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Atsushi Matsuda, Haruhiko Asakawa, Tokuko Haraguchi, Yasushi Hiraoka
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a useful experimental system for studying the organization of chromosomes within the cell nucleus. S. pombe has a small genome that is organized into three chromosomes. The small size of the genome and the small number of chromosomes are advantageous for cytological and genome-wide studies of chromosomes; however, the small size of the nucleus impedes microscopic observations owing to limits in spatial resolution during imaging. Recent advances in microscopy, such as super-resolution microscopy, have greatly expanded the use of S...
October 21, 2016: Yeast
Derell Hardman, Daniel McFalls, Stylianos Fakas
Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the committed step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and thus regulates the amounts of TAG produced by the cell. TAG is the target of biotechnological processes developed for the production of food lipids or biofuels. These processes are using oleaginous microorganisms like the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as the TAG producers. Thus manipulating key enzymatic activities like PAP in Y. lipolytica could drive lipid biosynthesis towards TAG production and increase TAG yields...
October 15, 2016: Yeast
Felix Kliewe, Jacqueline Kumme, Mathias Grigat, Stefan Hintze, Hans-Joachim Schüller
Structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast S. cerevisiae are transcribed when precursor molecules inositol and choline (IC) are limiting. Gene expression is stimulated by the heterodimeric activator Ino2/Ino4 which binds to ICRE (inositol/choline-responsive element) promoter sequences. Activation is prevented by repressor Opi1, counteracting Ino2 when high concentrations of IC are available. Here we show that ICRE-dependent gene activation is not only repressed by an excess of IC but also under conditions of phosphate starvation...
October 15, 2016: Yeast
Matthias Meurer, Veronika Chevyreva, Bram Cerulus, Michael Knop
Here we describe a set of tools to facilitate the use of maltose and the MAL32 promoter for regulated gene expression in yeast, alone or in combination with the GAL1 promoter. Using fluorescent protein reporters we find that under non-inducing conditions the MAL32 promoter exhibits a low basal level of expression, similar to the GAL1 promoter, and that both promoters can be induced independently of each other using the respective sugars, maltose and galactose. While their repression upon glucose addition is immediate and complete, we found that the MAL32 and GAL1 promoter each exhibit distinct induction kinetics...
October 6, 2016: Yeast
Ahu Karademir Andersson, Stina Oredsson, Marita Cohn
The budding yeast Naumovozyma castellii (syn. Saccharomyces castellii) has been included in comparative genomics studies, functional analyses of centromere DNA elements, and was shown to possess beneficial traits for telomere biology research. To provide useful tools for molecular genetic approaches, we produced stable haploid heterothallic strains from an early ancestral strain derived from the N. castellii collection strain CBS 4310. To this end, we deleted the gene encoding the Ho endonuclease, which is essential for the mating type switching...
September 26, 2016: Yeast
Alexandra Konecna, Nora Toth Hervay, Martin Valachovic, Yvetta Gbelska
The ERG6 gene encodes a S-adenosylmethionine dependent sterol C-24 methyltransferase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. In this work we report the results of functional analysis of the Kluyveromyces lactis ERG6 gene. We cloned the KlERG6 gene, which was able to complement the erg6Δ mutation both in K. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The lack of ergosterol in the Klerg6 deletion mutant was accompanied with increased expression of genes encoding last steps of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway as well as the KlPDR5 gene encoding an ABC transporter...
September 26, 2016: Yeast
Max J Dörfel, Han Fang, Jonathan Crain, Michael Klingener, Jake Weiser, Gholson J Lyon
Naa10 is a N(α) -terminal acetyltransferase that, in a complex with its auxiliary subunit Naa15, co-translationally acetylates the α-amino group of newly synthetized proteins as they emerge from the ribosome. Roughly 40-50% of the human proteome is acetylated by Naa10, rendering this an enzyme with one of the most broad substrate ranges known. Recently, we reported an X-linked disorder of infancy, Ogden syndrome, in two families harboring a c.109 T > C (p.Ser37Pro) variant in NAA10. In the present study we performed in-depth characterization of a yeast model of Ogden syndrome...
