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Microbial Pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240818/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-antibacterial-and-uv-protection-properties-of-the-biosynthesized-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-for-medical-textile-applications
#1
Amr Fouda, Saad El-Din Hassan, Salem S Salem, Th I Shaheen
Nowadays, medical textiles have become the most essential and developing part in human healthcare sector. This work was undertaken with a view to harness the bio-active macromolecules secreted by fungi e.g. proteins and enzymes in bio-synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for multifunctional textiles such as antibacterial activity and UV protection with considering the cytotoxicity limitation. Herein, the isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus, was allowed to produce proteins which has affinity to cape ZnO-NPs. Various factors affecting the behavior of the secreted proteins on the formed nanoparticles were investigated...
September 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240817/emerging-candida-species-isolated-from-renal-transplant-recipients-species-distribution-and-susceptibility-profiles
#2
Kambiz Diba, Khadijeh Makhdoomi, Elahe Nasri, Afsane Vaezi, Javad Javidnia, Davood Jabbari Gharabagh, Nima Hosseni Jazani, Ali Reza Chawshin, Parisa Badiee, Hamid Badali, Hamed Fakhim
Candidiasis is a major challenge among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Fluconazole is the most commonly used agent for Candida infections. However, frequent relapse and treatment failure are still reported among patients affected with this infection. In the present study, Candida species obtained from RTRs were characterized based on conventional and molecular assays. Furthermore, the antifungal susceptibility profiles of these species were determined...
September 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240816/molecular-cloning-of-porcine-2-5-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-protein-and-its-role-in-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#3
Ruining Wang, Yi Yu, Weili Kong, Cunfa Li, Yinfeng Kang, Guoqiang Wang, Wenjia Wang, Jian He, Mengmeng Zhao
Porcine 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein is an essential antiviral protein induced by interferons; however, its bioinformatics, genetic characteristics and immunological characteristics related to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are still unknown. In this study, porcine 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein was cloned, and various attributes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Through RNAi depletion and overexpression methods, it was determined that porcine OASL not only inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory virus replication but also activates interferon-beta production and the interferon-beta promoter, promoting the expression of interferon-beta mRNA...
September 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227230/polymicrobial-antibiofilm-activity-of-the-membranotropic-peptide-gh625-and-its-analogue
#4
E de Alteriis, L Lombardi, A Falanga, M Napolano, S Galdiero, A Siciliano, R Carotenuto, M Guida, E Galdiero
This work illustrates a new role for the membranotropic peptide gH625 and its derivative gH625-GCGKKK in impairing formation of polymicrobial biofilms. Mixed biofilms composed of Candida and bacterial species cause frequently infections and failure of medical silicone devices and also show a major drug resistance than single-species biofilms. Inhibition and eradication of biofilms were evaluated by complementary methods: XTT-reduction, and crystal violet staining (CV). Our results indicate that gH625-GCGKKKK, better than the native peptide, strongly inhibited formation of mixed biofilms of clinical isolates of C...
September 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227229/pathogenicity-island-encoded-regulatory-rnas-regulate-bacterial-virulence-and-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Xin Zhao, Ying Zhang, Xinxiang Huang
Bacterial regulatory RNAs (regRNAs) have been widely studied for decades and shown to be involved in various aspects of bacterial survival, including their virulence and pathogenesis. Recently, many regRNAs have been found to be encoded within bacterial pathogenicity islands (PAIs). These PAI-encoded regRNAs also play important regulatory roles in bacterial virulence and pathogenesis. In this review, we introduce the reported PAI-encoded regRNAs individually, focusing on their types, target genes, regulatory roles, regulatory mechanisms and significance...
September 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227228/in-vitro-interaction-of-candida-tropicalis-biofilm-formed-on-catheter-with-human-cells
#6
Francieli Capote-Bonato, Karina Mayumi Sakita, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Leandro Zuccolotto Crivellenti, Melyssa Negri, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the major Candida non-C. albicans species, in terms of epidemiology and virulence. Despite its virulence, C. tropicalis pathogenic mechanism has yet not been fully defined. The current study aimed to demonstrate the interaction of mature C. tropicalis ATCC 750 biofilm formed on catheter with different human cell lines. In vitro mature (72 h) C. tropicalis biofilms were produced on small catheter fragments (SCF) and were mainly composed by blastoconidia. Then, migration of yeast cells from mature biofilm to human cell surfaces (HeLa and HUVEC) was investigated...
September 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223005/an-endophytic-strain-of-genus-paenibacillus-isolated-from-the-fruits-of-noni-morinda-citrifolia-l-has-antagonistic-activity-against-a-noni-s-pathogenic-strain-of-genus-aspergillus
#7
Yang Liu, Feirong Bai, Ting Li, Hai Yan
Endophytes are microbes capable of colonizing the tissues of healthy plants and subsequently establishing a harmonious relationship with their hosts. In this research, the endophytic strain Paenibacillus sp. NEB was isolated from fruits of healthy Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.). Strain NEB was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Pathogenic fungal strain NP-1 was isolated from Noni fruits infected by smut, and was identified as Aspergillus aculeatus by polyphasic taxonomy basing on morphological identification, and ITS-5...
