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Microbial Pathogenesis

Shahrzad Shoraka, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Armin Hosseini Razavi, Yasin Hatami, Afsaneh Sharifian, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health concern due to the infection often leads to chronic infection, liver cirrhosis and also liver cancer. The host immune response to HBV infection and also genetic background play significant role in outcome of infection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most important kind of variation in genetic sequences that caused by point mutations. As cytokines have major roles in viral infections, it seems that cytokine gene polymorphisms are independently associated with response to viral infections...
January 9, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Qiang Fu, Wenwen Li, Shun Li, Xianjie Zhao, Honglin Xie, Xi Zhang, Kangjian Li, Chunquan Ma, Xiaohong Liu
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) causes a wide variety of infections in many species. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule, expressed by various cell types, which has been implicated in several infection processes. The aim of this study was to examine the role of CD44 in S. zooepidemicus adherence to LA-4 cells (mouse lung adenoma). Dose-dependent adhesion with LA-4 may be effectively studied by flow cytometry. Adherence of S. zooepidemicus is reduced after treatment of cells with anti-CD44 antibody...
January 9, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthiah Chellappandian, Athirstam Ponsankar, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Devarajan Chandramohan, Raja Ganesan
Mosquito that accountable for dispersal of dengue fever is Aedes aegypti Linn. and considered to be a chief vector for dengue especially in South Asian countries. Aspergillus flavus is considered to be wild growing green yellow colonies and synthesis highly regulating aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) as a secondary metabolite. Mycotoxins of A. flavus showed its efficacy against III and IV instars of Ae. aegypti with more than 90% mortality at the prominent dosage of 2 × 108 conidia/ml. The proximate lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 ) of mycotoxins against third and fourth instars was 2 × 105 and 2 × 107 respectively...
January 8, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Abaza Leila, Bouslama Lamjed, Benzekri Roudaina, Trabelsi Najla, Ameni Taamalli, Selim Jellouli, Zarrouk Mokhtar
(1) Many studies demonstrated that olive oil and the leaves have several biological activities, but the works on olive twigs remain very limited. In this report, we investigated for anti-coxsackievirus B-3 (CVB-3) and anti-herpes virus type 2 (HSV-2) activities of olive twigs from two Tunisian varieties: Chemlali (CM) and Chétoui (CT). Extraction from the olive twigs was carried out using successively hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The obtained extracts were evaluated for their anti-CVB-3 and anti-HSV-2 activities by MTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively...
January 8, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Meena Arif Memon, Yan Wang, Tianle Xu, Nana Ma, Huanmin Zhang, Animesh-Chandra Roy, Zain Ul Aabdin, Xiangzhen Shen
The goal of current investigations was to reveal the molecular mechanism triggered through feeding a diet with high-concentrate to dairy cows for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induction and to examine the oxidative stress parameters in their mammary epithelial tissue. In an eighteen-weeks feeding trial, 12 Holstein Friesian cows with a standard weight of 455 ± 28 kg were evenly divided into two groups and given either a low-concentrate (LC, forage to concentrate ratio = 6:4) or a high-concentrate (HC, forage to concentrate ratio = 4:6) diet...
January 7, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Amr T M Saeb, Khalid A Al-Rubeaan, Khalid Aldosary, G K Udaya Raja, Balavenkatesh Mani, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Hamsa T Tayeb
BACKGROUND: A reciprocal relationship between oral health and systemic disease, such as type 2 diabetes, has been suggested, whereby a systemic disease is a predisposing factor for oral infection. If the infection occurs, it in turn aggravates the progression of the systemic disease. According to several studies, certain constituents of the oral microbiota are linked to diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. In the current study, we aimed to compare the microbial diversity and population structure of the oral microbiota of normoglycemic, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes patients...
January 6, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sohail Raza, Kalsoom Siddique, Masood Rabbani, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Azhar, Farrukh Jamil, Muhammad Asif Rasheed
Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is economically devastating, highly contagious transboundry viral disease of livestock with 100% morbidity, rapid spread and severe production losses in animals. The FMDV has seven different serotypes. There is no vaccine that can protect animals from all serotypes. Hence, it is need of the day to develop a vaccine that protects animals from hetrologous challenge. In this study, we used immunoinformatics approach to find T and B-cell epitopes that will help to construct a universal vaccine for FMDV...
