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Microbial Pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089949/melaleuca-alternifolia-nanoparticles-against-candida-species-biofilms
#1
M E Souza, L Q S Lopes, P C Bonez, A Gündel, D S T Martinez, M R Sagrillo, J L Giongo, R A Vaucher, R P Raffin, A A Boligon, R C V Santos
Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089948/antifungal-activity-of-umbelliferone-derivatives-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships
#2
Le Pan, Xiuzhuang Li, Hui Jin, Xiaoyan Yang, Bo Qin
Umbelliferone was an important allelochemical with a wide spectrum bioactivity. In our previous study, C7 hydroxy in the backbone of umbelliferone was identified to be responsible for its phytotoxicity and the targeted modification of the above site could lead to the phytotoxicity loss. In view of this, a series of hydroxycoumarins and C7 O-substituted umbelliferone derivatives were efficiently synthesized to evaluate their antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. Most of them, as we predicted, exhibited improved fungicidal activity...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089947/hepatic-xanthine-oxidase-activity-and-purine-nucleosides-levels-as-physiological-mediators-to-analyze-a-subcutaneous-treatment-with-phse-2-in-mice-infected-by-toxoplasma-gondii
#3
Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Giovana Camillo, Fernanda F Vogel, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of purine nucleosides and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the liver of mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii and treated with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. For this experiment, forty Swiss mice were used. Twenty animals were orally infected by approximately 50 bradizoites of a cystogenic ME-49 strain of T. gondii, and the same number of uninfected mice was used as a control group. Ten infected and ten uninfected mice were subcutaneously treated twice (days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI)) with 5 μmol kg(-1) of (PhSe)2...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089946/identification-by-pcr-signature-tagged-mutagenesis-of-attenuated-salmonella-pullorum-mutants-and-corresponding-genes-in-a-chicken-embryo-model
#4
Shizhong Geng, Qin Tian, Rongxian Guo, Yang Jiao, Paul Barrow, Chao Yin, Yaonan Wang, Haopeng Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
A key feature of the fowl-specific pathogen Salmonella Pullorum is its vertical transmission to progeny via the egg. In this study, PCR signature-tagged mutagenesis identified nine genes of a strain of S. Pullorum that contributed to survival in the chicken embryo during incubation. The genes were involved in invasion, cell division, metabolism and bacterial defence. The competition index in vivo and in vitro together with a virulence evaluation for chicken embryos of all nine mutant strains confirmed their attenuation...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088473/endothelium-adhesion-molecules-icam-1-icam-2-vcam-1-and-vla-4-expression-in-leprosy
#5
Juarez de Sousa, Tinara Leila Sousa Aarão, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Kelly Emi Hirai, Luciana Mota Silva, Leonidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Juarez Aantonio Simoes Quaresma
Leprosy triggers a complex relationship between the pathogen and host immune response. Endothelium plays an important role in this immune response by directly influencing cell migration to infected tissues. The objective of this work is to investigate the possible role of endothelium in M. leprae infection, correlating the characteristics of endothelial markers with the expression pattern of cytokines. Thirty-six skin biopsy samples were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen for morphological analysis and then submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, and VLA-4...
January 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088472/cholesterol-and-ergosterol-affect-the-activity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-antibiotic-efflux-pumps
#6
S R Tintino, C D M Oliveira-Tintino, F F Campina, M S Costa, R P Cruz, R L S Pereira, J C Andrade, E O Sousa, J P Siqueira-Junior, H D M Coutinho, T C Leal-Balbino, V Q Balbino
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ergosterol on steroids and cholesterol efflux pumps in multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. Were used RN4220 harboring plasmid pUL5054, which carries the gene encoding the MsrA macrolide efflux protein; and IS-58, which possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein; 1199B resists hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism and wild strain 1199B. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined and the evaluation of possible inhibition of efflux pumps by reduction of MIC...
