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International Clinical Psychopharmacology

Quentin Boucherie, Gaëtan Gentile, Coralie Chalançon, Vincent Sciortino, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Sylvie Bonin-Guillaume
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of long-term antipsychotic (AP) use in community-dwelling patients with dementia considering hospitalization periods as AP exposure or not. A retrospective study was carried out from 2009 to 2012 on a PACA-Alzheimer cohort (which included 31 963 patients in 2009 and 36 442 in 2012 from 5 million inhabitants). Three groups of patients were identified according to the longest exposure to APs without interruption: nonusers, short-term users (≤3 successive months without discontinuation), and long-term users...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Hyewon Chung, Anhye Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Sang-In Park, Kyung-Sang Yu, Seo Hyun Yoon, Joo-Youn Cho, Jae-Yong Chung
Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Amelia Paterson, Gordon Parker
Although a percentage of patients report cognitive side-effects when taking lithium, it can be difficult to determine from the literature whether any cognitive changes reflect lithium itself, the lithium serum level, residual mood symptoms, the underlying nature of bipolar disorder, or biological alterations such as hypothyroidism. This review was carried out to synthesize and evaluate relevant literature examining any cognitive impact of lithium in those with bipolar disorder. The effect of lithium in those with bipolar disorder was examined across the cognitive domains of attention, psychomotor speed, processing speed, working memory, intellectual functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning by reviewing the published empirical literature...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Klaus D Jakobsen, Helle Wallach-Kildemoes, Christina H Bruhn, Nasseh Hashemi, Anne K Pagsberg, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jimmi Nielsen
Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children and adolescents is scarce, quetiapine is increasingly being used for youth in Denmark. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug events (ADEs) spontaneously reported to the Danish Medicines Agency on quetiapine used in the pediatric population in relation to adversive drug reactions (ADRs) reported in the European Summary of Product Characteristics (SPCs)...
September 28, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Anita H Clayton, Suresh Durgam, Dayong Li, Changzheng Chen, Laishun Chen, Maju Mathews, Carl P Gommoll, Armin Szegedi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vilazodone on sexual functioning in healthy, sexually active adults and assess the impact of medication nonadherence in this type of trial. Participants were randomized to vilazodone (20 or 40 mg/day), paroxetine (20 mg/day), or placebo for 5 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to day 35 in Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) total score in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Post-hoc analyses were carried out in modified intent-to-treat (mITT) populations that excluded participants in the active-treatment groups with undetectable plasma drug concentrations at all visits (mITT-I) or at least one visit (mITT-II)...
September 16, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marcelo B Generoso, Alisson P Trevizol, Siegfried Kasper, Hyong J Cho, Quirino Cordeiro, Pedro Shiozawa
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), characterized by pervasive and highly distressing anxiety and worries, is associated with severe impairment. Although numerous agents from various drug classes are available to treat GAD, as many as 50% of patients have inadequate response, constituting an important medical frontier. In the face of this challenge, new pharmacological alternatives need to be further studied aiming at clinical improvement and better quality of life for patients. To assess the efficacy of pregabalin (PGB) compared with placebo for amelioration of anxiety symptoms in patients with GAD...
September 16, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Luis H Martín Arias, Carlos Treceño Lobato, Susana Pérez García, María Sáinz Gil, Rosario Sanz Fadrique, Pilar García Ortega
Severe mental disorders are associated with an increased mortality risk and the use of antipsychotic drugs may be one of the causes. In this study, we addressed the potential association of the reported mortality among patients on antipsychotics compared to other drugs from a pharmacovigilance database with the aim of evaluating the drug-induced mortality risk. A database containing 189 441 entries of suspected adverse reactions reported from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2012 was explored for fatal outcomes...
September 3, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Stuart A Montgomery, Gavin Lyndon, Mary Almas, Ed Whalen, Rita Prieto
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a common mental disorder, has several treatment options including pregabalin. Not all patients respond to treatment; quickly determining which patients will respond is an important treatment goal. Patient-level data were pooled from nine phase II and III randomized, double-blind, short-term, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin for the treatment of GAD. Efficacy outcomes included the change from baseline in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) total score and psychic and somatic subscales...
August 31, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Kazuhito Fujii, Takefumi Suzuki, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
No study has investigated psychological dependence on antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, which was addressed in this study. This study was carried out in four psychiatric clinics in Tokyo, Japan. Individuals were eligible if they were outpatients aged 18 years or older and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (ICD-10). Assessments included the Japanese Versions of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Self-Report Version of Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS-SR), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report...
