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Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire

Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Heloisa H M Della-Colleta, Hernandes F Carvalho
Hyaluronan (HA) has been implicated in tissue remodeling, healing, and tumor growth. This study investigated the variation in hyaluronan content, distribution, and metabolism in the rat ventral prostate in response to androgen deprivation after castration. Hyaluronan synthases (HAS 1-3) and hyaluronidases (Hyal 1-3) mRNA abundance and CD44 (a HA receptor) distribution were assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results demonstrated an increasingly concentration, but an overall reduction of HA content...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Mehdi Zarrei, Geoffrey G Hicks, James N Reynolds, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Worrawat Engchuan, Molly Pind, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Zhouzhi Wang, Christian R Marshall, Richard F Wintle, Albert E Chudley, Stephen W Scherer
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by a combination of neurological, developmental, and congenital defects that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. Earlier reports showed that large chromosomal anomalies may link to FASD. Here, we examined the prevalence and types of copy number variations (CNVs) in FASD cases previously diagnosed by a multidisciplinary FASD team in sites across Canada. We genotyped 95 children with FASD and 87 age-matched, typically developing controls on the Illumina Human Omni2...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Ying Liu, Lihong Ren, Wenjing Liu, Zhibo Xiao
MiR-21 has been found to be up-regulated in keloid tissue and affect the proliferation and apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts. However, the possible related mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of miR-21 in FasL-induced caspase-8 activation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in keloid fibroblasts. According to the present study, the protein level of FasL was decreased by miR-21 overexpression, while enhanced by miR-21 inhibition in keloid fibroblasts. Subsequently, the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts was restrained by miR-21 overexpression as evidenced by enhanced mitochondria membrane potential and decreased production of mitochondrial ROS...
March 10, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yuanteng Xu, Ruiqing Chen, Gongbiao Lin, Xiuling Fang, Shujuan Yu, Xiaohua Liang, Rong Zhang
PURPOSE: Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is decreased in many malignant tumors. Epithelial mesenchymal Transition (EMT) endows tumor cells invasive and metastatic properties. Few studies have elucidated the role of PDCD4 in the regulation of EMT during laryngeal carcinoma. METHODS: Using laryngeal carcinoma tissues, the relationship between PDCD4 and EMT-associated proteins E-cadherin and N-cadherin was examined. Gene manipulation was utilized to define the regulatory capacity of PDCD4...
March 6, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Ningning Peng, Zhigang Miao, Liguo Wang, Binbin Liu, Guijiang Wang, Xu Guo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Dysregulation of miRNAs is tightly associated with the malignancy of cancers. Aberrant expression of miR-378 has been observed in human cancers, however, the function of miR-378 in osteosarcoma (OS) remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that miR-378 was highly expressed in human OS tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-378 significantly promoted the cell proliferation of OS cells. Molecular studies identified kruppel-like factor-9 (KLF9) as a functional downstream target of miR-378...
February 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Laila A Rashed, Samah Elattar, Nashwa Eltablawy, Hend Ashour, Lamiaa Mohamed, Yasmin El-Esawy
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Melatonin (MT) pretreated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) regenerative therapy, as a new therapeutic target in modifying underlying diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis in a rat model, and its possible effect on autophagy protein Beclin-1. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups: control, DN, MSCs treated (MSCs) and In-vitro Melatonin (5µM for 24 hours) pre-incubated MSCs treated group (MSCs+MT). MSCs treatment significantly improved the renal functions with amelioration of the measured underlying DN pathogenesis and elevation of Beclin-1 protein levels compared to DN group...
February 9, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Hong Liu, Lili Zhong, Yuwei Zhang, Xuewei Liu, Ji Li
Rutin, a flavonoid glycoside, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. Loss of the endogenous estrogen and dysregulation of the estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathway are associated with the increased risk of stroke in women after menopause. This study was performed to investigate whether rutin could protect against cerebral ischemia by modulating ER pathway. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were given intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (DMSO), rutin (100 mg/kg) or 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg) for 5 continuous days...
February 8, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Tatyana V Vakhrusheva, Daria V Grigorieva, Irina V Gorudko, Alexey Sokolov, Valeria A Kostevich, Vassili N Lazarev, Vadim B Vasilyev, Sergey N Cherenkevich, Oleg M Panasenko
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), found mainly in neutrophils, is released in inflammation. MPO produces reactive halogen species (RHS) which are bactericidal agents. However, RHS overproduction, i.e. halogenative stress, can also damage host biomolecules, and MPO itself may be targeted by RHS. Therefore, we examined the susceptibility of MPO to inactivation by its primary products (HOCl, HOBr, HOSCN) and secondary products such as taurine monochloramine (TauCl) and monobromamine (TauBr). MPO was dose-dependently inhibited up to complete inactivity by treatment with HOCl or HOBr...
February 2, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Qing Li, Tao Yang, Dongsheng Li, Feng Ding, Guang Bai, Wei Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Aquaporin5 (AQP5), a water channel protein, has been reported to possess the oncogenic potential in multiple types of malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its effect on the chemosensitivity of CRC cells remains elusive. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of AQP5 silencing in CRC cells on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct targeting AQP5 was transfected into HCT116 or HT29 cells to generate stably AQP5-silenced cell lines...
