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Microbial Pathogenesis

Fernando Pablo Canale, Silvia Del Valle Dávila, Corina Verónica Sasso, Nicolás Wilson Pellarín, María Aída Mattar Domínguez
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections for which no vaccines have been approved. Larrea divaricata Cav. (Jarilla) is a widely spread plant in America and it is used in folk medicine to treat several pathologies. It has also been shown that antibodies elicited against Jarilla proteins of crude extract (JPCE) cross-react with proteins from gram-negative bacteria. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of anti-JPCE antibodies in the opsonophagocytosis of P...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nivedita Rai, R Muthukumaran, R Amutha
The HtrA protease of Helicobacter pylori, which efficiently colonizes at the gastric epithelial of host cells, disrupts the mucosal integrity of E-cadherin and spreads inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer by cleaving the cell-cell adhesion of the host. The lack of knowledge on the molecular diversity, structural and functional behavior of HpHtrA necessitated the present study to explore its inhibition mechanism. At first, the similarity of HpHtrA with other gastro-intestinal pathogenic HtrA bacteria and its remote relationship with the Human HtrA homologs were ensured by the phylogenetic analysis and hence was identified as a novel therapeutic target for further design of inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xiaole Tong, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Shucheng Huang, Xiong Jiang, Hui Zhang, Jia KuiLi
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a common skeletal problem of avian species. The cause and etiology of this disorder is still not clear. The intestinal bacterial community is a complex ecosystem and plays very important role in healthy life of human and animals. Many researchers have made the connection between diseases and alteration of gut microbiota. However, little is know about the role of gut microbiota in TD. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity and composition of small and large intestinal bacterial communities of TD chickens...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Waqas Ahmed, Maria Razzaq
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens responsible for brucellosis, an emerging zoonosis that results in abortion, sterility in host animals, and chronic relapsing fever in humans. The small noncoding RNA (sRNA) AbcR is a textbook example of a molecule acting on trans-encoded target mRNAs, a principal element of bacterial gene regulation required for wild-type virulence in α-proteobacteria. Here, we used bioinformatics and experimental validation to characterize the interaction between AbcR sRNA and target mRNA...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sohail Raza, Gualtiero Alvisi, Farzana Shahin, Urooj Husain, Masood Rabbani, Tahir Yaqub, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ali Ahmad Sheikh, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Asad Ali
Most enveloped viruses exploit complex cellular pathways for assembly and egress from the host cell, and the large DNA virus Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) makes no exception, hijacking several cellular transport pathways for its glycoprotein trafficking and maturation, as well as for viral morphogenesis and egress according to the envelopment, de-envelopment and re-envelopment model. Importantly Rab GTPases, widely distributed master regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking pathways, have recently being tightly implicated in such process...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Karmen Godič Torkar, Branka Bedenić
The susceptibility of 66 clinical and environmental B. cereus isolates were tested to selected antimicrobials by a broth microdilution method. All strains were resistant to β-lactams and susceptible to gentamicin and imipenem. Sixty-five (98.5%) isolates were susceptible to meropenem and ciprofloxacin and 74.2% to azithromycin. Significant differences in MIC values between environmental and clinical isolates were not demonstrated (p > 0.05). According to the disc diffusion method, 80.3%-98.5% of the strains were resistant to one or more of four cephalosporins...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fahime Mohammadi, Morteza Eshaghi, Shabnam Razavi, Davood Darban Sarokhalil, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
The purpose of the present study was to isolate Lactobacillus bacteria from mother's milk and to assess their probiotic potential. Sixty breast milk samples were collected from the volunteered mothers aged from 19-35 and from rural areas of Lorestan and Markazi Provinces, Iran. At first, 970 bacill-shaped bacterial colonies were isolated from these samples and stored in proper condition. Two hundred isolates were randomly selected and investigated for their ability to tolerate acidic condition and to tolerate bile salt as well...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, German Buendía-Rodríguez, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres
The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ± 5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 was assessed using systematic methodology...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juliana S Novais, Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Raquel S Loureiro, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vitor F Ferreira, Helena C Castro, David R da Rocha
The aims of this study were the planning, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, searching for potential lead compounds against bacterial biofilm formation. A series of 12 new analogs of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones were synthesized by adding a thiol and different substituents to a ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. The compounds were tested against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mia A Venegas, Matthew D Bollaert, Alireza Jafari, Jasper Marc G Bondoc, Jennafer Twilley, William Thompson, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh
Pseudomonas spp. collected from areas where human regularly comes into contact with were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics. Twenty-nine samples were collected and screened for Pseudomonas spp. Of the nine isolated strains Pseudomonas spp. six were resistant to antibiotics. A few were used for an antimicrobial study on the interaction with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles individually and as a mixture. A mixture of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles showed synergy against resistant Pseudomonas spp...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mohamed H Noureldein, Assaad A Eid
