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Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026650/effect-of-piglet-separation-from-dam-at-birth-on-colostrum-uptake
#1
Rodrigo Manjarín, Yanisse A Montano, Roy N Kirkwood, Darin C Bennet, Kiro R Petrovski
The objective of this study was to determine whether birth order influences piglet survival because of reduced uptake of maternal antibodies by the piglets born later in large litters. Forty-five litters were serially allocated to one of 2 study groups. The crèche group consisted of 18 litters for which the 205 piglets were removed to a warm box to prevent suckling until 4 h after delivery of the first pig, and the control group of 27 litters for which 306 piglets were allowed to suckle from birth. The protein content of piglet blood and sow colostrum was determined with Brix refractometers...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026649/-actn3-gene-variants-as-potential-phenotype-and-performance-biomarkers-in-brazilian-sport-horses-training-for-eventing-in-a-tropical-climate
#2
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Liane de Castro, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Fernando Queiroz de Almeida, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
The aim of this study was to look for mutations in the equine ACTN3 gene and to identify sequence variants that might be associated with the phenotype and performance of Brazilian sport horses training for events in a tropical climate. Among 17 such horses direct DNA sequencing and mutation analysis of the exon 15 and the intron-exon boundaries of ACTN3 revealed 2 new sequence variants in the ACTN3 intron 14-15, designated c.1681-86G > A and c.1681-129delA. Wild-type/deletion heterozygotes (A/del) had a lower mean subcutaneous fat layer in the region of the gluteus medius, as measured by ultrasonography, than the del/del homozygotes; the correlation was significant ( P = 0...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026648/isolation-culture-and-characterization-of-chicken-lung-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Xishuai Wang, F H C, J J Wang, Hongda Ji, Weijun Guan, Yuhua Zhao
Using lung tissues separated from 12-day-old chicken embryos, we attempted to obtain a novel population of stem cells, namely, chicken lung-derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs), which exhibit spindle-like morphology. The results of colony-forming assay and population doubling assay demonstrated that LMSCs had enormous colony-forming, self-renewal, and proliferative potential. When appropriately induced, LMSCs could differentiate into osteoblasts, adypocytes, chondrocytes, and neurons; in other words, LMSCs had cross-embryonic layer differentiation potential under corresponding induction conditions...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026647/the-biological-characteristics-of-sheep-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Fenghao Chen, Chenqiong Zhao, Yuhua Zhao, Li Li, Shi Liu, Zhiqiang Zhu, Weijun Guan
Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now regarded as a promising cell resource for tissue repair and regeneration, the optimal source of MSCs has not yet been determined. The objective of this study was to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in the future. Umbilical cord is an easily obtainable tissue resource, which is one reason that it has become a candidate resource for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we analyzed the biological characteristics of UCMSCs, such as their multiple differentiation and clone-forming ability, through morphological observation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), growth curve, positive rate test, and immunophenotype...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026646/intraocular-pressure-measurements-in-cattle-sheep-and-goats-with-2-different-types-of-tonometers
#5
Nina Peche, Johanna Corinna Eule
The aim of this study was to investigate normal intraocular pressure (IOP) values of cattle, sheep, and goats with a rebound tonometer [TonoVet (TV)] and an applanation tonometer [Tono-Pen AVIA (TPA)] and to determine correction functions for the 2 devices. A total of 60 healthy cattle, sheep, and goats (20 of each) underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings were taken from both eyes with the 2 different tonometers and statistically analyzed. For calibration purposes, the IOP was preset on each instrument at 5 to 60 mmHg using 5 mmHg increments in 10 bovine, 8 ovine, and 6 caprine freshly enucleated eyes...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026645/effects-of-a-single-intravenous-bolus-injection-of-alfaxalone-on-canine-splenic-volume-as-determined-by-computed-tomography
#6
Michelle M M Hasiuk, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira, Clifford R Berry, Gary W Ellison
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intravenous dose of alfaxalone on canine splenic volume. In 6 adult beagle dogs the splenic volume [mean ± standard error (SE)] was determined by computed tomography to be 0.17 ± 0.02 L before alfaxalone administration and 0.24 ± 0.02 L ( P = 0.0091) and 0.23 ± 0.02 L ( P = 0.0268) 15 and 30 min, respectively, after alfaxalone administration. Hematocrits (mean ± SE) obtained at the same times were, respectively, 46.3% ± 1.3%, 40.6% ± 1...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026644/cardiac-weights-and-weight-ratios-as-indicators-of-cardiac-lesions-in-pigs-a-study-of-pig-hearts-from-an-ontario-abattoir
#7
Kathy Zurbrigg, Tony van Dreumel, Max F Rothschild, David Alves, Robert Friendship, Terri L O'Sullivan
