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International Clinical Psychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072593/use-of-benzodiazepines-and-related-drugs-is-associated-with-a-risk-of-stroke-among-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Reijo Sund, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
The aim of our study was to investigate the risk of any, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke associated with incident benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use among community-dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data from the MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons newly diagnosed with AD between 2005 and 2011 in Finland were utilized. Incident BZDR users were identified with a 1-year washout period for previous use. Persons with a previous stroke were excluded, resulting in a final study sample of 45 050 individuals...
January 7, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067751/efficacy-of-clozapine-on-dopamine-supersensitivity-psychosis-in-schizophrenia
#2
Yusuke Nakata, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Hiroshi Kimura, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masaomi Iyo
Although the effectiveness of clozapine (CLZ) for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) has been well established, its active mechanism has not been completely clarified. Several clinical studies showed that neuroleptic-induced dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) could be involved in the etiology of TRS. We preliminarily explored the possible beneficial effect of CLZ for dopamine supersensitivity schizophrenia. The present study is a case series. We followed 15 patients with DSP for about 2...
January 6, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059928/clozapine-usage-increases-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-compared-with-risperidone-and-the-general-population-a-retrospective-comparison-of-clozapine-risperidone-and-the-general-population-in-a-single-hospital-over-25-months
#3
Zachary R Stoecker, Wales T George, Jeffrey B O'Brien, Jon Jancik, Eduardo Colon, Joseph J Rasimas
The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of pneumonia in patients taking clozapine was more frequent compared with those taking risperidone or no atypical antipsychotics at all before admission to a tertiary care medical center. This was a retrospective, case-matched study of 465 general medicine patients over a 25 month period from 1 July 2010 to 31 July 2012. Detailed electronic medical records were analyzed to explore the association between the use of two atypical antipsychotics and incidence of pneumonia...
January 4, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941358/simvastatin-adjunct-therapy-for-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Soode Tajik-Esmaeeli, Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Niloofar Abbasi, Seyed V Shariat, Farzin Rezaei, Bahman Salehi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
We investigated the effects of simvastatin adjunctive therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this double-blind trial, inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were clinically stabilized on a constant dose of risperidone for at least 4 weeks before the study and were then randomized to receive risperidone (4-6 mg/day) plus either simvastatin (40 mg/day) (n=33) or placebo (n=33) for 8 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure the negative, positive, and general symptoms of schizophrenia at baseline and every 2 weeks...
December 9, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902536/patients-on-psychotropic-medications-and-herbal-supplement-combinations-clinical-considerations
#5
Siu W Tang, Wayne Tang, Brian E Leonard
Populations using herbs and herbal preparations are widespread and growing. As many herbal ingredients exert actions on psychotropic drug targets, psychiatrists should be well informed and aware of potential drug-drug interactions in clinical practice. Reliable and clinically useful information in this area, however, is fragmented, if not deficient. This paper reviewed the clinical aspects of herb-drug interactions, focusing in particular on the monoamine oxidase enzyme and P450 cytochrome enzyme-inhibitory properties of herbs and their potential interference with psychotropic drug actions and clinical judgement...
November 29, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898432/the-impact-of-paliperidone-palmitate-long-acting-injection-on-hospital-admissions-in-a-mental-health-setting
#6
Nikola Nikolić, Natalie Page, Adil Akram, Maha Khan
We screened 216 patients in a retrospective observational investigator-initiated study, of whom 45.37% patients (n=98) were retained after the inclusion criteria were applied. These patients had been prescribed paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PPLAI) with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder. We investigated whether PPLAI has an effect on the frequency and length of admissions to mental health inpatient units, the number of contacts with Crisis Resolution Home Treatment Teams (CRHTT) and frequency of home visits by the CRHTT per patient, over 6 years, split using a 'mirror image' method...
