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Simon Gross, Liesa Kunz, Denise C Müller, Amanda Santos Kron, Florian M Freimoser
Antagonistic yeasts suppress plant pathogenic fungi by various mechanisms, but their biocontrol efficacy also depends on the ability to compete and persist in the environment. The goal of the work presented here was to quantify the composition of synthetic yeast communities in order to determine the competitiveness of different species and identify promising candidates for plant protection. For this purpose, colony counting of distinct species and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) were used to distinguish different yeast species and to quantify the composition of a synthetic community of six yeasts (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Hanseniaspora sp...
May 12, 2018: Yeast
Huong Thi Thu Phung, Hoa Luong Hieu Nguyen, Sang Thanh Vo, Dung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Van Le
Mus81 is a well conserved DNA structure-specific endonuclease which belongs to the XPF/Rad1 family of proteins that are involved in DNA nucleotide excision repair. Mus81 forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit, Mms4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Eme1/EME1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals). Recent evidence shows that Mus81 functions redundantly with Sgs1, a member of the ubiquitous RecQ family of DNA helicases, to process toxic recombinant intermediates. In budding yeast, homologous recombination is regulated by the Rad52 epistasis group of proteins, including Rad52, which stimulates the main steps of DNA sequence-homology searching...
May 8, 2018: Yeast
S Fischer, K R Büchner, T Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Yeast
Helba Bredell, Jacques J Smith, Johann F Görgens, Willem H van Zyl
Cervical cancer is ranked the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite two commercially available prophylactic vaccines, it is unaffordable for most women in developing countries. We compared the optimized expression of monomers of the unique HPV type 16 L1-L2 chimeric protein (SAF) in two yeast strains of Pichia pastoris, KM71 (Muts ) and GS115 (Mut+ ), with Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 to determine the preferred host in bioreactors. SAF was uniquely created by replacing the h4 helix of the HPV-16 capsid L1 protein with a L2 peptide...
April 30, 2018: Yeast
Bhawik Kumar Jain, Pankaj Singh Thapa, Ashok Varma, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya
Budding yeast Pichia pastoris has highly advanced secretory pathways resembling mammalian systems, an advantage that makes it a suitable model system to study vesicular trafficking. Golgins are large Golgi resident proteins, primarily reported to play role in cargo vesicle capture, but details of such mechanisms are yet to be deciphered. Golgins that localize to the Golgi via their GRIP domain, a C-terminal Golgi anchoring domain, are known as GRIP domain Golgins. In this present study, we have identified and functionally characterized homolog of one such GRIP domain Golgin protein, Imh1, from the budding yeast Pichia pastoris...
April 29, 2018: Yeast
Pietro Buzzini, Benedetta Turchetti, Andrey Yurkov
Microorganisms are widely distributed in a multitude of environments including ecosystems that show challenging features to most life forms. The combination of extreme physical and chemical factors contributes to the definition of extreme habitats although the definition of extreme environments changes depending on one's point of view: anthropocentric, microbial-centric, or zymo-centric. Microorganisms that live under conditions that cause hard survival are called extremophiles. In particular organisms that require extreme conditions are called true extremophiles while organisms that tolerate them to some extent are termed extremotolerant...
March 25, 2018: Yeast
David Segorbe, Derek Wilkinson, Alexandru Mizeranschi, Timothy Hughes, Ragnhild Aaløkken, Libuse Vachova, Zdena Palkova, Gregor D Gilfillan
We report an optimised low-input FAIRE-seq (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements-sequencing) procedure to assay chromatin accessibility from limited amounts of yeast cells. We demonstrate that the method performs well on as little as 4 mg cells scraped directly from a few colonies. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the scaled-down method are comparable to that of regular, higher input amounts, and allows the use of 100-fold fewer cells than existing procedures. The method enables epigenetic analysis of chromatin structure without the need for cell multiplication of exponentially growing cells in liquid culture, thus opening the possibility to study colony cell subpopulations, or those that can be isolated directly from environmental samples...
March 25, 2018: Yeast
Xavier Raffoux, Mickael Bourge, Fabrice Dumas, Olivier C Martin, Matthieu Falque
Allelic recombination due to meiotic crossovers is a major driver of genome evolution, as well as a key player for the selection of high-performing genotypes in economically important species. Therefore, we developed a high throughput and low cost method to measure recombination rates and crossover patterning (including interference) in large populations of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Recombination and interference were analyzed by flow cytometry, which allows escaping time-consuming steps such as tetrad microdissection or spore growth...
March 25, 2018: Yeast
Trinh Thi My Nguyen, Yoko Ishida, Sae Kato, Aya Iwaki, Shingo Izawa
Vanillin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative fermentation inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass in bioethanol production. These biomass conversion inhibitors, particularly vanillin, are known to repress translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reported that the mRNAs of ADH7 and BDH2 were efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress despite marked repression of overall protein synthesis. In this study, we found that expression of VFH1 (YLL056C) was also significantly induced at the protein level by severe vanillin stress...
