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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143358/melatonin-improves-survival-and-respiratory-activity-of-yeast-cells-challenged-by-alpha-synuclein-and-menadione
#1
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability, or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates ROS production...
November 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143357/influence-of-phosphatidylserine-and-phosphatidylethanolamine-on-farnesol-tolerance-in-candida-albicans
#2
Sahar Hasim, Elyse N Vaughn, Dallas Donohoe, Donna M Gordon, Susan Pfiffner, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. The ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth is critical for its pathogenesis. Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, is a quorum-sensing molecule produced by C. albicans that inhibits hyphal growth in this polymorphic fungus. Interestingly, C. albicans can tolerate farnesol concentrations that are toxic to other fungi. We hypothesized that changes in phospholipid composition are one of the factors contributing to farnesol tolerance in C...
November 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131448/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-x-saccharomyces-uvarum-hybrids-generated-under-different-conditions-share-similar-winemaking-features
#3
Origone Andrea Cecilia, Rodríguez María Eugenia, Oteiza Juan Martín, Querol Amparo, Lopes Christian Ariel
Interspecific hybrids among species in the Saccharomyces genus are frequently detected in anthropic habitats and can also be obtained easily in the laboratory. This occurs because the most important genetic barriers among Saccharomyces species are post-zygotic. Depending on several factors, including the involved strains, the hybridisation mechanism and stabilisation conditions, the hybrids that bear differential genomic constitutions, and hence phenotypic variability, can be obtained. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids were constructed using genetically and physiologically different S...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131388/saccharomyces-interspecies-hybrids-as-model-organisms-for-studying-yeast-adaptation-to-stressful-environments
#4
Ksenija Lopandic
The strong development of molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies in the last two decades has significantly improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of Saccharomyces yeasts. It has been shown that many strains isolated from man-made environments are not pure genetic lines, but contain genetic materials from different species that substantially increase their genome complexity. A number of strains have been described as interspecies hybrids, implying different yeast species that under specific circumstances exchange and recombine their genomes...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084380/a-combinatorial-approach-to-synthetic-transcription-factor-promoter-combinations-for-yeast-strain-engineering
#5
Zain Y Dossani, Amanda Reider Apel, Heather S Middleton, Nathan J Hillson, Samuel Deutch, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
Despite the need for inducible promoters in strain development efforts, the majority of engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to rely on a few constitutively active or inducible promoters. Building on advances that use the modular nature of both transcription factors and promoter regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein...
October 30, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084364/the-natural-diversity-and-ecology-of-fission-yeast
#6
Daniel C Jeffares
While the fission yeast is a powerful model of eukaryote biology, there have been few studies of quantitative genetics, phenotypic or genetic diversity. Here I survey the small collection of fission yeast diversity research. I discuss what we can infer about the ecology and origins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from microbiology field studies and the few strains that have been collected.
October 30, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077225/an-efficient-method-for-isolating-mating-competent-cells-from-bottom-fermenting-yeast-using-mating-pheromone-supersensitive-mutants
#7
Taku Ota, Keiko Kanai, Hisami Nishimura, Satoshi Yoshida, Hiroyuki Yoshimoto, Osamu Kobayashi
Crossbreeding is an effective approach to construct novel yeast strains with preferred characteristics; however, it is difficult to crossbreed strains of brewer's yeast, especially the bottom-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, because of the relative inefficiency of the available methods to obtain mating-competent cells (MCCs). Here, we describe a productive method for the isolation of MCCs without artificial genetic modification. We focused on the characteristics of two mating pheromone-supersensitive (PS) mutants, Δbar1 and Δsst2, that show a growth defect in presence of the mating pheromone...
