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Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755197/peak-vertical-force-in-a-stabilized-canine-cranial-cruciate-deficient-stifle-model-a-one-year-follow-up
#1
Bertrand Lussier, Alexandre Gagnon, Maxim Moreau, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Éric Troncy
This study aimed to describe the peak vertical force (PVF) over a 1-year period in a stabilized canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle model. Our hypothesis was that PVF would be restored to Baseline (intact) at the end of the follow-up. Fifteen (> 20 kg) mixed-breed dogs were included in this study. Cranial cruciate ligament was transected on Day (D) 0 followed by lateral suture stabilization at D28. Peak vertical force was acquired at D-1, D14, D26, D91, D210 and D357. When compared to Baseline, the PVF was significantly decreased at D14, D26, and D91...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755196/effect-of-a-commercially-available-fish-based-dog-food-enriched-with-nutraceuticals-on-hip-and-elbow-dysplasia-in-growing-labrador-retrievers
#2
Sabrina Manfredi, Francesco Di Ianni, Nicola Di Girolamo, Sergio Canello, Giacomo Gnudi, Gianandrea Guidetti, Francesca Miduri, Martina Fabbi, Eleonora Daga, Enrico Parmigiani, Sara Centenaro, Antonella Volta
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in a group of growing Labrador retrievers fed a fish-based diet enriched with nutraceuticals with chondroprotective properties. The puppies ranged from 3 to 12 mo of age and were divided into 2 groups, each fed a different diet. The control diet consisted of a high quality, chicken-based dog food, while the test diet was a fish-based dog food, enriched with nutraceuticals. Hip and elbow joints were radiographed and scored at 6 and 12 mo of age...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755195/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-a-novel-porcine-circovirus-type-2-synthetic-peptide-vaccine
#3
Jiwoon Jeong, Changhoon Park, Seeun Kim, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Chanhee Chae
A novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) peptide vaccine comprised of a consensus capsid (Cap) protein domain encoded by open reading frame 2 was developed to control PCV2 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated against a commercial baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 subunit vaccine based on the Cap protein. The amino acid sequence of this Cap protein was designed based on the alignment of amino acid sequences from different isolates from Europe, North America, and Asia. The vaccine was evaluated in either phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755194/time-course-of-salmonella-shedding-and-antibody-response-in-naturally-infected-pigs-during-grower-finisher-stage
#4
Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terry L O'Sullivan, Robert M Friendship
A longitudinal trial was conducted to determine the course of Salmonella shedding and antibody response in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Ten-week-old pigs ( n = 45) were transferred from a farm with history of salmonellosis and housed at a research facility. Weekly fecal samples (weeks 1 to 11) as well as tissue samples at slaughter were cultured for Salmonella. Serum samples were tested for presence of Salmonella antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755193/h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-retained-low-pathogenicity-after-serial-passage-in-chickens
#5
Akinlolu Jegede, Qigao Fu, Yohannes Berhane, Min Lin, Ashok Kumar, Jiewen Guan
The H9N2 strains of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate worldwide in poultry and cause sporadic infection in humans. To better understand the evolution of these viruses while circulating in poultry, an H9N2 chicken isolate was passaged 19 times in chickens via aerosol inoculation. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the viruses from the initial stock and those after the 8th and 19th passages (P0, P8, and P19) all had the same monobasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin (HA), typical for viruses of low pathogenicity...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755192/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-bupivacaine-with-epinephrine-or-dexmedetomidine-after-intraperitoneal-administration-in-cats-undergoing-ovariohysterectomy
#6
Javier Benito, Beatriz Monteiro, Francis Beaudry, Paulo Steagall
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combination with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine after intraperitoneal administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen healthy adult cats (3.3 ± 0.6 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial after obtaining owners' consent. Anesthetic protocol included buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. Meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered subcutaneously before surgery. Cats were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive 1 of 2 treatments...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755191/26s-proteasome-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-serum-of-dogs-suffering-from-malignant-tumors
#7
Ingrid Gerke, Franz-Josef Kaup, Stephan Neumann
Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group)...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755190/venous-blood-gases-plasma-biochemistry-and-hematology-of-wild-caught-common-chameleons-chamaeleo-chamaeleon
#8
David Eshar, Melanie Ammersbach, Boaz Shacham, Gad Katzir, Hugues Beaufrère
The purpose of this study was to determine a wide range of selected hematologic, venous blood gases, and plasma biochemistry analytes in common chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) . Blood samples were collected from the ventral tail vein of 41 common chameleons to determine reference intervals for 30 different blood analytes. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, packed cell volume (PCV), refractometric total solids (TS), blood cell counts, and differentials were also determined. The microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed inclusion bodies in monocytes in 7 of the samples...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755189/roles-of-the-crp-and-sipb-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-protective-efficacy-and-immune-responses-to-vaccination-in-mice
#9
Songbiao Chen, Chengshui Liao, Chunjie Zhang, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a wide host range and is capable of causing infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infection in humans. To determine if attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can serve as safe and effective oral vaccines to prevent typhoid fever, the biologic characteristics of crp and sipB deletion mutants were evaluated. Previous studies had found that the crp and sipB genes are related to Salmonella pathogenicity. In this study, cytotoxicity, protective efficacy, and immune responses of the host were analyzed...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755188/comparison-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-lactate-concentrations-in-neurologic-dogs-with-and-without-structural-intracranial-disease
#10
Leontine Benedicenti, Giacomo Gianotti, Evelyn M Galban
The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid lactate and serum concentrations in dogs with clinical signs of central nervous system disease and to establish if cerebrospinal fluid lactate (CSF) concentrations are higher in dogs with structural intracranial disease (Group Pos-MRI) compared to dogs that have clinical signs of intracranial disease but no structural brain disease (Group Neg-MRI) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Using a prospective study canine blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected in 24 dogs with neurological signs after undergoing brain MRI...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755187/using-a-computer-simulation-model-to-examine-the-impact-of-biosecurity-measures-during-a-facility-level-outbreak-of-equine-influenza
