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Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA

Pengfei Zhao, Heyu Ding, Han Lv, Jing Li, Xuehuan Liu, Zhenghan Yang, Zhenchang Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the growth pattern of temporal bone pneumatization (TBP) in consecutive age groups from birth to 18 years old using 3D air-density reconstruction of high-resolution CT (HRCT). METHODS: A total of 570 patients under 18 years old who performed temporal bone HRCT and with no structural abnormalities on both sides were included. Nineteen groups were created to represent consecutive ages, with 15 males and 15 females in each group. Volume rendering of air density was performed using a segmentation threshold of - 200 HU to obtain TBP volume of each side...
November 10, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
George R Matcuk, Dakshesh B Patel, Steven Cen, K Soraya Heidari, Eric W Tan
PURPOSE: Fibular (peroneal) groove morphology may influence fibularis tendon pathology, including tendinosis, tears, and luxation. The study goal was to evaluate the inter-reader agreement of morphologic characterization and measures of the fibular groove at two different levels on MRI and correlation with fibularis tendon pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 47 ankle MRIs in patients without lateral ankle pain were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Fibular groove morphology and various measurements were assessed at both the level of the tibial plafond and 1 cm proximal to the tip of the lateral malleolus...
November 8, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Satoshi Oki, Naoto Inaba, Noboru Matsumura, Takuji Iwamoto, Yoshitake Yamada, Masahiro Jinzaki, Takeo Nagura
PURPOSE: Surgical procedures for impaired forearm rotation such as for chronic radial head dislocation remain controversial. We hypothesized that the morphological axis of the proximal radius is important for stable forearm rotation, and we aimed to clarify the relationship between the morphological axis and the kinematic axis of the proximal radius using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled. Four-dimensional CT of the dominant forearm during supination and pronation was obtained...
November 7, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mutsuaki Edama, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Takanori Kikumoto, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Ryo Hirabayashi, Masahiro Ikezu, Fumiya Kaneko, Ikuo Kageyama
PURPOSE: The aim was to clarify the effect of differences in the number of fiber bundles of the anterior tibial ligament (ATFL) on ankle braking function. METHODS: The study sample included 81Japanese cadavers. ATFLs were categorized as: Type I with one fiber bundle; Type II with two fiber bundles that were completely separated; and Type III with three fiber bundles. Three-dimensional reconstructions of a single specimen from each category were then created. These were used to simulate and calculate ATFL strain during dorsiflexion (20°) and plantarflexion (30°) on the talocrural joint axis and inversion (20°) on the subtalar joint axis...
November 7, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Adel El-Badrawy, Mohammad K El-Badrawy
Pulmonary agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of pulmonary parenchyma and its vasculature. The diagnosis is usually during childhood. Herein, we report a case of incidental discover right pulmonary agenesis in adulthood male. A 30-year-old male presented with pre-operative medical evaluation for varicocele. There was no complaining from respiratory symptoms. He underwent plain chest X-ray and post-contrast CT scanning was performed using 64 multi-detector CT scanner. Chest Plain X-ray revealed cardiac and mediastinal shift to right side with hyper-inflated left lung crosses to right side...
November 7, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Nejc Umek, Erika Cvetko
Given the common and increasing exploitation of superficial head and neck veins in a widening spectrum of clinical and surgical procedures, it is important to equally broaden understanding of the heterogeneity of the vascular anatomy of the region. We report an unusual course of the right common facial vein parallel to the course of external jugular vein, emptying into the ipsilateral subclavian vein in the lateral neck triangle behind the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a 78-year-old male cadaver...
November 3, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Alper Vatansever, Deniz Demiryürek, Burcu Erçakmak, Hakan Özsoy, Tuncay Hazirolan, Yunus Emre Şentürk
PURPOSE: Clavicle fractures are common injuries in adults and children. Although neurovascular damage is rarely seen, acute subclavian artery pseudoaneurysms and injuries to subclavian vessels were reported for closed fractures of the clavicle. The aim of this study was to identify the morphological details of the subclavian vessels and their relation to the sternoclavicular joint and body of the clavicle. METHODS: 127 patients (66 females and 61 males) were evaluated using reconstructed three-dimensional computed tomographic angiographies...
