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Journal of Thoracic Imaging

Daiwei Han, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Mieneke Rook, Monique D Dorrius, Matthijs Oudkerk
While lung cancer screening has been implemented in the United States, it is still under consideration in Europe. So far, lung cancer screening trials in Europe were not able to replicate the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, but they do show a stage shift in the lung cancers that were detected. While eagerly awaiting the final result of the only lung cancer screening trial with sufficient statistical power, the NELSON trial, a number of European countries and medical societies have published recommendations for lung cancer screening using computed tomography...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Jiali Cai, Dongming Xu, Shiyuan Liu, Matthew D Cham
Lung cancer at its earliest stage is typically manifested on computed tomography as a pulmonary nodule, which could be detected by low-dose multidetector computed tomography technology and the use of thinner collimation. Within the last 2 decades, computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules has been developed to meet the increasing demand for lung cancer screening computed tomography with a larger set of images per scan. This review introduced the basic techniques and then summarized the up-to-date applications of CAD systems in clinical and research programs and in the low-dose lung cancer screening trials, especially in the detection of small pulmonary nodules and missed lung cancers...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Umiko Ishizaki, Kentaro Yoshinaga, Yoji Nagashima, Shuji Sakai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Stephanie Tan, Linda B Haramati
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common and potentially fatal pathology. Fear of missing the diagnosis is pervasive for physicians, including radiologists. However, as computed tomography pulmonary angiography technology and utilization have evolved over the years, we have gained an understanding that not all PEs are equal. As such, our interpretations of PE imaging studies must be enriched by this understanding and adapted to patient circumstances. Herein, we shine the light on overdiagnosis of PE, exploring the evidence, impact, costs, and consequences of overdiagnosis on the care of our patients...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Martine Remy-Jardin
Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism currently relies on computed tomography angiography which is acknowledged as a powerful, noninvasive tool. The concept of overdiagnosis is counterbalanced by a series of unanswered questions regarding the natural history of acute pulmonary embolism and the missing links between acute and chronic thromboembolic disease. For numerous reasons, it is less than certain that this concept will survive.
September 19, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Mark M Hammer, Babina Gosangi, Hiroto Hatabu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate CT features of pneumonias caused by the alpha Herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: By searching the electronic medical record from 2005 to 2017, we identified 12 patients with HSV and 15 with VZV pneumonia. Four patients with coinfection were excluded from imaging analysis. Two radiologists reviewed computed tomography scans (CTs) for findings including ground glass and nodules...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Yinsu Zhu, Xin Tang, Zhiyue Wang, Yongyue Wei, Xiaomei Zhu, Wangyan Liu, Yi Xu, Lijun Tang, Haibin Shi
PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) parameters such as pulmonary artery or right ventricular size can be measured easily on computed tomography (CT). However, there are limited data on electrocardiographically (ECG) gated CT. We sought to determine age-specific and sex-specific normal reference values for PH parameters normalized by body surface area (BSA) using ECG-gated cardiac CT in a Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, we enrolled 519 non-PH patients undergoing ECG-gated CT coronary angiography and measured PH parameters, including main pulmonary artery (MPA) and right pulmonary artery (RPA) diameters and distension, the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (AAO) diameter (MPA/AAO), and the ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RV/LV)...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Christopher D Maroules, Prabhakar Rajiah, Mohit Bhasin, Suhny Abbara
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a validated technique for the evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease, showing high accuracy compared with invasive coronary angiography and high negative predictive value. CCTA is also well positioned as a first-line test for the evaluation of stable chest pain. This purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind CCTA in the setting of stable chest pain, with attention to 5 key strengths of a CCTA-based approach: (1) effective gatekeeping to cardiac catheterization, (2) selective discrimination for revascularization and tailored medical therapy, (3) advanced risk stratification, (4) improvement in outcomes, and (5) support from multisociety guidelines...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Ahmad Parvinian, Christian W Cox, Thomas E Hartman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pulmonary imaging findings in patients with Cowden syndrome (CS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified all patients with CS who underwent dedicated computed tomography examinations of the chest at our institution between January 2000 and October 2017. Patient demographics and imaging characteristics were identified through a review of the electronic medical record and relevant imaging. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (6 males/9 females; mean age 53 y) with a clinical diagnosis of CS were identified...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Cesare Mantini, Domenico Mastrodicasa, Francesco Bianco, Valentina Bucciarelli, Michele Scarano, Gianluca Mannetta, Daniela Gabrielli, Sabina Gallina, Steffen E Petersen, Fabrizio Ricci, Filippo Cademartiri