January 4, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Tadeusz Stefaniak
Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in humans. Many attempts have been made to develop an effective vaccine against S. Enteritidis for use in poultry, but experiments aimed at the complete elimination of this pathogen from poultry farms have not provided satisfactory results. The development of new generation vaccines against salmonellosis, such as subunit vaccines based on heat shock proteins (HSPs), is strongly justified. The high immunogenicity of Hsp60 isolated from Procaryota, including Salmonella, has been suggested by the presence of IgG anti-Hsp60 antibodies in mice immunized with these proteins...
January 4, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kamelia M Osman, Jihan Badr, Ahmed Orabi, Ayman Elbehiry, Aalaa Saad, Mai D S Ibrahim, Mai H Hanafy
Although commonly regarded as human and animal intestinal tract commensals, Enterococcus spp. have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic or acquired resistance to a number of antibiotics. Poultry has been suggested to be a reservoir for antibiotic resistance that may aggravate the problem of transmission of enterococci infections. Between January and December 2016, 106 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from a total of three poultry species. The collection included isolates recovered from chickens (n = 30), ducks (n = 35) and pigeons (n = 41)...
January 4, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Carla Dias, Marta Ribeiro, Ana Correia-Branco, Raul Domínguez-Perles, Fátima Martel, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
Wild animals may be considered important reservoirs for bacterial pathogens and, consequently, possible sources of infection for humans. In this study, selected multidrug-resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp., Aeromonas salmonicida, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Shewanella putrefaciens) isolated from wild animals were characterized on their ability to attach and invade/internalize human colonic carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. In addition, the viability of these bacteria to survive under simulated human gastrointestinal tract conditions as well as the production of virulence factors (homoserine lactones signal molecules, gelatinases, proteases, siderophores and biofilm formation) were studied...
January 4, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Ramachandran Chellia, Xiaowen Hu, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Deog-Hwan Oh, Myeong-Hyeon Wang
This work tested anti- Helicobacter pylori activity, free radicals scavenging property and toxicity as well chemical constituents in the extracts of chloroform (CE) and ethyl acetate (EAE) from the pedicel of Diospyros kaki L. (PDK-CE and PDK-EAE). There were 33 and 36 chemical constituents respectively in the extracts of PDK-CE and PDK-EAE, belonging to the fatty acids methyl ester, fatty acids, and steric acids, as revealed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts did not exhibit any toxicity, but they significantly showed scavenging activities of NO, DPPH, and H2 O2 free radicals...
January 3, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vivek K Chaturvedi, Anshuman Singh, Sushil K Dubey, Helal F Hetta, James John, M P Singh
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer which occurs in liver and severity of this cancer makes it the sixth most prevalent cancer and second leading cause of death among all cancers. The load of hepatitis-B virus (HBV) in serum is one of the important risk factors for the HCC. Several other factors also contribute to the HBV associated malignant hepatoma (HCC) i.e. HBV mutation, integration and condition of the host. Transformation of the liver to HBV-associated HCC usually accompanies long-run symptoms i...
January 3, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Rashmi Kumariya, Anita Kumari Garsa, Y S Rajput, S K Sood, Nadeem Akhtar, Seema Patel
Huge demand of safe and natural preservatives has opened new area for intensive research on bacteriocins to unravel the novel range of antimicrobial compounds that could efficiently fight off the food-borne pathogens. Since food safety has become an increasingly important international concern, the application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria that target food spoilage/pathogenic bacteria without major adverse effects has received great attention. Different modes of actions of these bacteriocins have been suggested and identified, like pore-forming, inhibition of cell-wall/nucleic acid/protein synthesis...
