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Microbial Pathogenesis

Tong-Gang Liu, Kai-Hui Sha, Li-Guo Zhang, Xian-Xian Liu, Fang Yang, Jin-Ying Cheng
Alpinetin, a type of novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this investigation was designed to reveal the protective effects of alpinetin on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced liver injury in mice. Alpinetin (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg) were given 1 h before LPS and D-Gal treatment. 12 h after LPS and D-Gal treatment, the liver tissues and serum were collected. Our results showed that alpinetin treatment improved liver histology, indicating a marked decrease of inflammatory cell infiltration and restore hepatic lobular architecture...
November 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Olle M de Bruin, Amy Chiefari, Danielle Wroblewski, Christina Egan, Cassandra D Kelly-Cirino
Molecular detection of microorganisms requires releasing DNA from cells. However, since certain microbial organisms are refractory to lysis by chemical or enzymatic methods, mechanical lysis by bead-beating is typically employed to disrupt difficult-to-lyse microbes. A newly developed chemical lysis method called sporeLYSE enables release of DNA from difficult-to-lyse microbes without bead-beating. The sporeLYSE method was compared to bead-beating and an alkaline/detergent lysis solution for releasing DNA from microbes grown in vitro, including surrogates of Category A bioterrorism agents...
November 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ok-Jin Park, Jiseon Kim, Hyun Young Kim, Yeongkag Kwon, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Streptococcus gordonii is commonly found in the periapical endodontic lesions of patients with apical periodontitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and periapical bone loss. Since bone metabolism is controlled by osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, we investigated the effects of S. gordonii on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. For the determination of bone resorption activity in vivo, collagen sheets soaked with heat-killed S. gordonii were implanted on mouse calvaria, and the calvarial bones were scanned by micro-computed tomography...
November 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xiaoqian Tang, Hongxiang Wang, Fuguo Liu, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Vibrio ichthyoenteri is a marine pathogen that primarily causes bacterial enteritis of flatfish. In order to screen out the effective vaccine candidate proteins, five outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of V. ichthyoenteri, including OmpV, OmpU, OmpT, Omp1 and Omp2, were selected and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The result of western blotting showed that all of these recombinant proteins could be recognized by flounder anti-V. ichthyoenteri antibodies. The immune protective effect of the five rOMPs were also investigated, and the relative percent survival (RPS) of rOmpV, rOmpU, rOmpT, rOmp1 and rOmp2 was 69...
November 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fang Tang, Peng Zhang, Qingmei Zhang, Feng Xue, Jianluan Ren, Jianhe Sun, Zhina Qu, Xiangkai Zhuge, Dezhi Li, Juanfang Wang, Min Jiang, Jianjun Dai
Salmonella are causes of livestock, poultry, and other animal diseases but they also have the potential to infect people. Currently, antibiotics are the first choice for treatment of Salmonella infections. Thus, the utility of phage has become the research focus for scientists for several reasons. There are efficient, non-toxic, ubiquitous, easy to prepare and can result in the lysis of host bacteria. In this study, a broad spectrum bacteriophage ofSalmonella was isolated from the fecal samples of a poultryfarm and we studied the morphological aspects, thermal stability, pH stability, optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI), and one-step growth curve of this phage...
November 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nurdan Karacan Sever, Akan Mehmet
In this study, virulence genes of S. Infantis strains, which are commonly isolated from chickens and turkeys in Turkey, were analyzed, and the virulence genes of S. Infantis and other common serovars aside from S. Infantis were compared. In this study, 200 S. Infantis strains isolated from litter, powder, environmental sources, rodent samples and broiler chicken carcasses from a chicken slaughterhouse obtained from chickens (broiler chickens, breeders, laying hens) and 24 S. Infantis strains isolated and identified from litter, powder, environmental and rodent samples obtained from turkeys were analyzed...
