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Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733789/degree-of-corneal-anesthesia-after-topical-application-of-0-4-oxybuprocaine-ophthalmic-solution-in-normal-equids
#1
Erika Little, Kathy Yvorchuk-St Jean, William Little, Fortune Sithole, Guy St Jean
Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution has been widely used off-label in horses and donkeys, despite lack of data demonstrating efficacy and safety in these species. The objective of this study was to assess anesthetic efficacy of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in horses (n = 5) and donkeys (n = 24) and compare the effects with 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Donkeys (n = 12) and horses (n = 5) in group A received sterile ophthalmic solutions 0...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733788/tramadol-does-not-enhance-sedation-induced-by-acepromazine-in-dogs
#2
Eduardo R Monteiro, Renan B Lobo, Juarez S Nunes, Julia P P Rangel, Flavia S Bitti
The sedative effect of acepromazine combined with 2 doses of tramadol [3 and 5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was compared with the sedative effect of acepromazine alone in dogs and the effects of each sedative protocol on cardiorespiratory variables were examined. This was a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Each of 6 dogs received 3 treatments at 1-week intervals. During all anesthetic episodes, dogs received 0.05 mg/kg BW acepromazine. Approximately 25 min later, dogs were given physiological saline (control) or tramadol [3 mg/kg BW (TR3) or 5 mg/kg BW (TR5)]...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733787/clinical-staging-in-bitches-with-mammary-tumors-influence-of-type-and-histological-grade
#3
Lígia F Gundim, Camila P de Araújo, William T Blanca, Ednaldo C Guimarães, Alessandra A Medeiros
Breast tumors are the most common tumors in dogs and the study of disease prognostic factors is important for establishing the appropriate treatment protocols. The purpose of this study was to clinically stage mammary tumors of bitches and correlate the stages with histological type and grade. The tumors of 63 dogs were clinically staged based on the findings of tumor sizing, lymph node evaluation, and radiographic examination. After surgical excision, the tumors were classified histologically and graded. The relationship between the tumor grade, stage, and histological type was evaluated using a binomial test...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733786/identification-and-characterization-of-pig-adipose-derived-progenitor-cells
#4
Shuang Zhang, Chunyu Bai, Dong Zheng, Yuhua Gao, Yanan Fan, Lu Li, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent, and can be differentiated into many cell types in vitro. In this study, tissues from pigs were chosen to identify and characterize ADSCs. Primary ADSCs were sub-cultured to passage 28. The surface markers of ADSCs: CD29, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD166 were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and the markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and vimentin were detected by immunofluorescence. Growth curves and the capacity of clone-forming were performed to test the proliferation of ADSCs...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733785/evaluation-of-hyaluronic-acid-procollagen-type-iii-n-terminal-peptide-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-as-serum-markers-of-canine-hepatic-fibrosis
#5
Jonathan A Lidbury, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Joanna K Fry, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
The only way to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in dogs is by histological assessment of a liver biopsy specimen. As this technique is invasive and susceptible to sampling variation, serum biomarkers are used to detect hepatic fibrosis in humans. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as serum markers of canine hepatic fibrosis. Serum samples were collected from 47 dogs with histologically confirmed hepatobiliary disease and 24 healthy dogs in order to measure concentrations of HA, PIIINP, and TIMP-1...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733784/evaluation-of-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-from-the-lateral-tailhead-inguinal-region-and-mesentery-of-horses
#6
Garrett L Metcalf, Scott R McClure, Jesse M Hostetter, Rudy F Martinez, Chong Wang
Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of equine adipose tissue has promising applications for regenerative therapies. The most commonly used source of equine adipose tissue is the subcutaneous tailhead. The objective of this study was to compare 3 adipose depot sites in horses and determine the viability and cellular yield, capillary density, gene expression for selected markers, and colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) in adipose tissue taken from these sites...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733783/minimum-dose-antigen-content-and-immunization-duration-of-a-trivalent-vaccine-of-inactivated-haemophilus-parasuis-serovars-4-5-and-12-against-gl%C3%A3-sser-s-disease-in-pigs
#7
Zhanqin Zhao, Huisheng Liu, Keshan Zhang, Qiao Xue, Kunpeng Chen, Yun Xue
The objective of this study was to assess the minimum dose, antigen content, and immunization duration of a trivalent vaccine containing inactivated Haemophilus parasuis serovars 4, 5, and 12 and the Montanide GEL 01 PR adjuvant in piglets and pregnant sows. Our results demonstrated that the minimum vaccine dose was 2 mL per pig and the optimal antigen content 2.0 × 10(9), 1.0 × 10(9), and 1.0 × 10(9) colony-forming units/mL of serovars 4, 5, and 12, respectively. The vaccine provided effective protection 14 d after the 2nd vaccination, and the period of immune protection was 180 d (6 mo) after the 2nd vaccination...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733782/efficient-construction-of-haemophilus-parasuis-mutants-based-on-natural-transformation
