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Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412425/how-alcohol-drinking-affects-our-genes-an-epigenetic-point-of-view
#1
Stefania Ciafre', Valentina Carito, Giampiero Ferraguti, Antonio Greco, George N Chaldakov, Marco Fiore, Mauro Ceccanti
This work highlights recent studies in epigenetic mechanisms that play a role in alcoholism, a complex multifactorial disorder. A large body of evidence has shown that alcohol can modify gene expression through epigenetic processes, namely DNA methylation and nucleosomal remodeling via histone modifications. In that vein, chronic ethanol exposure modifies DNA and histone methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA expression. The alcohol-mediated chromatin remodeling in the brain promotes the transition from use to abuse and addiction...
November 9, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403494/lysophosphatidic-acid-represses-autophagy-in-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#2
Gizem Esra Genc, Victoria E B Hipolito, Roberto J Botelho, Saadet Gumuslu
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small signaling phospholipid that mediates diverse functions including cell proliferation, migration and survival by engaging LPA-agonized G-protein coupled receptors. Autophagy is a survival mechanism in response to nutrient depletion or organellar damage that encloses idle or damaged organelles within autophagosomes that are then delivered to lysosomes for degradation. However, the relationship between LPA and autophagy is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether LPA affects autophagy through the ERK1/2 and/or the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways...
November 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398926/coordinated-tcf7l2-regulation-in-a-mouse-model-implicates-wnt-signaling-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
Eric J Chater-Diehl, Dustin J Sokolowski, Bonnie Lj Alberry, Shiva M Singh
Mouse models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have repeatedly identified genes with long-term changes in expression, DNA methylation, noncoding RNA and histone modifications in response to neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure. Articulation of FASD is achieved via alcohol's effect on gene expression, likely involving epigenetic regulation. The list of genes affected is large and heterogeneous, depending on experimental protocol. We present reanalysis and synthesis of results highlighting Wnt transcription factor 7 like 2 (Tcf7l2) gene as uniquely compatible with hippocampal DNA methylation, histone modifications, and gene expression changes in a coordinated response to neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure...
November 6, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383978/characterizing-chloride-dependent-acidification-in-brain-clathrin-coated-vesicles
#4
Mary R Weston, Joseph Andrew Mindell
Endocytic organelles maintain their acidic pH using the V-type ATPase proton pump. However, proton accumulation across the membrane generates a voltage and requires the movement of an additional ion, known as a counterion, to dissipate charge buildup. The role of counterion movement in endosomes is not clear, but a sub-population of early endosomes, Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), has previously been shown to use external chloride (Cl-) to allow V-ATPase-dependent acidification. We aimed to determine the identity and function of this presumed Cl- transporting protein...
November 1, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359541/silencing-of-astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-aeg-1-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Xing Yang, Shaowei Song
To investigate the role of Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in the development and progress of pancreatic cancer, the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was inserted into the RNA interference vector to knock down the endogenous AEG-1 in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, AsPC-1 and PANC-1. Our results showed that silencing of AEG-1 suppressed the proliferation, colony formation ability and cell stemness of AsPC-1 and PANC-1 cells, and inhibited their G1 to S phase transition. Results from apoptosis assay showed that knockdown of AEG-1 led to cell apoptosis...
October 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352171/alteration-of-bcl11b-upon-stimulation-of-both-map-kinase-and-gsk3-dependent-signaling-pathways-in-double-negative-thymocytes
#6
Wisam Hussein Selman, Elahe Esfandiari, Theresa M Filtz
Bcl11b is a transcription factor critical for thymocyte development. We previously characterized the kinetic post-translational modifications (PTMs) of Bcl11b in double positive (DP) thymocytes during stimulation of the T cell receptor-activated MAP kinase pathway. However, the PTMs of Bcl11b in thymocytes from other developmental stages in the thymus, primarily double negative (DN) cells, have not been previously identified. We found that kinetic modifications of Bcl11b in DN cells are somewhat different than the patterns observed in DP cells...
October 23, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352165/down-regulation-of-lncrna-atb-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-increasing-mir-141-3p-expression
#7
Yang Zhang, Jianyi Li, Shi Jia, Yitong Wang, Ye Kang, Wenhai Zhang
Long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-beta (lnc-ATB) is abnormally expressed in multiple tumor types. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of lnc-ATB and miR-141-3p, and to determine whether lnc-ATB can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by miR-141-3p in breast cancer. Here, we found that lnc-ATB was highly expressed whereas miR-141-3p was lowly expressed in breast cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of lnc-ATB in two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and BT549) significantly increased miR-141-3p expression...
