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Callie Chappell, Tadashi Fukami
The species of yeasts that colonize floral nectar can modify the mutualistic relationships between plants and pollinators by changing the chemical properties of nectar. Recent evidence supporting this possibility has led to increased interest among ecologists in studying these fungi as well as the bacteria that interact with them in nectar. Although not fully explored, nectar yeasts also constitute a promising natural microcosm that can be used to facilitate development of general ecological theory. We discuss the methodological and conceptual advantages of using nectar yeasts from this perspective, including simplicity of communities, tractability of dispersal, replicability of community assembly, and the ease with which the mechanisms of species interactions can be studied in complementary experiments conducted in the field and the laboratory...
February 24, 2018: Yeast
Andrey M Yurkov
Pioneering studies performed in the 19th century demonstrated that yeasts are present in belowground sources. Soils were regarded more as a reservoir for yeasts that reside in habitats above it. Later studies showed that yeast communities in soils are taxonomically diverse and different from those above ground. Soil yeasts possess extraordinary adaptations that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. A few species are promising sources of yeast oils and have been used in agriculture as potential antagonists of soil-borne plant pathogens or as plant growth promoters...
January 24, 2018: Yeast
Irene Stefanini
Insects interact with microorganisms in several situations, ranging from the accidental interaction to locate attractive food or acquisition of essential nutrients missing in the main food source. Despite a wealth of studies recently focused on bacteria, the interactions between insects and yeasts have relevant implications for both the involved parts. The insect intestine shows several structural and physiological differences among species, but it is generally a hostile environment for many microorganisms, selecting against the most sensitive and at the same time guaranteeing a less competitive environment to resistant ones...
January 23, 2018: Yeast
Marcin G Fraczek, Samina Naseeb, Daniela Delneri
For thousands of years humans have used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of bread and alcohol, however only for the last 30-40 years our understanding of the yeast biology has dramatically increased enabling us to modify its genome. Although S. cerevisiae has been the main focus of many research groups, other non-conventional yeasts have also been studied and exploited for biotechnological purposes. Our experiments and knowledge have evolved from recombination, to high-throughput PCR based transformations, to highly accurate CRISPR methods, in order to alter yeast traits for either research of industrial purposes...
January 18, 2018: Yeast
Frédéric Carly, Patrick Fickers
Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It could be used as a natural sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Here, a snapshot on current knowledge on erythritol metabolism and synthesis, optimization of its production, more precisely process and producer strain improvement is presented.
January 11, 2018: Yeast
José Fabricio López Hernández, Sarah E Zanders
Meiotic drivers are selfish DNA loci that can bias their own transmission into gametes. Due to their transmission advantages, meiotic drivers can spread in populations even if the drivers or linked variants decrease organismal fitness. Meiotic drive was first formally described in the 1950s and is thought to be a powerful force shaping eukaryotic genomes. Classic genetic analyses have detected the action of meiotic drivers in plants, filamentous fungi, insects, and vertebrates. Several of these drive systems have limited experimental tractability and relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of meiotic drive...
January 11, 2018: Yeast
Anupama Yadav, Himanshu Sinha
One of the fundamental question in biology is how the genotype regulates the phenotype. An increasing number of studies indicate that in most cases, the effect of a genetic locus on the phenotype is context-dependent, i.e. it is influenced by the genetic background and the environment in which the phenotype is measured. Still, the majority of the studies, in both model organisms and humans, that map the genetic regulation of phenotypic variation in complex traits primarily identify additive loci with independent effects...
January 10, 2018: Yeast
Aimilia A Stavrou, Verónica Mixão, Teun Boekhout, Toni Gabaldón
Online sequence databases such as NCBI GenBank serve as a tremendously useful platform for researchers to share and reuse published data. However, submission systems lack control for errors such as organism misidentification, which once entered in the database can be propagated and mislead downstream analyses. Here we present an illustrating case of misidentification of Candida albicans from a clinical sample as Naumovozyma dairenensis based on whole-genome shotgun data. Analyses of phylogenetic markers, read mapping and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) served to correct the identification...
January 10, 2018: Yeast
Ning Xu, Jinxiang Zhu, Qiaoyun Zhu, Yanzi Xing, Menghao Cai, Tianyi Jiang, Mian Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang
Pichia pastoris expression system has been widely used in recombinant protein production. So far the majority of heterologous proteins are expressed by methanol inducible promoter PAOX1 and constitutive promoter PGAP . The use of other promoters is rather limited. Here we selected 16 potentially efficient and regulatory promoter candidates based on the RNA-seq and RNA folding free energy ΔG data. GFP and recombinant amylase were inserted after these promoters to reveal their strength and efficiency under different carbon sources and culture scales...
