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Journal of Thoracic Imaging

Nobuyuki Tanaka, Yoshie Kunihiro, Noriyo Yanagawa
Immunocompromised patients are encountered with increasing frequency in clinical practice. In addition to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), therapy for malignant disease, and immune suppression for solid organ transplants, patients are now rendered immunosuppressed by advances in treatment for a wide variety of autoimmune diseases. The number of possible infecting organisms can be bewildering. Recognition of the type of immune defect and the duration and depth of immunosuppression (particularly in hematopoietic and solid organ transplants) can help generate a differential diagnosis...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Constance de Margerie-Mellon, Allison Onken, Benedikt H Heidinger, Paul A VanderLaan, Alexander A Bankier
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify potential computed tomography manifestations of pulmonary adenocarcinomas presenting as subsolid nodules and associated with the histologic evidence of spread of tumor through air spaces (STAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a radiologic-pathologic repository of resected pulmonary adenocarcinomas including 203 subsolid nodules, 40 STAS-positive nodules were randomly selected and matched to 40 STAS-negative nodules. Total average diameter, as well as average and long-axis diameters of the solid component, was measured...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Tami J Bang, John Caleb Richards, Amy L Olson, Steve D Groshong, Erwin W Gelfand, David A Lynch
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with significant chronic lung disease. The purpose of this paper was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of CVID-associated lung diseases. These include airways' disease, interstitial lung disease, lymphoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In addition, a genetic syndrome termed Kabuki syndrome results in CVID-like immune abnormalities. These patients may also present with CVID-associated lung disease. Awareness and precise identification of CVID-associated lung disease may allow for better assessment of prognosis and direction of therapy...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Michael J Drabkin, John I Meyer, Nalini Kanth, Shari Lobel, Joshua Fogel, Julia Grossman, John H Krumenacker
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to better assess the prevalence and appearance of thymic tissue in adults stratified by age using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in order to prevent misinterpretation of normal thymic tissue as pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the CT appearance of the thymus in 597 trauma patients aged 30 to 69 years (M=48.0 y, SD=11.3). Three body fellowship-trained attending radiologists independently reviewed the CT scans...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Loren Ketai, Bart J Currie, Michael R Holt, Edward D Chan
Chronic cavitary lung disease is an uncommon manifestation of pulmonary infection, and is a pattern which worldwide is most commonly caused by reactivation tuberculosis. Other organisms, however, can cause similar radiologic patterns. Endemic fungi have long been recognized as potential causes of this pattern in North and South America, but the frequency with which these diseases present with chronic cavities in North America is relatively small. Nontuberculous mycobacteria and chronic aspergillus infections are recognized with increasing frequency as causes of this pattern...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Cristina Vazquez Guillamet, Joe Le Hsu, Gundeep Dhillon, Rodrigo Vazquez Guillamet
Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients remain a significant contributor to mortality, morbidity, and health care-associated costs in such a vulnerable patient population. Their epidemiology is changing, set forth by new trends in immunosuppressive regimens and also prophylaxis. The host characteristics, presenting clinical symptomatology, along with radiographic patterns, have also evolved. The microbiology diagnostics are now enriched with nonculture methods for better identification of the causative pathogens...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Edwin A Takahashi, Chi Wan Koo, Darin B White, Rebecca M Lindell, Anne-Marie G Sykes, David L Levin, Ronald S Kuzo, Matthias Wolf, Luca Bogoni, Rickey E Carter, Cynthia H McCollough, Joel G Fletcher
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) and human readers to detect pulmonary nodules ≥5 mm using 100 kV ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) utilizing a tin filter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After informed consent, 55 patients prospectively underwent standard-dose chest CT (SDCT) using 120 kV followed by ULDCT using 100 kV/tin. Reference nodules ≥5 mm were identified by a thoracic radiologist using SDCT...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Michael R Holt, Edward D Chan
Lung cavitation may be due to infectious or noninfectious pathologic processes. The latter category includes nonmalignant conditions, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and malignant conditions, such as squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Infectious etiologies that produce lung cavitation usually cause chronic illness, although some, particularly pyogenic bacteria, may produce acute cavitary disease. Tuberculosis is the most common cause of chronic pulmonary infection with cavitation. The goal of this review was to highlight a selection of the better-known infectious agents, other than tuberculosis, that can cause chronic lung disease with cavitation...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Tomás Franquet
Community-acquired pneumonia refers to an acute infection of the lung in patients who did not meet any of the criteria for health care-acquired pneumonia, and is associated with at least some symptoms of acute infection, accompanied by the presence of an acute infiltrate on a chest radiograph. Chest radiography remains an important component of the evaluation of a patient with a suspicion of pneumonia, and is usually the first examination to be obtained. The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia is based on the presence of select clinical features and is supported by imaging of the lung, usually by chest radiography...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Damiano Caruso, Domenico De Santis, Tommaso Biondi, Nicola Panvini, Marta Zerunian, Flaminia Rivosecchi, Marta Montesano, Davide Bellini, Marco Rengo, Andrea Laghi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) on half-dose coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) acquisition protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2016 and October 2017, 89 patients (54 male patients, mean age 64.6±10.7 y) with a clinically indicated coronary computed tomography angiography were prospectively enrolled. On a 64-row computed tomography scanner, patients underwent a standard CACS protocol (120 kVp, 170 mAs) reconstructed by filtered-back projection, and a half-dose CACS protocol (120 kVp, 85 mAs) reconstructed by ASiR at different percentages, from 10% to 100%, in 10% increments...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Catia Cillóniz, Diana Rodríguez-Hurtado, Antonello Nicolini, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major health problem worldwide. The incidence of pneumonia increases with both age and the presence of specific risk factors, which lead to increased health care costs. However, although there is some controversy over the observed trend in CAP mortality over recent decades, it is clear that mortality in CAP patients who require intensive care unit care remains high. The increase in antibiotic resistance is an important global health problem that needs to be addressed, especially for pneumococcus the most frequent pathogen of CAP...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Pankaj Meena, Ashu S Bhalla, Ankur Goyal, Raju Sharma, Atin Kumar, Deep N Srivastva, Vishnu Sreenivas, Randeep Guleria