October 23, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332552/on-the-oxidative-damage-by-cadmium-on-kidney-mitochondrial-functions
#8
Natalia Pavon, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macias-Lopez, Francisco Correa, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Luz Hernández-Esquivel, Edmundo Chavez
In the kidney, the accumulation of heavy metals, such as Cd2+, produce mitochondrial dysfunctions, i.e., uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibition of the electron transport through the respiratory chain, and collapse of the transmembrane electrical gradient. This derangement may be due to the fact that Cd2+ induces the transition of membrane permeability from selective to non-selective via the opening of a transmembrane pore. In fact, Cd2+ produces this injury through the stimulation of oxygen-derived radical generation conducing to oxidative stress...
October 17, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308128/structure-and-function-of-the-fgd-family-of-divergent-fyve-domain-proteins
#9
Gary Eitzen, Cameron C Smithers, Allan Murray, Michael Overduin
FYVE domains are highly conserved protein modules that typically bind phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) on the surface of early endosomes. Along with pleckstrin homology (PH) and phox homology (PX) domains, FYVE domains are the principal readers of the phosphoinositide (PI) code that mediate specific recognition of eukaryotic organelles. Of all the human FYVE domain-containing proteins, those within the Faciogenital dysplasia (Fgd) subfamily are particularly divergent, and couple with GTPases to exert unique cellular functions...
October 11, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273495/therapeutic-potency-of-heat-shock-protein-70-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colorectal-cancer-current-status-and-perspectives
#10
Atena Soleimani, Elnaz Zahiri, Sajad Ehtiati, Mahtab Norouzi, Farzad Rahmani, Hamid Fiuji, Amir Avan, Gordon Ferns, Majid Khazaei, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Heat-shock protein-70 (HSP70) is critical to the folding, stability and activity of several client proteins including many responsible for cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, drug toxicity, and metastasis. Up-regulation of HSP70 is positively associated with increased tumorigenicity as well as poor survival in colon cancer patients, supporting the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potencies of HSP70 in colorectal cancer. Administration of specific pharmacological inhibitors or gene knock-down for HSP70 suppresses tumor progression and enhances tumor cells chemosensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257098/methylation-of-bone-sost-impairs-sp7-runx2-and-er%C3%AF-transactivation-in-patients-with-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#11
Yu Shan, Liang Wang, Guangfei Li, Guangsi Shen, Peng Zhang, Youjia Xu
Sclerostin (SOST), a glycoprotein predominantly secreted by bone tissue osteocytes, is an important regulator of bone formation, and loss of SOST results in Van Buchem disease. DNA methylation regulates SOST expression in human osteocytes, although the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we compared 12 patients with bone fractures and postmenopausal osteoporosis with eight patients without postmenopausal osteoporosis to understand the mechanisms via which SOST methylation affects osteoporosis...
September 26, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253108/temperature-and-serine-phosphorylation-regulate-glycerol-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-skeletal-muscle-of-hibernating-richardson-s-ground-squirrels
#12
Anthony Agostino Ruberto, Samantha Michelle Logan, Kenneth B Storey
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) bridges carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by interconverting glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). This reversible reaction converts G3P derived from triglyceride hydrolysis to DHAP that can then enter glycolysis or gluconeogenesis and, in the reverse reaction, makes G3P for use in triglyceride biosynthesis. Small hibernating mammals rely almost exclusively on triglyceride reserves as their fuel for energy production during torpor and the recovery of glycerol after lipolysis is an important source of carbohydrate over the non-feeding winter months...
September 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208283/banff-bending-of-bilayer-membranes-by-amphiphilic-%C3%AE-helices-is-necessary-for-form-and-function-of-organelles
#13
Anne Könnel, Wassilina Bugaeva, Irene Luise Gügel, Katrin Philippar
By binding to and inserting into the lipid bilayer, amphiphilic α-helices of proteins are involved in curvature of biological membranes in all organisms. In particular, they are involved in establishing the complex membrane architecture of intracellular organelles like endoplasmatic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Thus, amphiphilic α-helices are essential for maintenance of cellular metabolism and fitness of organisms. Here we focus on the structure and function of membrane-intrinsic proteins, which are involved in membrane curvature by amphiphilic α-helices, in mitochondria and chloroplasts of the eukaryotic model organisms yeast and <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>...
September 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208280/renal-collecting-duct-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#14
Rawad Lashhab, A K M Shahid Ullah, Emmanuelle Cordat
In the kidney, the collecting duct (CD) is composed of at least four cell types: principal, type-A intercalated cells (IC), type-B IC, and non-A and non-B IC. Although this heterogeneous composition has been recognized since the end of the nineteenth century, the physiological role of the various cell types in the CD continues to be deciphered as of today. Principal and ICs are essential in ion-water balance and acid-base homeostasis, respectively. However, recent research has revealed a striking interplay and overlap between the specific functions of these cell types...
