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Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire

Muntahi Mourin, Alvan Wai, Joe D ONeil, Carla Schubiger, Claudia C Häse, Georg Hausner, Pavel Dibrov
Vc-NhaP2 antiporter from <i>Vibrio cholerae</i> exchanges H<sup>+</sup> for K<sup>+</sup> or Na<sup>+</sup>, but not for the smaller Li<sup>+</sup>. The molecular basis of this unusual selectivity remains unknown. <i>Phyre<sup>2</sup></i> and Rosetta software were used to generate a structural model of the Vc-NhaP2. The obtained model suggested that a cluster of residues from different transmembrane segments (TMSs) forms a putative cation-binding pocket in the middle of the membrane: D133 and T132 from TMS V together with D162 and E157 of TMS VI...
July 16, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Amy A Caudy, Julia A Hanchard, Alan Hsieh, Saravannan Shaan, Adam P Rosebrock
Our understanding of metabolic networks is incomplete, and new enzymatic activities await discovery in well studied organisms. Mass spectrometric methods for measuring cellular metabolism reveal compounds inside cells that are unexplained by existing maps of metabolic reactions. Current computational models are unable to account for all activities and contents observed within cells. Additional large-scale genetic and biochemical approaches are required to elucidate metabolic gene function. We have used full-scan mass spectrometry metabolomics to examine deletions of candidate enzymes in the model budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and report the identification of twenty-five candidates that alter metabolite levels...
July 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Toru Momozane, Tomohiro Kawamura, Yumi Itoh, Masato Sanosaka, Tsutomu Sasaki, Ryu Kanzaki, Naoko Ose, Soichiro Funaki, Yasushi Shintani, Masato Minami, Meinoshin Okumura, Hiroshi Takemori
Carnosol is a naturally occurring herbal compound, known for its antioxidative properties. We previously found that carnosol protected mouse lungs from ischemia-reperfusion injury in ex vivo cultures. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underpinning carnosol-mediated lung protection, we analyzed modes of IL-6 gene expression, which is associated with lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microarray analysis of mouse lungs suggested that IL-6 mRNA levels were elevated in the mouse lungs subjected to clamp-reperfusion, which was associated with elevated levels of other inflammatory modulators, such as ATF3...
June 29, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Sen Hong, Si Chen, Xu Wang, Di Sun, Zhenkun Yan, Jiandong Tai, Miaomiao Bi
ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 2 (ATAD2) is involved in various types of cancers, including colorectal cancer. This study aimed to determine the role of ATAD2 in angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. Here, we downregulated ATAD2 expression in HCT116 and SW480 cells, and collected the conditioned medium (CM) from control and ATAD2-sienced cells. The effect of CM on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was evaluated by using CCK-8, wound healing, tube formation, western blot, and dual-luciferase reporter assays...
June 29, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Qian Ding, Qing Wang, Yi Ren, Hong Qian Zhu, ZhuYun Huang
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has only about 30%-40% five years survival rate due to the leukemia stem-like cells (LSCs) with self-renewal and differentiation ability. To address the novel therapeutic targets in LSCs, we investigated the roles of miRNA-126 and TRAF7 in AML. METHODS: We used qRT-PCR and western blot to investigate the expression level of miRNA-126 and TRAF7 in AML cell lines. Then, we uncover the effect of miRNA-126 on AML cell proliferation and apoptosis by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis, separately...
June 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Xingcai Zhang, Yuli Cai, Wei Zhang, Xianhai Chen
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an agnogenic chronic disorder with high morbidity and low survival rate. Quercetin is a flavonoid found in a variety of herbs with anti-fibrosis function. In this study, bleomycin was employed to induce a pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The quercetin administration ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, evidenced by the expression level changes of hydroxyproline, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, Collagen I and Collagen III. The similar results were observed in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-treated human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF)...