November 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Iraj Sharifi, Ali Afgar, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Mehdi Bamorovat, Hamid Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Alireza Keyhani, Leili Abedi, Amir Keyhani, Fatemeh Sharifi
BACKGROUND: Detection of the mechanism of host/parasite interactions in unresponsive forms of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica is helpful for immunotherapy and vaccine development. In the present study, the gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), TNF-α, iNOS and also arginase (ARG) activity in monocytes from Glucantime unresponsive in comparison to responsive patients infected with L. tropica was investigated. METHODS: In this case-control study, patients with unresponsive (n = 10) and responsive (n = 10) ACL were recruited...
November 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fatemeh Rezaei, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahdi Sharif, Seyed Hossein Hejazi, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Sargis A Aghayan, Ahmad Daryani
At present, there is not any available accepted vaccine for prevention of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in human and animals. We conducted literature search through English (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, EBSCO, ISI Web of Science) scientific paper databases to find the best vaccine candidates against toxoplasmosis among T. gondii antigens. Articles with information on infective stage, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and characterization of antigens were selected. We considered that the ideal and significant vaccines should include different antigens and been expressed in all infective stages of the parasite with a high pathogenicity and immunogenicity...
November 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hai-Chao Song, Yuan-Huan Kang, Dong-Xing Zhang, Long Chen, Xiao-Feng Shan, Ying Li
Aeromous veronii is a serious pathogen which can infect mammals and aquatic organisms and causes irreparable damage to fish aquaculture. It has been demonstrated that adhesion to host surface and cells are the initial steps in bacterial pathogenesis. Previous study found that bacterial weaken motility probably caused by the absence of flagellarr-related genes. In this study, we generated the aha deletion and complementary strains and found that two strains can be stably inherited for more than 50 generations...
November 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sedigheh Taghinezhad-S, Amir Hossein Mohseni, Hossein Keyvani, Vadood Razavilar
Recombinant strains of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 that express native and codon-optimized E6 protein (fused to the SPusp45 secretion signal) were successfully constructed by using the nisin-controlled gene expression (NICE) system. Expression of the recombinant strains was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Female mice of strain C57BL/6 were immunized orally with recombinant lactococci expressing inducible E6 oncoprotein and the antigen-specific antibody production (IgA and IgG) and cytokines were measured by ELISA and ELISPOT assay, respectively...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dariush Hamedi Asl, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Babak Rahmani, Fatemeh Hajmanoochehri, Amir Nader Emami Razavi, Behnaz Jahanbin, Mahmood Soleimani Dodaran, Amir Peymani
Helicobacter pylori growth requirements is a prerequisite to invade gastric epithelium and the process of injury to gastric cells will eventually lead to gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron challenge on the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis. The presence of Phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM), cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes and mRNA expression of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2), Transferrin Receptor (TFRC) and Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) genes in samples of 28 normal gastric mucosa, 33 chronic gastritis, 29 gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, 29 intestinal type adenocarcinoma patients were examined by real-time PCR...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tengteng Lv, Tongxiang Song, Huijie Liu, Ruibing Peng, Xiamin Jiang, Weiwei Zhang, Qingxi Han
Vibrio alginolyticus is a ubiquitous marine opportunistic pathogen that can infect various hosts in marine environment. In the present study, V. alginolyticus strain Wz11 was isolated from diseased cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, with 20% of promoted death and high survival capacity in skin mucus and tissue liquid. Its growth, siderophore production, and expressions of haemolysin and swarming related genes were characterized under iron limited conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2,2'-dipyridyl (DP) to V...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chao Gao, Zhuang Ding, Jing Qian, Xinxin Liu, Xiaodong Zhang, Yanlong Cong, Chan Ding, Shenqing Yu, Shunlin Hu, Xiufan Liu, Tobias Stoeger, Renfu Yin
The 3' and 5' terminal regions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genome are cis-acting regulatory elements involved in replication, transcription, and packaging of genomic and anti-genomic viral RNA. There are 6 different nucleotides (nts) at the 3' and 34 different nts at the 5' end of genome in the velogenic NA-1 strain and lentogenic LaSota strain, sharing 90.00% and 70.18% identity, respectively. We investigated the roles of 3' and 5' terminus in the NA-1 strain in viral replication, virulence and pathogenicity...