September 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193076/a-crosslinked-and-ribosylated-actin-trimer-does-not-interact-productively-with-myosin
#15
Navneet Sidhu, John F Dawson
A purified F-actin derived actin trimer that interacts with end-binding proteins did not activate or bind the side-binding protein myosin under rigor conditions. Remodeling of the actin trimer by the binding of gelsolin did not rescue myosin binding, nor did the use of different means of inhibiting the polymerization of the trimer. Our results demonstrate that ADP-ribosylation on all actin subunits of an F-actin derived trimer inhibits myosin binding and that the binding of DNase-I to the pointed end subunits of a crosslinked trimer also remodels the myosin binding site...
September 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165032/aberrant-promoter-methylation-reduced-the-expression-of-protocadherin-17-in-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#16
Dongyan Huang, Shiming Yang, Zhirao Dai, Weimin Li, Rongguan Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanism of protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) downregulated in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). METHODS: NPC tumor and adjacent tissue samples were collected from NPC patients who were received therapy in Chinese PLA General Hospital. Meanwhile, a normal epithelial cell lines NP96 and 6 NPC cell lines C666-1, CEN1, CEN2, HNE1, HEN2, and HONE1 were prepared. Then, the expression level of PCDH17 and the methylation level of PCDH17 promoter in both tissues samples and cell lines were determined using PCR method...
August 30, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153423/small-hepatitis-delta-antigen-selectively-binds-to-target-mrna-in-hepatic-cells-a-potential-mechanism-by-which-hepatitis-d-virus-down-regulates-glutathione-s-transferase-p1-and-induces-liver-injury-and-hepatocarcinogenesis
#17
Mianzhi Chen, Dan Du, Wen Zheng, Mingheng Liao, Ge Liang, Lu Zhang, Meng Gong
Liver co-infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) can result in a severe form of hepatocellular carcinoma with poor prognosis. Co-infection with HDV and HBV causes more deleterious effects than infection with HBV alone. Clinical research has shown that glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), a tumor suppressor gene, is typically down-regulated in liver samples from hepatitis-infected patients. In the present study, our data indicated that small HDV antigen (s-HDAg) could specifically bind to GSTP1 mRNA and significantly down-regulate GSTP1 protein expression...
August 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142282/bases-mol%C3%A3-culaires-de-l-infection-de-plantes-par-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-via-un-syst%C3%A3-me-de-s%C3%A3-cr%C3%A3-tion-de-type-iv
#18
Charline Mary, Christian Baron
Agrobacterium tumefaciens est un phytopathogène étudié au vu de ses nombreuses applications pour des études d'interactions hôte/pathogène, la communication bactérienne et la capacité à transférer un fragment d'ADN dans la cellule hôte avec un système de protéines membranaires, le système de sécrétion de type IV (T4SS). Le mécanisme du T4SS est similaire à celui de la transmission des gènes de résistances aux antibiotiques et les connaissances obtenues pourront ensuite être appliquées à d'autres organismes utilisant ce genre de mécanisme...
August 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142277/foxo1-and-foxa1-2-form-a-complex-on-dna-and-cooperate-to-open-chromatin-at-insulin-regulated-genes
#19
Daniel Schill, Joshua Nord, Lisa Ann Cirillo
We have previously shown that cooperative, interdependent binding by the pioneer factors FoxO1 and FoxA1/2 is required for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and H3K27 acetylation to the promoters of insulin regulated genes. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that, in HepG2 cells, FoxO1 and FoxA2 form a complex on DNA that is disrupted by insulin treatment. Insulin mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 and FoxA2 does not impair their cooperative binding to mononucleosome particles assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter, indicating that direct disruption of complex formation by phosphorylation is not responsible for the loss of interdependent FoxO1:FoxA1/2 binding following insulin treatment...
August 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693421/ameliorating-effects-of-sporidiobolus-pararoseus-extract-on-dyslipidemia-in-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Chao Du, Danyu Ying, Yahui Guo, Yuliang Cheng, Mei Han, Weiguo Zhang, He Qian
The study investigated how an extract of Sporidiobolus pararoseus (S.p.) affects lipid metabolism in Kunming mice that were obese as a result of being fed a high-fat diet; the control group were administered Max EPA fish oil. Ten mice were randomly selected from a pool of 60 mice for the control group and the remaining 50 mice were fed with a high-fat diet to establish a dyslipidemia model. After 4 weeks, these 50 mice were randomly distributed among 5 groups: high-fat model group; Max EPA group; and 3 groups of mice fed different doses of S...
October 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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