December 26, 2017: Yeast
Mayra Fabiola Tello-Padilla, Alejandra Yudid Perez-Gonzalez, Melina Canizal-García, Juan Carlos González-Hernández, Christian Cortes-Rojo, Ivanna Karina Olivares-Marin, Luis Alberto Madrigal-Perez
Diet plays a key role in determining the longevity of the organisms since it has been demonstrated that glucose restriction increases lifespan whereas a high-glucose diet decreases it. However, the molecular basis of how diet leads to the aging process is currently unknown. We propose that the quantity of glucose that fuels respiration influences ROS generation and glutathione levels, and both chemical species impact in the aging process. Herein, we provide evidence that mutation of the gene GSH1 in S. cerevisiae diminishes glutathione levels...
December 26, 2017: Yeast
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, Golgi fragmentation and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein-expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates reactive oxygen species production...
March 2018: Yeast
Zain Y Dossani, Amanda Reider Apel, Heather Szmidt-Middleton, Nathan J Hillson, Samuel Deutsch, Jay D Keasling, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
Despite the need for inducible promoters in strain development efforts, the majority of engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to rely on a few constitutively active or inducible promoters. Building on advances that use the modular nature of both transcription factors and promoter regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein...
March 2018: Yeast
Maria Karolin Streubel, Johannes Bischof, Richard Weiss, Jutta Duschl, Wolfgang Liedl, Herbert Wimmer, Michael Breitenbach, Manuela Weber, Florian Geltinger, Klaus Richter, Mark Rinnerthaler
In recent decades Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be one of the most valuable model organisms of aging research. Pathways such as autophagy or the effect of substances like resveratrol and spermidine that prolong the replicative as well as chronological lifespan of cells were described for the first time in S. cerevisiae. In this study we describe the establishment of an aging reporter that allows a reliable and relative quick screening of substances and genes that have an impact on the replicative lifespan...
February 2018: Yeast
Xin-Xin Xu, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Yasunori Chiba, Xiao-Dong Gao, Takehiko Yoko-O
In eukaryotes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification of many glycoproteins on the cell surface is highly conserved. The lipid moieties of GPI-anchored proteins undergo remodelling processes during their maturation. To date, the products of the PER1, GUP1 and CWH43 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the lipid remodelling. Here, we focus on the putative GPI remodelling pathway in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta. We found that the O. minuta homologues of PER1, GUP1 and CWH43 are functionally compatible with those of S...
February 2018: Yeast
Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Anika Bockisch, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne
Physiological responses of yeast to oscillatory environments as they appear in the liquid phase in large-scale bioreactors have been the subject of past studies. So far, however, the impact on the sterol content and intracellular regulation remains to be investigated. Since oxygen is a cofactor in several reaction steps within sterol metabolism, changes in oxygen availability, as occurs in production-scale aerated bioreactors, might have an influence on the regulation and incorporation of free sterols into the cell lipid layer...
February 2018: Yeast
Gilles Fischer, Gianni Liti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Yeast
Masako Takashima, Sira Sriswasdi, Ri-Ichiroh Manabe, Moriya Ohkuma, Takashi Sugita, Wataru Iwasaki
To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis...
January 2018: Yeast
David Peris, Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Chris Todd Hittinger, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Companies based on alcoholic fermentation products, such as wine, beer and biofuels, use yeasts to make their products. Each industrial process utilizes different media conditions, which differ in sugar content, the presence of inhibitors and fermentation temperature. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has traditionally been the main yeast responsible for most fermentation processes. However, the market is changing due to consumer demand and external factors such as climate change. Some processes, such as biofuel production or winemaking, require new yeasts to solve specific challenges, especially those associated with sustainability, novel flavours and altered alcohol content...
January 2018: Yeast
Warren Albertin, Maria Chernova, Pascal Durrens, Erwan Guichoux, David James Sherman, Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarede, Philippe Marullo
In the last two decades, the extensive genome sequencing of strains belonging to the Saccharomyces genus has revealed the complex reticulated evolution of this group. Among the various evolutionary mechanisms described, the introgression of large chromosomal regions resulting from interspecific hybridization has recently shed light on Saccharomyces uvarum species. In this work we provide the de novo assembled genomes of four S. uvarum strains presenting more than 712 kb of introgressed loci inherited from both Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii species...
January 2018: Yeast
William G Alexander
Genome editing is a form of highly precise genetic engineering which produces alterations to an organism's genome as small as a single base pair with no incidental or auxiliary modifications; this technique is crucial to the field of synthetic biology, which requires such precision in the installation of novel genetic circuits into host genomes. While a new methodology for most organisms, genome editing capabilities have been used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decades. In this review, I will present a brief history of genome editing in S...
December 16, 2017: Yeast
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