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Microbial Pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315724/molecular-detection-of-six-virulence-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-detected-in-children-with-urinary-tract-infection
#1
Ali Badamchi, Hossein Masoumi, Shima Javadinia, Ramin Asgarian, Azardokht Tabatabaee
Although a vast majority of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by E. coli, epidemiological reports have indicated an increasing rate of such infections caused by some other opportunistic organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and pathogenesis mechanisms of P. aeruginosa are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect some virulence factor genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates detected in patients with UTI, in children hospital of Tehran, Tehran, Iran...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315387/functional-role-of-ompf-and-ompc-porins-in-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#2
Hassan M A Hejair, Yingchu Zhu, Jiale Ma, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causes systemic infections in avian species and large economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. The functional role of porins during the infection and their mechanisms of interaction with host tissues for adhesion to and invasion are poorly understood. However, whether porins play a role in infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompF and ompC outer membrane porins in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain TW-XM...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288845/sodium-houttuyfonate-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-via-suppressing-tlr4-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathway-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#3
Wenqing Wang, Xiaoyu Hu, Peng Shen, Naisheng Zhang, Yunhe Fu
Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction caused by microorganisms in the mammary gland which usually leads to the decrease of the dairy production. It vastly makes bad effect on the cattle industry all over the world. Nowadays, an increasing number of scientists keep a watchful eye on natural compounds to prevent mastitis. Sodium houttuyfonate (SH) has been reported to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. This experiment aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of SH on LPS-stimulated primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC)...
March 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286291/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-expression-in-response-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis-challenge-in-mice-transplanted-with-periodontitic-human-gingiva
#4
Tomoko Shimizu, Masahiro To, Yohei Kamata, Juri Saruta, Takenori Sato, Shinya Fuchida, Nobushiro Hamada, Keiichi Tsukinoki
Inter-individual variability in the host response contributes significantly to expression of periodontal disease. Thus, research into the human host response is considered important in the analysis of periodontal disease. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is typically produced by epithelial tissues after stimulation with microorganisms and inflammatory mediators, and it contributes to the initial defense in the innate immune response. However, hBD-2 expression in response to infection has not been investigated in human gingival tissue with periodontitis...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286290/the-effect-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-ns3-protein-on-the-expression-of-mir-150-mir-199a-mir-335-mir-194-and-mir-27a
#5
Sayyad Khanizadeh, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Seyed Younes Hosseini, Parivash Davoodian, Mohammad Almasian, Zahra Khanlari
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered one of the most important causes of chronic liver diseases. Many reports have shown that the proteins of the HCV via interactions with gene expression regulatory networks such as cellular pathways and microRNAs can contribute to the development of chronic liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the HCV NS3 protein on the expression of miR-150 miR-199a, miR-335, miR-194, miR-27a in a cell culture model. Plasmids expressing the full length of the HCV NS3 protein were transfected into the LX-2 cell line, while at the same time a plasmid expressing empty GFP (green fluorescent protein) was used as a negative control group...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284851/clostridium-difficile-derived-membrane-vesicles-induce-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-genes-and-cytotoxicity-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Asiimwe Nicholas, Hyejin Jeon, Gati Noble Selasi, Seok Hyeon Na, Hyo Il Kwon, Yoo Jeong Kim, Chi Won Choi, Seung Il Kim, Je Chul Lee
Clostridium difficile is the most common etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study investigated the secretion of membrane vesicles (MVs) from C. difficile and determined the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity of C. difficile MVs in epithelial cells in vitro. C. difficile ATCC 43255 and two clinical isolates secreted spherical MVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that MVs of C. difficile ATCC 43255 contained a total of 262 proteins...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284852/current-methodologies-on-genotyping-for-nosocomial-pathogen-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#7
REVIEW
Jian Miao, Lequn Chen, Jingwen Wang, Wenxin Wang, Dingqiang Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Yang Deng, Zhenbo Xu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen in hospitals and the community. As the rapid spread and wide distribution of antimicrobial resistance (such as MRSA), treatment for infectious diseases caused by microorganisms has become a vital threat. Thus, early identification and genotyping are essential for further therapeutic treatment and the control of rapid expansion of MRSA. In combination with applications and data feedbacks, this review focused on the currently available molecular-based assays on their utility and performance for rapid typing of MRSA, especially on effective molecular-based methods...