November 3, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Alejandro Fernández-Gibello, Simone Moroni, Gabriel Camuñas, Rubén Montes, Marit Zwierzina, Christoph Tasch, Vasco Starke, José Sañudo, Teresa Vazquez, Marko Konschake
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to provide a safe ultrasound-guided minimally invasive surgical approach for a proximal tarsal tunnel release concerning nerve entrapments. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was carried out on ten fresh-frozen feet. All of them were examined by high resolution ultrasound at the medial ankle region. The surgical approach was marked throughout the course of the flexor retinaculum (laciniate ligament). Once the previous steps were done, the flexor retinaculum release technique was carried out with a 2-mm entry only...
October 31, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
D J H A Henssen, D Kuppens, F J A Meijer, A M van Cappellen van Walsum, Y Temel, E Kurt
BACKGROUND: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been studied as a possible target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, identifying the PPN can be challenging as the PPN is poorly visualized on conventional or even high-resolution MR scans. From histological studies it is known that the PPN is surrounded by major white matter tracts, which could function as possible anatomical landmarks. METHODS: This study aimed to localize the PPN using 7T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of its white matter borders in one post-mortem brain...
October 31, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Marcin Wiśniewski, Mariusz Baumgart, Magdalena Grzonkowska, Michał Szpinda, Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska
PURPOSE: There has been little information in the medical literature regarding the growing ulna in the human fetus, though such knowledge appears to be potentially useful in diagnosing skeletal dysplasias, characterized by a disrupted or completely halted growth of the fetus. Therefore, longitudinal measurements of long bones are extremely conducive in assessing both pregnancy and fetal anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using methods of CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the size of the ulna's shaft primary ossification center in 48 (26 males and 22 females) spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied...
October 31, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mutsuaki Edama, Ikuo Kageyama, Takaniri Kikumoto, Tomoya Takabayashi, Takuma Inai, Ryo Hirabayashi, Wataru Ito, Emi Nakamura, Masahiro Ikezu, Fumiya Kaneko, Akira Kumazaki, Hiromi Inaba, Go Omori
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to clarify the morphological characteristics of the lateral talocalcaneal ligament (LTCL). METHODS: This study examined 100 legs from 54 Japanese cadavers. The LTCL was classified into three types: Type I, the LTCL branches from the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL); Type II, the LTCL is independent of the CFL and runs parallel to the calcaneus; and Type III, the LTCL is absent. The morphological features measured were fiber bundle length, fiber bundle width, and fiber bundle thickness...
October 30, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Frédéric Crampon, Fabrice Duparc, Olivier Trost, Jean-Paul Marie
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to record the descriptive and metric anatomical characteristics of the thyrohyoid nerve with the aim of rerouting it in a selective laryngeal reinnervation procedure. METHODS: An anatomical study was performed on ten formalin-embalmed cadavers. The origin of the thyrohyoid nerve and the superior root of the ansa cervicalis, the location of the thyrohyoid nerve ending in the thyrohyoid muscle, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve were established...
October 29, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Simone Moroni, Marit Zwierzina, Vasco Starke, Bernhard Moriggl, Ferruccio Montesi, Marko Konschake
PURPOSE: Neuropathy of the Baxter nerve (BN) seems to be the first cause of the heel pain syndrome (HPS) of neurological origin. METHODS: 41 alcohol-glycerol embalmed feet were dissected. We documented the pattern of the branches of the tibial nerve (TN) and describe all relevant osteofibrous structures. Measurements for the TN branches were related to the Dellon-McKinnon malleolar-calcaneal line also called DM line (DML) for the proximal TT and the Heimkes Triangle for the distal TT...