January 2, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xian Xu, Liqing Tian, Si Zhang, Ling Jiang, Zhidong Zhang, He Huang
Janthinobacterium sp. B9-8, isolated from low temperature-sewage in Xinjiang, China, is capable of producing violacein, a promising antibiotic. Here we report the genome sequence of B9-8, which consist of 4,889,335 bp with a G + C content of 48.72%. The violacein biosynthesis gene cluster vioABCDE was identified and analyzed based on the genomic data, which revealed relatively low query coverage (3-44%) and identity (66-87%) with existing strains. Janthinobacterium sp. B9-8 grew fast and reached a high cell density and violacein content within 24 h at 25 °C...
January 2, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xin Wang, Si-Yuan Qin, Zheng-Liang Liu, Xiao-Tian Zhang, Dong-Yang Cui, Jing-Hao Li, Yan Liu, Quan Zhao, Hong-Bo Ni
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that can infect almost all homoiothermal animals, including domestic raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). However, related reports on T. gondii infection in domestic raccoon dogs were limited in China. Therefore, a serological investigation was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in domestic raccoon dogs. A total of 962 serum samples were collected from Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Hebei provinces, northern China between April 2016 and November 2017, and were detected by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA)...
December 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xiaohong Xu, Jing Qian, Jiaxin Ding, Jindou Li, Fulong Nan, Weiqi Wang, Qi Qin, Yidong Fei, Cong Xue, Yanlong Cong, Renfu Yin, Zhuang Ding
Exosomes are micro messengers encapsulating RNA, DNA, and proteins for intercellular communication associated with various physiological and pathological reactions. Several viral infection processes have been reported to pertain to exosomal pathways. However, because of the difficulty in obtaining avian-sourced exosomes, avian virus-related exosomes are scarcely investigated. In this study, we developed a novel protein A/G-correlated method and successfully obtained the Newcastle disease virus-related exosome (NDV Ex)...
December 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jia Yang, Yi Yuan, Min Tang, Lian Liu, Kui Yang, Jinbo Liu
This study was based on 43 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains collected from clinical specimens. Susceptibility testing and resistance gene amplification revealed that these strains had multidrug resistance and all belonged to the VanA phenotype. Furthermore, there were seven ST types, and all belonged to the clonal complex (CC17); ST17 and ST78 were the main ST types. In particular, ST1392 and ST1394 are novel ST types first identified in this research. Genome analysis of SY1, LY19 and LY22 showed that tet(O)and tet(K) were the genes responsible for tetracycline resistance; acc(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia and aad(6) led to high-level gentamicin and high-level streptomycin resistance...
December 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Debasish Kumar Dey, Imran Khan, Sun Chul Kang
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) positive bacteria are emerging pathogens causing disease like sepsis. Diseases caused by these organisms have become a challenge; because these organisms are getting resistance against almost all the recommended antibiotics used for its treatment. In the present study, in vitro antimicrobial effects of kimchi isolate Weissella confusa (DD_A7) has shown the ability to trigger an oxidative attack and limits the growth of multidrug-resistant (MDR) ESBL positive E. coli bacteria...
December 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Prakash M Halami
Probiotic bacteria with antibacterial activity is of desirable trait since they can check the growth of pathogenic bacteria besides exhibiting health benefits to host. Aim of this study was to characterize Bacillus licheniformis MCC 2512T (MCC 2512), a potential probiotic culture for its ability to produce subtilin-like antibiotics. The anti-microbial compound produced by MCC 2512 was identified and characterized using subtilin-specific cell reporter, Bacillus subtilis 168:BS2 (BS2). Induction of β-gal by the test culture suggested the ability of B...
December 27, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Shaoxuan Wang, Yanyan Liu, Xuemin Yuan, Li Yao, Shaofeng Yang, Ran Ma
Tim-3 is highly expressed on monocytes and macrophages. Blocking Tim-3 was shown to promote macrophage activation. We previously showed that fecal bacteria from patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) presented significantly higher capacity to stimulate monocyte activation, resulting in higher expression of MHC molecules, costimulatory molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines, but the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we found that fecal bacteria could significantly downregulate the expression of Tim-3 on CD14+ classical monocytes in vitro...
December 27, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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