Read by QxMD icon Read

Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII

Rob R H van den Brom, Kornelis S M van der Geest, Elisabeth Brouwer, Geke A P Hospers, Annemieke M H Boots
The biological behavior of melanoma is unfavorable in the elderly when compared to young subjects. We hypothesized that differences in T-cell responses might underlie the distinct behavior of melanoma in young and old melanoma patients. Therefore, we investigated the circulating T-cell compartment of 34 patients with metastatic melanoma and 42 controls, which were classified as either young or old. Absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells were decreased in young and old melanoma patients when compared to the age-matched control groups...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Francesca Finotello, Zlatko Trajanoski
By exerting pro- and anti-tumorigenic actions, tumor-infiltrating immune cells can profoundly influence tumor progression, as well as the success of anti-cancer therapies. Therefore, the quantification of tumor-infiltrating immune cells holds the promise to unveil the multi-faceted role of the immune system in human cancers and its involvement in tumor escape mechanisms and response to therapy. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells can be quantified from RNA sequencing data of human tumors using bioinformatics approaches...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Salvatore Caponnetto, Arianna Draghi, Troels Holz Borch, Marianna Nuti, Enrico Cortesi, Inge Marie Svane, Marco Donia
The exclusion of "real-world" patients from registration clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy represents a significant emerging issue. For instance, a large fraction of cancer patients develops brain metastases during the course of the disease, but results from large prospective clinical trials investigating this considerable proportion of the cancer patient population are currently lacking. To provide a useful tool for the clinician in a "real-world" setting, we have reviewed the available literature regarding the safety and efficacy of immune check-point inhibitors in patients with cancer metastatic to the brain...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Julia K Winkler, Matthias Schiller, Carolin Bender, Alexander H Enk, Jessica C Hassel
Treatment of metastatic melanoma remains challenging, despite a variety of new and promising immunotherapeutic and targeted approaches to therapy. New treatment options are still needed to improve long-term tumour control. We present a case series of seven patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated individually with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab between July 2014 and July 2015. Two of the patients were treated in an adjuvant setting. All patients had already received a variety of treatments. During an induction phase, the administration of four cycles of weekly rituximab 375 mg/m2 body surface area was planned...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Andrea Anichini, Elena Tassi, Giulia Grazia, Roberta Mortarini
Immunotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by immune checkpoint inhibitors, has profoundly improved the clinical management of advanced disease. However, only a fraction of patients respond and no effective predictive factors have been defined. Here, we discuss the prospects for identification of such predictors of response to immunotherapy, by fostering an in-depth analysis of the immune landscape of NSCLC. The emerging picture, from several recent studies, is that the immune contexture of NSCLC lesions is a complex and heterogeneous feature, as documented by analysis for frequency, phenotype and spatial distribution of innate and adaptive immune cells, and by characterization of functional status of inhibitory receptor+ T cells...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Qing Zhao Ruan, Jian Qian Fu, Xiao Xuan Wu, Li Ping Huang, Run Sheng Ruan
PURPOSE: It is now recognized that solid tumors encroach on the host's immune microenvironment to favor its own proliferation. Strategies to enhance the specificity of the endogenous T-cell population against tumors have been met with limited clinical success. We aimed to devise a two-tier protocol coupling in vivo whole antigen priming with ex vivo cellular expansion to clinically evaluate survival in patients following re-infusion of primed, autologous T cells, thereby determining treatment efficacy...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Bhushan Dharmadhikari, Emily Nickles, Zulkarnain Harfuddin, Nur Diana Binte Ishak, Qun Zeng, Antonio Bertoletti, Herbert Schwarz
Therapeutic tumor vaccination based on dendritic cells (DC) is safe; however, its efficacy is low. Among the reasons for only a subset of patients benefitting from DC-based immunotherapy is an insufficient potency of in vitro generated classical DCs (cDCs), made by treating monocytes with GM-CSF + IL-4 + maturation factors. Recent studies demonstrated that CD137L (4-1BBL, TNFSF9) signaling differentiates human monocytes to a highly potent novel type of DC (CD137L-DCs) which have an inflammatory phenotype and are closely related to in vivo DCs...
March 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Blake M Callahan, John M Yavorski, Yaping N Tu, Wei Lue Tong, Jacob C Kinskey, Kendall R Clark, Timothy J Fawcett, George Blanck
Class I and class II HLA proteins, respectively, have been associated with subsets of V(D)J usage resulting from recombination of the T-cell receptor (TCR) genes. Additionally, particular HLA alleles, in combination with dominant TCR V(D)J recombinations, have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. The recovery of TCR recombination reads from tumor specimen exome files has allowed rapid and extensive assessments of V(D)J usage, likely for cancer resident T-cells, across relatively large cancer datasets...
March 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Stephanie N Sass, Kimberley D Ramsey, Shawn M Egan, Jianmin Wang, Eduardo Cortes Gomez, Sandra O Gollnick
The etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood, but it is a multi-step process that has been linked to environmental factors that induce inflammation within the gland. Glands of prostate cancer patients frequently contain multiple zones of disease at various stages of progression. The factors that drive disease progression from an indolent benign stage to aggressive disease are not well-defined. Prostate inflammation and carcinoma are associated with high levels of myeloid cell infiltration; these cells are linked to disease progression in other cancers, but their role in prostate cancer is unclear...