#11
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
On-farm biosecurity measures are an important part of a control plan to minimize the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, such as equine influenza, in an equine facility. It can be challenging, however, to evaluate the efficacy of biosecurity measures under field conditions. We used an agent-based computer simulation model to describe the impact of: i) preventive vaccination; ii) reduced horse-to-horse contact; and iii) a combination of vaccination and reduced contact during an outbreak of equine influenza in a simulated horse facility...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755186/-in-vitro-study-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-1-2-9-13-and-serum-amyloid-a-mrnas-expression-in-equine-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-treated-with-doxycycline
#12
Samaneh Ghasemi, Kamran Sardari, Pezhman Mirshokraei, Hossein Hassanpour
Application of synthetic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitors, such as doxycycline is one of the possible therapeutic options for osteoarthritis. However, little is known about the protective mechanism of doxycycline in equine models on MMPs inhibitors as well as on serum amyloid A (SAA) gene expression. This study investigated the effects of doxycycline on mRNA expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, and SAA of equine fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). The FLSs were established from synovial fluids of clinically normal metacarpophalangeal joints of 6 skeletally mature horses...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382973/effect-of-transoral-tracheal-wash-on-respiratory-mechanics-in-dogs-with-respiratory-disease
#13
Meghan E Vaught, Elizabeth A Rozanski, Armelle M deLaforcade
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (Cstat ) and static resistance (Rstat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of < 0.05 considered significant...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382972/development-and-application-of-a-droplet-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction-ddpcr-for-detection-and-investigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#14
Xulong Wu, Lu Xiao, Hua Lin, Shijie Chen, Miao Yang, Wei An, Yin Wang, Zexiao Yang, Xueping Yao, Zizhong Tang
The aim of this study was to develop a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV). The methods of ASFV real-time PCR and ddPCR were established and optimal reaction conditions were confirmed. Each method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, and specificity. The results indicated that ASFV ddPCR had a high degree of linearity ( R 2 ≥ 0.998) and specificity. The detection limit was 10 copies/reaction, which was approximately a 10-fold greater sensitivity than real-time PCR...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382971/livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-clostridium-difficile-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-from-ontario-swine-farms
#15
Jamie L Rothenburger, Joyce D Rousseau, J Scott Weese, Claire M Jardine
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are important human pathogens that are also carried by animals. The role of wild mammals on farms in their maintenance and transmission, however, is poorly understood. To determine if Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are potential carriers of these bacteria on Canadian farms, we tested 21 rats from swine farms in Ontario. The MRSA spa type t034 was isolated from 1 (4.8%) rat. This livestock-associated strain often colonizes pigs and pig farmers, suggesting that transmission among rats and pigs or environmental transmission is possible on pig farms...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382970/histological-structure-and-age-related-changes-in-the-luminal-diameter-of-the-excurrent-duct-system-of-guinea-cocks-numida-meleagris-and-associated-changes-in-testosterone-concentrations
#16
Ibn Iddriss Abdul-Rahman, Ian Jeffcoate
As little information is available on the reproductive system of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), a study was conducted on 49 male guinea fowl to document the histological structure and developmental changes in the luminal diameter of the ducts within the excurrent duct system and associated changes in concentrations of testosterone. Age-related changes were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and medians separated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Tubuli recti were clearly visible in the guinea fowl and the rete testes were both intracapsular and extracapsular...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382969/comparison-of-the-oral-and-rectal-mucosal-and-colonic-serosal-microcirculations-of-healthy-anesthetized-horses
#17
Philip J Kieffer, Jarred M Williams, Molly K Shepard, Steeve Giguère, Kira L Epstein
The objectives of the study were to: i) determine baseline microvascular perfusion indices (MPI) and assess their repeatability in healthy horses under general anesthesia, and ii) compare the MPIs of 3 microvascular beds (oral mucosa, colonic serosa, and rectal mucosa). Healthy adult horses were anesthetized and sidestream dark field microscopy was used to collect video loops of the oral mucosa, rectal mucosa, and colonic serosa under normotensive conditions without cardiovascular support drugs; videos were later analyzed to produce MPIs...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382968/biological-characteristics-and-conjugated-antigens-of-clfa-a-fnbpa-and-cp5-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Tiansen Li, Meiling Huang, Zhanhui Song, Hui Zhang, Chuangfu Chen
To obtain immunogenic conjugate antigens, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), as a bridge, and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimidehydrochloride (EDAC), as a coupling agent, were used to conjugate the purified fusion protein, clumping factor A-fibronectin binding protein ClfA A-FnBPA, and type 5 capsular polysaccharide (CP5). The conjugates were mixed with an adjuvant, and mice were immunized 3 times and challenged with Staphylococcus aureus 1 week later. Antibody titers were determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382967/comparison-of-3-vaccination-strategies-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-on-a-3-pathogen-challenge-model
#19
Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382966/comparison-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-feedlots-and-urban-wastewater
#20
Alicia G Beukers, Rahat Zaheer, Shaun R Cook, Alexandre V Chaves, Michael P Ward, Lisa Tymensen, Paul S Morley, Sherry Hannon, Calvin W Booker, Ron R Read, Tim A McAllister
The use of antibiotics in livestock production in North America and possible association with elevated abundance of detectable antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) is a growing concern. Real-time, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the relative abundance and diversity of ARG in fecal composite and catch basin samples from 4 beef feedlots in Alberta. Samples from a surrounding waterway and municipal wastewater treatment plants were also included to compare the ARG profile of urban environments and fresh water with that of feedlots...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
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