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International Clinical Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30422835/impact-of-mental-illness-on-outcomes-of-outpatients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Megan K Skelly, Bethany A Wattengel, Randal Napierala, Vineeta Risbood, Jennifer Schroeck, John A Sellick, Kari A Mergenhagen
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, one in five adults experience a mental health condition yearly. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often treated with QTc prolonging antibiotics. The primary outcome assessed is if psychiatric diagnosis contributed to treatment failure in CAP. Outpatients with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 9 and 10 codes for CAP from January 2008 to January 2018 were analyzed retrospectively by descriptive statistics...
November 12, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30422834/pharmacological-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-an-anxiety-disorder-a-systematic-review
#2
Camila B Villas-Boas, Danielly Chierrito, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Fernanda S Tonin, Andréia C C Sanches
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the pharmacological options available to treat patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder, for generating evidence on the safest, most-effective and tolerable pharmacotherapy. To this end, a systematic search was performed in three electronic databases (Medline, Scopus and Directory of Open Access Journals; December 2017). Randomized, double-blind, parallel-design clinical trials evaluating the efficacy, safety or tolerability of therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder in children and adolescents or adults were considered...
November 12, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398998/the-risk-factors-frequency-and-diagnosis-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-induced-hypothermia-practical-advice-for-doctors
#3
Anna M Szota, Aleksander S Araszkiewicz
Hypothermia is unpredictable and life-threatening adverse effect of atypical antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment, which has been little described. The aim of this article is to increase the awareness that hypothermia induced by APD drugs is more common than the current published case reports may suggest, and risk factors increase its development. Moreover, valuable guidelines regarding how to detect the early stages of hypothermia in clinical practice are included. A literature search for reports on APD-induced hypothermia in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Medline Complete and eHealthMe databases was conducted...
November 5, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383553/the-association-between-gabapentin-and-suicidality-in-bipolar-patients
#4
Wendy M Leith, William E Lambert, James K Boehnlein, Michael D Freeman
The aims of this study were to assess the association between gabapentin and suicidality in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and to determine whether the risk is greater relative to patients prescribed lithium. This retrospective observational study utilizes US population-based claims data assembled by PharMetrics Inc., comprising 47 918 patients diagnosed with BD. Patients were included if they were at least 18 years old and initiated a new monotherapy prescription of either gabapentin (n=2421) or lithium (n=3101)...
October 31, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308557/the-reliability-and-validity-of-a-newly-developed-self-rating-functional-scale-compared-with-personal-and-social-performance-scale-and-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-ii
#5
Yan-Jie Zhao, Yan-Ling He, Li-Li Zhang, Ying Qiao, Jing-Ping Zhao, Tian-Mei Si, Gang Wang, Ning Zhang, Yu-Ping Ning, Ming-Yuan Zhang
A new self-rating functional scale (SRFS) was developed to assess the functionality of patients with schizophrenia, referred to the structure of Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the SRFS. A total of 210 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from outpatient clinics in six sites in China. Demographic information, SRFS, PSP, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were assessed...
October 10, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300165/markers-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-changes-over-time-and-relationship-to-response-in-patients-with-major-depression
#6
Harald Murck, Matthias C Braunisch, Carsten Konrad, Daniela Jezova, Tilo Kircher
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its hormone receptors, i.e. the angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), have emerged as important targets for central nervous system disorders and in particular for major depression. We have recently characterized baseline MR function as a predictor for treatment outcome with standard antidepressants. The aims of this study are (i) to characterize how strongly an early biomarker change (after 2 weeks) is related to outcome and (ii) whether these biomarker changes are related to the final outcome, that is, could serve as surrogate markers for response...