January 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087493/antioxidant-and-antiproliferative-potential-of-biosurfactants-isolated-from-lactobacillus-casei-and-their-anti-biofilm-effect-in-oral-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#7
Abderrahmen Merghni, Ines Dallel, Emira Noumi, Yassine Kadmi, Hajer Hentati, Samir Tobji, Adel Ben Amor, Maha Mastouri
Biosurfactants also called bioemulsifiers are amphipathic compounds produced by many microorganisms that allow them to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and to assess their anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against oral opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains. The antioxidant activity of biosurfactant was evaluated using the in vitro scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087492/multi-antibiotic-resistant-and-putative-virulence-gene-signatures-in-enterococcus-species-isolated-from-pig-farms-environment
#8
Abeni Beshiru, Isoken H Igbinosa, Faith I Omeje, Abraham G Ogofure, Martin M Eyong, Etinosa O Igbinosa
The continuous misuse of antimicrobials in food animals both orally and subcutaneously as therapeutic and prophylactic agents to bacterial infections could be detrimental and contribute to the dissemination of resistant clones in livestock production. The present study was carried out to determine the antibiogram and virulence gene characteristics of Enterococcus species from pig farms. A total of 300 faecal samples were obtained from two pig farms in Benin City between February and July, 2016. Standard culture-based and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were adopted in the detection and characterization of the Enterococcus species...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087491/dynamics-of-bacterial-class-bacilli-in-the-deepest-valley-lake-of-kashmir-the-manasbal-lake
#9
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Suhaib A Bandh, Rubiya Dar
In recognition of the importance of bacteria as ecological indicators of the aquatic systems a comprehensive and systematic analysis was carried out on Manasbal Lake, the deepest spring fed valley lake of Kashmir. The main objective envisaged was to analyze bacterial community composition (BCC) and for this purpose systematic and regular sampling of waters from ten different sampling stations, predetermined in the Lake according to differences in degree of human interference and also as zones of special ecological interests were selected...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065820/bioavailability-enhanced-resveramax%C3%A2-modulates-quorum-sensing-and-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#10
H S Vasavi, H V Sudeep, H B Lingaraju, K Shyam Prasad
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism present in many bacterial species plays a key role in regulating the virulence factor and biofilm formation in many pathogens, which causes severe public health risk. Therefore, interfering with QS mechanism offers an attractive strategy to combat bacterial infections. In the present study, anti-QS activity of a novel resveratrol formulation, Resveramax™, was detected using Chromobacterium violaceum biosensor bioassay and the effect of Resveramax on QS-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was assessed by standard protocols...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065819/aquatic-bacterial-diversity-magnitude-dynamics-and-controlling-factors
#11
REVIEW
Sana Shafi, Azra N Kamili, Manzoor A Shah, Javid A Parray, Suhaib A Bandh
The primary aspiration in the microbial observatory is to advance the understanding of freshwater bacterioplankton, whose diversity and population dynamics are currently the least understood off all freshwater planktonic organisms. Through identification and characterization of bacterial populations in a suite of fresh water bodies, we are able to gain significant new insight into the ecological niches of bacteria in diverse freshwater ecosystems. Given the facts that lakes and other inland freshwaters play a more critical role in the global carbon budget and that lakes have been described as early indicators of both regional and global environmental change, the role of microbes in these processes is of renewed interest...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065818/growth-retardation-induced-by-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-associated-with-down-regulated-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#12
Weiguo Feng, Defang Zhou, Wei Meng, Gen Li, Pingping Zhuang, Zhifang Pan, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces growth retardation and neoplasia in chickens, leading to enormous economic losses in poultry industry. Increasing evidences showed several signal pathways involved in ALV-J infection. However, what signaling pathway involved in growth retardation is largely unknown. To explore the possible signaling pathway, we tested the cell proliferation and associated miRNAs in ALV-J infected CEF cells by CCK-8 and Hiseq, respectively. The results showed that cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ALV-J and three associated miRNAs were identified to target Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
January 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062294/assessment-of-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-antisense-maze-pna
#13
Hassan Valadbeigi, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Majid Baseri Salehi