August 4, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Ashok Malla, Ai Ota, Kazuhiro Nagamizu, Pamela Perry, Emmanuelle Weiller, Ross A Baker
The aim of this study was to evaluate flexibly dosed brexpiprazole for early-episode schizophrenia through the assessment of efficacy, social functioning, and tolerability. This was an exploratory, 16-week, open-label, flexible-dose (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg/day; target dose 3 mg/day) study in outpatients with early-episode schizophrenia (18-35 years old, ≤5 years' duration of illness). Efficacy was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score (PANSS) and social functioning was assessed by changes from baseline in PANSS modified prosocial subscale, personal and social performance (PSP), and specific levels of functioning (SLOF) scales...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Hui Fang, Yan Feng Zhen, Xing Yu Liu, Gang Xu, Jair C Soares, Jingping Zhao, Xiang Yang Zhang
Several lines of evidence suggest that a functional variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met) correlates with a number of eating disorders. Studies have also shown that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was associated with weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic treatment. This study aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and BMI values in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We compared 308 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic medication with 304 healthy normal controls on BDNF polymorphism...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael E Thase, Carl Gommoll, Changzheng Chen, Kenneth Kramer, Angelo Sambunaris
The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively)...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Bennett Levitan, Michael Markowitz, Ibrahim Turkoz, Dong-Jing Fu, Srihari Gopal, Larry Alphs
The purpose of this study was to conduct a post-hoc benefit-risk assessment of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable versus oral paliperidone extended-release (ER) in schizophrenia maintenance treatment. The Benefit-Risk Action Team framework was used to structure the analysis based on patient-level data from two similar, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse studies. Efficacy outcomes were relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jordi Llaudó, Lourdes Anta, Ignacio Ayani, Javier Martínez, Juan Schronen, Margarita Morozova, Mikhail Ivanov, Ibón Gutierro
The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the safety of risperidone ISM in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder after a single gluteal intramuscular injection at three different dose strengths (50, 75, and 100 mg). A total of 36 patients were randomized and blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations. The pharmacokinetic of the active moiety was biphasic for all three dose groups, and the mean plasma concentration was 21.45, 24...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Beatrice Benatti, Giulia Camuri, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Laura Cremaschi, Ester Sembira, Carlotta Palazzo, Lucio Oldani, Cristina Dobrea, Chiara Arici, Diego Primavera, Bernardo Carpiniello, Filippo Castellano, Giuseppe Carrà, Massimo Clerici, David S Baldwin, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Anxiety disorders are common, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often underdiagnosed and under-treated, typically with an early onset, chronic course, and prolonged duration of untreated illness. The present study aimed to explore the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors in relation to onset and latency to treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 157 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Dawn F Ionescu, Richard C Shelton, Lee Baer, Kathryn H Meade, Michaela B Swee, Maurizio Fava, George I Papakostas
Previously, we found an anxiolytic effect of ziprasidone augmentation to escitalopram (compared with placebo augmentation) in patients with depression in an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Here, we carried out a post-hoc analysis, comparing changes in the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales between patients with anxious depression versus nonanxious depression, using a moderator analysis. Hamilton Depression Rating Scales total change scores from baseline and endpoint were not significantly different (interaction term P=0...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Hee Ryung Wang, Young Sup Woo, Won-Myong Bahk
This systematic review aims to investigate whether melatonin or melatonin agonists significantly attenuate metabolic side effects among psychiatric populations treated with atypical antipsychotics. Four randomized-controlled trials were identified through a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library on 22 October 2015. These four trials (including three melatonin studies and one ramelteon study) included 138 patients, of whom 71 were treated with melatonin or ramelteon and 67 were treated with a placebo...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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September 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Young Sup Woo, Won-Myong Bahk, Young-Min Park, Sangkeun Chung, Bo-Hyun Yoon, Seunghee Won, Jeong Goo Lee, Hwang-Bin Lee, Won Kim, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Kwanghun Lee, Moon-Doo Kim
We evaluated the effectiveness of aripiprazole among bipolar patients who had switched to this medication as a result of difficulty maintaining on their prestudy atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) because of subsyndromal mood symptoms or intolerance. This study included 77 bipolar patients who were in syndromal remission with an AAP as monotherapy or with an AAP combined with a mood stabilizer(s) who needed to switch from their present AAP because of subsyndromal symptoms or intolerance. At 24 weeks after switching to aripiprazole, the remission rates on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and on both the MADRS and the Young Mania Rating Scale were increased significantly in the full sample and in the inefficacy subgroup...
September 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Nam Wook Kim, Yul-Mai Song, Eosu Kim, Hyun-Sang Cho, Keun-Ah Cheon, Su Jin Kim, Jin Young Park
α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to be effective in reducing body weight in rodents and obese patients. Our previous open trial showed that ALA may play a role in reducing weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on atypical antipsychotics. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ALA in reducing weight and BMI in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since taking atypical antipsychotics. In a 12-week, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 22 overweight and clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive ALA or placebo...
September 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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