September 26, 2016: Yeast
Dawn A Thompson, Francisco A Cubillos
The rise of sequence information across different yeast species and strains is driving an increasing number of studies in the emerging field of genomics to associate polymorphic variants - mRNA abundance and phenotypic differences between individuals. Here, we gathered evidence from recent studies covering several layers that define the genotype-phenotype gap such as: mRNA abundance, allele-specific expression and translation efficiency to demonstrate how genetic variants co-evolve and define an individual's genome...
September 26, 2016: Yeast
Vidhya Bharathi, Amandeep Girdhar, Archana Prasad, Meenkshi Verma, Vibha Taneja, Basant K Patel
Mutations in adenine biosynthesis pathway genes ADE1 and ADE2 have been conventionally used to score for prion [PSI(+) ] in yeast. If ade1-14 mutant allele is present, which contains a premature stop codon, [psi(-) ] yeast appear red on YPD medium owing to accumulation of a red intermediate compound in vacuoles. In [PSI(+) ] yeast, partial inactivation of the translation termination factor, Sup35 protein, owing to its amyloid aggregation allows for read-through of the ade1-14 stop codon and the yeast appears white as the red intermediate pigment is not accumulated...
September 22, 2016: Yeast
Marc-André Lachance
The purpose of this review is to introduce Metschnikowia to the yeast researcher community and to convince readers that the genus is a worthwhile object of study in developmental biology, genetics, ecology and biotechnology. Metschnikowia sits at the foundation of modern immunology, having been instrumental in the discovery of animal phagocytosis. Some 81 species form a monophyletic group within the Metschnikowiaceae, which also include the smaller genus Clavispora and a few clades of Candida species. The family stands out by the habit of forming, by meiosis, only two ascospores, which in Metschnikowia are needle shaped...
September 7, 2016: Yeast
Bo Guan, Fengxiang Chen, Shuai Su, Zuoying Duan, Yun Chen, Huazhong Li, Jian Jin
Pichia pastoris is generally considered as an expression host for heterologous proteins with the coding gene under control of the alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. The secretion of heterologous proteins in P. pastoris can be potentially affected by many factors. Based on our previous results, the secretion levels of human albumin (HSA) fusion protein IL2-HSA were only around 500 mg/L or less in fermentor cultures, which decreased more than 50% comparing to that of HSA (>1 g/L). In this study, we selected five potential secretion helper factors, in which Ero1, Pdi1 and Kar2 involved in protein folding and Sec1 and Sly1 involved in vesicle trafficking...
August 17, 2016: Yeast
Zhen Min Hu, Xue Qiang Zhao, Xue Min Bao, Chao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Zheng, Ping Lan, Ren Fang Shen
Rhodotorula taiwanensis RS1 (Rt) is a high-aluminum (Al)-tolerant yeast that can survive Al at concentrations up to 200 mM. In this study, we compared Rt with an Al-sensitive congeneric strain, R. mucilaginosa AKU 4812 (Rm) and Al sensitive mutant 1 (alsm1) of Rt, to explore the Al tolerance mechanisms of Rt. The growth of Rm was completely inhibited by 1 mM Al, but that of Rt was not inhibited until Al concentration was more than 70 mM. The growth of alsm1 was inhibited much more by 70 mM and 100 mM Al than that of Rt...
August 6, 2016: Yeast
Jun-Song Chen, Janel R Beckley, Liping Ren, Anna Feoktistova, Michael A Jensen, Nicholas Rhind, Kathleen L Gould
The fission yeast model system Schizosaccharomyces pombe is used to study fundamental biological processes. To continue to fill gaps in the Sz. pombe gene deletion collection, we constructed a set of 90 haploid gene deletion strains covering many previously uncharacterized genes. To begin to understand the function of these genes, we exposed this collection of strains to a battery of stress conditions. Using this information in combination with microscopy, proteomics and mini-chromosome loss assays, we identified genes involved in cell wall integrity, cytokinesis, chromosome segregation and DNA metabolism...