September 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219392/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-pyridin-2-yl-hexanoate
#8
Bochra Kouidhi, Mohamed Hagar, Nagi R E Radwan, Kamel Chaieb
Synthesized Pyridin-2-yl hexanoate was screened for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activities using the broth microdilution method and XTT assay respectively. The obtained results revealed that synthesized molecule inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria (MICs value ranged from 80 to 640 μg ml-1 ). Moreover, it induced a strong antibiofilm effect against Gram positive cocci (BIC50 was 366, 378 and 412 μg ml-1 for Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 6249 respectively)...
September 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219391/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-vanillosmopsis-arborea-barker-asteraceae-and-its-major-constituent-%C3%AE-bisabolol
#9
Fabíola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Aracélio Viana Colares, Carla de Fatima Alves Nonato, Fabío Fernandes Galvão-Rodrigues, Magaly Lima Mota, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Moraes Braga, José Galberto Martins da Costa
Vanillosmopsis arborea Barker (Asteraceae), commonly known as "candeeiro" is an endemic tree to the Caatinga biome, in northeast Brazil. The major component of its essential oil is α-bisabolol, a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol with several biological activities reported. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of V. arborea was investigated in comparison with its major component α-bisabol. The antimicrobial activity was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12692, Candida albicans (CA) INCQS 40006, Candida krusei (CK) INCQS 40095, Candida tropicalis (CT) INCQS 40042, and multiresistant bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus 03 and Escherichia coli 08 by the microdilution method and direct contact modulation...
September 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217515/palladium-nanoparticles-synthesis-characterization-using-glucosamine-as-the-reductant-and-stabilizing-agent-to-explore-their-antibacterial-catalytic-applications
#10
Sadeeq Ullah, Aftab Ahmad, Arifullah Khan, Jie Zhang, Muslim Raza, Aziz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Tariq, Usman Ali Khan, Shah Zada, Qipeng Yuan
Low cost and an easy technique for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was developed. Glucosamine was used to stabilize palladium precursor (PdCl2 ) into palladium nanoparticles. Several analytical techniques were used for the determination of morphology, crystalline structure; size, capping, and composition of synthesize palladium nanoparticles. The UV-visible spectroscopy SPR peak (Surface Plasmon Resonance) at 284 nm revealed synthesis of PdNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies proved the elemental composition and crystalline structure of the synthesized palladium nanoparticles respectively...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217517/in-silico-identification-of-immunodominant-b-cell-and-t-cell-epitopes-of-non-structural-proteins-of-usutu-virus
#11
Rohit Satyam, Essam Mohammed Janahi, Tulika Bhardwaj, Pallavi Somvanshi, Shafiul Haque, Mohammad Zeeshan Najm
Usutu Virus (USUV; flavivirus) is a re-emerging pathogen invading the territories of European countries, Asia, and Africa. It is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus with a bi-directional transmission route from animal to human and vice versa, and causes neurological disorders such as meningoencephalitis in bats, Homo sapiens, birds and horses. Due to limited availability of information about USUV and its deleterious effects on neural cells causing neurologic impairments, it becomes imperative to study this virus in detail to equip ourselves with a solution beforehand...
September 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217516/identification-of-novel-immunoreactive-proteins-and-delineation-of-a-specific-epitope-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum
#12
Meiling He, Wenting Xu, Lei Zhang, Zengzhi Liu, Jiafeng Zhu, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Hua Niu
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an increasingly recognized febrile tick-borne illness, is caused by a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Because of nonspecific clinical manifestations, diagnosis of HGA is highly dependent on laboratory tests. Identification of immunoreactive proteins is prerequisite for specific and sensitive immunoassays for HGA. In this study, we identified novel immunoreactive proteins of A. phagocytophilum. Previous studies indicated that secreted proteins of A...
September 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217514/the-co-colonization-prevalence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Jingming Zhao, Wei Cheng, Xigang He, Yanli Liu
PURPOSE: The co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been inconsistently reported. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the overall co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in CF. METHODS: The Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in CF. The co-colonization prevalence of two pathogenic microorganisms in the individual studies was assessed by calculating the proportion and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
September 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208331/heterologous-expression-of-a-broad-spectrum-chimeric-antimicrobial-peptide-in-lactococcus-lactis-its-safety-and-molecular-modeling-evaluation
#14
Abass Tanhaieian, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati, Farajollah Shahriari Ahmadi, Mojtaba Mamarabadi
Over the last decade, global increase in antibiotic consumption is a major concern in the word. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) known as potential alternative and were considered as a safe antimicrobial agent. However, current approaches for production and purification of AMPs are costly and time-consuming. Here we show that heterologous expression of a chimeric peptide was successfully developed in Lactococcus lactis as a safe and cost-effective recombinant protein expression platform. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of His-tag purified peptide was determined against a broad spectrum of human pathogenic bacteria consistence of Gram-positive, Gram-negative and resistance strains in deferent range from 7...