November 24, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861191/effects-of-levomilnacipran-extended-release-on-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-cognitive-impairments-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-phase-iii-study
#7
Keith A Wesnes, Carl Gommoll, Changzheng Chen, Angelo Sambunaris, Roger S McIntyre, Philip D Harvey
Performance-based cognitive data were collected using the Cognitive Drug Research System in a study of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) 40-120 mg/day (NCT01034462) in adults with major depressive disorder. These data were analyzed post-hoc to explore the relationship between cognitive measures, depression symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and self-reported psychosocial functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale; SDS). Changes from baseline were analyzed in the intent-to-treat population and subgroups with impaired attention, as indicated by baseline Cognitive Drug Research System scores for Power of Attention and Continuity of Attention...
November 16, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824633/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-inositol-in-trichotillomania
#8
Eric W Leppink, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Trichotillomania is characterized by repetitive pulling that causes noticeable hair loss. Data on the pharmacological treatment of trichotillomania are limited, with no clear first-line agent. The aim of the current study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of inositol in adults with trichotillomania. A total of 38 individuals (35 women; mean age: 28.9±11.4) with trichotillomania entered a 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of inositol (dosing ranging from 6 to 18 g/day)...
November 7, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753686/tolerability-of-effective-high-doses-of-paliperidone-palmitate-in-patients-with-severe-resistant-schizophrenia
#9
Juan J Fernández-Miranda, Silvia Díaz-Fernández
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of doses of paliperidone palmitate (PP) of 175 mgEq and over/28 days in patients with severe schizophrenia [Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S)≥5] and their retention in treatment. A 36-month prospective, observational study was carried out of patients with severe schizophrenia who were treated with 175 mg and over every 28 days of PP to achieve clinical stabilization (N=30). Assessment included CGI-S, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, Camberwell Assessment of Need, and Medication Adherence Report Scale...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741029/long-term-use-of-antipsychotics-in-community-dwelling-dementia-patients-prevalence-and-profile-accounting-for-unobservable-time-bias-because-of-hospitalization
#10
Quentin Boucherie, Gaëtan Gentile, Coralie Chalançon, Vincent Sciortino, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Sylvie Bonin-Guillaume
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of long-term antipsychotic (AP) use in community-dwelling patients with dementia considering hospitalization periods as AP exposure or not. A retrospective study was carried out from 2009 to 2012 on a PACA-Alzheimer cohort (which included 31 963 patients in 2009 and 36 442 in 2012 from 5 million inhabitants). Three groups of patients were identified according to the longest exposure to APs without interruption: nonusers, short-term users (≤3 successive months without discontinuation), and long-term users...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741028/pharmacokinetics-and-effect-on-the-corrected-qt-interval-of-single-dose-escitalopram-in-healthy-elderly-compared-with-younger-adults
#11
Hyewon Chung, Anhye Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Sang-In Park, Kyung-Sang Yu, Seo Hyun Yoon, Joo-Youn Cho, Jae-Yong Chung
Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643885/effects-of-vilazodone-on-sexual-functioning-in-healthy-adults-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-and-active-controlled-study
#12
Anita H Clayton, Suresh Durgam, Dayong Li, Changzheng Chen, Laishun Chen, Maju Mathews, Carl P Gommoll, Armin Szegedi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vilazodone on sexual functioning in healthy, sexually active adults and assess the impact of medication nonadherence in this type of trial. Participants were randomized to vilazodone (20 or 40 mg/day), paroxetine (20 mg/day), or placebo for 5 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to day 35 in Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) total score in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Post-hoc analyses were carried out in modified intent-to-treat (mITT) populations that excluded participants in the active-treatment groups with undetectable plasma drug concentrations at all visits (mITT-I) or at least one visit (mITT-II)...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643884/pregabalin-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Marcelo B Generoso, Alisson P Trevizol, Siegfried Kasper, Hyong J Cho, Quirino Cordeiro, Pedro Shiozawa
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), characterized by pervasive and highly distressing anxiety and worries, is associated with severe impairment. Although numerous agents from various drug classes are available to treat GAD, as many as 50% of patients have inadequate response, constituting an important medical frontier. In the face of this challenge, new pharmacological alternatives need to be further studied aiming at clinical improvement and better quality of life for patients. To assess the efficacy of pregabalin (PGB) compared with placebo for amelioration of anxiety symptoms in patients with GAD...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602888/risk-excess-of-mortality-and-use-of-antipsychotics-a-case-noncase-study
#14