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of extracardiac findings (ECF) during cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations and their downstream effect on clinical management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 500 consecutive patients. Trans-axial balanced steady-state free precession nongated images acquired from the upper thorax to the upper abdomen were evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. ECF were classified as nonsignificant (benign, with no need for further investigation), significant (mandatory to be reported/monitored), and major (clinically remarkable pathology, mandatory to be reported/investigated/treated)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Stefan Baumann, Philipp Kryeziu, Christian Tesche, Darby C Shuler, Tobias Becher, Marlon Rutsch, Michael Behnes, Ksenija Stach, Brian E Jacobs, Matthias Renker, Thomas Henzler, Holger Haubenreisser, Stefan O Schoenberg, Christel Weiss, Martin Borggrefe, Chris Schwemmer, U Joseph Schoepf, Ibrahim Akin, Dirk Lossnitzer
PURPOSE: Recent advances in image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (cCTA) have enabled improved characterization of coronary plaques. Thus, we investigated the association between quantitative morphological plaque markers obtained by cCTA and serum lipid levels in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 119 statin-naive patients (55±14 y, 66% men) who underwent clinically indicated cCTA between January 2013 and February 2017...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Seth J Kligerman, Jason W Mitchell, Jacob W Sechrist, Adam K Meeks, Jeffrey R Galvin, Charles S White
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the factors contributing toward accurate detection and erroneous interpretation of pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 13 months, all computed tomography pulmonary angiography studies were retrospectively rereviewed by a chest radiologist. Two additional chest radiologists assessed cases with disagreement between the first interpretation and rereview. The number, extent, and location of PE and specialty training, experience, time of study, kV, resident prelim, use of iterative reconstruction, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and reports describing the study as "limited" were recorded...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Yoshie Kunihiro, Hideko Onoda, Keisuke Aoe, Masashi Furukawa, Kazunori Okabe, Tomoyuki Murakami, Yoshinobu Hoshii, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Tsuneo Matsumoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Sagar Amin, Rydhwana Hossain, Jean Jeudy, Aletta Ann Frazier, Charles White
The heart can manifest a spectrum of focal convexities that range from insignificant crypts and diverticula to clinically relevant aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. The distinction of a clinically significant lesion from a minor focal convexity can be challenging. This article outlines the various types of focal convexities on the basis of location within the heart and discusses unique morphologic and functional features to further characterize these entities. We also highlight the most critical clinical consequences of cardiac aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms such as thromboembolic events, aneurysm ruptures, intracardiac shunting, hemopericardium, and arrhythmias...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Ryoko Egashira, Takahiko Nakazono, Ken Yamaguchi, Keita Kai, Nobuyuki Ono, Mariko Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Irie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Constance de Margerie-Mellon, Allison Onken, Benedikt H Heidinger, Paul A VanderLaan, Alexander A Bankier
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify potential computed tomography manifestations of pulmonary adenocarcinomas presenting as subsolid nodules and associated with the histologic evidence of spread of tumor through air spaces (STAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a radiologic-pathologic repository of resected pulmonary adenocarcinomas including 203 subsolid nodules, 40 STAS-positive nodules were randomly selected and matched to 40 STAS-negative nodules. Total average diameter, as well as average and long-axis diameters of the solid component, was measured...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Tami J Bang, John Caleb Richards, Amy L Olson, Steve D Groshong, Erwin W Gelfand, David A Lynch
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with significant chronic lung disease. The purpose of this paper was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of CVID-associated lung diseases. These include airways' disease, interstitial lung disease, lymphoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In addition, a genetic syndrome termed Kabuki syndrome results in CVID-like immune abnormalities. These patients may also present with CVID-associated lung disease. Awareness and precise identification of CVID-associated lung disease may allow for better assessment of prognosis and direction of therapy...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Michael J Drabkin, John I Meyer, Nalini Kanth, Shari Lobel, Joshua Fogel, Julia Grossman, John H Krumenacker
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to better assess the prevalence and appearance of thymic tissue in adults stratified by age using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in order to prevent misinterpretation of normal thymic tissue as pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the CT appearance of the thymus in 597 trauma patients aged 30 to 69 years (M=48.0 y, SD=11.3). Three body fellowship-trained attending radiologists independently reviewed the CT scans...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Edwin A Takahashi, Chi Wan Koo, Darin B White, Rebecca M Lindell, Anne-Marie G Sykes, David L Levin, Ronald S Kuzo, Matthias Wolf, Luca Bogoni, Rickey E Carter, Cynthia H McCollough, Joel G Fletcher
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) and human readers to detect pulmonary nodules ≥5 mm using 100 kV ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) utilizing a tin filter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After informed consent, 55 patients prospectively underwent standard-dose chest CT (SDCT) using 120 kV followed by ULDCT using 100 kV/tin. Reference nodules ≥5 mm were identified by a thoracic radiologist using SDCT...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Loren Ketai, Tomás Franquet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
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