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Current Opinion in Cardiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465447/extracellular-vesicles-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-disease
#1
Joshua D Hutcheson, Elena Aikawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular vesicles have emerged as one of the most important means through which cells interact with each other and the extracellular environment, but extracellular vesicle research remains challenging due to their small size, limited amount of material required for traditional molecular biology assays and inconsistency in the methods of their isolation. The advent of new technologies and standards in the field, however, have led to increased mechanistic insight into extracellular vesicle function...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461262/genetics-of-atrial-fibrillation-an-update
#2
Hannah M Campbell, Xander H T Wehrens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia with a high morbidity and mortality affecting 34 million worldwide. Current therapies are inadequate and often fail to directly address molecular mechanisms of the disease. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of atrial fibrillation. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale genetic association studies have more than doubled the number of genetic loci associated with atrial fibrillation during the last year...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334508/practical-valvular-issues-in-patients-requiring-ventricular-assist-devices
#3
Mitesh Badiwala, Terrence Yau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy in patients with advanced heart failure continues to grow, experience with concomitant valvular diseases present either before or after VAD implantation continues to accrue. In this review, we discuss recent data and current practice as it pertains to the subject of concomitant valvular disease in patients requiring VADs. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent aortic valve closure has been identified as a potential contributor to aortic valve 'disuse atrophy' resulting in valve degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334507/what-s-hot-in-heart-valve-disease-2018
#4
Bobby Yanagawa, Subodh Verma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329115/developing-a-mitral-valve-center-of-excellence
#5
Ahmed El-Eshmawi, Javier G Castillo, Gilbert H L Tang, David H Adams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the proven superiority of mitral repair over replacement for degenerative mitral disease, mitral valve replacement remains common. Guidelines now recommend referral of patients, particularly those whom are asymptomatic, to valve centers of excellence, although criteria that define such centers remain to be established. The purpose of this review is to define the structure of a mitral center of excellence and to review current clinical outcomes which are possible in such a center...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319564/genetics-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-coronary-artery-disease
#6
Robert Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to describe the genetic risk variants that have been discovered predisposing to coronary artery disease (CAD) and how they are utilized to stratify for risk of CAD. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 90 genetic risk variants have been discovered that predispose to risk for CAD. SUMMARY: The total genetic risk burden for CAD is proportional to the number of risk variants inherited and can be combined into a single number referred to as the genetic risk score (GRS)...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256930/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-in-cardiac-surgery-a-primer
#7
Bobby Yanagawa, Derrick Y Tam, Amine Mazine, Andrea C Tricco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the strengths and weaknesses of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to inform our current understanding of cardiac surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a focused topic can provide a quantitative estimate for the effect of a treatment intervention or exposure. In cardiac surgery, observational studies and small, single-center prospective trials provide most of the clinical outcomes that form the evidence base for patient management and guideline recommendations...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251671/heart-failure-following-oncological-treatment
#8
James Marangou, Andrew Redfern, Tony Haddad, James M Rankin, Girish Dwivedi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to give the reader an up-to-date overview of the progress made in the burgeoning field of cardio-oncology, encompassing oncological treatments conferring risk, prediction strategies to identify patients at risk, imaging and biomarker monitoring for emergent or subclinical toxicity and prevention in primary and secondary settings with a focus on heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The rapid recent advances in cancer management, particularly with the expansion of targeted and immunotherapies, have led to substantial improvements in outcome, but have also added to the potential causes of cardiac toxicity, which can lead to heart failure...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240566/a-practical-clinical-approach-to-utilize-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-coronary-artery-disease-a-primer-for-cardiologists
#9
Sundeep Chaudhry, Ross Arena, Deepak L Bhatt, Subodh Verma, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing clinical interest for the use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate patients with or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). With mounting evidence, this concise review with relevant teaching cases helps to illustrate how to integrate CPET data into real world patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: CPET provides a novel and purely physiological basis to identify cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with both obstructive-CAD and nonobstructive-CAD (NO-CAD)...