October 27, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Özlem Elvan, Alev Bobuş, Semra Erdoğan, Mustafa Aktekin, Zeliha Kurtoğlu Olgunus
PURPOSE: The aims of the study are to define anatomy of the facial nerve (FN) and its main trunks as well as their relationship with the posterior auricular artery in fetal period to evaluate the data for regional surgery in newborns and young infants. METHODS: Formalin-fixed 34 fetuses from anatomy laboratory collection with a mean gestational age of 26.4 ± 4.6 (20-36) weeks were dissected. Parameters regarding the presence of major or minor trunks, width, length, branching pattern of FN were evaluated according to side, gender and trimester...
October 26, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Mehmet Ali Ikidag
Incidental CT findings of a 67 years old female patient that had right piriformis agenesis and migration of appendix vermiformis to the right deep gluteal region is presented. To our knowledge this is the first case that the appendix has such ectopic location. Consideration of such variation would be beneficial to avoid possible complications, especially for surgeons who deal with gluteal region.
October 25, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Neeru Goyal, Anjali Jain
PURPOSE: Variations of the phrenic nerve gain importance in the context of subclavian vein cannulation, implanted venous access portals and supraclavicular nerve block for regional anaesthesia. Some of the variations of phrenic nerve are very common and may have implications even while performing very simple and routine procedures. METHODS: During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, an anatomical variation was observed in the course of the phrenic nerve in an adult male cadaver...
October 25, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Doris George Yohannan, Rajeev Rajan, Akhil Bhuvanendran Chandran, Renuka Krishnapillai
We report an unusual origin and course of the thyroidea ima artery in a male cadaver. The ima artery originated from the right subclavian artery very close to origin of the right vertebral artery. The artery coursed anteriorly between the common carotid artery medially and internal jugular vein laterally. It then coursed obliquely, from below upwards, from lateral to medial superficial to common carotid artery, to reach the inferior pole of the right lobe of thyroid and branched repeatedly to supply the anteroinferior and posteroinferior aspects of both the thyroid lobes and isthmus...
October 25, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Satheesha B Nayak, Surekha Devadasa Shetty
Accessory muscles can be found in any part of the body. In most of the regions, they go unnoticed. However, in some cases, they become symptomatic or of cosmetic concern. In this particular case, the presence of two accessory muscle slips was observed in the flexor compartment of the leg. Among the two, the first accessory muscle belly connected the lower part of flexor hallucis longus to the tibialis posterior. The muscle crossed superficial to the posterior tibial vessels. The second accessory muscle took origin from the connective tissue around the lower part of the posterior tibial vessels and was inserted to the upper part of the lateral border of tibia near the attachment of the interosseous membrane...
October 23, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Cristina R Prall, Lyna Azzouz, Christopher Connolly, Marc Gutierrez, Natalie Moreno, Oluyemi Olumolade, B Kathleen Alsup, Glenn M Fox
PURPOSE: With emphasis on the clinical setting, knowledge of anatomical variation decreases misdiagnoses and surgical complications. We report a previously undocumented variant of sternalis muscle and recommend an augmented classification scheme. METHODS: Dissection of the anterior thoracic wall on an 83-year-old female cadaver revealed bilateral sternalis muscles. The Snosek et al. classification system was referenced to describe the variant types. RESULTS: The right sternalis muscle has a single belly and can be classified using the Snosek et al...
October 23, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Marta Fontolliet, Michael M Bornstein, Thomas von Arx
PURPOSE: To analyze morphological characteristics and dimensions of the infraorbital canal-groove complex using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to evaluate its relationship with adjacent anatomical structures. METHODS: This retrospective study included CBCT scans of 100 patients taken between January and May 2014. Linear measurements of the infraorbital canal (IOC), the infraorbital groove (IOG) and the infraorbital canal-groove complex (IOC/G) were performed...
October 17, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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