The hallmark patogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is biofilm formation that is not easy to eradicate, because it has variety mechanisms for antibiotic resistance. In addition, toxin-antitoxin (TA) system may play role in biofilm formation. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of TA loci in biofilm formation. Therefore, 18 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected and evaluated for specific biofilm and TA genes. The analysis by RT-qPCR demonstrated that expression of mazE antitoxin in biofilm formation was increase...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062293/distribution-of-resistance-genetic-determinants-among-vibrio-cholerae-isolates-of-2012-and-2013-outbreaks-in-ir-iran
#14
Niloofar Rezaie, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh
The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping profile in 20 clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. All of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The second most prevalent resistance was observed to trimethoprim (75%), co-trimoxazole (60%), tetracycline (50%), and minocycline (45%). About 50% of the isolates fulfilled the criteria of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenotype. None of the isolates carried tet A, B, C, and, D determinants...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062292/use-of-carvacrol-thymol-and-eugenol-for-biofilm-eradication-and-resistance-modifying-susceptibility-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-strains-to-nalidixic-acid
#15
Hanene Miladi, Tarek Zmantar, Bochra Kouidhi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Amina Bakhrouf, Kamel Chaieb
The Aims of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility and the biofilm eradication of three natural compounds carvacrol (CAR), thymol (TH) and eugenol (EUG), alone or in combination with nalidixic acid (NA) against twelve Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (BEC50) of the tested compounds (CAR, TH and EUG) and their combinations with NA were evaluated. In order to assess whether these bacteria had active efflux pumps, ethidium bromide (EtBr) accumulation assays was achieved using spectrophotometric accumulation assays...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062291/pathological-vicissitudes-and-oxidative-stress-enzyme-responses-in-mice-experimentally-infected-with-reptarenavirus-isolate-upm-my01
#16
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Omar Emad Ibrahim, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062290/virulence-related-genes-adhesion-and-invasion-of-some-yersinia-enterocolitica-like-strains-suggests-its-pathogenic-potential
#17
Priscilla F M Imori, Jaqueline Passaglia, Roberto A Souza, Lenaldo B Rocha, Juliana P Falcão
Yersina enterocolitica-like species have not been extensively studied regarding its pathogenic potential. This work aimed to assess the pathogenic potential of some Y. enterocolitica-like strains by evaluating the presence of virulence-related genes by PCR and their ability to adhere to and invade Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells. A total of 50 Y. frederiksenii, 55 Y. intermedia and 13 Y. kristensenii strains were studied. The strains contained the following genes: Y. frederiksenii, fepA(44%), fes(44%) and ystB(18%); Y...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062289/evaluation-of-p2x7-receptor-expression-in-peripheral-lymphocytes-and-immune-profile-from-patients-with-indeterminate-form-of-chagas-disease
#18
Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves Souza, Joabel Tonellotto Dos Santos, Fernanda Licker Cabral, Fernanda Barbisan, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Luiz Felipe Dias Carli, Sonia de Avila Botton, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos Jaques, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal
Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, an intracellular protozoan which is a potent stimulator of cell-mediated immunity. In the indeterminate form of CD (IFCD) a modulation between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses establishes a host-parasite adaptation. It was previously demonstrated that purinergic ecto-enzymes regulates extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, influencing immune and inflammatory processes during IFCD. In inflammatory sites ATP, as well as its degradation product, adenosine, function as signaling molecules and immunoregulators through the activation of purinergic receptors...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062288/designation-of-pathogenic-resistant-bacteria-in-the-sparusaurata-sea-collected-in-tunisia-coastlines-correlation-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-antibiotics
#19
Amina Zouiten, Ines Mehri, Asma Beltifa, Asma Ghorbel, Olivier Sire, Joris Van Loco, Hassen Abdenaceur, Tim Reyns, Hedi Ben Mansour
Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastro intestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from wild and farm sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) along the Tunisian coast from December 2015 to April 2016. Therefore, the antibiograms indicate a difference between farmed and wild fish...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062287/potential-use-of-cuminic-acid-as-a-botanical-fungicide-against-valsa-mali
#20
Yong Wang, Yang Sun, LiRong Han, Xing Zhang, Juntao Feng
Valsa canker caused by Valsa mali is commonly present in eastern Asia and cause large economic losses. Because of limited agricultural measures and chemical residues of commonly used fungicides there is an urgent need of alternative plant protecting agents. On this background the activity of cuminic acid, a plant extract from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L, was assessed. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for inhibition of mycelial growth of seven V. mali strains ranged from 3.046 to 8.342 μg/mL, with an average EC50 value of 4...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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