December 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227300/exercise-testing-in-heart-failure-a-contemporary-discussion-in-an-era-of-novel-diagnostic-techniques-and-biomarkers
#10
Kegan J Moneghetti, Jeffrey W Christle, Jonathan Myers, Francois Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the field of exercise testing for patients with heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The importance of assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and exercise testing in heart failure is highlighted in the consensus recommendation of the American Heart Association. Contemporary studies have validated the independent and incremental strength of CRF metrics in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227299/blaise-pascal-and-the-evidence-on-the-use-of-multiple-arterial-grafts-for-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-after-the-interim-analysis-of-the-arterial-revascularization-trial
#11
Mario F L Gaudino, Marc Ruel, David P Taggart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After the publication of the interim analysis of the ART, we review the contradiction between the large numbers of observational studies published on the course of over 25 years and the randomized trials comparing the use of single versus multiple arterial grafts for coronary bypass surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The Arterial Revascularization Trial (ART) found no difference in survival and event-free survival at 5 years between patients randomized to receive one or two internal thoracic arteries at the time of surgery...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206692/individualizing-the-care-of-older-heart-failure-patients
#12
George A Heckman, Robert S McKelvie, Kenneth Rockwood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The heart failure epidemic is driven mainly by population aging and the improving survival of patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Aging heart failure patients are affected by multiple concurrent comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, the most important of which are frailty and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with practical advice on how to individualize the care of older heart failure patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty and cognitive impairment are common in older heart failure patients...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194052/machine-learning-in-heart-failure-ready-for-prime-time
#13
Saqib Ejaz Awan, Ferdous Sohel, Frank Mario Sanfilippo, Mohammed Bennamoun, Girish Dwivedi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to present an up-to-date overview of the application of machine learning methods in heart failure including diagnosis, classification, readmissions and medication adherence. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that the application of machine learning techniques may have the potential to improve heart failure outcomes and management, including cost savings by improving existing diagnostic and treatment support systems...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194051/blood-tissue-and-imaging-biomarkers-in-calcific-aortic-valve-stenosis-past-present-and-future
#14
Mylène Shen, Lionel Tastet, Jutta Bergler-Klein, Philippe Pibarot, Marie-Annick Clavel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the high-income countries. To this date, no medical therapy has been proven to prevent or to stop the progression of aortic valve stenosis. The physiopathology of aortic valve stenosis is highly complex and involves several signalling pathways, as well as genetic related factors, which delay the elaboration of effective pharmacotherapies. Moreover, it is difficult to predict accurately the progression of the valve stenosis and finding the optimal timing for aortic valve replacement remains challenging...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194050/update-on-the-management-of-acute-heart-failure
#15
Erin Rayner-Hartley, Sean Virani, Mustafa Toma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide a concise review of recent studies focusing on the management of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). RECENT FINDINGS: In well designed randomized trials, no mortality benefit has been observed with the use of diuretics, ultrafiltration, inotropes and vasodilators in AHF. Recent trials examining the role of novel inotropes and vasodilators as well as the role of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the AHF population, is reviewed...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319565/left-ventricular-assist-device-as-destination-therapy-for-end-stage-heart-failure-the-right-time-for-the-right-patients
#16
Naoto Fukunaga, Vivek Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure. Unfortunately, the demand for donor organs far outstrips the number of available hearts. Therefore, not all patients who can benefit from this therapy are even listed for transplant. Once destination therapy was approved for the long-term support of nontransplant eligible patients, it was felt that the number of durable ventricular assist device (VAD) implants would increase...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319563/mitral-repair-and-the-robot-a-revolutionary-tool-or-marketing-ploy
#17
Aly Ghoneim, Ismail Bouhout, Fahd Makhdom, Michael W A Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the current evidence supporting each minimally invasive mitral repair approach and their associated controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence demonstrates that minimally invasive mitral repair techniques yield similar mitral repair results to conventional sternotomy with the benefits of shorter hospital stay, quicker recovery, better cosmesis and improved patient satisfaction. Despite this, broad adoption of minimally invasive mitral repair is still not achieved...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300199/recent-advances-in-heart-failure
#18
Mahwash Kassi, Bashar Hannawi, Barry Trachtenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute heart failure continues to be a challenge as there is limited benefit of numerous agents that have been tested. Cardiac resynchronization therapy remains standard of care, yet timing and need for implantable cardiac defibrillator has been brought into question with the recent randomized trials. Several recent advances have been made towards management of heart failure both in drug and device therapy. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the most important recent studies on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232249/clinical-trials-in-valvular-surgery-a-2018-update
#19
Bobby Yanagawa, Amine Mazine, Derrick Y Tam, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing emphasis on the conduct of large-scale, multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to guide decision-making in cardiac surgery. Here we review recent landmark RCTs in cardiac valvular surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: RCTs are the gold-standard level of data in medicine. However, there are unique challenges of conducting large-scale surgical trials including funding, blinding, generalizability, nonstandardization of the surgical technique, crossover, among others...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#20
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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