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Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382973/effect-of-transoral-tracheal-wash-on-respiratory-mechanics-in-dogs-with-respiratory-disease
#1
Meghan E Vaught, Elizabeth A Rozanski, Armelle M deLaforcade
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (Cstat) and static resistance (Rstat), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P-value of < 0.05 considered significant. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) value of Cstat pre-TOTW was 1...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382972/development-and-application-of-a-droplet-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction-ddpcr-for-detection-and-investigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#2
Xulong Wu, Lu Xiao, Hua Lin, Shijie Chen, Miao Yang, Wei An, Yin Wang, Zexiao Yang, Xueping Yao, Zizhong Tang
The aim of this study was to develop a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV). The methods of ASFV real-time PCR and ddPCR were established and optimal reaction conditions were confirmed. Each method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, and specificity. The results indicated that ASFV ddPCR had a high degree of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.998) and specificity. The detection limit was 10 copies/reaction, which was approximately a 10-fold greater sensitivity than real-time PCR...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382971/livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-clostridium-difficile-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-from-ontario-swine-farms
#3
Jamie L Rothenburger, Joyce D Rousseau, J Scott Weese, Claire M Jardine
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are important human pathogens that are also carried by animals. The role of wild mammals on farms in their maintenance and transmission, however, is poorly understood. To determine if Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are potential carriers of these bacteria on Canadian farms, we tested 21 rats from swine farms in Ontario. The MRSA spa type t034 was isolated from 1 (4.8%) rat. This livestock-associated strain often colonizes pigs and pig farmers, suggesting that transmission among rats and pigs or environmental transmission is possible on pig farms...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382970/histological-structure-and-age-related-changes-in-the-luminal-diameter-of-the-excurrent-duct-system-of-guinea-cocks-numida-meleagris-and-associated-changes-in-testosterone-concentrations
#4
Ibn Iddriss Abdul-Rahman, Ian Jeffcoate
As little information is available on the reproductive system of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), a study was conducted on 49 male guinea fowl to document the histological structure and developmental changes in the luminal diameter of the ducts within the excurrent duct system and associated changes in concentrations of testosterone. Age-related changes were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and medians separated by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Tubuli recti were clearly visible in the guinea fowl and the rete testes were both intracapsular and extracapsular...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382969/comparison-of-the-oral-and-rectal-mucosal-and-colonic-serosal-microcirculations-of-healthy-anesthetized-horses
#5
Philip J Kieffer, Jarred M Williams, Molly K Shepard, Steeve Giguère, Kira L Epstein
The objectives of the study were to: i) determine baseline microvascular perfusion indices (MPI) and assess their repeatability in healthy horses under general anesthesia, and ii) compare the MPIs of 3 microvascular beds (oral mucosa, colonic serosa, and rectal mucosa). Healthy adult horses were anesthetized and sidestream dark field microscopy was used to collect video loops of the oral mucosa, rectal mucosa, and colonic serosa under normotensive conditions without cardiovascular support drugs; videos were later analyzed to produce MPIs...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382968/biological-characteristics-and-conjugated-antigens-of-clfa-a-fnbpa-and-cp5-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Tiansen Li, Meiling Huang, Zhanhui Song, Hui Zhang, Chuangfu Chen
To obtain immunogenic conjugate antigens, adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), as a bridge, and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimidehydrochloride (EDAC), as a coupling agent, were used to conjugate the purified fusion protein, clumping factor A-fibronectin binding protein ClfA A-FnBPA, and type 5 capsular polysaccharide (CP5). The conjugates were mixed with an adjuvant, and mice were immunized 3 times and challenged with Staphylococcus aureus 1 week later. Antibody titers were determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382967/comparison-of-3-vaccination-strategies-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-on-a-3-pathogen-challenge-model
#7
Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382966/comparison-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-feedlots-and-urban-wastewater
#8
Alicia G Beukers, Rahat Zaheer, Shaun R Cook, Alexandre V Chaves, Michael P Ward, Lisa Tymensen, Paul S Morley, Sherry Hannon, Calvin W Booker, Ron R Read, Tim A McAllister
