vascular markers CD34 and CD146 and basal lamina marker - type IV collagen - in the small blood vessels of the human palatine tonsil in the context of their role in the immunological function of the tonsil. The tonsils were collected after tonsillectomy from ten patients with chronic tonsillitis, aged 18-28 years...
July 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696497/role-of-ca2-and-ion-channels-in-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#2
REVIEW
Miaohong Wang, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Hypoxia is a kind of common pathological condition existing in various diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can precipitate the onset of diseases through inducing cell apoptosis. Ca²⁺ is the ubiquitous message in cell. Given the crucial role of Ca2²⁺ in physiology, intracellular Ca²⁺ overload is a significant regulator of apoptosis. Numerous experiments show that hypoxia may cause changes of multiple cellular Ca²⁺ channels, for instance, Na⁺/ Ca²⁺ Exchanger (NCX), L-type voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel (L-VDCC), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and so on, which contribute to intracellular Ca²⁺ overload, thus eventually triggering cell apoptosis...
July 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691729/in-vitro-differentiation-of-primordial-germ-cells-and-oocyte-like-cells-from-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
José J N Costa, Glaucinete B Souza, Maria A A Soares, Regislane P Ribeiro, Robert van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Infertility is the result of failure due to an organic disorder of the reproductive organs, especially their gametes. Recently, much progress has been made on generating germ cells, including oocytes, from various types of stem cells. This review focuses on advances in female germ cell differentiation from different kinds of stem cells, with emphasis on embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of the derivation of female germ cells from several types of stem cells are also highlighted, as well as the ability of stem cells to generate mature and functional female gametes...
July 10, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681373/the-role-of-tumor-associated-macrophage-in-breast-cancer-biology
#4
REVIEW
Junjeong Choi, Jones Gyamfi, Haerin Jang, Ja Seung Koo
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in women worldwide and contributes significantly as the primary cause of female cancer related mortality. Hence, research is focused on discovering new and effective treatment targets. The breast tumor microenvironment (TME) comprising of recruited host stromal cells and tumor cells, has recently emerged as an important player in tumor progression, with the potential for future treatment. The TME comprises immune system elements (such as macrophages and lymphocytes), cells composing blood vessel, fibroblast, myofibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM)...
July 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671243/time-dependent-and-lesion-dependent-hmgb1-selective-localization-in-brains-of-patients-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#5
Takahiko Umahara, Toshiki Uchihara, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Kentaro Hirao, Soichiro Shimizu, Takao Hashimoto, Hiroo Terasi, Haruo Hanyu
High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has multiple functions, including the maintenance of nucleosomes and the regulation of gene transcription. HMGB1 is released from activated macrophages, resulting in the induction of inflammatory cytokines. Recently, much research about the role of HMGB1 in cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been reported. In an animal model, HMGB1 neutralization ameliorates brain infarction, there is an early release of HMGB1 from neurons, and HMGB1 antibody attenuates delayed cerebral vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage...
July 3, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664531/the-role-of-rhoc-in-malignant-tumor-invasion-metastasis-and-targeted-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Xue Guan, Shuo Chen, Yang Zhao
As an important member of the RhoGTPase family, RhoC has various biological functions, such as regulating cytoskeleton reorganization, influencing cell adhesion, and migration. During recent decades, RhoC has been proven to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumor and is thus a promising target of tumor therapy. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism of RhoC in invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors, as well as its research prospects as a potential target for tumor therapy.
June 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649694/immunohistochemical-expression-profiles-of-mucin-antigens-in-salivary-gland-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-muc4-and-muc6-negative-expression-predicts-a-shortened-survival-in-the-early-postoperative-phase
#7
Kie Honjo, Tsubasa Hiraki, Michiyo Higashi, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Mitsuharu Nomoto, Takuya Yoshimura, Surinder K Batra, Suguru Yonezawa, Ichiro Semba, Norifumi Nakamura, Akihide Tanimoto, Sohsuke Yamada
In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs...
June 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604942/micrornas-regulate-apobec-gene-expression
#8
REVIEW
Wei Cao, Wei Wu
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) is a family of evolutionarily conserved cytidine deaminases, encoded by eleven genes located in the human genome. APOBECs play key roles in innate immunity through their ability to mutagenize viral DNA and restrict rival replication. Recent cancer genomics revealed APOBEC3 subtype-mediated APOBEC-signature mutations are common in a broad spectrum of human cancers. The pervasive APOBEC3 activation in the host genome which converts cytosine to uracile during RNA editing has been suggested to depend on ATR/chk1 pathways...
June 12, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585678/human-sperm-motility-capacitation-and-acrosome-reaction-are-impaired-by-2-arachidonoylglycerol-endocannabinoid
#9
M M Francou, J L Girlea, A De Juan, J Ten, R Bernabeu, J De Juan
The endocannabinoids are cannabinoids synthesized by mammalian tissues. These compounds are closely related to the regulation of the male reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects produced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) on in vitro human sperm functions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects produced by 2AG on fresh human sperm and in the capacitation technique. Semen samples from healthy young men were exposed to different concentrations of 2AG before and during capacitation technique...
June 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580566/animal-models-for-disc-degeneration-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Li Jin, Gary Balian, Xudong Joshua Li
Intervertebral disc degeneration is considered a major cause of back pain that places a heavy burden on society, both because of its effect on the physiology of individuals and its consequences on the world economy. During the past few decades, research findings in the pre-clinical setting have led to a significant increase in the understanding of intervertebral disc degeneration, although many aspects of the disease remain unclear. The goal of this review is to summarize existing animal models for disc degeneration studies and the difficulties that are associated with the use of such models...