March 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284850/molecular-prevalence-of-putative-virulence-associated-genes-in-brucella-melitensis-and-brucella-abortus-isolates-from-human-and-livestock-specimens-in-iran
#8
Iman Hashemifar, Abbas Yadegar, Faramarz Masjedian Jazi, Nour Amirmozafari
Molecular prevalence of nine putative virulence factors in two more prevalent Brucella species in Iranian patients and livestock was investigated. During five years (2010-2015), 120 human and animal specimens were collected from three geographical areas of Iran. All samples were cultured in blood culture media and subcultured into Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were designed for detection of VirB2, VirB5, VceC, BtpA, BtpB, PrpA, BetB, BPE275 and BSPB virulence factors using PCR and sequence analysis...
March 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286152/toxin-production-of-clostridium-difficile-in-sub-mic-of-vancomycin-and-clindamycin-alone-and-in-combination-with-ceftazidime
#9
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Mohammad Moradi
Toxin production in Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a key process for induction of diarrhea. Several factors such as sub-MIC of antibiotics impact on toxin production. The aim of this research is investigation of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of vancomycin (VAN), clindamycin (CLI) separately and in combination with ceftazidime (CAZ) on toxin production in C. difficile. About ∼10(6) colony forming units (CFU) from 18-h culture of C. difficile ATCC 9689 and clinical isolates A(+)/B(+)/CTD(-), were cultured anaerobically in the pre-reduced medium with appropriate concentration of separated and in combination antibiotics...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286151/oxidative-stress-in-rats-experimentally-infected-by-sporothrix-schenckii
#10
Verônica S P Castro, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Gustavo R Thomé, Patrícia Wolkmer, Jorge L C Castro, Márcio M Costa, Dominguita L Graça, Daniele C Oliveira, Sydney H Alves, Maria R C Schetinger, Sonia T A Lopes, Lenita M Stefani, Maria I Azevedo, Matheus D Baldissera, Cinthia M Andrade
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286150/antimicrobial-activity-of-crude-fractions-and-morel-compounds-from-wild-edible-mushrooms-of-north-western-himalaya
#11
Nowsheen Shameem, Azra N Kamili, Mushtaq Ahmad, F A Masoodi, Javid A Parray
The antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (Morchella esculenta and Verpa bohemica) from Kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. The butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel M. esculenta showed highest 19 mm IZD against E.coli while as same fraction of Verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm IZD against same strain. The ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest IZD shown against A...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286149/interaction-of-francisella-noatunensis-subsp-orientalis-with-oreochromis-mossambicus-bulbus-arteriosus-cell-line
#12
Esteban Soto, Susan Yun, Jainee Lewis, Michael T Kearney, John Hansen
Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of piscine francisellosis. Although Fno causes septicemia and can live extracellularly in infected tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), the early interaction of Fno with vasculature endothelium is unknown. In the present study, we examined the interaction of wild-type Fno (WT) and two Fno knockout [intracellular growth loci C (ΔiglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (ΔpdpA)] strains with the endothelial O...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259674/assessment-of-the-potential-utility-of-different-regions-of-streptococcus-uberis-adhesion-molecule-suam-for-mastitis-subunit-vaccine-development
#13
Melina Soledad Perrig, Carolina Veaute, María Sol Renna, Nazarena Pujato, Luis Calvinho, Iván Marcipar, María Sol Barbagelata
Streptococcus uberis is one of the most prevalent pathogens causing clinical and subclinical mastitis worldwide. Among bacterial factors involved in intramammary infections caused by this organism, S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is one of the main virulence factors identified. This molecule is involved in S. uberis internalization to mammary epithelial cells through lactoferrin (Lf) binding. The objective of this study was to evaluate SUAM properties as a potential subunit vaccine component for prevention of S...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259673/unexplored-endemic-fruit-species-from-brazil-antibiofilm-properties-insights-into-mode-of-action-and-systemic-toxicity-of-four-eugenia-spp
#14
Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Irlan Almeida Freires, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Juliana Infante, Severino Matias de Alencar, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
Brazilian endemic fruit species have aroused attention due to their highly valuable, yet unexplored, agro-industrial, food and therapeutic potential. Herein, we describe the antifungal activity of four Eugenia spp. against Candida albicans biofilms, and further demonstrate insights into their potential mode(s) of action and toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Extracts from different parts (seeds, pulps, leaves) of E. leitonii (EL), E. brasiliensis (EB), E. myrcianthes (EM) and E. involucrata (EI) were obtained (S23°23',W45°39') and chemically characterized by GC/MS...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259672/the-staphylococcus-epidermidis-gdps-regulates-biofilm-formation-independently-of-its-protein-coding-function
#15
Tao Zhu, Yanfeng Zhao, Yang Wu, Di Qu
The second messenger cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP) plays an important role in controlling the switch between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by di-guanylate cyclases (DGCs) and the enzymes are characterized by the presence of a conserved GGDEF domain. In the sequenced staphylococcal genomes, gdpS is the only gene encoding a GGDEF domain-containing protein. Previous studies have shown that gdpS contributes to staphylococcal biofilm formation, but its effect remains under debate...