The use of antibiotics in livestock production in North America and possible association with elevated abundance of detectable antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) is a growing concern. Real-time, quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the relative abundance and diversity of ARG in fecal composite and catch basin samples from 4 beef feedlots in Alberta. Samples from a surrounding waterway and municipal wastewater treatment plants were also included to compare the ARG profile of urban environments and fresh water with that of feedlots...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382965/development-and-optimization-of-a-cell-associated-challenge-model-for-mycoplasma-hyorhinis-in-7-week-old-cesarean-derived-colostrum-deprived-pigs
#9
Brian Martinson, F Chris Minion, Dianna Jordan
Mycoplasma hyorhinis (MHR) causes polyserositis and lameness in grower pigs. While herd-specific vaccines for this bacterium are being marketed, there are currently no licensed, commercially available vaccines for MHR. The objective of this study was to develop a challenge model in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pigs using cell-associated MHR that results in both severe pericarditis and lameness, in order to evaluate suitable vaccine candidates. We investigated administering MHR to 7-week-old pigs over 3 d using 3 different routes compared to administering MHR on a single day using 1 of 3 routes...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382964/safety-evaluation-of-a-new-anxiolytic-product-containing-botanicals-souroubea-spp-and-platanus-spp-in-dogs
#10
Aleksandar Masic, Rui Liu, Kristen Simkus, Jeff Wilson, John Baker, Pablo Sanchez, Ammar Saleem, Cory C Harris, Tony Durst, John T Arnason
Separation anxiety and noise aversion are common behavioral problems in dogs. They elicit fear responses such as cowering, seeking out the owner, and attempting to escape. This can result in property damage, injury to the dog, and disruption of the owner-pet bond, possibly leading to pet abandonment or euthanasia. A novel botanical anxiolytic product was evaluated for safety in dogs as the target animal species. Its intended use is for the treatment and prevention of anxiety and noise aversion in dogs. It contains a defined mixture of Souroubea spp...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081592/the-role-of-active-transport-in-the-transcellular-movement-of-the-peripheral-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-mk-467-an-in-vitro-pilot-study
#11
Rachel Bennett, Mari Palviainen, Marikki Peltoniemi, Lauri Vuorilehto, Mika Scheinin, Marja Raekallio, Outi Vainio
MK-467 is a peripherally acting α2-adrenoceptor antagonist due to its low lipid solubility and poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to assess whether MK-467 could be a substrate of an active efflux transport mechanism. Using Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCKII) and MDCKII cells transfected with the human multidrug resistance gene 1, drug transport was assessed in apical-basolateral and basolateral-apical directions. MK-467 was studied at 2 concentrations: 200 and 1000 ng/mL...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081591/seroprevalence-of-mycoplasma-suis-infection-in-pigs-in-eastern-china-as-estimated-by-a-blocking-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#12
Liang Zhongyang, Zhang Jiansong, Shen Yijuan, Xia Yuting, Li Yufeng, Xu Jiarong
Porcine infectious anemia caused by Mycoplasma suis is a global disease and results in serious economic losses. To determine the prevalence of M. suis infection in eastern China, a cross-sectional serologic study was conducted with 3458 porcine serum samples randomly obtained from January 2014 to August 2016. The samples were tested with a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in our laboratory. The seroprevalence was 33.3% in the complete sample set and was 25.9%, 37.8%, and 37.8% in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081590/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-based-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#13
Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Yunyun Geng, Wanzhe Yuan
A recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based method was developed for rapid and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV), the etiologic agent of African swine fever, a devastating disease of swine. Primers and the exo probe targeting the conserved region of the P72 gene of ASFV were designed and the reaction was run on the Genie III scanner device. Using recombinant plasmid DNA containing the P72 gene as template, we showed that the amplified product could be detected in less than 10 min and that the detection limit was 10(2) copies DNA/reaction [same detection limit as real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081589/identification-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-dairy-goats-and-dairy-sheep-in-ontario-canada
#14
Cathy A Bauman, Andria Jones-Bitton, Christina Ahlstrom, Lucy Mutharia, Jeroen De Buck, Jocelyn Jansen, David Kelton, Paula Menzies