October 27, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065217/the-fission-yeast-mapk-spc1-senses-perturbations-in-cdc25-and-wee1-activities-and-targets-rad24-to-restore-this-balance
#8
Madhurima Paul, Agamani Ghosal, Sushobhana Bandyopadhyay, G Prakadeeswari, Upasna Selvam, Neeraj Rai, Geetanjali Sundaram
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) play vital roles in multiple cellular processes and represent prominently pursued targets for development of therapeutic regimes. The MAPK Spc1 (p38 homolog) is known to be very important for both mitotic promotion and delay in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the mechanism responsible for mitotic inhibition has remained elusive. Cdc25 (Cdc2 activator) and Wee1 (Cdc2 inhibtor) are important determinants of mitotic timing in all eukaryotes. Our results show that Spc1 can sense the perturbations in the balance of Cdc25 and Wee1 activities in S...
October 24, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065215/on-the-catabolism-of-amino-acids-in-the-yeast-dekkera-bruxellensis-and-the-implications-to-industrial-fermentation-processes
#9
Denise Castro Parente, Danielli Batista Bezerra Cajueiro, Irina Charlot Peña Moreno, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra Leite, Will de Barros Pita, Marcos Antonio de Morais
In the last years several reports have reported the capacity of the yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis to survive and adapt to the industrial process of alcoholic fermentation. Much of this feature seems to relate to the ability to assimilate limiting sources of nutrients, or somehow some that are inaccessible to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular the sources of nitrogen. Among them, amino acids (AA) are relevant in terms of beverage musts, and could also be important for bioethanol. In view of the limited knowledge on the control of AA, the present work combines physiological and genetic studies to understand how it operates in D...
October 24, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048749/the-inheritance-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-interspecific-saccharomyces-hybrids-and-their-properties-in-winemaking
#10
Alexandra Verspohl, Samuele Pignedoli, Paolo Giudici
The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in yeast hybrids is heteroplasmic, turing into homoplasmic after few cell cycles. Mitotype restoration is reported to be biparental and random. This study shows that mitotype restoration follows fixed schemata. We created isogenic, interspecific Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids through direct mating and analysed their mating frequency and mitotype. The mating frequency increased for most crosses in staggered mating. Mitotyping revealed that breeding lines with the same parental strain of S...
October 19, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048745/inhibition-of-yeast-to-filamentous-growth-transitions-in-candida-albicans-by-a-small-molecule-inducer-of-mammalian-apoptosis
#11
Joy Goffena, Kurt A Toenjes, David K Butler
The opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans Candida albicans is able to grow in different morphological forms such as round or oval yeasts and filamentous hyphae and pseudohyphae. Morphogenesis, the ability to switch between the yeast and filamentous growth forms, is important for adapting to new microenvironments in the human host and for pathogenesis. The molecular pathways governing morphogenesis are complex and incompletely understood. Previously, we identified several small organic molecules that specifically inhibit the initiation of hyphal growth in C...
October 19, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044689/behead-and-live-long-or-the-tale-of-cathepsin-l
#12
Maria Karolin Streubel, Johannes Bischof, Richard Weiss, Jutta Duschl, Wolfgang Liedl, Herbert Wimmer, Michael Breitenbach, Manuela Weber, Florian Geltinger, Klaus Richter, Mark Rinnerthaler
In the last decades S. cerevisiae has proven to be one of the most valuable model organisms of aging research. Pathways as autophagy or the effect of substances like resveratrol and spermidine that prolong the replicative as well as chronological lifespan of cells have been described for the first time in S. cerevisiae. In this study we describe the establishment of an aging reporter that allows a reliable and relative quick screening of substances and genes that have an impact on the replicative lifespan. A cDNA library of the flatworm Dugesia tigrina that can be immortalized by beheading was screened using this aging reporter...