June 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Laura P M H de Rooij, Derek C H Chan, Ava Keyvani Chahi, Kristin J Hope
Normal hematopoiesis is sustained through a carefully orchestrated balance between hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation. The functional importance of this axis is underscored by the severity of disease phenotypes initiated by abnormal HSC function, including myelodysplastic syndromes and hematopoietic malignancies. Major advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of primitive hematopoietic cells have been achieved, however, the post-transcriptional regulatory layer that may impinge on their behavior remains underexplored by comparison...
June 13, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Shuangzhen Bao, Xinying Wang, Zhichao Wang, Jinqiang Yang, Fangzhen Liu, Changheng Yin
Despite the great progress in recent years, many aspects of the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer remain unclear. A better understanding on the molecular mechanisms underlying the metastasis and recurrence is crucial to improve the treatment of this lethal disease. MCF-7 cells were xenografted into mice until visible tumor developed and the cells from tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were cultured with 3 passages as MT cells and IT cells, respectively. Microarray analysis was performed to detect several viable MicroRNAs in these two types of cells...
June 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Guillaume Desrochers, Jalal M Kazan, Arnim Pause
Cell surface receptors trigger the activation of signaling pathways to regulate key cellular processes, including cell survival and proliferation. Internalization, sorting and trafficking of activated receptors, therefore play a major role in the regulation and attenuation of cell signaling. Efficient sorting of endocytosed receptors is performed by the ESCRT machinery, which targets receptors for degradation by the sequential establishment of protein complexes. These events are tightly regulated and malfunction of ESCRT components can lead to abnormal trafficking, sustained signaling and promote tumor formation or progression...
June 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Andrea Giberson, Bratati Saha, Kalisa Campbell, Carin Christou, Kathy L Poulin, Robin J Parks
Adenovirus (Ad) DNA undergoes dynamic changes in protein association as the virus progresses through its replicative cycle. Within the virion, the Ad DNA associates primarily with the virus-encoded, protamine-like protein VII. During the early phase of infection (~6 h), the viral DNA showed declining association with VII, suggesting that VII was removed from at least some regions of the viral DNA. Within 6 h, the viral DNA was wrapped into a repeating nucleosome-like array containing the histone variant H3...
June 6, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Jun-Tao Niu, Li-Jun Zhang, Yong-Wang Huang, Chao Li, Ning Jiang, Yuan-Jie Niu
MicroRNAs are critical regulators of the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). However, the role of microRNA-154 (miR-154) in the development and progression of LSCC has not been clarified. We found that down-regulated miR-154 expression in LSCC tissues was associated with poorer prognosis in LSCC patients. MiR-154 over-expression inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity and migration of LSCC cells and induced their cell cycle arrest, which were reversed by miR-154 inhibition...
June 6, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Charlene E Lancaster, Cheuk Y Ho, Victoria E B Hipolito, Roberto J Botelho, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved process. In Protozoa, phagocytosis fulfills a feeding mechanism, while in Metazoa, phagocytosis diversified to play multiple organismal roles, including immune defence, tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Accordingly, phagocytes display a high level of plasticity in their capacity to recognize, engulf and process targets that differ in composition and morphology. Here, we review how phagocytosis adapts to its multiple roles and discuss in particular the effect of target morphology in phagocytic uptake and phagosome maturation...
May 23, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Li Jiang, Jinghui Zhang, Naifeng Hu, Aichun Liu, Hailong Zhu, Lianqiao Li, Yuyang Tian, Xue Chen, Lina Quan
CK2α is highly expressed in many malignant tumor tissues, including lymphomas and leukemia. To investigate the role of CK2α in proliferation and apoptosis of malignant lymphomas and leukemia, two lymphomas cell lines and one leukemia cell line were infected with CK2α shRNA lentivirus or negative control shRNA lentivirus, and stably infected cell lines were established. Real-time PCR and western blot results showed that the mRNA and protein levels of CK2α were significantly reduced in CK2α knockdown cells...