March 25, 2018: Yeast
Silvia G Chuartzman, Maya Schuldiner
In the last decade several collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains have been created. In these collections every gene is modified in a similar manner such as by a deletion or the addition of a protein tag. Such libraries have enabled a diversity of systematic screens giving rise to large amounts of information regarding gene functions. However, often manuscripts describing such screens focus on a single gene or a small set of genes and all other loci affecting the phenotype of choice ("hits") are only mentioned in tables that are provided as supplementary material and are often hard to retrieve or search...
March 25, 2018: Yeast
Marc-André Lachance, Chris Todd Hittinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Yeast
Irene Stefanini
Insects interact with microorganisms in several situations, ranging from the accidental interaction to locate attractive food or the acquisition of essential nutrients missing in the main food source. Despite a wealth of studies recently focused on bacteria, the interactions between insects and yeasts have relevant implications for both of the parties involved. The insect intestine shows several structural and physiological differences among species, but it is generally a hostile environment for many microorganisms, selecting against the most sensitive and at the same time guaranteeing a less competitive environment to resistant ones...
April 2018: Yeast
Jorg C de Ruijter, Essi V Koskela, Jatin Nandania, Alexander D Frey, Vidya Velagapudi
The cellular changes induced by heterologous protein expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been analysed on many levels and found to be significant. However, even though high-level protein production poses a metabolic burden, evaluation of the expression host at the level of the metabolome has often been neglected. We present a comparison of metabolite profiles of a wild-type strain with those of three strains producing recombinant antibody variants of increasing size and complexity: an scFv fragment, an scFv-Fc fusion protein and a full-length IgG molecule...
April 2018: Yeast
Sahar Hasim, Elyse N Vaughn, Dallas Donohoe, Donna M Gordon, Susan Pfiffner, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans is among the most common human fungal pathogens. The ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth is critical for its pathogenesis. Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, is a quorum-sensing molecule produced by C. albicans that inhibits hyphal growth in this polymorphic fungus. Interestingly, C. albicans can tolerate farnesol concentrations that are toxic to other fungi. We hypothesized that changes in phospholipid composition are one of the factors contributing to farnesol tolerance in C...
April 2018: Yeast
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, Golgi fragmentation and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein-expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates reactive oxygen species production...
March 2018: Yeast
Zain Y Dossani, Amanda Reider Apel, Heather Szmidt-Middleton, Nathan J Hillson, Samuel Deutsch, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
Despite the need for inducible promoters in strain development efforts, the majority of engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to rely on a few constitutively active or inducible promoters. Building on advances that use the modular nature of both transcription factors and promoter regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein...
March 2018: Yeast
Daniel C Jeffares
While the fission yeast is a powerful model of eukaryote biology, there have been few studies of quantitative genetics, phenotypic or genetic diversity. Here I survey the small collection of fission yeast diversity research. I discuss what we can infer about the ecology and origins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from microbiology field studies and the few strains that have been collected.
March 2018: Yeast
Joy Goffena, Kurt A Toenjes, David K Butler
The opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans Candida albicans is able to grow in different morphological forms such as round or oval yeasts and filamentous hyphae and pseudohyphae. Morphogenesis, the ability to switch between the yeast and filamentous growth forms, is important for adapting to new microenvironments in the human host and for pathogenesis. The molecular pathways governing morphogenesis are complex and incompletely understood. Previously, we identified several small organic molecules that specifically inhibit the initiation of hyphal growth in C...
March 2018: Yeast
Callie R Chappell, Tadashi Fukami
The species of yeasts that colonize floral nectar can modify the mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators by changing the chemical properties of nectar. Recent evidence supporting this possibility has led to increased interest among ecologists in studying these fungi as well as the bacteria that interact with them in nectar. Although not fully explored, nectar yeasts also constitute a promising natural microcosm that can be used to facilitate development of general ecological theory. We discuss the methodological and conceptual advantages of using nectar yeasts from this perspective, including simplicity of communities, tractability of dispersal, replicability of community assembly, and the ease with which the mechanisms of species interactions can be studied in complementary experiments conducted in the field and the laboratory...
February 24, 2018: Yeast
Maria Karolin Streubel, Johannes Bischof, Richard Weiss, Jutta Duschl, Wolfgang Liedl, Herbert Wimmer, Michael Breitenbach, Manuela Weber, Florian Geltinger, Klaus Richter, Mark Rinnerthaler
In recent decades Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be one of the most valuable model organisms of aging research. Pathways such as autophagy or the effect of substances like resveratrol and spermidine that prolong the replicative as well as chronological lifespan of cells were described for the first time in S. cerevisiae. In this study we describe the establishment of an aging reporter that allows a reliable and relative quick screening of substances and genes that have an impact on the replicative lifespan...
February 2018: Yeast
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