October 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hammad Nayyar Ghauri, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Ahmad Ali, Awais Ghaffar, Sehrish Saleem, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Muhammad Umair Aziz, Usman Ghani, Muhammad Rafi Ullah, Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad
Canine theileriosis is a notorious tick borne piroplasmid infection of wild and domestic canines. The causative agent has not yet been accurately classified. PCR studies revealed that causative agent resembles to Theileria genus and thus provisionally named as Theileria annae. The other Theileria species reported in canines is Theileria annulata, Theileria equi and unnamed Theileria specie. This emergent canine infection is considered to be endemic in most of the European countries. However in Asia this disease has not been reported till date...
October 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Wei Liu, Danna Zhou, Fangyan Yuan, Zewen Liu, Zhengyin Duan, Keli Yang, Rui Guo, Mao Li, Sha Li, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao, Yongxiang Tian
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and responsible for major economic losses in global swine industry. After colonization of the respiratory epithelium, M. hyopneumoniae elicits a general mucociliary clearance loss, prolonged inflammatory response, host immunosuppression and secondary infections. Until now, the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae is not completely elucidated. This present study explores the pathogenicity of mhp390 (P68, a membrane-associated lipoprotein) by elucidating its multiple functions...
October 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Asif Jamal, Masood Akhtar, Muhammad Raza Hameed, Muhammad Irfan Anwar, Muhammad Irfan Ullah
Eimeria infection is very important in broilers and causes heavy economic losses in extensive farming system due to reduced weight gains, high mortality and poor feed conversion ratio (FCR). Under the circumstances, there is a dire need to devise effective control strategies to avoid/counteract this infectious threat. This study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces based probiotics against Eimeria infection in broilers. The results showed statistically higher (P < 0...
October 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Selma Houchi, Rachid Mahdadi, Abdelhalim Khenchouche, Junke Song, Wen Zhang, Xiaocong Pang, Li Zhang, Cemal Sandalli, Guanhua Du
This study aimed to investigate the total phenolic content (TPC), the identification of the common compounds by HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS-TOF and the inhibitory effects against class A-type β-lactamase (GES-22 variant, produced recombinantly) in methanolic extracts (MEs) of four Algerian seaweeds [Ulva intestinalis, Codium tomentosum, Dictyota dichotoma and Halopteris scoparia]. The TPC varied among the four species, ranging between 0.93 ± 0.65 and 2.66 ± 1.33 mg GAEs/g DW. C.tomentosum had higher total phenol content than other seaweeds while, all of them inhibited uncompetitively GES-22 activity in a dose-dependent manner...
October 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Seçil Abay, Latife Çakır Bayram, Fuat Aydin, Hamit Kaan Müştak, Kadir Serdar Diker, İrfan Erol
The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in stray dogs in the Kayseri province of Turkey. In addition, serotyping, genotyping and virulence gene analysis of the isolated Listeria spp. were performed and their pathogenicity and antibacterial susceptibility were investigated. The study included 80 rectal swaps taken from 80 stray dogs of different ages and gender that were sheltered in the Kayseri Municipal Dog Shelter. Listeria selective broth and Listeria selective agar were used for the isolation of Listeria spp...
October 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cristina Barbosa, Gabriel Martins, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease and, in urban areas, rodents are considered the main reservoir of Leptospira to human hosts. It has been described that capybaras, the world largest rodent, also harbor and shed leptospires by urine. Although not virulent to their hosts, strains of rodent origin are virulent for the hamster. In this context we aim to investigate the virulence of Leptospira kirschneri strains of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae recovered from capybaras in Brazil in the hamster model...
October 27, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Robinson C Jose, Louis Bengyella, Pratap J Handique, Narayan C Talukdar
The perennial wild rice Zizania latifolia is confined in the swampy habitat and wetland of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of India and infection by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago esculenta is hallmarked by swellings that develop to form localized smut-gall at the topmost internodal region. The cellular and proteomic events involved in the non-systemic colonization of Z. latifolia by U. esculenta leading to smut-gall formation is poorly understood. Proteins were extracted from the smut-gall region at the topmost internodal region below the apical meristematic tissue from the infected and uninfected parts of Z...
October 24, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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