The gut microbiota plays a substantial role in regulating the host metabolic and immune functions. Dysbiosis, resulting from disruption of gut microbiota, predisposes many morbid pathologies like obesity and its associated comorbidities, diabetes and inflammatory conditions including some types of cancer. There are numerous proposed signaling pathways through which alterations in gut microbiota and its metabolites can disturb the host's normal physiological functions. Interestingly, many of these processes happen to be controlled by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Waqar Islam, Wenzhong Lin, Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Arif, Xiuyu Li, Yunyue Yang, Xinlun Ding, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu
Begomoviruses (Geminiviridea), transmitted by whiteflies, constitute one of the most dangerous groups of plant viruses posing a severe threat to economically important crops in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this study, whiteflies were collected from various locations all over Pakistan. The begomoviruses carried by these whiteflies were detected by PCR with the degenerative primers pair AV94/Dep3. Analysis of the 177 sequences obtained in our study, revealed 14 distinct begomovirus species, including five which were not previously reported in this country...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Mehdi Parsa Nahad, Ali Khodadadi, Mohammad Ghasemi Deh Cheshmeh, Milad Zandi
BACKGROUND: Flagellin is the major structural protein monomer of bacterial flagella. Flagellin through binding to its receptor and activation of antigen presenting cells stimulates the innate and adaptive immune responses. Flagellin is used as an effective systemic or mucosal adjuvant to stimulate the immune system. Recently, the therapeutic and protective role of flagellin in some infectious diseases and cancers has been investigated. In this study, we cloned the fliC genes from Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli into pET-28a vector and investigated their expression in the prokaryotic system...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ahmed I El-Batal, Nawal E Al-Hazmi, Farag M Mosallam, Gharieb S El-Sayyad
Mono-dispersed copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were constructed using cheap polysaccharides (citrus pectin, chitosan, and sodium alginate), and by appropriating aqueous fermented fenugreek powder (FFP) under the action of Pleurotus ostreatus (as reducing and preserving means), through the influence of gamma irradiation. The created CuNPs are described by UV-Vis. spectroscopy TEM, DLS, XRD, and FT-IR. XRD study of the CuNPs confirmed the generation of metallic CuNPs. The nucleation and the production mechanism of CuNPs are moreover explained...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Guolei Zhang, Junpu Zha, Junchuan Liu, Jun Di
One of the crucial mechanisms following spinal cord injury is mitochondria associated cell death. Minocycline, an anti-inflammatory drug is well known to impede the mitochondrial cell death. However, there has been no study on the effect of minocycline linking FAS-mediated cell death and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α), the targets involved in mitochondrial cell death. Male Sprague Drawley rats (N = 18, divided into three groups) were subjected to traumatic spinal cord injury and were injected with minocycline (n = 6) (90 mg/kg, and later 45 mg/kg dose two times a day (every 12 h)...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lin Lin, Xuefang Mao, Yanhui Sun, Haiying Cui
A new inhibitor to overcome the multi-drug resistance of MRSA was developed in this study. Artemisinin (ART) was encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in order to enhance the solubility of ART. The molecular encapsulation of ART was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) methods. The phase solubility study showed the relationship between ART solubility and β-CD concentration. The antibacterial activity of ART/β-CDs inclusion complexes (ART/β-CDs-IC) (20 mg/mL) against MRSA was distinguished, with the inhibition rate of 99...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ziyu Jiang, Joe Antony Jacob, Jianyue Li, Xiahui Wu, Guoli Wei, Vimalanathan ArunPrasanna, Rajesh Mani, Prasannabalaji Nainangu, Uma Maheshwari Rajadurai, Baoan Chen
Human gut comprises of a huge mixture of microorganisms as they had co-existed for millions of years. The change in co-existence of microbial genera leads to dysbiosis, which creates several disorders in humans. Diet and diet associated agents can have a considerable influence on host health by regulating the gut microbiome, which can thereby maintain the homeostasis of the gut. Analysis of the gut microbiome and the agents that can have an influence on the gut need a profound understanding, which is the need of the hour...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
The production of virulence determinants and biofilm formation in numerous pathogens is regulated by the cell-density-dependent phenomenon, Quorum sensing (QS). The QS system in multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen, P. aeruginosa constitutes of three main regulatory circuits namely Las, Rhl, and Pqs which are closely linked to its pathogenicity and establishment of chronic infections. In spite intensive antibiotic therapy, P. aeruginosa continue to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and also the major cause of mortality in Cystic Fibrosis patients with 80% of the adults suffering from chronic P...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Govindan Rajivgandhi, Ramachandran Vijayan, Muthuchamy Maruthupandy, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Natesan Manoharan
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a diverse public health complication and are caused by range of pathogens, however most often by Gram negative bacteria which cause significant life threatening risks to different populations. The prevalence rate and antimicrobial resistance among the Gram negative uropathogens alarmed to significantly heighten the economic burden of these infections. In this study, we investigated the role of Pyrrolo[1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione,hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl) on endophytic actinomycetes Nocardiopsis sp...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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