Clinically healthy pigs used in research are assumed to have normal cardiac structure and function. Subclinical cardiac abnormalities may adversely affect the responses being measured in these experiments. The gross and histologic lesions observed in hearts collected from a Canadian abattoir between 2012 and 2015 indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities: 75% (297/396) of the hearts examined had such lesions. The ratios of total heart weight to body weight and of right ventricle weight to body weight were significantly greater for the hearts with lesions than for the hearts with no lesions, which suggests that cardiac remodeling, particularly hypertrophy, had occurred...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026643/impact-of-a-trap-neuter-return-event-on-the-size-of-free-roaming-cat-colonies-around-barns-and-stables-in-quebec-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Valérie Bissonnette, Bertrand Lussier, Béatrice Doizé, Julie Arsenault
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) event on the size of free-roaming rural cat colonies in Quebec. This prospective randomized, controlled study included 18 cat colonies around barns and stables that were randomly assigned to either a TNR group (10 colonies of 7 to 27 cats; 14.3 cats on average) or a control group (8 colonies of 7 to 26 cats; 14.5 cats on average). The number of cats in each colony was calculated from the images obtained by camera-trapping at: baseline (T0), 7...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026642/does-antimicrobial-therapy-improve-outcomes-in-horses-with-severe-equine-asthma-and-a-positive-tracheal-wash-bacterial-culture
#9
Michelle L Husulak, Stephen T Manning, Melissa D Meachem, Hilary J Burgess, Tasha Y Epp, Julia B Montgomery
The objective of this study was to observe the outcomes of adding an antimicrobial treatment to a conventional treatment regime in horses with severe equine asthma in a clinical setting. Eleven client-owned horses with a history consistent with severe equine asthma, increased respiratory effort and nostril flaring, ≥ 20% neutrophils on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and a positive tracheal wash (TW) bacterial culture were treated with environmental management, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Six horses were also treated with an antimicrobial (principal group), while the other 5 were administered saline as a placebo (control group)...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026641/pharmacokinetics-of-cannabidiol-administered-by-3-delivery-methods-at-2-different-dosages-to-healthy-dogs
#10
Lisa R Bartner, Stephanie McGrath, Sangeeta Rao, Linda K Hyatt, Luke A Wittenburg
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy dogs. Thirty, healthy research dogs were assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulations (oral microencapsulated oil beads, oral CBD-infused oil, or CBD-infused transdermal cream), at a dose of 75 mg or 150 mg q12h for 6 wk. Serial cannabidiol plasma concentrations were measured over the first 12 h and repeated at 2, 4, and 6 wk. Higher systemic exposures were observed with the oral CBD-infused oil formulation and the half-life after a 75-mg and 150-mg dose was 199...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026640/changes-in-antimicrobial-resistance-levels-among-escherichia-coli-salmonella-and-campylobacter-in-ontario-broiler-chickens-between-2003-and-2015
#11
Agnes Agunos, Richard K Arsenault, Brent P Avery, Anne E Deckert, Sheryl P Gow, Nicol Janecko, David F Léger, E Jane Parmley, Richard J Reid-Smith, Scott A McEwen
Poultry has been identified as a reservoir of foodborne enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to describe and compare antimicrobial resistant isolates from an Ontario broiler chicken farm-level baseline project (2003 to 2004) to the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Ontario abattoir and retail surveillance data from 2003, and to the most recent (2015) CIPARS Ontario chicken surveillance data in order to assess the impact of an industry-wide policy change in antimicrobial use...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755197/peak-vertical-force-in-a-stabilized-canine-cranial-cruciate-deficient-stifle-model-a-one-year-follow-up
#12
Bertrand Lussier, Alexandre Gagnon, Maxim Moreau, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Éric Troncy
This study aimed to describe the peak vertical force (PVF) over a 1-year period in a stabilized canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle model. Our hypothesis was that PVF would be restored to Baseline (intact) at the end of the follow-up. Fifteen (> 20 kg) mixed-breed dogs were included in this study. Cranial cruciate ligament was transected on Day (D) 0 followed by lateral suture stabilization at D28. Peak vertical force was acquired at D-1, D14, D26, D91, D210 and D357. When compared to Baseline, the PVF was significantly decreased at D14, D26, and D91...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755196/effect-of-a-commercially-available-fish-based-dog-food-enriched-with-nutraceuticals-on-hip-and-elbow-dysplasia-in-growing-labrador-retrievers
#13
Sabrina Manfredi, Francesco Di Ianni, Nicola Di Girolamo, Sergio Canello, Giacomo Gnudi, Gianandrea Guidetti, Francesca Miduri, Martina Fabbi, Eleonora Daga, Enrico Parmigiani, Sara Centenaro, Antonella Volta
