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Wesley Leoricy Marques, Lara Ninon van der Woude, Marijke A H Luttik, Marcel van den Broek, Janine Margriet Nijenhuis, Jack T Pronk, Antonius J A van Maris, Robert Mans, Andreas K Gombert
Knowledge on the genetic factors important for the efficient expression of plant transporters in yeast is still very limited. Phaseolus vulgaris sucrose facilitator 1 (PvSuf1), a presumable uniporter, was an essential component in a previously published strategy aimed at increasing ATP yield in S. cerevisiae (Marques et al., 2018). However, attempts to construct yeast strains in which sucrose metabolism was dependent on PvSUF1 led to slow sucrose uptake. Here, PvSUF1-dependent S. cerevisiae strains were evolved for faster growth...
September 16, 2018: Yeast
Elisabetta Balzi, W Scott Moye-Rowley
Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided much of the basic detail underlying the organization and regulation of multiple or pleiotropic drug resistance gene network in eukaryotic microbes. As with many aspects of yeast biology, the initial observations that drove the eventual molecular characterization of multidrug resistance gene were provided by genetics. This review focuses on contributions from the laboratory of Dr. André Goffeau that uncovered key aspects of the transcriptional regulation of these multidrug resistance genes...
September 7, 2018: Yeast
Joaquín Ariño, José Ramos, Hana Sychrova
Maintenance of proper intracellular concentrations of monovalent cations, mainly sodium and potassium, is a requirement for survival of any cell. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, monovalent cation homeostasis is determined by the active extrusion of protons through the Pma1 H+ -ATPase (reviewed in another chapter of this issue), the influx and efflux of these cations through the plasma membrane transporters (reviewed in this chapter), and the sequestration of toxic cations into the vacuoles. Here, we will describe the structure, function, and regulation of the plasma membrane transporters Trk1, Trk2, Tok1, Nha1 and Ena1, which play a key role in maintaining physiological intracellular concentrations of Na+ , K+ and H+ , both under normal growth conditions and in response to stress...
September 7, 2018: Yeast
Rajendra Prasad, Elisabetta Balzi, Atanu Banerjee, Nitesh Kumar Khandelwal
Drug resistance mechanisms in human pathogenic Candida species are continually evolving. Over the time, Candida species have acquired diverse strategies to vanquish the effects of various classes of drugs thereby, emanating as a serious life threat. Apart from the repertoire of well-established strategies, which predominantly comprise alteration, overexpression of drug targets and chromosome duplication, Candida species have evolved a number of permeability constraints for antifungal drugs, via compromised drug import or increased drug efflux...
September 7, 2018: Yeast
Derell Hardman, Rahul Ukey, Stylianos Fakas
Phosphatidate phosphatase (PA phosphatase) dephosphorylates the membrane phospholipid phosphatidate (PA) to diacylglycerol (DAG) that can be used for the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG). In Y. lipolytica, TAG biosynthesis is induced during the lipogenic phase which results in the accumulation of this lipid in cells. The accumulation of TAG during lipogenesis requires the supply of DAG, but the source of this DAG is not known in Y. lipolytica. In this study, the regulation of PA phosphatase during lipogenesis and its contribution to TAG biosynthesis was examined in Y...
September 3, 2018: Yeast
Mian Huang, Katy C Kao
Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) is an important yeast of industrial and medical significance. Resistance to oxidative stress is an important trait affecting its robustness as a production host or virulence as a pathogenic agent, but current understanding of resistance mechanisms is still limited in this fungus. In this study, we rapidly evolved C. glabrata population to adapt to oxidative challenge (from 80 mM to 350 mM of H2 O2 ) through short-term adaptive laboratory evolution. Adaptive mutants were isolated from evolved populations and subjected to phenotypic and omics analyses to identify potential mechanisms of tolerance to H2 O2 ...
