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Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363385/-salmonella-fecal-shedding-in-pigs-from-birth-to-market-and-its-association-with-the-presence-of-salmonella-in-palatine-tonsils-and-submandibular-lymph-nodes-at-slaughter
#1
Margaret H Ainslie-Garcia, Abdolvahab Farzan, Jane E Newman, Robert M Friendship, Brandon N Lillie
Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illnesses in humans. Food-producing animals, including swine, are a major source of Salmonella in food products. This study investigated on farm Salmonella fecal shedding in pigs at different production stages - from weaning to marketing - and its association with the presence of Salmonella in tissues at slaughter. Fourteen groups from 8 commercial farrowing sources (N = 809 pigs) were monitored 5 times from birth to slaughter. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from pigs and cultured for Salmonella...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363384/the-effect-of-graded-concentrations-of-dietary-tryptophan-on-canine-behavior-in-response-to-the-approach-of-a-familiar-or-unfamiliar-individual
#2
James R Templeman, Gary M Davenport, John P Cant, Vern R Osborne, Anna-Kate Shoveller
Tryptophan (Trp) is an indispensable dietary amino acid that supports the modulation of mood and behavior in mammalian species through its role in the serotonergic pathway. This study assessed the behavior patterns of 36 healthy, female adult mixed-breed hound dogs fed a control diet (tryptophan = 0.18% as-fed) or 1 of several experimental diets with graded concentrations of tryptophan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15% of the total diet) supplemented on top of the 0.18% basal level. At baseline, and every 8 weeks throughout the 24-week period, behavioral parameters were evaluated for each dog in response to the approach of an individual familiar to the dogs and another individual who was unfamiliar to the dogs...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363381/a-method-to-detect-escherichia-coli-carrying-the-colistin-resistance-genes-mcr-1-and-mcr-2-using-a-single-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-its-application-to-chicken-cecal-and-porcine-fecal-samples
#3
Gabhan Chalmers, Kristin E Davis, Zvonimir Poljak, Robert Friendship, Michael R Mulvey, Anne E Deckert, Richard J Reid-Smith, Patrick Boerlin
Colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant infections in humans, but transmissible colistin-resistance genes have emerged in bacteria from animals. The rapid and sensitive detection among animals of colonization with bacteria carrying these genes is critical in helping to control further spread. Here we describe a method for broth enrichment of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli from animal fecal and cecal samples followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of two of the main colistin-resistance genes, mcr-1 and mcr-2...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363380/competitive-luminex-immunoassays-for-detection-of-antibodies-to-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-vesicular-stomatitis-viruses-in-multiple-susceptible-hosts
#4
Charles Nfon, Diana Lusansky, Melissa Goolia, Ming Yang, Kate Hole, Leanne McIntyre
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and vesicular stomatitis (VS) cause such similar clinical signs and lesions that laboratory tests are required to distinguish between infections caused by each virus. Using mouse anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3B monoclonal or polyclonal anti-vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey (VSV-NJ) antibodies and recombinant FMDV 3ABC or VSV-NJ glycoprotein (G) antigens coated to MagPlex beads, competitive Luminex immunoassays (cLIAs) were developed for FMDV and VSV-NJ, respectively...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363379/comparison-of-saphenous-and-cephalic-blood-lactate-concentrations-in-dogs-with-gastric-dilatation-and-volvulus-45-cases
#5
Liron D Oron, Sigal Klainbart, Yaron Bruchim, Jantina McMurray, Søren Boysen, Matan Saar, Efrat Kelmer
Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening condition, suspected to result in differential tissue perfusion in different regions of the body. Lactate is a biomarker of hypoperfusion that correlates with treatment outcomes in dogs with GDV. This prospective observational study aimed to compare lactate between saphenous and cephalic venous samples in 45 client-owned dogs with GDV, to evaluate their association with treatment outcomes (survival, surgical complications, and duration of hospitalization) and to assess the correlation between lactate and other biochemical parameters...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363376/molecular-epidemiology-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-genotyping-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-mink
#6
Yongda Zhao, Lili Guo, Jie Li, Binghu Fang, Xianhui Huang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important animal pathogen and contributes to hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. Between April 2011 and December 2016, samples of lung, liver, and spleen were collected from mink with this disease on 11 mink farms in 5 Chinese provinces. From these samples, we obtained 98 isolates of P. aeruginosa that belonged to 5 serotypes: G ( n = 58), I ( n = 15), C ( n = 8), M ( n = 5), and B ( n = 2); 10 isolates were not typeable (10/98). More than 90% of the isolates formed biofilms, and 85% produced slime...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363366/use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-for-the-treatment-of-prostatic-cysts-in-dogs
#7
Enrico Bigliardi, Anna Maria Cantoni, Valeria De Cesaris, Laura Denti, Virna Conti, Mara Bertocchi, Francesco Di Ianni, Enrico Parmigiani, Stefano Grolli