October 8, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113928/optimal-treatment-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study-of-the-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-their-combination-in-the-management
#7
Naomi A Fineberg, David S Baldwin, Lynne M Drummond, Solange Wyatt, Jasmine Hanson, Srinivas Gopi, Sukhwinder Kaur, Jemma Reid, Virender Marwah, Ricky A Sachdev, Ilenia Pampaloni, Sonia Shahper, Yana Varlakova, Davis Mpavaenda, Christopher Manson, Cliodhna O'Leary, Karen Irvine, Deela Monji-Patel, Ayotunde Shodunke, Tony Dyer, Amy Dymond, Garry Barton, David Wellsted
Established treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) include cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Combined treatment may outperform monotherapy, but few studies have investigated this. A total of 49 community-based adults with OCD were randomly assigned to CBT, SSRI, or SSRI+CBT. Sertraline (50-200 mg/day) was given as the SSRI for 52 weeks. A 16-h-manualized individual CBT was delivered over 8 weeks with four follow-up sessions. Assessors were 'blinded' to treatment allocation...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095482/the-use-of-newer-antipsychotics-in-bipolar-inpatients-over-a-17-year-observation-period
#8
Julia Dehning, Heinz Grunze, Michaela Walpoth-Niederwanger, Georg Kemmler, Armand Hausmann
Antipsychotics (AP) are commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. They cover a broad spectrum of indications including acute psychotic, manic and depressive symptoms, and maintenance treatment. This study evaluates the changes in prescribing patterns of first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) and second-generation AP at Innsbruck University Hospital for the treatment of bipolar inpatients between 1999 and 2016. In this retrospective chart review, we included adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (ICD 9: F296; ICD 10: F31) who were admitted as inpatients at the Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy between 1999 and 2016 for more than 7 days...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045066/efficacy-of-adjunctive-low-dose-cariprazine-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Maurizio Fava, Suresh Durgam, Willie Earley, Kaifeng Lu, Robert Hayes, István Laszlovszky, György Németh
This 19-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive cariprazine (0.1-0.3 and 1.0-2.0 mg/day) as an antidepressant treatment for adults with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) (NCT00854100). The primary endpoint was change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score and the secondary was change in the Clinical Global Impression-Intensity score. Additional efficacy parameters were also assessed...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044247/relapse-prevention-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-treated-with-vilazodone-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Suresh Durgam, Carl Gommoll, Raffaele Migliore, Changzheng Chen, Cheng-Tao Chang, Michelle Aguirre, Michael E Thase
This randomized withdrawal study assessed relapse prevention with vilazodone in adults with major depressive disorder. After 20 weeks of open-label treatment with vilazodone 40 mg/day, responders were randomized (1 : 1 : 1) to 28 weeks of double-blind, fixed-dose treatment with vilazodone 20 mg/day, vilazodone 40 mg/day, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to first relapse, defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 and meeting major depressive episode criteria, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 at two consecutive visits, or discontinuation for an insufficient therapeutic response...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028351/sex-and-body-weight-are-major-determinants-of-venlafaxine-pharmacokinetics
#11
Georgios Schoretsanitis, Ekkehard Haen, Christoph Hiemke, Bianca Fay, Sandra Unholzer, Christoph U Correll, Gerhard Gründer, Michael Paulzen
We assessed the effect of body weight and BMI on plasma concentrations of venlafaxine (VEN), O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN), active moiety (AM=VEN+ODVEN), and dose-corrected plasma concentrations (C/D). A database containing concentrations of VEN and ODVEN including 737 of 1594 eligible patients was analyzed. Analyses included sex, body weight, and BMI as well as concentrations of VEN, ODVEN, AM, and C/D. A positive correlation was detected between body weight and daily dosage (rs=0.168, P<0.001). A negative correlation was found between body weight and AM (rs=-0...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958238/the-effect-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-psychopathic-behavior-of-patients-having-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-and-without-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#12
Pavel Golubchik, Tomer Levy, Abraham Weizman
To evaluate the effect of 3 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on psychopathic behavior in children having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Twenty-seven children with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth ed., ADHD (13 female/14 male; aged 13.3±2.2 years old) were compared to an age/sex matched ADHD/ODD group (N=27, eight female/19 male; aged 11.8±1.9 years). The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder rating scale (ADHD-RS) and the California Child Q-Set (CCQ) were used in both groups before MPH treatment (0...
