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Robert A Crawford, Graham D Pavitt
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae must dynamically alter the composition of its proteome in order to respond to diverse stresses. The reprogramming of gene expression during stress typically involves initial global repression of protein synthesis, accompanied by the activation of stress-responsive mRNAs through both translational and transcriptional responses. The ability of specific mRNAs to counter the global translational repression is therefore crucial to the overall response to stress. Here we summarise the major repressive mechanisms and discuss mechanisms of translational activation in response to different stresses in S...
July 17, 2018: Yeast
Brambilla Marco, Martani Francesca, Bertacchi Stefano, Vitangeli Ilaria, Branduardi Paola
Pab1, the major poly(A) binding protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in many intracellular functions associated with mRNA metabolism, such as mRNA nuclear export, deadenylation, translation initiation and termination. Pab1 consists of four RNA recognition motifs (RRM), a proline-rich domain (P) and a carboxy-terminal (C) domain. Due to its modular structure, Pab1 can simultaneously interact with poly(A) tails and different proteins that regulate mRNA turnover and translation. Furthermore, Pab1 also influences cell physiology under stressful conditions by affecting the formation of quinary assemblies and stress granules, as well as by stabilizing specific mRNAs to allow translation re-initiation after stress...
July 13, 2018: Yeast
Gilberto Henrique Teles, Jackeline Maria da Silva, Allyson Andrade Mendonça, Marcos Antonio de Morais, Will de Barros Pita
Dekkera bruxellensis is continuously changing its status in fermentation processes, ranging from a contaminant or spoiling yeast to a microorganism with potential to produce metabolites of biotechnological interest. In spite of that, several major aspects of its physiology are still poorly understood. As an acetogenic yeast, minimal oxygen concentrations are able to drive glucose assimilation to oxidative metabolism, in order to produce biomass and acetate, with consequent low yield in ethanol. In the present study, we used disulfiram (DSF) to inhibit acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH) activity to evaluate the influence of cytosolic acetate on cell metabolism...
July 13, 2018: Yeast
Virve Vidgren, John Londesborough
Plain and fluorescently tagged versions of Agt1, Mtt1 and Malx1 maltose transporters were overexpressed in two laboratory yeasts and one lager yeast. The plain and tagged versions of each transporter supported similar transport activities, indicating that they are similarly trafficked and have similar catalytic activities. When they were expressed under the control of the strong constitutive PGK1 promoter only minor proportions of the fluorescent transporters were associated with the plasma membrane, the rest being found in intracellular structures...
May 31, 2018: Yeast
Simon Gross, Liesa Kunz, Denise C Müller, Amanda Santos Kron, Florian M Freimoser
Antagonistic yeasts suppress plant pathogenic fungi by various mechanisms, but their biocontrol efficacy also depends on the ability to compete and persist in the environment. The goal of the work presented here was to quantify the composition of synthetic yeast communities in order to determine the competitiveness of different species and identify promising candidates for plant protection. For this purpose, colony counting of distinct species and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) were used to distinguish different yeast species and to quantify the composition of a synthetic community of six yeasts (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Hanseniaspora sp...
May 12, 2018: Yeast
Huong Thi Thu Phung, Hoa Luong Hieu Nguyen, Sang Thanh Vo, Dung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Van Le
Mus81 is a well-conserved DNA structure-specific endonuclease which belongs to the XPF/Rad1 family of proteins that are involved in DNA nucleotide excision repair. Mus81 forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit, Mms4, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Eme1/EME1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals). Recent evidence shows that Mus81 functions redundantly with Sgs1, a member of the ubiquitous RecQ family of DNA helicases, to process toxic recombinant intermediates. In budding yeast, homologous recombination is regulated by the Rad52 epistasis group of proteins, including Rad52, which stimulates the main steps of DNA sequence-homology searching...
May 8, 2018: Yeast
S Fischer, K R Büchner, T Becker
Targeted induced gene expression for industrial fermentation processes in food and beverage production could fulfill future demands. To avoid metabolic burden and disturbances owing to the fermentation procedure, induced gene expression is necessary for combating stress, such as that caused by temperature shifts that occur during the transition from fermentation to maturation in the brewing process. The aim of this study was to target gene expression in industrial yeast using stress-responsive promoters and homologues of the selection marker SMR1...
May 4, 2018: Yeast
Helba Bredell, Jacques J Smith, Johann F Görgens, Willem H van Zyl
Cervical cancer is ranked the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite two prophylactic vaccines being commercially available, they are unaffordable for most women in developing countries. We compared the optimized expression of monomers of the unique HPV type 16 L1-L2 chimeric protein (SAF) in two yeast strains of Pichia pastoris, KM71 (Muts ) and GS115 (Mut+ ), with Hansenula polymorpha NCYC 495 to determine the preferred host in bioreactors. SAF was uniquely created by replacing the h4 helix of the HPV-16 capsid L1 protein with an L2 peptide...
April 30, 2018: Yeast
Bhawik Kumar Jain, Pankaj Singh Thapa, Ashok Varma, Dibyendu Bhattacharyya
Budding yeast Pichia pastoris has highly advanced secretory pathways resembling mammalian systems, an advantage that makes it a suitable model system to study vesicular trafficking. Golgins are large Golgi-resident proteins, primarily reported to play role in cargo vesicle capture, but details of such mechanisms are yet to be deciphered. Golgins that localize to the Golgi via their GRIP domain, a C-terminal Golgi anchoring domain, are known as GRIP domain Golgins. In this present study, we have identified and functionally characterized a homologue of one such GRIP domain Golgin protein, Imh1, from the budding yeast P...
