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Microbial Pathogenesis

Rina Tomizawa, Hiromu Sugiyama, Ryoichi Sato, Makoto Ohnishi, Nobuo Koizumi
Leptospirosis causes severe clinical signs more frequently in men than in women, but the mechanism underlying the gender differences in leptospirosis remains unclear. In this study, petechial hemorrhage was observed in male but not in female hamster lung tissues infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hebdomadis at 120 h pi, demonstrating that male hamsters were more susceptible to the development of a severe disease upon Leptospira infection. No leptospiral DNA was detected in the lung tissues at 120 h pi when pulmonary hemorrhage was observed, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage is attributable to the immune reactions of the host rather than from the direct effect of leptospires...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
H O B Oloyede, H O Ajiboye, M O Salawu, T O Ajiboye
Contribution of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the antibacterial activities of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of betulin, betulinic acid and ursolic acid against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus are 1024-, 256- and 1024-μg/mL; 512-, 256- and 256 μg/mL; 256-, 256- and 64 μg/mL respectively. Cell viability of betulin-, betulinic acid- and ursolic acid-treated bacteria decrease in time dependent manner...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Belisa S Parmeggiani, Roberto C V Santos, Guilhian Leipnitz, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Shiqi Lin, Ling Yang, Chen Gu, Bing Li, Dingqiang Chen, Lin Li, Zhenbo Xu
Biofilm is a ubiquitous growth pattern of bacterial species survival but is notorious for its threat on public health and food contamination. Extensive studies of the biofilm structure, formation, quantification, quorum sensing system and underlying control strategies have been reported during the past decades. Insightful elucidation of the pathogenic features and characteristic of bacterial biofilm can facilitate in devising appropriate control strategies for biofilm eradication. Therefore, this review mainly summarized the pathogenic features of biofilms from food borne microorganisms, including the biomass (which could be quantified using crystal violet and fluorogenic dye Syto9 assays), viability (which could be determined by tetrazolium salts, fluorescein diacetate, resazurin staining and alamar blue assays) and matrix (which are commonly detected by dimethyl methylene blue and wheat germ agglutinin assays)...
August 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Neema Negi, Ravinder Singh, Ashutosh Sharma, Bimal Kumar Das, Madhu Vajpayee
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IgM Endocab levels have been reported to be associated with disease progression in HIV-1 infection. In this longitudinal study, plasma levels of different microbially translocated products (LPS, sCD14, Endocab) was investigated in HIV-1 infected Indian Individuals stratified as Rapid (R), Viremic slow (VS), Slow progressors (S) and healthy controls. METHOD: Ten healthy and twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were enrolled...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patricia Pimentel de Barros, Barbara Evelyn Begnini, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, either single- or multiple-strain, in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Galleria mellonella (GM). Mouse macrophages were activated by different lactobacilli suspensions and challenged with C. albicans (CA)...
August 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Marcos Cortés, Patricio Sánchez, Pamela Ruiz, Ronie Haro, Jerson Sáez, Fabián Sánchez, Mauricio Hernández, Cristian Oliver, Alejandro J Yáñez
Piscirickettsia salmonis is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Piscirickettsiosis, a disease responsible for considerable mortalities in the Chilean salmon farming industry. Currently, P. salmonis protein translocation across the membrane and the mechanisms by which virulence factors are delivered to host cells are poorly understood. However, it is known that Gram-negative bacteria possess several mechanisms that transport proteins to the periplasmic and extracellular compartments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressional changes of several genes in the P...
August 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lindan Sun, Jiagang Tu, Lizhu Yi, Wenjie Chen, Lijuan Zhao, Yunmao Huang, Rishen Liang, Jun Li, Meng Zhou, Li Lin
Snakehead vesiculovirus (SHVV) has caused mass mortality to cultured snakehead fish in China, resulting in enormous economic losses in snakehead fish culture. In this report, the whole genome of SHVV was sequenced. Interestingly, it shared more than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with Monopterus albus rhabdovirus (MoARV), which has caused great economic loss to cultured rice field eel (Monopterus albus). Therefore, the concern of cross-species infection of these viruses prompted us to investigate the susceptibility of rice field eel to SHVV infection...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xiao-Long Chen, Ming-Liang Zhang, Lin Zhu, Meng-Le Peng, Fang-Zhou Liu, Guang-Xian Zhang, Li-Mei Wang, Jie Zhao
BACKGROUND: The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and multiple sclerosis (MS) has been extensively studied, but results were controversial. METHODS: This meta-analysis aimed to confirm whether VDR gene polymorphisms were associated with MS. Meta-analysis on the association between MS and VDR ApaI, BsmI, TaqI and FokI polymorphisms were conducted using allelic contrast, recessive, homozygotes and dominant models. Data were extracted by standardized forms and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random effects model if the results were heterogeneous...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Israa M S Al-Kadmy, Marwah Hasan Al-Kaabi, Sarah Naji Aziz, Mohammad Ahmad
The ability of multidrug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii to persist in any circumstances regard to the acquisition of many virulence factors genes and antibiotic resistance genes is major concern in the hospitals environments. In this study, thirty A. baumannii isolates were collected from blood infections from hospitalized patients were subjected to screening for virulence factors genes plcN and lasB by conventional PCR. The pathogenicity of representative isolates bearing these gene were tested using galleria mellonella infection assay and adhesion-invasion assay on A549 cell line, and compared with other strain without this gene...