November 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952800/continuity-of-treatment-with-benzodiazepines-in-dementia-patients-an-analysis-of-german-health-insurance-claims-data
#13
Philipp Hessmann, Jan Zeidler, Sarah Neubauer, Mona Abdel-Hamid, Jona Stahmeyer, Sveja Eberhard, Claus Wolff-Menzler, Jens Wiltfang, Bernhard Kis
Long-term treatment with benzodiazepines (BZD) should be avoided in dementia patients because of an increased risk of adverse events. We evaluated how continuously dementia patients were prescribed BZD over 12 months. For this observational study, we used claims data from a large German public sickness fund for 2014 and 2015, including patients with an incident diagnosis of dementia in 2014. The aim was to evaluate the continuity of treatment, the frequency of BZD prescriptions and defined daily doses were evaluated...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939890/the-conundrum-of-depression-clinical-trials-one-size-does-not-fit-all
#14
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Walter A Brown
In this paper we review the history of antidepressant (AD) development, since the discovery of imipramine in 1957 to the present day. Through this exploration we will show that the increasing placebo response is likely a red herring and that a higher magnitude of placebo response is not an adequate explanation for AD trials' high failure rates. As a better explanation for their lack of success, we will examine some of the fundamental flaws of AD clinical trials and their origins in historical forces. We focus on underpowering, which occurs as a consequence of unrealistic expectations for AD performance...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939889/a-review-and-study-of-aspirin-utilization-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-in-a-psychiatric-population
#15
Kaitlyn Victor, Megan Skelly, Kimberly Mulcahy, Tammie Lee Demler, Eileen Trigoboff
In April 2016, the US Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) updated the aspirin guidelines for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer. This review assesses the importance of appropriate use of aspirin for the primary prevention of CVD and, specifically, how individuals with psychiatric disorders may benefit from such use. This study examined how current prescribing practices of aspirin in a state psychiatric hospital align with these new guidelines and how inappropriate prescribing may jeopardize patient safety...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912058/a-systematic-review-of-the-operational-definitions-for-antipsychotic-response-in-delusional-disorder
#16
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Francesc Estrada, José A Monreal, Diego Palao, Javier Labad
This review aimed to examine and analyse the definitions used for antipsychotic response in delusional disorder (DD) and to provide a discussion of the methodology used. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases (1990-October 2017) according to the PRISMA statement. In addition, reference searches were performed manually through identified studies to obtain other relevant articles. The search terms included 'antipsychotic response', 'antipsychotics', 'treatment response' and 'delusional disorder'...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878915/the-effects-of-brexpiprazole-and-aripiprazole-on-body-weight-as-monotherapy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-as-adjunctive-treatment-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-analysis-of-short-term-and-long-term-studies
#17
Catherine Weiss, Emmanuelle Weiller, Ross A Baker, Ruth A Duffy, Keva K Gwin, Peter Zhang, Robert D McQuade
The aim of this analysis was to explore the effects of brexpiprazole and aripiprazole on body weight when used as monotherapy to treat schizophrenia and as adjunctive treatment to antidepressant treatment (ADT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in short-term (4/6 weeks) and long-term (≤52 weeks) studies. Body weight data were obtained from the clinical studies of each drug (brexpiprazole and aripiprazole), in schizophrenia and adjunctive treatment of MDD. Data were pooled and analyzed to assess the mean change in body weight and to determine the incidence of a clinically relevant change in body weight from baseline (≥7% increase or decrease, at any time) in each treatment group...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864037/effects-of-anxiety-on-suicidal-ideation-exploratory-analysis-of-a-paroxetine-versus-bupropion-randomized-trial
#18
Michelle S Parris, Julia E Marver, Sadia R Chaudhury, Steven P Ellis, Allison V Metts, John G Keilp, Ainsley K Burke, Maria A Oquendo, Joseph J Mann, Michael F Grunebaum
It is unclear whether anxiety increases or decreases suicidal risk. This may contribute to the lack of guidance on which antidepressant medications are best for suicidal depressed patients who present with high anxiety. This study explored whether anxiety predicts suicidal ideation in depressed individuals treated with paroxetine or bupropion. An 8-week double-blind trial comparing controlled-release paroxetine (N=36) versus extended-release bupropion (N=38) for effect on suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed patients with suicidal ideation, past attempt, or both found an advantage for paroxetine, but anxiety effects were not investigated...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794564/examining-prescriber-perceptions-of-statin-therapy-and-the-potential-implications-these-perceptions-may-have-on-guideline-adherence
#19
Emily Leppien, Tammie Lee Demler
Not all psychiatric inpatients who are candidates for statin therapy are prescribed statin medication. It is unclear whether this is because of prescriber guideline uncertainty or purposeful avoidance because of other reasons. This study aims to determine prescribers' perceptions of recent cholesterol treatment guidelines, and whether their prescribing may be influenced by recent, potentially oversimplified headlines in the media.
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738425/a-pilot-open-label-8-week-study-evaluating-desvenlafaxine-for-treatment-of-major-depression-in-methadone-maintained-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#20
Cynthia El Hage, Maykel F Ghabrash, Simon Dubreucq, Suzanne Brissette, François Lespérance, Paul Lespérance, Clairélaine Ouellet-Plamondon, Julie Bruneau, Didier Jutras-Aswad
Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among opioid-dependent individuals. Clinical trials testing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors among depressed patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) failed to show efficacy, whereas those on tricyclic antidepressants produced mixed results with potential for cardiotoxicity. Desvenlafaxine (DESV) is a SNRI with minimal cardiotoxicity and drug interactions. This study sought to assess feasibility and tolerability of using DESV in depressed patients on MMT...
September 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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