Abnormalities of the canine prostate gland, in particular, benign hyperplasia and cysts, are frequent in dogs over 5 years of age. Treatment strategies for dogs with prostatic cysts include ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage with alcohol sclerotherapy, reduction surgery, and omentalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of prostatic cysts in dogs. Ten mixed breed adult male dogs were included in the study. Percutaneous drainage was performed prior to ultrasound-guided PRP injection with a 21G spinal needle...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363350/hematological-and-serum-biochemical-profile-values-in-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-mares
#8
Babak Faramarzi, Lon J Rich, Jolan Wu
Pregnancy in many mammals, including mares, is associated with physiological changes that are reflected in hematological and biochemical profiles. Understanding those physiological changes and differentiating them from pathological changes is imperative for providing care and medical therapy in pregnant mares. Our objective was to compare normal hematological and biochemical profiles in healthy non-pregnant as well as healthy pregnant mares during the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy. Blood was collected by jugular venipuncture into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and serum tubes...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363328/effects-of-immunosuppressive-prednisolone-therapy-on-pancreatic-tissue-and-concentration-of-canine-pancreatic-lipase-immunoreactivity-in-healthy-dogs
#9
Hiroshi Ohta, Kazuki Kojima, Nozomu Yokoyama, Noboru Sasaki, Yumiko Kagawa, Kiwamu Hanazono, Tomohito Ishizuka, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Satoshi Takagi, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of immunosuppressive prednisolone therapy on pancreatic tissue and the concentration of serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in healthy dogs. Six healthy beagle dogs were subcutaneously administered an immunosuppressive dose of prednisolone [4 mg/kg body weight (BW)] once daily for either 2 or 3 weeks. Serum cPLI concentration was measured before and after treatment. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreas and laparoscopic biopsy and histopathological examination of the right pancreatic lobe and the liver were also conducted before and after treatment...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363310/correlation-between-transepidermal-water-loss-tewl-and-severity-of-clinical-symptoms-in-cats-with-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Marcin P Szczepanik, Piotr M Wilkołek, Łukasz R Adamek, Grzegorz Kalisz, Marcin Gołyński, Wiesław Sitkowski, Iwona Taszkun
The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether there is a correlation between transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the severity of skin lesions in cats with feline atopic dermatitis (AD). The severity of symptoms was determined by using 2 scoring systems for clinically assessing the skin lesions in cats: Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis (SCORFAD) and Feline Extent and Severity Index (FeDESI). Such a correlation between TEWL and systems for clinically evaluating symptoms has already been shown in humans and dogs...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30363283/oscillometric-and-doppler-arterial-blood-pressure-measurement-in-conscious-goats
#11
Olga Szaluś-Jordanow, Michał Czopowicz, Anna Świerk, Oktawia Szpinda, Magdalena Garncarz, Marcin Mickiewicz, Agata Moroz, Emilia Bagnicka, Jarosław Kaba
The objective of this study was to characterize arterial blood pressure (BP) measurements obtained by using 2 indirect methods, oscillometry and Doppler ultrasonic sphygmomanometry, in conscious goats. Agreement between systolic BP yielded by these 2 methods was then assessed. Sixty female dairy goats aged from 1.5 to 11.8 y (median: 5.5 y) were examined in a standing position with a cuff placed on the tail. All goats had a severe arthritic form of caprine arthritis-encephalitis. Three to 5 repeated measurements of each BP type were averaged for each goat and considered as a final measurement...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026650/effect-of-piglet-separation-from-dam-at-birth-on-colostrum-uptake
#12
Rodrigo Manjarín, Yanisse A Montano, Roy N Kirkwood, Darin C Bennet, Kiro R Petrovski
The objective of this study was to determine whether birth order influences piglet survival because of reduced uptake of maternal antibodies by the piglets born later in large litters. Forty-five litters were serially allocated to one of 2 study groups. The crèche group consisted of 18 litters for which the 205 piglets were removed to a warm box to prevent suckling until 4 h after delivery of the first pig, and the control group of 27 litters for which 306 piglets were allowed to suckle from birth. The protein content of piglet blood and sow colostrum was determined with Brix refractometers...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026649/-actn3-gene-variants-as-potential-phenotype-and-performance-biomarkers-in-brazilian-sport-horses-training-for-eventing-in-a-tropical-climate
#13
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Fernando Queiroz de Almeida, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
The aim of this study was to look for mutations in the equine ACTN3 gene and to identify sequence variants that might be associated with the phenotype and performance of Brazilian sport horses training for events in a tropical climate. Among 17 such horses direct DNA sequencing and mutation analysis of the exon 15 and the intron-exon boundaries of ACTN3 revealed 2 new sequence variants in the ACTN3 intron 14-15, designated c.1681-86G > A and c.1681-129delA. Wild-type/deletion heterozygotes (A/del) had a lower mean subcutaneous fat layer in the region of the gluteus medius, as measured by ultrasonography, than the del/del homozygotes; the correlation was significant ( P = 0...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026648/isolation-culture-and-characterization-of-chicken-lung-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Xishuai Wang, F H C, J J Wang, Hongda Ji, Weijun Guan, Yuhua Zhao