February 1, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yujing Huang, Ying Mao, Huiying Li, Guangxun Shen, Guangxian Nan
Ischemic stroke is a major cerebrovascular disease resulting from a transient or permanent local reduction of cerebral blood flow. Angiogenesis plays an important role in cerebral microvascular repair after ischemic stroke. This study aimed at investigating the effect of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) on the angiogenesis of mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells in a hypoxic environment. We found that Nrf2 expression was temporarily increased in hypoxia-induced bEnd.3 cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 inhibited the proliferation, migration as well as tube formation in hypoxia-induced bEnd...
January 26, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Alexey Sokolov, Valeria A Kostevich, Elena Yu Varfolomeeva, Daria V Grigorieva, Irina V Gorudko, Stanislav O Kozlov, Igor V Kudryavtsev, Elena V Mikhalchik, Michael V Filatov, Sergey N Cherenkevich, Oleg M Panasenko, Juergen Arnhold, Vadim B Vasilyev
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a copper-containing ferroxidase of blood plasma, acting as an acute phase reactant during inflammation. The effect of oxidative modification of CP induced by oxidants produced by myeloperoxidase, such as HOCl, HOBr and HOSCN, on its spectral, enzymatic and anti-inflammatory properties was studied. We monitored chemiluminescence of lucigenin and luminal along with fluorescence of hydroethidine and scopoletin to assay the inhibition by CP of the neutrophilic respiratory burst induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)...
January 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Dema Najem, Kerry Rennie, Maria Ribecco, Dao Ly, Julie Haukenfrers, Qing Liu, Munyao Nzau, Douglas Fraser, Mahmud Bani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to its high incidence rate and often long-term sequelae, TBI contributes significantly to increasing costs of medicare expenditures annually. Unfortunately, advances in the field have been stifled by patient and injury heterogeneity that pose a major challenge in TBI prevention, diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we briefly discuss the causes of TBI, followed by its prevalence, classification and pathophysiology...
January 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Berardino Petrelli, Joanne Weinberg, Geoffrey G Hicks
The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and others showing few or even no overt signs of a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration and gestational timing of alcohol exposure can all be controlled in a way not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse PAE models and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioural phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes...
January 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Haifeng Zhang, Yajun Lian, Nanchang Xie, Yake Zheng
Epilepsy is a common disease of the central nervous system. This study aims to investigate the role of mitochondrial Rho (Miro) 1 in epilepsy using a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine induced epileptic seizure in mice and significantly decreased Miro 1 expression in the hippocampus. Moreover, pilocarpine treatment increased the serum levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), and led to hippocampal neuronal injury and apoptosis...
January 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Chunqing Wang, Hanliang He, Yu Jiang, Liang Wang, Youjia Xu
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the formation and resorption of bone, respectively. An imbalance between these two processes results in a disease called osteoporosis, in which a decreased level of bone strength increases the risk of a bone fracture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules of 18-25 nucleotides that have been previously shown to control bone metabolism by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we detected the expression pattern of 10 miRNAs in patient serum samples, and identified six miRNAs altered expression in patients with osteoporosis relative to non-osteoporosis...
January 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yong Yan, Tuan-Mao Guo, Chao Zhu
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines and the clinical efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: A total of 148 AS patients were selected and received NSAID treatment. ELISA was used to assess cytokine levels, and patients were assigned into positively effective, effective, moderately effective, and ineffective groups...
January 11, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yuanqiang Lin, Qingjie Ma, Lin Li, Hui Wang
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy involving local and distant metastasis. It is known that CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) interacts specifically with CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) to guide the migration of PTC cells. However, the signaling pathway downstream of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in PTC is not fully understood. In the present study, high expression of CXCR4 was detected in 38 out of 82 PTC specimens, and the expression level of CXCR4 was significantly correlated with the stage of PTC...
January 9, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Eithar K Al Adham, Amal I Hassan, M M Hazem, Ahmed Shebl
Veno- occlusive disease is an important pattern of hepatotoxicity associated with antineoplastic drugs. The study aimed to investigate the possible therapeutic impact of rice husk silica (RHS) nanoparticles combined with a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the Veno-occlusive disease in liver (VOD) elicited by dactinomycin (DAC) in rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawely rats were classified into six groups, 8 rats each. The first group served as control, the second, animals were infused by intraperitoneal injection with DAC (0...
January 4, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Dejun Yang, Joseph M Thomas, Tianxia Li, Youngseok Lee, Zhaohui Liu, Wanli Smith
Although the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear, mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) are among the major causes of familial PD. Most of these mutations disrupt Lrrk2 kinase and/or GTPase domain function, resulting in neuronal degeneration. However, the signal pathways underlying Lrrk2-induced neuronal degeneration are not fully understood. There is an expanding body of evidence that suggests a link between Lrrk2 function and MAP kinase (MAPK) cascades. To further investigate this link in vivo, genetic RNAi screens of the MAPK pathways were performed in a Drosophila model to identify genetic modifier(s) that can suppress G2019S-Lrrk2-induced PD-like phenotypes...
December 21, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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