August 23, 2018: Yeast
Eduardo I Kessi-Pérez, Francisco Salinas, Jennifer Molinet, Asier González, Sara Muñiz, José M Guillamón, Michael N Hall, Luis F Larrondo, Claudio Martínez
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main species responsible for the alcoholic fermentation in wine production. One of the main problems in this process is the deficiency of nitrogen sources in the grape must, which can lead to stuck or sluggish fermentations. Currently, yeast nitrogen consumption and metabolism are under active inquiry, with emphasis on the study of the TORC1 signalling pathway, given its central role responding to nitrogen availability and influencing growth and cell metabolism. However, the mechanism by which different nitrogen sources activates TORC1 is not completely understood...
August 9, 2018: Yeast
Belen Carbonetto, Johan Ramsayer, Thibault Nidelet, Judith Legrand, Delphine Sicard
Yeasts have been involved in bread making since ancient times and have thus played an important role in the history and nutrition of humans. Bakery-associated yeasts have only recently attracted the attention of researchers outside of the bread industry. More than 30 yeast species are involved in bread making, and significant progress has been achieved in describing these species. Here, we present a review of bread-making processes and history, and we describe the diversity of yeast species and the genetic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from bakeries...
August 1, 2018: Yeast
Robert A Crawford, Graham D Pavitt
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae must dynamically alter the composition of its proteome in order to respond to diverse stresses. The reprogramming of gene expression during stress typically involves initial global repression of protein synthesis, accompanied by the activation of stress-responsive mRNAs through both translational and transcriptional responses. The ability of specific mRNAs to counter the global translational repression is therefore crucial to the overall response to stress. Here we summarise the major repressive mechanisms and discuss mechanisms of translational activation in response to different stresses in S...
July 17, 2018: Yeast
Brambilla Marco, Martani Francesca, Bertacchi Stefano, Vitangeli Ilaria, Branduardi Paola
Pab1, the major poly(A) binding protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in many intracellular functions associated with mRNA metabolism, such as mRNA nuclear export, deadenylation, translation initiation and termination. Pab1 consists of four RNA recognition motifs (RRM), a proline-rich domain (P) and a carboxy-terminal (C) domain. Due to its modular structure, Pab1 can simultaneously interact with poly(A) tails and different proteins that regulate mRNA turnover and translation. Furthermore, Pab1 also influences cell physiology under stressful conditions by affecting the formation of quinary assemblies and stress granules, as well as by stabilizing specific mRNAs to allow translation re-initiation after stress...
July 13, 2018: Yeast
Gilberto Henrique Teles, Jackeline Maria da Silva, Allyson Andrade Mendonça, Marcos Antonio de Morais Junior, Will de Barros Pita
Dekkera bruxellensis is continuously changing its status in fermentation processes, ranging from a contaminant or spoiling yeast to a microorganism with potential to produce metabolites of biotechnological interest. In spite of that, several major aspects of its physiology are still poorly understood. As an acetogenic yeast, minimal oxygen concentrations are able to drive glucose assimilation to oxidative metabolism, in order to produce biomass and acetate, with consequent low yield in ethanol. In the present study, we used disulfiram to inhibit acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity to evaluate the influence of cytosolic acetate on cell metabolism...
July 13, 2018: Yeast
Huong Thi Thu Phung, Hoa Luong Hieu Nguyen, Sang Thanh Vo, Dung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Van Le
Mus81 is a well-conserved DNA structure-specific endonuclease which belongs to the XPF/Rad1 family of proteins that are involved in DNA nucleotide excision repair. Mus81 forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit, Mms4, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Eme1/EME1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals). Recent evidence shows that Mus81 functions redundantly with Sgs1, a member of the ubiquitous RecQ family of DNA helicases, to process toxic recombinant intermediates. In budding yeast, homologous recombination is regulated by the Rad52 epistasis group of proteins, including Rad52, which stimulates the main steps of DNA sequence-homology searching...
September 2018: Yeast
S Fischer, K R Büchner, T Becker
Targeted induced gene expression for industrial fermentation processes in food and beverage production could fulfill future demands. To avoid metabolic burden and disturbances owing to the fermentation procedure, induced gene expression is necessary for combating stress, such as that caused by temperature shifts that occur during the transition from fermentation to maturation in the brewing process. The aim of this study was to target gene expression in industrial yeast using stress-responsive promoters and homologues of the selection marker SMR1...
