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Microbial Pathogenesis

Ying Liang, Zisheng Guo, Lang Gao, Qianqian Guo, Liyue Wang, Yan Han, Kangmin Duan, Lixin Shen
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) is an important opportunistic pathogen that thrives in various environments. It is known that the structural variations of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including lipid A moiety play an important role in encountering environmental changes. Genes PA3242 and PA0011 have recently been reported to be responsible for secondary-acylation of lipid A in P. aeruginosa. In this study, we confirmed that the PA3242-dependant secondary acylation affects the growth, antibiotic resistance and virulence of PAO1 and functions as a more predominant acyltransferase than PA0011...
October 13, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yu Gu, Yanfang Liu, Sanjie Cao, Xiaobo Huang, Zhicai Zuo, Shumin Yu, Junliang Deng, Chunbang Ding, Ming Yuan, Liuhong Shen, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen, Zhihua Ren, Qin Zhao, Guangneng Peng, Zhijun Zhong, Chengdong Wang, Xiaoping Ma
Cladosporium cladosporioides is a ubiquitous fungus, causing infections in plants, humans, and animals. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used in this study to identify differences in gene expression between two C. cladosporioides strains, the highly virulent Z20 strain and the lowly virulent Zt strain. A total of 61 unigenes from the forward library and 42 from the reverse library were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these genes were involved in various biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Santosh Kumar Singh, Seema Kumari, Minakshi Gupta
Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infection has been reported to be most prevalent among patients of different class, gender and ages. Currently, multidrug resistant E. coli harboring several virulence factors are most perilous threats for patients especially for elders. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, co-resistance and phenotypic virulence factors present in uropathogenic E. coli isolates from aged patients. Thirty-nine E. coli isolates were collected during May-June 2014 from patients aged 50-80 years...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Du Toit Loots, Conrad C Swanepoel, Mae Newton-Foot, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius
The ESX-1 gene cluster, encoding the Type-VII secretion (T7S) system and its virulence associated proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, is thought to be responsible for the transport of extracellular proteins across the hydrophobic and highly impermeable, cell envelope of Mycobacterium, and is involved in virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Using a GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics approach, a M. smegmatis ESX-1 knock-out strain (ΔESX-1ms) was compared to that of the M. smegmatis wild-type parent strain, and the metabolite markers due to the presence or absence of the ESX-1 gene cluster were identified...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M S Al-Kadmy, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Sarah Naji Aziz, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Darshan Devang Divakar, Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah
A number of bacterial species produces chitosanases which has variety of applications because of its high biodegradability, non-toxicity and antimicrobial assets. In the present study chitosanase is purified from new bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis from spoiled vegetable. This novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples has the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Study also examined its antibiofilm properties against diverse bacterial species with biofilm forming ability...
October 8, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hengling Cai, Shenghua Chen, Sha Xu, Yuanbin Sun, Qinqin Bai, Chunxue Lu, Yuyu Chen, Xizong Fu, Guilian Xu, Lili Chen
LIGHT, a costimulatory member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig SF), can greatly impact T cell activation. The role of the LIGHT signaling pathway in chlamydial infection was evaluated in mice following respiratory tract infection with Chlamydia psittaci. Compared with wild type (WT) mice, LIGHT knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of body weight, much lower survival rate, higher bacterial burden, prolonged infection time courses and more severe pathological changes in lung tissue. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-12 in the lung tissue of LIGHT KO mice were significantly lower than those in WT mice...
October 8, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jie Fu, Jingqiu Wang, Yanping Luo, Lifeng Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xinfang Dong, Hongjuan Yu, Mingqiang Cao, Xingming Ma
BACKGROUND: The role of MASP-2 is vital in the process of complement activation by the lectin pathway. It is generally considered that the functional activation of MASP-2 contribute to the infection disease development process. AIMS: To analyze the association between MASP-2 functional gene (rs72550870) polymorphism and the infection disease risk by a meta-analysis. METHOD: Relevant case-control studies were identified by searching Cochrane Library, PubMed, Emabase, DOAJ, CAB Abstracts, CSA, CINAHL, EBSCO, Scopus, Global Health, Index Copernicus, CA, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases up to 10th January 2016...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
S H S P Pedroso, S H C Sandes, K C M Luiz, R S Dias, R A T Filho, J C Serufo, L M Farias, M A R Carvalho, M R Q Bomfim, S G Santos
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) represent one of the most prevalent microorganisms in nosocomial infections worldwide, nevertheless little is known about their pathogenicity features. Thus, our aim was to characterize virulence aspects of CNS isolated from patients with bloodstream infections assisted in hospitals of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Strains were identified using bioMérieuxVitek(®) and for biofilm production evaluation, Congo Red Agar (CRA) and polystyrene plates were used. PCR was applied to detect icaA, icaB, icaC, atlE, sea, sec, sed, tsst-1 and agr...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Reza Ranjbar, Hamed Memariani, Rahim Sorouri, Mojtaba Memariani
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). In addition to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), a number of virulence factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae, including capsule, siderophores, and adhesins. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from CA-UTI in Iran. A total of 152 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from CA-UTI patients in Tehran from September 2015 through April 2016...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Parveez Gull, Ovas Ahmad Dar, Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Athar Adil Hashmi
Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) with a newly synthesised macrocyclic ligand derived from 1, 4-dicarbonyl-phenyl-dihydrazide and 1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-dione (2:2) have been synthesised. The synthesised compounds were characterised by various physical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, FTIR, Uv-Vis., (1)H NMR, mass spectra, magnetic moment and XRD. The investigation of these macrocyclic complexes established that the stability of metal-ligand coordination through N atoms as tetradentate chelates...
