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Microbial Pathogenesis

Young Ah Lee, Arim Min, Myeong Heon Shin
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica can induce host-cell apoptosis by initiating various intracellular signaling mechanisms closely associated with tissue pathogenesis and parasitic immune evasion. O-GlcNAcylation, similar to phosphorylation, is involved in various cell-signaling processes, including apoptosis and proliferation, with O-GlcNAc addition and removal regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively...
July 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lisa M Harrison, Dennis W Gaines, Uma S Babu, Kannan V Balan, Renate Reimschuessel, Andrew Do, Marion R Pereira, Elmer C Bigley, Martine Ferguson, Akshita Mehta, Kristina M Williams
Shiga Toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) continue to be a prominent cause of foodborne outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis worldwide, and can result in life-threatening diseases, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), in susceptible individuals. Obesity-associated immune dysfunction has been shown to be a risk factor for infectious diseases, although few studies have addressed the role of obesity in foodborne diseases. We hypothesized that obesity may affect the development of HUS through an alteration of immune responses and kidney function...
July 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mahmoud M Elhaig, Nahla H Sallam
In Egypt, although the Trypanosoma evansi has been reported frequently among domestic animals, there is no published data on T. evansi in horses. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and characterization of T. evansi in three governorates by examining blood samples from 40 local camels, 35 imported camels, 25 horses and 10 donkeys by PCR targeting the sequences of TBR and RoTat 1.2VSG. The overall prevalence of T. evansi was 54.5% and 21.8% by TBR PCR and RoTat 1.2VSG PCR, respectively. The TBR PCR detected T...
July 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
J Mathews, M Patel
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the presence of Streptococci, Staphylococci, aerobic gram negative bacteria (AGNB), Candida and bacterial endotoxins in the oral cavities of patients receiving chemo- and/or radiotherapy for cancer. METHODS: Samples of oral cavity rinse were collected from 100 patients on cancer treatment and 70 healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Samples were cultured onto various agar plates for qualitative and quantitative analysis and tested for the presence of endotoxin...
July 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Waqar Islam, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Muhammad Qasim, Khalid Ali Khan, Hamed A Ghramh, Atif Idrees, Shahid Latif
Begomoviruses are considered as one of the most notorious plant viruses worldwide, which cause substantial economic losses to various field crops. Management of begomoviruses has become a challenge due to the continuous evolution and the emergence of new strains. Bemisia tabaci is globally known to be the key vector of begomoviruses, having relatively high reproductivity, fast dispersal ability, high survival rate due to its polyphagous nature and high resistance to various groups of insecticides. Continuous transmission of begomoviruses by the vector has led to the development and spread of epidemics of various diseases worldwide...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
R Colello, M V Vélez, J Gonzalez, D A Montero, A V Bustamante, F Del Canto, A I Etcheverría, R Vidal, N L Padola
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens that can cause severe disease. The ability to adhere to epithelial cells is an important virulence trait and pathogenicity islands (PAIs) play an important role. Recently, researchers identified a member of the Heat-resistant agglutinin family and characterized this antigen named Hemagglutinin from Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (Hes). More importantly, they showed that hes and other genes such as iha, pagC and agn43 were integrated in each of the four modules present in the new PAI named Locus of Adhesion and Autoaggregation (LAA) whose presence is associated with severe disease linked to with LEE-negatives STEC...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cheng-Bo Yuan, Lin Tian, Bo Yang, Hai-Yan Zhou
Isoalantolactone (ISO), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium, is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. Here, using a mouse model of acute lung injury, we investigated the effects of ISO on lung inflammation in vivo. ISO (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) was administered 1 h before LPS treatment. Histopathological changes suggested that ISO attenuated the injury of lung tissues induced by LPS. ISO also inhibited LPS-induced MPO activity, MDA content, lung W/D ratio, and the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Niladri Chaudhry, Sourabh Dwivedi, Vasvi Chaudhry, Anuradha Singh, Quaiser Saquib, Ameer Azam, Javed Musarrat
Nanotechnology is a potential area that revolutionizes almost every sector of life and is predicted to become a major economic force in the near future. Recently, nanomaterials have received great attention for their properties at nanoscale regime and their applications in many areas primarily, agriculture and food sectors. The Nanomaterials are dispersed or solid particles, with a size range of 1-100 nm. In recent times, there has been an increased research work in this area to synthesize nanomaterials using various approaches...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
P Arulmozhi, S Vijayakumar, T Kumar
The aim of the present study is to investigate the antimicrobial potency of leaves from various extracts of Capparis zeylanica, Streblus asper and Tribulus terrestris were evaluated. In addition, this is the first report on MIC, MBC/MFC antimicrobial activities of above mentioned plants and also identify the phytochemical, functional groups by GC-MS and FT-IR respectively. Soxhlet extraction method was used for preparation of different extracts viz., aqueous, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were examined against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecallis, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar well diffusion method, and Minimum Inhibitory Concentratioon (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) values were determined through micro dilution method...
July 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zohreh Norouzi, Ali Salimi, Raheleh Halabian, Hossein Fahimi
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world which genetic and environmental agents are responsible for cancer. When cells detach from the tumor and invade surrounding tissues, the tumor is malignant and may form secondary tumors at other locations in a process called metastasis. Probiotics are the largest group of inhabitation bacteria in the colon. Gut microbiota has a central role in prevented the risk colon cancer. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, like Lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacilli bacteria which are using in the dairy industry...