August 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
C Mahendra, M Murali, G Manasa, Ponnamma Pooja, M R Abhilash, T R Lakshmeesha, A Satish, K N Amruthesh, M S Sudarshana
Zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized through eco-friendly approach has gained importance among researchers due to its broad applications. In the present work, hexagonal wurtzite shape nanoparticles (below 100 nm size) were obtained using aqueous leaf extract of Cochlospermum religiosum which was confirmed through X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The synthesized ZnO-NPs showed an absorption peak at 305 nm which is one of the characteristic features of ZnO-NPs.The bio-fabricated ZnO-NPs were of high purity with an average size of ∼76 nm analyzed through Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis supporting the findings of XRD...
August 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ramachandran Chelliah, Shuai Wei, Byung-Jae Park, Se-Hun Kim, Dong-Suk Park, Soon Han Kim, Kim Seok Hwan, Deog-Hwan Oh
Quantitative triplex real-time PCR (qPCR) offers an alternative method for detection of bacterial contamination. It provides quantitation of the number of gene copies. In our study, we established a qPCR assay to detect and quantify the specificity towards Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis. The assay was designed to detect a 280 bp fragment of motB gene encoding the flagellar motor protein, specific for detection of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, excluding other group species B. pseudomycoides, B. mycoides and B...
August 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
G Jaimee, P M Halami
High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from food animals is detrimental. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa in different Enterococcus species. The cross resistance patterns in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 to clinically important aminoglycosides by real time PCR were also studied. Southern hybridization experiments revealed the presence of aac(6')Ie-aph(2(″))Ia and aph(3')IIIa genes conferring HLAR in high molecular weight plasmids except in Lactobacillus plantarum...
July 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zahra Hashemizadeh, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Shahla Mansouri
Variety of virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli, the common cause of the urinary tract infections (UTIs). The aim of this study was to determine some virulence factors involved in the pathogenicity and the phylogenetic grouping of E. coli from UTIs compared with the E. coli isolates from gut microbiota (fecal flora). The isolates were tested for biofilm formation, haemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), hemolysin production, phylogenetic grouping and the distribution of 6 known virulence genes...
July 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Biswa Ranjan Meher
Chitin binding domain 3, known by the acronym ChtBD3, is a domain in the enzymes and proteins of several pathogenic virus, bacteria and fungi. As this domain is evolutionarily-conserved in virulence factors of these infectious agents, its detailed investigation is of clinical interest. In this regard, the current in silico study analyzed ChtBD3 domain distribution in bacterial proteins present in publicly-available SMART (simple modular architecture research tool) database. Also, the co-occurring domains of ChtBD3 in the studied proteins were mapped to understand positional rearrangement of the domain and consequent functional diversity...
July 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nara L F Pereira, Pedro E A Aquino, José G A S Júnior, Janyketchuly S Cristo, Marcos A Vieira Filho, Flávio F Moura, Najla M N Ferreira, Maria K N Silva, Eloiza M Nascimento, Fabrina M A Correia, Francisco A B Cunha, Aline A Boligon, Henrique D M Coutinho, Edinardo F F Matias, Maria I F Guedes
Due to the great biodiversity of its flora, Brazil provides combat tools against bacterial resistance with the utilization of natural products with vegetable origin. Therefore, the present study had as its objective to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the Eugenia uniflora essential oil (EuEO) in vitro, as well as to analyze the modulatory effect of the oil against antibiotics by gaseous contact and to compare them when associated with a LED apparatus. The chemical components were characterised by gas chromatography which revealed the presence of the isoflurane-germacrene, considered the major component (61...
July 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Haifeng Yang, Chunmao Jiang, Xiaolan Chen, Kongwang He, Yiyi Hu
The aim of this study was to investigate in piglets, the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, an agent commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In high-, middle- and low-dose sinomenine groups, piglets were initially challenged with endotoxin (i.e., 1 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection and, 3 h later, intramuscularly (IM) with sinomenine at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg. In a drug control group, piglets were dosed IP with vehicle and 3 h late IM with 10 mg/kg sinomenine while those in an LPS control group were challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg (IP) and then vehicle 3 h later; naïve control piglets were administered normal saline IP and then IM only...
July 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jéssica Diane Dos Santos, Janaína Araújo de Alvarenga, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Maíra Terra García, Renata Mendonça Moraes, Ana Lia Anbinder, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Our study investigated if the treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) that employs a nontoxic dye, followed by irradiation with harmless visible light can attenuate the experimental infection of P. gingivalis in Galleria mellonella. Firstly, different concentrations of P. gingivalis ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) cells/larva were injected into the animal to obtain a lethal concentration. Next, the following groups of G...
July 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Pelin Aslani Menareh Bazari, Sahar Honarmand Jahromy, Shohreh Zare Karizi
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections. Biofilm formation is an important factor for bacterial pathogenesis. Its mechanisms are complex and include of many genes depends on expression of icaADBC operon involved in the synthesis of a polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. AIM: The aim of study was to investigate biofilm forming ability of Staphylococcus aureus strains by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Also Atomic Force microscope (AFM) was used to visualize biofilm formation...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Samira Salari, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Sanaz Hadizadeh, Alireza Izadi
OBJECTIVES: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are an important public health problem and are common in tropical and subtropical countries. Pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, erythrasma, onychomycosis, and otomycosis are the major diseases associated with SCFIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of dermatomycoses over a period of 10 years in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. METHODS: A number of 1782 subjects, including 1096 females and 686 males, with cutaneous disorders in their skin, nail, and hair suspected to have SCFIs participated in this study...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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