#8
Junxing Li, Xiufang Yuan, Lihua Xu, Lei Kang, Jun Jiang, Yicheng Wang
Studies on virulence factors and pathogenecity of Haemophilus parasuis have long been hindered by a lack of a consistent system for genetic manipulation. In this study, competence was induced by transferring H. parasuis from rich medium to starvation medium media-IV (M-IV) and iscR gene deficient mutants of H. parasuis were generated efficiently. Transformation frequency varied from 4.1 × 10(-5) to 1.1 × 10(-8) when using circular plasmid, and increased to about 2- to 31-fold when transformed using linearized plasmid...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733781/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-european-vaccine-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-virus-in-bred-gilts
#9
Michael D Piontkowski, Jeremy Kroll, Francois-Xavier Orveillon, Christian Kraft, Teresa Coll
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be devastating to commercial breeding operations. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel European PRRSV vaccinal strain for safety and efficacy in bred gilts. In 2 experiments, 110 gilts were vaccinated intramuscularly and the vaccine was evaluated for safety and efficacy. Gilts in Experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions and gilts in both experiments were observed for clinical signs of disease through farrow. In both experiments, piglet clinical observations, piglet average daily weight gain (ADWG), gilt serology [determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)], gilt and piglet viremia [determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)], as well as piglet lung lesion scores and PRRS virus in lung tissue (qPCR) were determined...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733780/detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-papillomavirus-in-cutaneous-warts-in-cattle-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#10
Edith Rojas-Anaya, Antonio Cantú-Covarrubias, José Francisco Morales Álvarez, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio
Papillomas occur more frequently in cattle than other domestic animals. The causal agent of bovine papillomatosis is a virus that belongs to the family Papillomaviridae. In Tamaulipas, Mexico, the virus is considered a serious problem and has impeded the export of cattle to the United States, resulting in serious economic losses. Owing to the lack of information regarding the subtypes of papillomaviruses that infect cattle in Mexico, the aim of this study was to determine the subtypes in Tamaulipas. Fifty-two warts were analyzed with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involving primers that amplify the E7 gene of bovine papillomavirus (BPV)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733779/a-5-year-study-of-the-incidence-and-economic-impact-of-variant-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-on-broiler-production-in-saskatchewan-canada
#11
Tara Zachar, Shelly Popowich, Bob Goodhope, Tennille Knezacek, Davor Ojkic, Philip Willson, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Susantha Gomis
While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408341/plasma-concentrations-of-buprenorphine-following-a-single-subcutaneous-administration-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-buprenorphine-in-sheep
#12
Chiara Zullian, Pablo Lema, Melissa Lavoie, Aurore Dodelet-Devillers, Francis Beaudry, Pascal Vachon
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of slow release buprenorphine in sheep. Twelve adult female sheep (6 Dorset and 6 Suffolk, 12 months of age) were used for this project and were divided into 2 experimental groups (n = 6/group comprising 3 Dorset and 3 Suffolk sheep). Sustained release (SR) buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously in the scapular region at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg body weight (BW) for group 1 and of 0.05 mg/kg BW for group 2. Following blood collections at selected time points, plasma concentrations of buprenorphine was performed by tandem liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408340/protective-efficacy-by-various-doses-of-salmonella-ghost-vaccine-candidate-carrying-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-fimbrial-antigen-against-neonatal-piglet-colibacillosis
#13
Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee
Humoral immune responses and protective efficacy by various doses of Salmonella ghost cells carrying enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) fimbrial antigens for protection against piglet colibacillosis were studied. All groups were orally primed and boosted at 11 and 14 wk of pregnancy, respectively. Group A sows were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and groups B, C, and D sows were immunized with 2 × 10(9), 2 × 10(10), and 2 × 10(11) ghost cells, respectively. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and colostrum IgG and IgA levels of groups C and D sows were significantly higher than those of group A sows...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408339/prevalence-of-netf-positive-clostridium-perfringens-in-foals-in-southwestern-ontario
#14
Abigail Finley, Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Valeria R Parreira, Miranda Abrahams, Henry R Staempfli, John F Prescott
NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens have recently been identified as a cause of necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals, but little is known about its prevalence in clinically normal foals. Foals (n = 88) ranging in age from < 1 wk to 2 to 4 mo (median age 2 to 4 wk) on 8 horse-breeding farms in Ontario were examined on 1 or 2 occasions for the presence of C. perfringens. Of the foals that tested positive, 5 isolates (n = 675) were examined for the netF and enterotoxin (cpe) genes. Colonization by C. perfringens was most marked in foals < 1 wk of age [4...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408338/changes-in-gene-expression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-6-in-a-canine-model-of-caerulein-induced-pancreatitis
#15
Ruhui Song, Dohyeon Yu, Jinho Park
Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process that frequently involves peripancreatic tissues and remote organ systems. It has high morbidity and mortality rates in both human and veterinary patients. The severity of pancreatitis is generally determined by events that occur after acinar cell injury in the pancreas, resulting in elevated levels of various proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL) 1β and 6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). When these mediators are excessively released into the systemic circulation, severe pancreatitis occurs with systemic complications...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408337/pharmacokinetics-of-a-combination-of-amikacin-sulfate-and-penicillin-g-sodium-for-intravenous-regional-limb-perfusion-in-adult-horses
#16
Jorge E Nieto, Jan Trela, Scott D Stanley, Sawsan Yamout, Jack R Snyder
The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of amikacin and penicillin G sodium when administered in combination as an intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) to horses. Seven healthy adult horses underwent an IVRLP in the cephalic vein with 2 g of amikacin sulfate and 10 mill IU of penicillin G sodium diluted to 60 mL in 0.9% saline. A pneumatic tourniquet set at 450 mmHg was left in place for 30 min. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint 35 min and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after infusion of the antimicrobials...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408336/a-new-technique-for-repeated-biopsies-of-the-mammary-gland-in-dairy-cows-allotted-to-latin-square-design-studies
#17
Luciano S de Lima, Eric Martineau, Francilaine E De Marchi, Marie-France Palin, Geraldo T Dos Santos, Hélène V Petit
The objective of this study was to develop a technique for carrying out repeated biopsies of the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows that provides enough material to monitor enzyme activities and gene expression in mammary secretory tissue. A total of 16 Holstein cows were subjected to 4 mammary biopsies each at 3-week intervals for a total of 64 biopsies. A 0.75-cm incision was made through the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the mammary gland and a trocar and cannula were inserted using a circular motion...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408335/relationship-of-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-with-obesity-and-obesity-associated-hyperinsulinemia-in-horses
#18
Heidi E Banse, Todd C Holbrook, Nicholas Frank, Dianne McFarlane
Local (skeletal muscle and adipose) and systemic inflammation are implicated in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance in humans. In horses, obesity is neither strongly nor consistently associated with systemic inflammation. The role of skeletal muscle inflammation in the development of insulin dysregulation (insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia) remains to be determined. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle inflammation is related to obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses. Thirty-five light-breed horses with body condition scores (BCSs) of 3/9 to 9/9 were studied, including 7 obese, normoinsulinemic (BCS ≥ 7, resting serum insulin < 30 μIU/mL) and 6 obese, hyperinsulinemic (resting serum insulin ≥ 30 μIU/mL) horses...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408334/effects-of-inhibitors-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-and-downstream-pathways-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-involving-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-or-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-canine-hemangiosarcoma
#19
Mami Adachi, Yuki Hoshino, Yusuke Izumi, Hiroki Sakai, Satoshi Takagi
Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408333/effects-of-the-791-c%C3%A2-t-mutation-in-the-promoter-for-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-on-gene-expression-and-resistance-of-large-white-pigs-to-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-f18
#20
Ying Liu, Chaohui Dai, Li Sun, Guoqiang Zhu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the immune system. In this study, TNF-α expression was analyzed in 11 tissues of 8 piglets resistant to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F18 and 8 ETEC F18-susceptible piglets from the Large White breed. The expression levels of TNF-α were high in immune organs (spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes). The levels were higher in ETEC F18-resistant piglets than in ETEC F18-susceptible piglets, with significant differences in spleen, kidney, thymus, lymph node, and duodenum (P < 0...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
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