September 2018: Yeast
Helba Bredell, Jacques J Smith, Johann F Görgens, Willem H van Zyl
Cervical cancer is ranked the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite two prophylactic vaccines being commercially available, they are unaffordable for most women in developing countries. We compared the optimized expression of monomers of the unique HPV type 16 L1-L2 chimeric protein (SAF) in two yeast strains of Pichia pastoris, KM71 (Muts ) and GS115 (Mut+ ), with Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 to determine the preferred host in bioreactors. SAF was uniquely created by replacing the h4 helix of the HPV-16 capsid L1 protein with an L2 peptide...
September 2018: Yeast
Bhawik Kumar Jain, Pankaj Singh Thapa, Ashok Varma, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya
Budding yeast Pichia pastoris has highly advanced secretory pathways resembling mammalian systems, an advantage that makes it a suitable model system to study vesicular trafficking. Golgins are large Golgi-resident proteins, primarily reported to play role in cargo vesicle capture, but details of such mechanisms are yet to be deciphered. Golgins that localize to the Golgi via their GRIP domain, a C-terminal Golgi anchoring domain, are known as GRIP domain Golgins. In this present study, we have identified and functionally characterized a homologue of one such GRIP domain Golgin protein, Imh1, from the budding yeast P...
August 2018: Yeast
Pietro Buzzini, Benedetta Turchetti, Andrey Yurkov
Microorganisms are widely distributed in a multitude of environments including ecosystems that show challenging features to most life forms. The combination of extreme physical and chemical factors contributes to the definition of extreme habitats although the definition of extreme environments changes depending on one's point of view: anthropocentric, microbial-centric or zymo-centric. Microorganisms that live under conditions that cause hard survival are called extremophiles. In particular organisms that require extreme conditions are called true extremophiles while organisms that tolerate them to some extent are termed extremotolerant...
August 2018: Yeast
David Segorbe, Derek Wilkinson, Alexandru Mizeranschi, Timothy Hughes, Ragnhild Aaløkken, Libuše Váchová, Zdena Palková, Gregor D Gilfillan
We report an optimized low-input FAIRE-seq (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements-sequencing) procedure to assay chromatin accessibility from limited amounts of yeast cells. We demonstrate that the method performs well on as little as 4 mg of cells scraped directly from a few colonies. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the scaled-down method are comparable with those of regular, higher input amounts, and allow the use of 100-fold fewer cells than existing procedures. The method enables epigenetic analysis of chromatin structure without the need for cell multiplication of exponentially growing cells in liquid culture, thus opening the possibility of studying colony cell subpopulations, or those that can be isolated directly from environmental samples...
August 2018: Yeast
Trinh Thi My Nguyen, Yoko Ishida, Sae Kato, Aya Iwaki, Shingo Izawa
Vanillin, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative fermentation inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass in bioethanol production. These biomass conversion inhibitors, particularly vanillin, are known to repress translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reported that the mRNAs of ADH7 and BDH2 were efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress despite marked repression of overall protein synthesis. In this study, we found that expression of VFH1 (YLL056C) was also significantly induced at the protein level by severe vanillin stress...
July 2018: Yeast
Silvia G Chuartzman, Maya Schuldiner
In the last decade several collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains have been created. In these collections every gene is modified in a similar manner such as by a deletion or the addition of a protein tag. Such libraries have enabled a diversity of systematic screens, giving rise to large amounts of information regarding gene functions. However, often papers describing such screens focus on a single gene or a small set of genes and all other loci affecting the phenotype of choice ('hits') are only mentioned in tables that are provided as supplementary material and are often hard to retrieve or search...
July 2018: Yeast
Frédéric Carly, Patrick Fickers
Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It could be used as a natural sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Here, a snapshot of current knowledge on erythritol metabolism and synthesis, optimization of its production and more precise process and producer strain improvement is presented.
July 2018: Yeast
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