March 3, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Niken M Mahaweni, Gerard M J Bos, Constantine S Mitsiades, Marcel G J Tilanus, Lotte Wieten
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising novel approach to treat cancer. However, NK cell function has been shown to be potentially diminished by factors common in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we assessed the synergistic potential of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and killer immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatched NK cells to potentiate NK cell antitumor reactivity in multiple myeloma (MM). Hypoxia, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or combinations were selected to mimic the TME...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Angus G Dalgleish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Aglaia Domouchtsidou, Vahé Barsegian, Stefan P Mueller, Jan Best, Judith Ertle, Sotiria Bedreli, Peter A Horn, Andreas Bockisch, Monika Lindemann
The purpose of our study was to assess the immune function of patients with inoperable hepatic malignancies after treatment with selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) and to identify possible correlations with clinical parameters. In 25 patients receiving SIRT lymphocyte proliferation and the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-10) after stimulation with mitogens and microbial antigens were tested prior to therapy, directly after therapy (day 1) and at day 2, 7 and 28 post therapy using the lymphocyte transformation test and enzyme-linked immunospot assays...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
James A Koziol, Haruhiko Imai, Liping Dai, Jian-Ying Zhang, Eng M Tan
BACKGROUND: Multiple antigen miniarrays used for detecting autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be a useful approach for cancer detection and diagnosis. We here address a very specific question: might there be autoimmune responses to TAAs which precede clinical detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HBV and HCV chronic liver disease patients under continuous medical surveillance, and if so, could these anti-TAAs be added to the armamentarium of diagnostic tests? METHODS: We here examine the utility of a panel of 12 TAAs for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Katharina C Kähler, Thomas K Eigentler, Anja Gesierich, Lucie Heinzerling, Carmen Loquai, Friedegund Meier, Frank Meiss, Claudia Pföhler, Max Schlaak, Patrick Terheyden, Kai M Thoms, Mirjana Ziemer, Lisa Zimmer, Ralf Gutzmer
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab and programmed death (PD) 1-antibodies are effective treatment options in metastatic melanoma. The safety and efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with pre-existing autoimmune disorders (AD) has only been evaluated in a selected number of patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis in 14 German skin cancer centers for patients with metastatic melanoma and pre-existing AD treated with ipilimumab. RESULTS: 41 patients with 44 pre-existing AD were treated with ipilimumab (thyroiditis n = 15, rheumatoid n = 11, dermatologic n = 10, Crohn's disease/ulcerative colitis n = 3, neurological n = 2, sarcoidosis n = 2, pancreatitis n = 1)...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Heinz Läubli, Philipp Müller, Lucia D'Amico, Mélanie Buchi, Abhishek S Kashyap, Alfred Zippelius
Cancer immunotherapies have significantly improved the prognosis of cancer patients. Despite the clinical success of targeting inhibitory checkpoint receptors, including PD-1 and/or CTLA-4 on T cells, only a minority of patients derive benefit from these therapies. New strategies to improve cancer immunotherapy are therefore needed. Combination therapy of checkpoint inhibitors with targeted agents has promisingly shown to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy. Here, we analyzed the immunomodulatory effects of the multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib and its efficacy in combination with immunotherapies...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Lei Cai, Theodoros Michelakos, Teppei Yamada, Song Fan, Xinhui Wang, Joseph H Schwab, Cristina R Ferrone, Soldano Ferrone
Malignant transformation of cells is frequently associated with defective HLA class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component expression. This abnormality may have functional relevance, since it may have a negative impact on tumor cell recognition by cognate T cells. Furthermore, HLA class I APM abnormalities appear to have clinical significance, since they are associated with poor prognosis in several malignant diseases and may play a role in the resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Vinod Varki, Olga B Ioffe, Soren M Bentzen, Jon Heath, Ashley Cellini, Josephine Feliciano, Dan P Zandberg
BACKGROUND: To characterize the expression of co-signaling molecules PD-L1, PD-1, and B7-H3 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) by immune status. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 66 cases of cSCC treated with surgical resection from 2012 to 2015. Immunostained tumor sections were analyzed for percent of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 (Tum-PD-L1%), B7-H3 (Tum-B7-H3%), density of peri and intratumoral CD8 T cells (CD8 density), proportion of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1 (CD8-PD-1%) and of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TII) expressing PD-L1 (TII-PD-L1%)...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Guang Shan, Tian Tang, Huijun Qian, Yue Xia
A subset of bladder patients does not respond to BCG treatment effectively and the underlying reason behind this observation is currently unclear. CD4+ T cells are composed of various subsets that each expresses a distinctive set of cytokines and can potently shift the immune response toward various directions. In this study, we examined the CD4+ T-cell cytokine response in bladder cancer patients toward BCG stimulation. We found that bladder cancer patients presented a variety of responses toward BCG, with no uniform characteristics...
February 24, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
S M Mansour Haeryfar, Christopher R Shaler, Patrick T Rudak
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of innate-like T lymphocytes known for their ability to respond to MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted stimuli and select cytokine signals. They are abundant in humans and especially enriched in mucosal layers, common sites of neoplastic transformation. MAIT cells have been found within primary and metastatic tumors. However, whether they promote malignancy or contribute to anticancer immunity is unclear. On the one hand, MAIT cells produce IL-17A in certain locations and under certain circumstances, which could in turn facilitate neoangiogenesis, intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive cell populations, and cancer progression...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Katja Ursic, Gregor Sersa
Gene electrotransfer (GET) is one of the most efficient non-viral gene therapy approaches for the localized transfer of multiple genes into tumors in vivo; therefore, it is especially promising for delivering different cytokines that are toxic if administered systemically. In this study, we used concomitant intratumoral GET of two cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a potent cytotoxic cytokine to induce in situ vaccination, and interleukin 12 (IL-12), an immunostimulatory cytokine to boost the primed local immune response into a systemic one...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"