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility and overall utility of single-phase split-bolus dual energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography (DECTA) for evaluation of hemoptysis, and to establish an injection protocol for evaluation of hemoptysis, by comparing 2 contrast injection protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using dual-source (80 and 140 kV), 2×128-slice equipment, DECTA was performed using 400 mg iodine/mL, 50 to 80 mL iodinated contrast in 257 patients (189 male individuals, 68 female individuals, age range: 15 to 76 y) presenting with hemoptysis...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Lea Azour, Adam H Jacobi, Jeffrey B Alpert, Santosh Uppu, Larry Latson, Derek Mason, Matthew D Cham
This pictorial essay presents cases of congenital coronary artery anomalies, including congenital anomalies of origin, course, and termination. Familiarity with atypical coronary anatomy and clinical presentation may facilitate appropriate diagnosis and management, particularly as cardiac and thoracic computed tomographic utilization increases.
July 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Daniel B Green, Maria C Palumbo, Christopher Lau
Untreated thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms are associated with an exceedingly high mortality rate, and surgery carries a high complication rate. Crawford's classification system of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms describes aneurysm morphology and stratifies patients on the basis of risk of major postoperative complications including mortality, spinal cord injury, and renal failure. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography are essential for classifying thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms and identifying other important features that impact prognosis and surgical management...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Abraham F Bezuidenhout, Phillip M Boiselle, Benedikt H Heidinger, Daniel Alape, Daniel H Buitrago, Adnan Majid, Sidhu P Gangadharan, Diana E Litmanovich
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intermediate and long-term changes in expiratory tracheal collapsibility by computed tomography (CT) in patients with tracheobronchomalacia following surgical treatment with tracheobronchoplasty and to correlate CT findings with clinical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2016, 18 patients with tracheobronchomalacia underwent tracheobronchoplasty and were imaged preoperatively and postoperatively at both intermediate and long-term intervals...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Ryan Clay, Brian J Bartholmai, Boran Zhou, Ronald Karwoski, Tobias Peikert, Thomas Osborn, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Sanjay Kalra, Xiaoming Zhang
PURPOSE: Optimal strategies to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) are unknown. ILD is frequently subpleural in distribution and affects lung elasticity. Lung ultrasound surface wave elastography (LUSWE) is a noninvasive method of quantifying superficial lung tissue elastic properties. In LUWSE a handheld device applied at the intercostal space vibrates the chest at a set frequency, and the lung surface wave velocity is measured by an ultrasound probe 5 mm away in the same intercostal space...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Sara K Swanson, Mohamed M Sayyouh, Dianna M E Bardo, Maryam Ghadimi Mahani, Jimmy C Lu, Adam L Dorfman, Prachi P Agarwal
Knowledge of coronary artery nomenclature in transposition of the great arteries is essential, given the increasing population of adults with congenital heart disease and greater utilization of imaging in these patients. This article reviews appropriate terminology for describing coronary artery anatomy, commonly encountered coronary artery patterns, and postoperative coronary complications in the setting of transposition of the great arteries.
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Sean Novak
PURPOSE: We have established an integrated thoracic radiology reading room within a multidisciplinary lung center clinic (LC). While our subjective experience has been positive, we sought to quantify how this model affects radiology workflow and whether the referring practitioners perceive value in having real-time access to a radiologist consultant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two diagnostic radiology workstations staffed by rotating thoracic radiologists and trainees were integrated within the LC...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Huong Nguyen-Thu, Yoshiaki Ohyama, Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi, Tien Nguyen-Cong, Akio Sugimoto, Makito Sato, Hisako Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya Nakamura, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Yoshito Tsushima
PURPOSE: Age-related aortic changes are related to adverse cardiac remodeling and reduced cardiac function. Here, we aim to assess the correlations between aortic arch width (AAW) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling and LV function as well as coronary artery calcification (CAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 194 patients (ages, 67±12 y) who underwent both coronary computed tomography angiography and echocardiography. The AAW is defined as the longest width between the ascending and descending aorta on a transaxial noncontrast coronary computed tomography angiography image at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Sarah Ghulam Ali, Laura Fusini, Alessia Dalla Cia, Gloria Tamborini, Paola Gripari, Manuela Muratori, Maria E Mancini, Andrea Annoni, Alberto Formenti, Mauro Pepi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE, 3DTTE) versus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with ascending aortic (AA) dilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with AA dilation were evaluated by 2DTTE, X-plane (XP) 3DTTE, and MDCT. Aorta diameters were measured at aortic annulus, aortic root (SIN), sinotubular junction, AA, aortic arch before the prebrachiocephalic artery (PRE), and before left subclavian artery (INTRA)...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
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