October 17, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027707/a-trichosporonales-genome-tree-based-on-27-haploid-and-three-evolutionarily-conserved-natural-hybrid-genomes
#13
Masako Takashima, Sira Sriswasdi, Ri-Ichiroh Manabe, Moriya Ohkuma, Takashi Sugita, Wataru Iwasaki
To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and T. ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly T. mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of approximately 55%, and its closest haploid relative was C. dermatis. After constructing the C...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027702/per1-gup1-and-cwh43-of-methylotrophic-yeast-ogataea-minuta-are-involved-in-cell-wall-integrity
#14
Xin-Xin Xu, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Yasunori Chiba, Xiao-Dong Gao, Takehiko Yoko-O
In eukaryotes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification of many glycoproteins on the cell surface is highly conserved. The lipid moieties of GPI-anchored proteins undergo remodeling processes during their maturation. To date, the products of the PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the lipid remodeling. Here, we focus on the putative GPI remodeling pathway in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta. We found that the O. minuta homologs of PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 are functionally compatible with those of S...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027262/on-the-origins-and-industrial-applications-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-x-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii-hybrids
#15
David Peris, Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Chris Todd Hittinger, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Companies based on alcoholic fermentation products, such as wine, beer, and biofuels, use yeasts to make their products. Each industrial process utilizes different media conditions, which differ in sugar content, the presence of inhibitors, and fermentation temperatures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has traditionally been the main yeast responsible for most fermentation processes. However, the market is changing due to the consumer demands or external factors, such as climate change. Some processes, such as biofuel production or winemaking, require new yeasts to solve specific challenges, especially those associated with sustainability, novel flavors, and altered alcohol contents...
October 12, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#16
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940694/sterol-synthesis-and-cell-size-distribution-under-oscillatory-growth-conditions-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-scale-down-cultivations
#17
Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Anika Bockisch, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne
Physiologic responses of yeast to oscillatory environments as they appear in the liquid phase in large-scale bioreactors were studied in the past. So far, however, the impact on the sterol household and intracellular regulation remains to be investigated. Since oxygen is a co-factor in several reaction steps within the sterol metabolism, changes in oxygen availability, as it occurs in aerated bioreactors of production scales, might have an influence on the regulation and incorporation of free sterols into the cells' lipid layer...
September 21, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892574/identification-of-a-novel-interspecific-hybrid-yeast-from-a-metagenomic-spontaneously-inoculated-beer-sample-using-hi-c
#18
Caiti Smukowski Heil, Joshua N Burton, Ivan Liachko, Anne Friedrich, Noah A Hanson, Cody L Morris, Joseph Schacherer, Jay Shendure, James H Thomas, Maitreya J Dunham
Interspecific hybridization is a common mechanism enabling genetic diversification and adaptation; however, the detection of hybrid species has been quite difficult. The identification of microbial hybrids is made even more complicated, as most environmental microbes are resistant to culturing and must be studied in their native mixed communities. We have previously adapted the chromosome conformation capture method Hi-C to the assembly of genomes from mixed populations. Here, we show the method's application in assembling genomes directly from an uncultured, mixed population from a spontaneously inoculated beer sample...
September 11, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892565/the-yeasts-of-the-genus-spathaspora-potential-candidates-for-second-generation-biofuel-production
#19
Raquel M Cadete, Carlos A Rosa
Yeasts of the Spathaspora clade have the ability to convert d-xylose to ethanol and/or xylitol. This is an important trait, as these yeasts may be used to produce bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass or as a source of new d-xylose metabolism genes for recombinant industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The core group of the genus Spathaspora has 22 species, both formally described and not yet described. Other species, such as Sp. allomyrinae, Candida alai, C. insectamans, C. lyxosophila, C. sake, Sp...
September 11, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886218/crispr-cpf1-enables-fast-and-simple-genome-editing-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
René Verwaal, Nathalie Buiting-Wiessenhaan, Sacha Dalhuijsen, Johannes A Roubos
Cpf1 represents a novel single RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas endonuclease system suitable for genome editing with distinct features compared to Cas9. We demonstrate the functionality of three Cpf1 orthologues - Acidaminococcus spp. BV3L6 (AsCpf1), Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 (LbCpf1), Francisella novicida U112 (FnCpf1) - for genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These Cpf1-based systems enable fast and reliable introduction of donor DNA on the genome using a two plasmid-based editing approach together with linear donor DNA...
September 8, 2017: Yeast
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