March 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258004/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-detection-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-at-peripheral-tuberculosis-clinics
#16
Yan Shao, Hong Peng, Cheng Chen, Tao Zhu, Ming Ji, Wei Jiang, Wei Zhu, Xiang Jun Zhai, Wei Lu
Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases in China, while delayed patient finding obstructed disease control, especially for smear-negative patients. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared with conventional methods in the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 295 spot sputum samples from confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were evaluated from September 2014 to June 2015. Each sample was examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258003/ctx-m-15-and-oxa-10-beta-lactamases-in-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-first-report-from-pakistan
#17
Waheed Ullah, Muhammad Qasim, Hazir Rahman, Saadullah Khan, Zia Ur Rehman, Nawab Ali, Noor Muhammad
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging threat to public health worldwide due to their rapid development of drug resistance including beta-lactamases. The present study was designed to investigate the incidence of β-lactamases and genotypic pattern of CTX and OXA in the clinical isolate of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. METHODS: In this study a total of 102 MDR P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan were subjected to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), metallo beta lactamase (MBL) and plasmid mediated β-lactamase (AmpC) detection using phenotypic and molecular methods...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258002/molecular-assessment-of-virulence-determinants-hospital-associated-marker-is16gene-and-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soil-borne-enterococcus-species
#18
Syed Abid Ali, Hassan Bin-Asif, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Marium Rehman, Atiya Abbasi
Enterococci, no more regarded as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) organism, are emerging as an important source of nosocomial infections worldwide. The main contributors in pathogenesis of enterococci are the presence of various virulent factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We aimed to examine the prevalence, dissemination, antibiotic resistance and virulent factors associated with enterococci from bulk soil (BS). A total of 372 enterococci were isolated from 500 soil samples. PCR was used to identify the isolates up to species level and for carriage of 16 virulence genes including hospital associated marker (i...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258001/experimental-infection-in-gerbils-by-conidiobolus-lamprauges
#19
Isabela de Godoy, Camila Gonçalves de Campos, Caroline Argenta Pescador, João Vitor Amorim Galceran, Stéfhano Luis Cândido, Valéria Dutra, Luciano Nakazato
Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging entomophthoramycosis caused by fungi Conidiobolus spp. Animal models are essential for the study of infectious disease in various areas such as pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention. There is not currently an animal model for conidiobolomycosis. The aim of this study was to create an experimental infection protocol for Conidiobolus lamprauges in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The study animals were randomly divided into four groups of four animals: immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and infected with C...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258000/prevalence-molecular-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-sausages-in-meknes-morocco
#20
Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Bouchra Karraouan, Abdellah El Allaoui, Amal Aboulkacem, Brahim Bouchrif
Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. The aims of this study go through two steps: The first step is to estimate the proportion of sausages products contaminated with Salmonella in Meknes city (Morocco), which were collected from various shopping sites: butchery, street vendors, supermarket and souk (Weekly market combines the population of the small villages around Meknes city). The second one is to identify serovars, to determine the antimicrobials resistance patterns of isolates and to detect the invA and spvC genes...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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