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in a group of growing Labrador retrievers fed a fish-based diet enriched with nutraceuticals with chondroprotective properties. The puppies ranged from 3 to 12 mo of age and were divided into 2 groups, each fed a different diet. The control diet consisted of a high quality, chicken-based dog food, while the test diet was a fish-based dog food, enriched with nutraceuticals. Hip and elbow joints were radiographed and scored at 6 and 12 mo of age...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755195/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-a-novel-porcine-circovirus-type-2-synthetic-peptide-vaccine
#14
Jiwoon Jeong, Changhoon Park, Seeun Kim, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Chanhee Chae
A novel porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) peptide vaccine comprised of a consensus capsid (Cap) protein domain encoded by open reading frame 2 was developed to control PCV2 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated against a commercial baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 subunit vaccine based on the Cap protein. The amino acid sequence of this Cap protein was designed based on the alignment of amino acid sequences from different isolates from Europe, North America, and Asia. The vaccine was evaluated in either phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755194/time-course-of-salmonella-shedding-and-antibody-response-in-naturally-infected-pigs-during-grower-finisher-stage
#15
Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terry L O'Sullivan, Robert M Friendship
A longitudinal trial was conducted to determine the course of Salmonella shedding and antibody response in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Ten-week-old pigs ( n = 45) were transferred from a farm with history of salmonellosis and housed at a research facility. Weekly fecal samples (weeks 1 to 11) as well as tissue samples at slaughter were cultured for Salmonella. Serum samples were tested for presence of Salmonella antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755193/h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-retained-low-pathogenicity-after-serial-passage-in-chickens
#16
Akinlolu Jegede, Qigao Fu, Yohannes Berhane, Min Lin, Ashok Kumar, Jiewen Guan
The H9N2 strains of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate worldwide in poultry and cause sporadic infection in humans. To better understand the evolution of these viruses while circulating in poultry, an H9N2 chicken isolate was passaged 19 times in chickens via aerosol inoculation. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the viruses from the initial stock and those after the 8th and 19th passages (P0, P8, and P19) all had the same monobasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin (HA), typical for viruses of low pathogenicity...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755192/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-bupivacaine-with-epinephrine-or-dexmedetomidine-after-intraperitoneal-administration-in-cats-undergoing-ovariohysterectomy
#17
Javier Benito, Beatriz Monteiro, Francis Beaudry, Paulo Steagall
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combination with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine after intraperitoneal administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen healthy adult cats (3.3 ± 0.6 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial after obtaining owners' consent. Anesthetic protocol included buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. Meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered subcutaneously before surgery. Cats were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive 1 of 2 treatments...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755191/26s-proteasome-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-serum-of-dogs-suffering-from-malignant-tumors
#18
Ingrid Gerke, Franz-Josef Kaup, Stephan Neumann
Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group)...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755190/venous-blood-gases-plasma-biochemistry-and-hematology-of-wild-caught-common-chameleons-chamaeleo-chamaeleon
#19
David Eshar, Melanie Ammersbach, Boaz Shacham, Gad Katzir, Hugues Beaufrère
The purpose of this study was to determine a wide range of selected hematologic, venous blood gases, and plasma biochemistry analytes in common chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) . Blood samples were collected from the ventral tail vein of 41 common chameleons to determine reference intervals for 30 different blood analytes. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, packed cell volume (PCV), refractometric total solids (TS), blood cell counts, and differentials were also determined. The microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed inclusion bodies in monocytes in 7 of the samples...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755189/roles-of-the-crp-and-sipb-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-protective-efficacy-and-immune-responses-to-vaccination-in-mice
#20
Songbiao Chen, Chengshui Liao, Chunjie Zhang, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has a wide host range and is capable of causing infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infection in humans. To determine if attenuated S. Typhimurium strains can serve as safe and effective oral vaccines to prevent typhoid fever, the biologic characteristics of crp and sipB deletion mutants were evaluated. Previous studies had found that the crp and sipB genes are related to Salmonella pathogenicity. In this study, cytotoxicity, protective efficacy, and immune responses of the host were analyzed...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
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