Luis H Martín Arias, Carlos Treceño Lobato, Susana Pérez García, María Sáinz Gil, Rosario Sanz Fadrique, Pilar García Ortega
Severe mental disorders are associated with an increased mortality risk and the use of antipsychotic drugs may be one of the causes. In this study, we addressed the potential association of the reported mortality among patients on antipsychotics compared to other drugs from a pharmacovigilance database with the aim of evaluating the drug-induced mortality risk. A database containing 189 441 entries of suspected adverse reactions reported from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2012 was explored for fatal outcomes...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583543/early-improvement-with-pregabalin-predicts-endpoint-response-in-patients-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-an-integrated-and-predictive-data-analysis
#15
Stuart A Montgomery, Gavin Lyndon, Mary Almas, Ed Whalen, Rita Prieto
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a common mental disorder, has several treatment options including pregabalin. Not all patients respond to treatment; quickly determining which patients will respond is an important treatment goal. Patient-level data were pooled from nine phase II and III randomized, double-blind, short-term, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin for the treatment of GAD. Efficacy outcomes included the change from baseline in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) total score and psychic and somatic subscales...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496597/psychological-dependence-on-antidepressants-in-patients-with-panic-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Kazuhito Fujii, Takefumi Suzuki, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
No study has investigated psychological dependence on antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, which was addressed in this study. This study was carried out in four psychiatric clinics in Tokyo, Japan. Individuals were eligible if they were outpatients aged 18 years or older and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (ICD-10). Assessments included the Japanese Versions of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Self-Report Version of Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS-SR), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report...
January 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571460/the-effect-of-brexpiprazole-in-adult-outpatients-with-early-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#17
Ashok Malla, Ai Ota, Kazuhiro Nagamizu, Pamela Perry, Emmanuelle Weiller, Ross A Baker
The aim of this study was to evaluate flexibly dosed brexpiprazole for early-episode schizophrenia through the assessment of efficacy, social functioning, and tolerability. This was an exploratory, 16-week, open-label, flexible-dose (1, 2, 3, or 4 mg/day; target dose 3 mg/day) study in outpatients with early-episode schizophrenia (18-35 years old, ≤5 years' duration of illness). Efficacy was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score (PANSS) and social functioning was assessed by changes from baseline in PANSS modified prosocial subscale, personal and social performance (PSP), and specific levels of functioning (SLOF) scales...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483421/association-of-the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-with-bmi-in-chronic-schizophrenic-patients-and-healthy-controls
#18
Hui Fang, Yan Feng Zhen, Xing Yu Liu, Gang Xu, Jair C Soares, Jingping Zhao, Xiang Yang Zhang
Several lines of evidence suggest that a functional variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met) correlates with a number of eating disorders. Studies have also shown that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was associated with weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic treatment. This study aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and BMI values in patients with chronic schizophrenia. We compared 308 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia on long-term antipsychotic medication with 304 healthy normal controls on BDNF polymorphism...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455513/effects-of-levomilnacipran-extended-release-on-motivation-energy-and-functioning-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Michael E Thase, Carl Gommoll, Changzheng Chen, Kenneth Kramer, Angelo Sambunaris
The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate the relationship between motivation/energy and functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were taken from a phase 3 trial of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) in adults with MDD (NCT01034462; N=429) that used the 18-item Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) to assess motivation/energy. Two subgroups with lower and higher motivation/energy were defined using baseline MEI total scores (≤28 and >28, respectively)...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434314/benefit-risk-assessment-of-paliperidone-oral-extended-release-tablet-versus-monthly-injectable-for-maintenance-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#20
Bennett Levitan, Michael Markowitz, Ibrahim Turkoz, Dong-Jing Fu, Srihari Gopal, Larry Alphs
The purpose of this study was to conduct a post-hoc benefit-risk assessment of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable versus oral paliperidone extended-release (ER) in schizophrenia maintenance treatment. The Benefit-Risk Action Team framework was used to structure the analysis based on patient-level data from two similar, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse studies. Efficacy outcomes were relapse, psychiatric hospitalization, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
November 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
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