June 5, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567716/bariatric-surgery-influences-%C3%AE-cell-turnover-in-non-obese-rats
#11
Alonso Camacho-Ramírez, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, M Carmen Segundo-Iglesias, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Gonzalo M Pérez-Arana, J Arturo Prada-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the different bariatric surgeries and pancreatic β-cell turnover. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used healthy adult male Wistar rats to undergo the different techniques. Three surgical techniques were developed (malabsorptive, Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-Y Gastric Bypass-), together with two control groups (Sham and fasting control). Pancreatic β-cell mass was measured, as well as apoptosis, proliferation and neogenesis related to cellular turnover...
June 1, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560711/recent-advances-in-hypertrophic-scar
#12
REVIEW
Julei Zhang, Yan Li, Xiaozhi Bai, Yuehua Li, Jihong Shi, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are predominant diseases after burn and trauma, which cause severe physiological and psychological problems. HTS have been researched for decades, and our knowledge about the mechanisms of HTS formation process has been increasing. However, the effects of currently available prevention and treatment strategies are limited. In this review, we summarize currently known mechanisms and recent studies of HTS, including extracellular matrix, matrix metalloproteinases, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and their contraction ability, keratinocytes, growth factors, inflammatory and immune response, and stem cell treatment, hoping for a better understanding of HTS generation, development and effective translation to treatment strategies...
May 31, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555715/the-dexamethasone-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-dental-follicle-cells
#13
REVIEW
Christian Morsczeck, Torsten E Reichert
Mesenchymal stem cells are excellent for in vitro studies about biological processes during the differentiation of osteogenic progenitor cells into mineralizing cells such as osteoblasts. Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are dental mesenchymal stem cells and they can be isolated from third molar teeth. Because DFCs are the genuine progenitor cells of periodontal tissue cells, they have been used for the evaluation of molecular mechanisms during the differentiation of undifferentiated stem cells into alveolar osteoblasts and cementoblasts...
May 30, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547742/increased-annexin-a2-and-decreased-%C3%AE-catenin-in-adenomyosis-contribute-to-adenomyosis-associated-dysmenorrhea
#14
Li Xue Liu, Yin Ga Wu, Jian Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and β-catenin in eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and their relationships with adenomyosis-associated dysmenorrhea. METHODS: From December 2013 to June 2014, ectopic endometrium (n=30) and eutopic endometrium (n=30) of adenomyosis were collected as experimental group, and endometrium (n=30) of uterine myoma as control group from the department of gynecology and obstetrics, the affiliated hospital of Inner Mongolia medical university...
May 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540715/the-role-of-endothelial-lipase-in-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Justine E Yu, Shu-Yan Han, Benjamin Wolfson, Qun Zhou
Endothelial lipase (LIPG) plays a critical role in lipoprotein metabolism, cytokine expression, and the lipid composition of cells. Thus far, the extensive investigations of LIPG have focused on its mechanisms and involvement in metabolic syndromes such as atherosclerosis. However, recent developments have found that LIPG plays a role in cancer. This review summarizes the field of LIPG study. We focus on the role of LIPG in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and highlight the recent insights in its involvement in tumor progression...
May 25, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524210/sulfur-dioxide-foe-or-friend-for-life
#16
REVIEW
Xin-Bao Wang, Hong Cui, Xiaohong Liu, Jun-Bao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO2 can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats...
May 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497438/a-qualitative-comparison-of-ten-tissue-clearing-techniques
#17
Michael Orlich, Friedemann Kiefer
The understanding of spatially complex biological systems are greatly aided by the availability of high resolution information on their tissue architecture, as is provided by optical sectioning microscopy like confocal and light sheet microscopy. In addition, genetically encoded fluorescent reporter proteins reveal tissue architecture without the need for staining procedures. Owing to opacity caused by scattering and absorption, light microscopy in tissue is limited to thin tissue layers of a few micrometers traditionally provided by histological sections...
May 12, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493257/expression-of-p53-and-selected-proliferative-markers-ki-67-mcm3-pcna-and-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-in-borderline-ovarian-tumors-correlation-with-clinicopathological-features
#18
Klaudiusz Ciepliński, Maciej Jóźwik, Anna Semczuk-Sikora, Marek Gogacz, Dorota Lewkowicz, Atanas Ignatov, Andrzej Semczuk
BACKGROUND: The expression of p53 has been studied not only in primary human ovarian carcinomas, but also in borderline ovarian tumors, however, the results were discordant. Expression patterns of proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis have been investigated in various human neoplasms, including female genital tract neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to assess the staining pattern and immunolocalization of p53 and selected proliferative markers (Ki-67, MCM3, PCNA, and topoisomerase IIα) in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs)...
May 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485004/sialic-acid-expression-in-human-fetal-skeletal-muscle-during-limb-early-myogenesis
#19
Mirca Marini, Erica Sarchielli, Giorgia Donata Zappoli Thyrion, Stefano Ambrosini, Eleonora Sgambati
Investigations on animal models demonstrated that changes of sialic acid (SA) expression, particularly the polymeric form, in the skeletal muscle during embryonic and post-natal development seem to be related to muscle differentiation and functionality onset. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monomeric and polymeric SA expression in human skeletal muscle during early stages of fetal development, when important morphofunctional events occur. Specimens of fetal skeletal muscle from limb, between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation (wg), were obtained from 19 pregnant women...
May 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#20
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
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