September 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205194/rs-sample-can-be-guide-for-empirical-treatment-of-haematological-malignancy-patients
#15
Banu Kaskatepe, Serap Suzuk Yildiz, Ipek Mumcuoglu, Gulsum Ozet, Evrim Gunes Altuntas
Neutropenia due to intensive chemotherapy in haematological malignancy patients leaves the host vulnerable and makes them susceptible to infections. Infections are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in haematological malignancy and chemotherapy patients. In addition, the use of multiple or inappropriate antibiotics leads to the development of resistant microorganisms. Therefore, the choice of empirical treatment is of vital important in these patient groups. Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae are among the most frequently isolated Gram negative bacteria in neutropenic patients...
September 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205193/effects-of-phytogenic-feed-additive-based-on-thymol-carvacrol-and-cinnamic-aldehyde-on-body-weight-blood-parameters-and-environmental-bacteria-in-broilers-chickens
#16
João H Reis, Roger R Gebert, Mauricio Barreta, Matheus D Baldissera, Ingrid D Dos Santos, Roger Wagner, Gabriela Campigotto, Antonise M Jaguezeski, Anderson Griss, Jéssica L Farias, Ricardo E Mendes, Mateus Fracasso, Marcel M Boiago, Lenita M Stefani, Daiane Silva Santos, Weber Robazzi, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) based on essential oils such as carvacrol, thymol and cinnamic aldehyde, could be considered a replacement for antimicrobials used as growth promoters in broiler chickens, as well as to investigate its effect on total bacterial count, biochemical profiles, meat quality and meat fatty acid profile. A total of 240 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 15 animals each, as follow: T1 (basal diet only; the control group), T2 (basal diet supplemented with zinc bacitracin), T3 (basal diet with 0...
September 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205192/candida-auris-epidemiology-risk-factors-virulence-resistance-and-therapeutic-options
#17
REVIEW
Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Diego Romário Silva, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
Candida auris emerged as a pathogen resistant to multiple antifungal and has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks with high transmission capacity between hospitalized individuals. C. auris was first described in 2009, after being isolated from the external ear canal discharge of a patient in Japan. The difficulty in identification, incorrect use of antifungal drugs, and treatment failure are causes of high mortality. Since then, C. auris has been increasingly reported from East Asia to North America, with substantial fatalities and misidentification...
September 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201593/selection-and-structural-analysis-of-the-ny25-peptide-a-vaccine-candidate-from-hemagglutinin-of-swine-origin-influenza-h1n1
#18
Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva, Larisa Valentinovna Kordyukova
The aim of this study was to construct a vaccine peptide candidate against pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin and to test its structure. With the help of bioinformatic algorithms we showed that the sequence encoding the second polypeptide of pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA2) is protected from nonsynonymous mutations better than the sequence encoding its first polypeptide (HA1). With the help of secondary and ternary structure predicting algorithms we found the fragment of HA2 with the most reproducible secondary structure and synthesized the NY25 peptide corresponding to the residues Asn117 - Tyr141 of HA2...
September 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201592/dynamics-of-expression-of-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-defence-genes-in-indian-major-carp-labeo-rohita-in-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#19
Arun Sharma, Anirban Paul, Sonali Parida, Sabyasachi Pattanayak, Amruta Mohapatra, Pasim Rajesh Kumar, Manoj Kumar Sahoo, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo
Cells produce large number of antioxidant molecules to prevent reactive oxygen species-induced self-damage during microbial assault while generating simultaneously number of antimicrobial molecules to target the pathogen. The present study was aimed at looking into molecules involved in antibacterial and self-protection mechanism of a host Labeo rohita when challenged with a pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Expression profiles of few of the important host antibacterial genes viz., inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), lysozyme G (LysoG), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and hepcidin, and self-defence anti-oxidant genes viz...
September 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201591/pathogen-produced-catalase-affects-immune-priming-a-potential-pathogen-strategy
#20
Héctor Medina-Gómez, Mónica Farriols, Fernando Santos, Angélica González-Hernández, Juan Carlos Torres-Guzmán, Humberto Lanz, Jorge Contreras-Garduño
Immune priming in invertebrates occurs when the first contact with a pathogen/parasite enhances resistance after a second encounter with the same strain or species. Although the mechanisms are not well understood, there is evidence that priming the immune response of some hosts leads to greater pro-oxidant production. Parasites, in turn, might counteract the host attack with antioxidants. Virulent pathogen strains may therefore mask invertebrate immune priming. For example, different parasite species overexpress catalase as a virulence factor to resist host pro-oxidants, possibly impairing the immune priming response...
September 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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