October 7, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cristiane Bigatti Pereira, Nívea Pereira de Sá, Beatriz Martins Borelli, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira, Betania Barros Cota, Susana Johann
The antifungal effects of two eicosanoic acids, 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-25-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxo-6,12-eicosenoic acid (compound 1) and myriocin (compound 2), isolated from Mycosphaerella sp. were evaluated against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The compounds displayed antifungal activities against several isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.49 to 7.82 μM for compound 1 and 0.48-1.95 μM for compound 2. In the checkerboard microtiter test, both compounds exhibited synergistic activity with amphotericin B against C...
September 28, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juan Gabriel Costa, Andrea Belén Duré
In this work, two Toxoplasma gondii GRA8 protein sequences were tested by indirect ELISA and measurement of avidity to differentiate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis infection. Using the antigen called GRA8B, 79.7% sensitivity and 84.1% specificity was achieved detecting IgG concentrations and a 71.2% sensitivity and a 68.3% specificity detecting IgA concentrations. This study is the first to report IgA detection with GRA8 by ELISA to differentiate stages of infection. Unfortunately the indirect ELISA to detect IgM was not effective in distinguishing stages...
September 28, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nessma A El-Zawawy, Sameh S Ali
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pyocyanin pigment as a novel compound active against tyrosinase with its depigmentation efficiency for combating Trichophyton rubrum which could be a major causative agent of tinea corporis. METHODS: Fifty swabs of fungal tinea corporis infections were collected and identified. Five MDRPA isolates were tested for their levels of pyocyanin production. The purified extracted pyocyanin was characterized by UV spectrum and FT-IR analysis...
September 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Elham Behzadi, Raheleh Halabian, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
DNA vaccination -a third generation vaccine-is a modern approach to stimulate humoral and cellular responses against different diseases such as infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity. These vaccines are composed of a gene that encodes sequences of a desired protein under control of a proper (eukaryotic or viral) promoter. Immune response following DNA vaccination is influenced by the route and the dose of injection. In addition, antigen presentation following DNA administration has three different mechanisms including antigen presentation by transfected myocytes, transfection of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and cross priming...
September 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Taj Ali Khan, Kalsoom Kalsoom, Asif Iqbal, Huma Asif, Hazir Rahman, Syed Omar Farooq, Hassan Naveed, Umar Nasir, Muhammad Usman Amin, Mubashir Hussain, Hamid Nawaz Tipu, Andrei Florea
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the five structural genes (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, and NCF4) that typically results in a decrease in function or inability to generate a respiratory burst, leading to defective killing of pathogens, including fungi and intracellular bacteria. Mutations in CYBB, encoding the gp91phox (also known as NOX2) result in X-linked CGD account for approximately 65% of CGD cases. Here, we aimed the characterization of a novel missense mutation c...
September 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Amir Hossein Jafari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) in children involve a group of heterogeneous, rare disorders. In spite of the low diagnostic yield in pediatric DLD, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be used to diagnose specific disorders. There are few studies about microbial and cellular profiles of BAL samples in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cytological and microbiological evaluation of BAL in children with DLD. METHODS: The clinical, cytological and microbiological profiles of BAL samples of all patients with DLD who underwent the fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) at Children's Medical Center, an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital during a year were evaluated...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nader Bagheri, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hedaytollah Shirzad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) usually colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population, causing an infection that may appear in early childhood and can persist for life. H. pylori is suggested as the main cause of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. It is also associated with gastric cancer. Its severity and symptoms depend on environmental factors, host susceptibility and bacterial components, which allow H. pylori to switch between commensalism and pathogenicity. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and the variability which affects H...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hossam Abdelhamed, Jingjun Lu, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing enteric septicemia in fish, particularly in channel catfish. Ferric iron is an essential micronutrient for bacterial survival, and some bacterial pathogens use secreted hydroxamate-type siderophores to chelate iron in host tissues. Siderophore-iron complexes are taken up by these bacteria via the ferric hydroxamate uptake (Fhu) system. In E. ictaluri, the Fhu system consists of fhuC, fhuD, fhuB, and fhuA genes. However, the importance of the Fhu system in E...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Narges Mazloomi Nobandegani, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Mehri Najafi Sani, Fateme Farahmand, Farzaneh Motamed, Raheleh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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