The main objective of this study was to identify the circulating strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in fecal isolates obtained from dairy goat (N = 29 farms) and dairy sheep (N = 21 farms) populations in Ontario, Canada. Further subtyping was performed to determine if there was adequate diversity between strains that could be used to establish Map transmission patterns. Type C was the dominant strain of Map isolates (95.2%) identified in dairy goats (n = 21). Sub-typing of the Type C strains, based on variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units, identified 3 VNTR types: INMV 1 (n = 10), INMV 2 (n = 10), and a type not previously identified (n = 1)...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081588/protective-efficacy-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-ghost-vaccine-candidate-constructed-with-a-recombinant-lysozyme-pmap36-fusion-protein-in-a-murine-model
#15
Ja Young Moon, So Young Kim, Won Kyong Kim, Zhili Rao, Jung Hee Park, Ji Young Mun, Boram Kim, Hyo Sun Choi, Jin Hur
A Salmonella Typhimurium ghost vaccine was constructed with the use of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of lysozyme and porcine myeloid antimicrobial peptide 36 expressed by the Escherichia coli overexpression system. After confirmation of its effectiveness by transmission electron microscopy the vaccine was evaluated in a murine model. Of the 60 BALB/c mice equally divided into 4 groups, group A mice were intramuscularly inoculated with 100 μL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline, and the mice in groups B, C, and D were intramuscularly inoculated with approximately 1...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081587/ultrasonography-as-a-complementary-diagnostic-method-for-evaluating-the-skin-of-healthy-cats
#16
Giordana Zanna, Eric Zini, Fabia Scarampella, Anna Attanasi, Silvana Arrighi, Edoardo Auriemma
Ultrasonography is not often used in feline dermatology. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness and applicability of ultrasonography for skin evaluation in 21 clinically healthy cats. Ultrasonographic examination was conducted in 4 cutaneous regions (frontal, dorsal neck, sacral, and abdominal) using an 18-MHz linear-sequential-array transducer. Findings were assessed using histomorphometric analysis of skin samples set as reference standards. Morphologic evaluation, thickness measurements, measurement variability, and comparison between regions and genders were carried out...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081586/histological-and-functional-characterizations-of-the-digital-cushion-in-quarter-horses
#17
Babak Faramarzi, Linnea Lantz, Dongbin Lee, Wael Khamas
The digital cushion (DC) plays a role in absorbing and dampening forces applied to the foot and therefore supports internal structures such as navicular bone; yet, its architecture is not well-known. The goal of this study was to characterize the microanatomical structure of the DC in horses with clinically sound hooves. Both forefeet from the cadavers of 12 adult Quarter horses were cut and sectioned and samples of the following 4 regions of the DC were obtained: axial proximal (AxProx), axial distal (AxDis), abaxial lateral (AbxLat), and abaxial medial (AbxMed)...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081585/morphologic-and-molecular-28s-rdna-characterization-of-dactylogyrus-spp-in-cyprinus-carpio-and-ctenopharyngodon-idella-in-mashhad-iran
#18
Amin Ahmadi, Hassan Borji, Abolghasem Naghibi, Mohammad Reza Nasiri, Hassan Sharifiyazdi
Dactylogyrids are a group of monogenean parasites that have a high species intensity on the gills of cyprinid fish. In this study, 89 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 25 grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were collected from Mashhad, in northeastern Iran. A total of 31 Dactylogyrus specimens, 20 and 11 specimens from the gills of common carp and grass carp, respectively, were collected and studied by morphologic analysis and molecular analysis based on 28S rDNA. Four lineages were revealed: D. anchoratus, D...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081584/evaluation-of-a-welfare-assessment-tool-to-examine-practices-for-preventing-recognizing-and-managing-pain-at-companion-animal-veterinary-clinics
#19
Lauren C Dawson, Cate E Dewey, Elizabeth A Stone, Cornelia I Mosley, Michele T Guerin, Lee Niel
Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081583/equine-pituitary-pars-intermedia-dysfunction-an-international-survey-of-veterinarians-approach-to-diagnosis-management-and-estimated-prevalence
#20
James L Carmalt, Cheryl L Waldner, Andrew L Allen
The objectives of the present study were to determine if diagnosis and treatment of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) vary by geographic region and to report the prevalence of PPID in horses as observed by veterinarians across locations. An online questionnaire was developed for veterinarians who treat horses. Veterinary associations, especially equine specialty subgroups, were contacted and a survey link was sent to members of each organization. Generalized linear models were used to examine whether the method of diagnosis and treatment of this condition, as well as its reported prevalence, differed by geographic region...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
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