Using lung tissues separated from 12-day-old chicken embryos, we attempted to obtain a novel population of stem cells, namely, chicken lung-derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs), which exhibit spindle-like morphology. The results of colony-forming assay and population doubling assay demonstrated that LMSCs had enormous colony-forming, self-renewal, and proliferative potential. When appropriately induced, LMSCs could differentiate into osteoblasts, adypocytes, chondrocytes, and neurons; in other words, LMSCs had cross-embryonic layer differentiation potential under corresponding induction conditions...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026647/the-biological-characteristics-of-sheep-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Fenghao Chen, Chenqiong Zhao, Yuhua Zhao, Li Li, Shi Liu, Zhiqiang Zhu, Weijun Guan
Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now regarded as a promising cell resource for tissue repair and regeneration, the optimal source of MSCs has not yet been determined. The objective of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in the future. Umbilical cord is an easily obtainable tissue resource, which is one reason that it has become a candidate resource for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we analyzed the biological characteristics of UCMSCs, such as their multiple differentiation and clone-forming ability, through morphological observation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), growth curve, positive rate test, and immunophenotype...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026646/intraocular-pressure-measurements-in-cattle-sheep-and-goats-with-2-different-types-of-tonometers
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nina Peche, Johanna Corinna Eule
The aim of this study was to investigate normal intraocular pressure (IOP) values of cattle, sheep, and goats with a rebound tonometer [TonoVet (TV)] and an applanation tonometer [Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA)] and to determine correction functions for the 2 devices. A total of 60 healthy cattle, sheep, and goats (20 of each) underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings were taken from both eyes with the 2 different tonometers and statistically analyzed. For calibration purposes, the IOP was preset on each instrument at 5 to 60 mmHg using 5 mmHg increments in 10 bovine, 8 ovine, and 6 caprine freshly enucleated eyes...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026645/effects-of-a-single-intravenous-bolus-injection-of-alfaxalone-on-canine-splenic-volume-as-determined-by-computed-tomography
#17
Michelle M M Hasiuk, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira, Clifford R Berry, Gary W Ellison
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intravenous dose of alfaxalone on canine splenic volume. In 6 adult beagle dogs the splenic volume [mean ± standard error (SE)] was determined by computed tomography to be 0.17 ± 0.02 L before alfaxalone administration and 0.24 ± 0.02 L ( P = 0.0091) and 0.23 ± 0.02 L ( P = 0.0268) 15 and 30 min, respectively, after alfaxalone administration. Hematocrits (mean ± SE) obtained at the same times were, respectively, 46.3% ± 1.3%, 40.6% ± 1...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026644/cardiac-weights-and-weight-ratios-as-indicators-of-cardiac-lesions-in-pigs-a-study-of-pig-hearts-from-an-ontario-abattoir
#18
Kathy Zurbrigg, Tony van Dreumel, Max F Rothschild, David Alves, Robert Friendship, Terri L O'Sullivan
Clinically healthy pigs used in research are assumed to have normal cardiac structure and function. Subclinical cardiac abnormalities may adversely affect the responses being measured in these experiments. The gross and histologic lesions observed in hearts collected from a Canadian abattoir between 2012 and 2015 indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities: 75% (297/396) of the hearts examined had such lesions. The ratios of total heart weight to body weight and of right ventricle weight to body weight were significantly greater for the hearts with lesions than for the hearts with no lesions, which suggests that cardiac remodeling, particularly hypertrophy, had occurred...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026643/impact-of-a-trap-neuter-return-event-on-the-size-of-free-roaming-cat-colonies-around-barns-and-stables-in-quebec-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Valérie Bissonnette, Bertrand Lussier, Béatrice Doizé, Julie Arsenault
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) event on the size of free-roaming rural cat colonies in Quebec. This prospective randomized, controlled study included 18 cat colonies around barns and stables that were randomly assigned to either a TNR group (10 colonies of 7 to 27 cats; 14.3 cats on average) or a control group (8 colonies of 7 to 26 cats; 14.5 cats on average). The number of cats in each colony was calculated from the images obtained by camera-trapping at: baseline (T0), 7...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026642/does-antimicrobial-therapy-improve-outcomes-in-horses-with-severe-equine-asthma-and-a-positive-tracheal-wash-bacterial-culture
#20
Michelle L Husulak, Stephen T Manning, Melissa D Meachem, Hilary J Burgess, Tasha Y Epp, Julia B Montgomery
The objective of this study was to observe the outcomes of adding an antimicrobial treatment to a conventional treatment regime in horses with severe equine asthma in a clinical setting. Eleven client-owned horses with a history consistent with severe equine asthma, increased respiratory effort and nostril flaring, ≥ 20% neutrophils on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and a positive tracheal wash (TW) bacterial culture were treated with environmental management, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Six horses were also treated with an antimicrobial (principal group), while the other 5 were administered saline as a placebo (control group)...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
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