July 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Changjian Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Fangyan Chen, Yingsong Hu, Zhiqian Li, Yanxi Liu, Xuelin Han, Yansong Sun, Li Han
The destruction of pulmonary epithelium is a major feature of lung diseases caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus). Gliotoxin, a major mycotoxin of A. fumigatus, is widely postulated to be associated with the tissue invasion. However, the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we first discovered that cofilin, a regulator of actin dynamics in the pulmonary epithelial cells, existed mainly in the form of oligomer, which kept it unable to depolymerize actin filaments. Gliotoxin could reduce the formation of cofilin oligomer and promote the release of active cofilin monomer by regulating cofilin phosphorylation balance...
July 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Marystela Fávero de Oliveira Cardoso, Jusciele Brogin Moreli, Angélica Oliveira Gomes, Caroline de Freitas Zanon, Ana Elizabete Silva, Luana Ricci Paulesu, Francesca Ietta, José Roberto Mineo, Eloísa Amália Ferro, Sonia Maria Oliani
This study was conducted to investigate annexin A1 (ANXA1) functions in human placental explants infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). We examined the first and third trimester placental explants infected with T. gondii (n = 7 placentas/group) to identify the number and location of parasites, ANXA1 protein, potential involvement of formyl peptide receptors (FPR1 and FPR2), and COX-2 expressions by immunohistochemistry. Treatments with Ac2-26 mimetic peptide of ANXA1 were performed to verify the parasitism rate (β-galactosidase assay), prostaglandin E2 levels (ELISA assay), and ANXA1, FPR1 and COX-2 expression in third trimester placentas...
July 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Thamsanqa Ngabaza, Sharon Moeno, Mrudula Patel
OBJECTIVES: Crude extracts of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA), has shown to have anticariogenic property. However the compound responsible for this activity has not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-acidogenic and anti-biofilm activity of a flavone 5,6,8-Trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one isolated from D. viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) in cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: The crude extract from DVA leaves was fractionated into six fractions (F1-F6) using chromatography...
July 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Antanas Sarkinas, Kristina Sakalauskiene, Renaldas Raisutis, Jurate Zeime, Alvija Salaseviciene, Egidija Puidaite, Ernestas Mockus, Darius Cernauskas
High intensity ultrasound is becoming important and more widely used in the food industry for microorganisms decontamination. This sterilization technique has been evaluated to improve food safety and to replace common processing with chemical additive compounds. The efficiency of a horn-type power ultrasound treatment (300 W and 600 W, 28 kHz, 10-30 min) on Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium bacteria suspensions and phytoviruses was examined in this study...
July 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Riaz Hussain, Ahrar Khan, Jahanzaib, Abdul Qayyum, Tariq Abbas, Maqbool Ahmad, Mudassar Mohiuddin, Khalid Mehmood
Hemoparasitic diseases like trypanosomiasis have an adverse influence on the health and working capability of infected animals. Monitoring and identification of blood born parasitic infections in dairy animals are of vital importance to get the optimum production. In this study blood samples were collected from Nili Ravi buffaloes (n = 390) kept at different villages of district Lodhran, Punjab province of Pakistan. Blood samples were evaluated for red blood cell counts, total and differential leukocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total proteins and different serum parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorous, copper, calcium and magnesium...
July 2, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
W H Mu, Y Geng, Z H Yu, K Y Wang, X L Huang, Y P Ou, D F Chen, C L He, Z J Zhong, Z X Yang, W M Lai
In April 2016, an outbreak emerged in a cultured population of black-spotted pond frog tadpoles in Shuangliu County, China, whereas tadpoles were suffering from substantial mortality (90%). Principal clinical signs of diseased tadpoles were comprised haemorrhage on their body surface, swollen abdomen with yellow ascites, congestion and swelling of the liver. The diseased tadpole's homogenates tissue were inoculated into epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells at 25 °C for 4 days which caused typical cytopathic effect, and the viral titer TCID50 reached 107 /0...
July 2, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Shib Shankar Saha, Akihiko Uda, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahisa Watarai
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by CDC-declared Tier 1 threat agent Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis subsp. novicida (F. novicida) is virulent in mice but non-pathogenic in immunocompetent humans and serves as a potential surrogate organism. In a recent study, we established a silkworm (Bombyx mori) model of infection for F. novicida. Francisella secretes its virulence factors through various mechanisms that modify the intracellular environment to ensure its replication and survival. To identify new pathogenic factors, we focused on the type I secretory system (T1SS) of Francisella...
June 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
John Martin Jerome Jeyakumar, Muqing Zhang, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that are damaging to both animals and humans. Extensive contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is an important problem. Fumonisins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, and aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and occur naturally in sugarcane and cereal-based foods, threatening health and food security worldwide. Their distribution in the contaminated material is of great interest for obtaining insight into infection mechanisms and the potential for reducing contamination during food processing...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Renqiong Chen, Guangquan Ji, Liyan Xi, Tingting Zhang, Dong Zheng, Xiaoming Li, Hong Ren
Autophagy can regulate antimicrobial immunity. However, it is unknown whether autophagy mediates the immune response of dendritic cells (DCs) to Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) infection. Therefore, to explore the relationship between autophagy and multiplication of T. marneffei and investigate whether ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates activation of autophagy and TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion by intracellular signaling mechanisms during T. marneffei infection in human DCs. DCs were infected with T. marneffei for different times...
June 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yuxing Wu, Liangsheng Xu, Zhiyuan Yin, Hao Feng, Lili Huang
Transcription factor Seb1 contains two C2H2 zinc finger motifs which are similar to the Msn2/4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous proteins of Seb1 function to regulate the response to various stresses or decomposing and utilizing pectin in some fungi. In this study, we characterized a homologue of Seb1 gene, VmSeb1, in Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive bark disease on apple. VmSeb1 deletion mutant showed a drastic reduction in growth rate in vitro. It is also important for conidiation because VmSeb1 deletion mutant formed more pycnidia on PDA medium...
June 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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