September 2016: Yeast
Damien Coudreuse
Synthetic biology is one of the most exciting strategies for the investigation of living organisms and lies at the intersection of biology and engineering. Originally developed in prokaryotes, the idea of deciphering biological phenomena through building artificial genetic circuits and studying their behaviours has rapidly demonstrated its potential in a broad range of fields in the life sciences. From the assembly of synthetic genomes to the generation of novel biological functions, yeast cells have imposed themselves as the most powerful eukaryotic model for this approach...
September 2016: Yeast
Feiyang Ma, Yueqi Zhang, Yuzhou Wang, Yajuan Wan, Yunheng Miao, Tianyu Ma, Qilin Yu, Mingchun Li
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a conserved flavoprotein localized in the mitochondria, inducing apoptosis after translocation into the nucleus. However, its role in the important fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, remains to be investigated. In this study, we find that the C. albicans AIF protein Aif1, similar to its homologues in other organisms, is localized at the mitochondria and translocated into the nucleus under apoptosis-inducing conditions. Moreover, deletion of AIF1 causes attenuated apoptosis in this pathogen under apoptosis-inducing conditions, such as the treatment of 2 mm H2 O2 , 10 mm acetic acid or 0...
September 2016: Yeast
Diana Borovikova, Renata Teparić, Vladimir Mrša, Alexander Rapoport
The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain...
August 2016: Yeast
Ramachandran Chelliah, Sudha Rani Ramakrishnan, Prince R Prabhu, Usha Antony
The present research was undertaken to study the probiotic characteristics of Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with 18S rRNA primers confirmed Pichia kudriavzevii, a xylose-utilizing probiotic strain. It was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts, pepsin and pancreatic enzyme. It also showed efficient auto-aggregation as well as co-aggregation ability with four commercial probiotic yeasts and exhibited good hydrophobicity in xylene and toluene...
August 2016: Yeast
Sneh Lata Singh, Ramesh Chandra Rai, Sudisht Kumar Sah, Sneha Sudha Komath
CaGpi14 is the catalytic subunit of the first mannosyltransferase that is involved in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthetic pathway in Candida albicans. We show that CaGPI14 is able to rescue a conditionally lethal gpi14 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unlike its mammalian homologue. The depletion of this enzyme in C. albicans leads to severe growth defects, besides causing deficiencies in GPI anchor levels. In addition, CaGpi14 depletion results in cell wall defects and upregulation of the cell wall integrity response pathway...
August 2016: Yeast
Iwona Kata, Marta V Semkiv, Justyna Ruchala, Kostyantyn V Dmytruk, Andriy A Sibirny
Conversion of byproduct from biodiesel production glycerol to high-value compounds is of great importance. Ethanol is considered a promising product of glycerol bioconversion. The methylotrophic thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is of great interest for this purpose as the glycerol byproduct contains methanol and heavy metals as contaminants, and this yeast utilizes methanol and is relatively resistant to heavy metals. Besides, O. polymorpha shows robust growth on glycerol and produces ethanol from various carbon sources...
August 2016: Yeast
Federica Cardinali, Manuela Taccari, Vesna Milanović, Andrea Osimani, Serena Polverigiani, Cristiana Garofalo, Roberta Foligni, Massimo Mozzon, Silvia Zitti, Nadia Raffaelli, Francesca Clementi, Lucia Aquilanti
Caciofiore della Sibilla is a speciality ewes' milk cheese traditionally manufactured in a foothill area of the Marche region (Central Italy) with a crude extract of fresh young leaves of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia as a coagulating agent. The fungal dynamics and diversity of this speciality cheese were investigated throughout the manufacturing and 20-day ripening process, using a combined PCR-DGGE approach. The fungal biota of a control ewes' milk cheese, manufactured with the same batch of milk coagulated with a commercial animal rennet, was also monitored by PCR-DGGE, in order to investigate the contribution of the peculiar vegetable coagulant to the fungal diversity and dynamics of the cheese...
August 2016: Yeast
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