April 29, 2018: Yeast
Xavier Raffoux, Mickael Bourge, Fabrice Dumas, Olivier C Martin, Matthieu Falque
Allelic recombination owing to meiotic crossovers is a major driver of genome evolution, as well as a key player for the selection of high-performing genotypes in economically important species. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and low-cost method to measure recombination rates and crossover patterning (including interference) in large populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombination and interference were analysed by flow cytometry, which allows time-consuming steps such as tetrad microdissection or spore growth to be avoided...
June 2018: Yeast
Callie R Chappell, Tadashi Fukami
The species of yeasts that colonize floral nectar can modify the mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators by changing the chemical properties of nectar. Recent evidence supporting this possibility has led to increased interest among ecologists in studying these fungi as well as the bacteria that interact with them in nectar. Although not fully explored, nectar yeasts also constitute a promising natural microcosm that can be used to facilitate development of general ecological theory. We discuss the methodological and conceptual advantages of using nectar yeasts from this perspective, including simplicity of communities, tractability of dispersal, replicability of community assembly, and the ease with which the mechanisms of species interactions can be studied in complementary experiments conducted in the field and the laboratory...
June 2018: Yeast
Anupama Yadav, Himanshu Sinha
One of the fundamental questions in biology is how the genotype regulates the phenotype. An increasing number of studies indicate that, in most cases, the effect of a genetic locus on the phenotype is context-dependent, i.e. it is influenced by the genetic background and the environment in which the phenotype is measured. Still, the majority of the studies, in both model organisms and humans, that map the genetic regulation of phenotypic variation in complex traits primarily identify additive loci with independent effects...
June 2018: Yeast
Aimilia A Stavrou, Verónica Mixão, Teun Boekhout, Toni Gabaldón
Online sequence databases such as NCBI GenBank serve as a tremendously useful platform for researchers to share and reuse published data. However, submission systems lack control for errors such as organism misidentification, which once entered in the database can be propagated and mislead downstream analyses. Here we present an illustrating case of misidentification of Candida albicans from a clinical sample as Naumovozyma dairenensis based on whole-genome shotgun data. Analyses of phylogenetic markers, read mapping and single nucleotide polymorphisms served to correct the identification...
June 2018: Yeast
Andrey M Yurkov
Pioneering studies performed in the nineteenth century demonstrated that yeasts are present in below-ground sources. Soils were regarded more as a reservoir for yeasts that reside in habitats above it. Later studies showed that yeast communities in soils are taxonomically diverse and different from those above-ground. Soil yeasts possess extraordinary adaptations that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. A few species are promising sources of yeast oils and have been used in agriculture as potential antagonists of soil-borne plant pathogens or as plant growth promoters...
May 2018: Yeast
Marcin G Fraczek, Samina Naseeb, Daniela Delneri
For thousands of years humans have used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of bread and alcohol; however, in the last 30-40 years our understanding of the yeast biology has dramatically increased, enabling us to modify its genome. Although S. cerevisiae has been the main focus of many research groups, other non-conventional yeasts have also been studied and exploited for biotechnological purposes. Our experiments and knowledge have evolved from recombination to high-throughput PCR-based transformations to highly accurate CRISPR methods in order to alter yeast traits for either research or industrial purposes...
May 2018: Yeast
Ning Xu, Jinxiang Zhu, Qiaoyun Zhu, Yanzi Xing, Menghao Cai, Tianyi Jiang, Mian Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang
Pichia pastoris expression system has been widely used in recombinant protein production. So far the majority of heterologous proteins are expressed by methanol inducible promoter PAOX1 and constitutive promoter PGAP . The use of other promoters is rather limited. Here we selected 16 potentially efficient and regulatory promoter candidates based on the RNA-seq and RNA folding free energy ΔG data. GFP and recombinant amylase were inserted after these promoters to reveal their strength and efficiency under different carbon sources and culture scales...
May 2018: Yeast
Mayra Fabiola Tello-Padilla, Alejandra Yudid Perez-Gonzalez, Melina Canizal-García, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Christian Cortes-Rojo, Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
Diet plays a key role in determining the longevity of the organisms since it has been demonstrated that glucose restriction increases life span whereas a high-glucose diet decreases it. However, the molecular basis of how diet leads to the aging process is currently unknown. We propose that the quantity of glucose that fuels respiration influences reactive oxygen species generation and glutathione levels, and both chemical species impact in the aging process. Herein, we provide evidence that mutation of the gene GSH1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diminishes glutathione levels...
May 2018: Yeast
William G Alexander
Genome editing is a form of highly precise genetic engineering which produces alterations to an organism's genome as small as a single base pair with no incidental or auxiliary modifications; this technique is crucial to the field of synthetic biology, which requires such precision in the installation of novel genetic circuits into host genomes. While a new methodology for most organisms, genome editing capabilities have been used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decades. In this review, I will present a brief history of genome editing in S...
May 2018: Yeast
Marc-André Lachance, Chris Todd Hittinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Yeast
Irene Stefanini
Insects interact with microorganisms in several situations, ranging from the accidental interaction to locate attractive food or the acquisition of essential nutrients missing in the main food source. Despite a wealth of studies recently focused on bacteria, the interactions between insects and yeasts have relevant implications for both of the parties involved. The insect intestine shows several structural and physiological differences among species, but it is generally a hostile environment for many microorganisms, selecting against the most sensitive and at the same time guaranteeing a less competitive environment to resistant ones...
April 2018: Yeast
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