May 17, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Guoliang Fan, Lin Wang, Jia Xu, Ping Jiang, Wei Wang, Ying Huang, Minggang Lv, Shaoting Liu
Increasing evidence indicates that peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) plays a decisive role in a variety of cancers. Nevertheless, its function in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not been elaborated. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Pin1 in LSCC. Here, we established stably transfected Hep-2 cells with low expression of Pin1. Intriguingly, ability of cell proliferation, migration and invasion was significantly inhibited in Pin1-silenced Hep-2 cells. Similarly, knockdown of Pin1 induced apoptosis of Hep-2 cells, as evidenced by increased expression of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP, and bax, and decreased expression of bcl2...
May 16, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yassine El Hiani, Emmanuel E Egom, Xian-Ping Dong
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that senses and integrates environmental information into cellular regulation and homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has suggested a master role of mTOR signaling in many fundamental aspects of cell biology and organismal development. mTOR deregulation is implicated in a broad range of pathological conditions, including diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, myopathies, inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune conditions...
May 16, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Shirley Qiu, Marceline Côté
Signalling through phosphoinositide lipids is essential for regulating many cellular processes, including endosomal trafficking. A number of intracellular pathogens have found ways to subvert host trafficking pathways via exploitation of endosomal phosphoinositides. This review will discuss how pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites depend on endosomal phosphoinositides for infection, as well as the mechanisms through which some are able to actively manipulate these signalling lipids to facilitate invasion, survival, replication, and immune evasion...
May 10, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yannick Andéol, Jessica Bonneau, Laurence M Gagné, Kevin Jacquet, Véronique Rivest, Marc-Étienne Huot, Carl Séguin
Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is a metal-regulatory transcription factor essential for induction of the genes encoding metallothioneins (MTs) in response to transition metal ions. Activation of MTF-1 is dependent on the interaction of zinc with the zinc fingers of the protein. In addition, phosphorylation is essential for MTF-1 transactivation. We previously showed that inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) abrogated <i></i>Mt<i></i> expression and metal-induced MTF-1 activation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and mouse L cells, thus showing that the PI3K signaling pathway positively regulates MTF-1 activity and <i></i>Mt<i></i> gene expression...
April 30, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Chao Du, Danyu Ying, Yahui Guo, Yuliang Cheng, Mei Han, Weiguo Zhang, He Qian
The study aims to elucidate the intervention effect of Sporidiobolus pararoseus (S. p.) extract on the lipid metabolism in Kunming mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity with Max EPA as a control. Ten mice were randomly selected from 60 mice as control group and the remaining 50 mice were fed with a high-fat diet to establish a dyslipidemia model. After 4 weeks, these 50 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: high-fat model group, Max EPA group, and the 3 groups of different doses of S. p. extract (LD, MD and HD)...
April 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Mikko Taipale
Mutations in protein coding regions underlie almost all Mendelian disorders, drive tumorigenesis, and contribute to susceptibility to common diseases. Despite the great diversity of diseases that are caused by coding mutations, the cellular processes that affect - and are affected by - pathogenic variants at the molecular level are fundamentally conserved. Experimental and computational approaches have revealed that a substantial fraction of disease mutations are not simple loss-of-function alleles. Rather, these pathogenic variants disrupt protein function in more subtle ways by tuning protein folding pathways, altering subcellular trafficking, interrupting signaling cascades, and rewiring highly connected interaction networks...
April 25, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Shu-Yin Xu, Juan Jiang, Aihua Pan, Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Yan
Age-related dementias are now a major mortality factor among most human populations in the world, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the leading dementia-causing neurodegenerative disease. The pathogenic mechanism underlying dementia disorders, and AD in specific, remained largely unclear. Efforts to develop drugs targeting the major disease hallmark lesions, such as amyloid and tangle pathologies, have been unsuccessful so far. The vacuolar protein sorting 10p (Vps10p) family plays a critical role in membrane signal transduction and protein sorting and trafficking between intracellular compartments...
April 24, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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