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Cancer Metastasis Reviews

Boris Michael Holzapfel, Ferdinand Wagner, Laure Christine Martine, Stephan Reppenhagen, Maximilian Rudert, Michael Schuetz, Jim Denham, Jan-Thorsten Schantz, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Currently used surgical techniques to reconstruct tissue defects after resection of musculoskeletal tumours are associated with high complication rates. This drives a strong demand for innovative therapeutic concepts that are able to improve the clinical outcomes of patients suffering from bone and soft tissue tumours. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) provides a technology platform based on biochemical, molecular, cellular and biomaterials modules to selectively direct tissue healing processes for improved defect regeneration...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Bernard Kadio, Sanni Yaya, Ajoy Basak, Koffi Djè, James Gomes, Christian Mesenge
The central role played by calcium ion in biological systems has generated an interest for its potential implication in human malignancies. Thus, lines of research, on possible association of calcium metabolism regulation with tumorigenesis, implying disruptions and/or alterations of known molecular pathways, have been extensively researched in the recent decades. This paper is a critical synthesis of these findings, based on a functional approach of the calcium signaling toolkit. It provides strong support that this ubiquitous divalent cation is involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Enrica Rampazzo, Silvia Giunco, Annarosa Del Mistro, Anna Menegaldo, Lorena Baboci, Monica Mantovani, Giancarlo Tirelli, Anita De Rossi
Strongly associated with tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequently lethal, heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis is a multistep and multifactorial process involving genetic and epigenetic events. The majority of HNSCC patients present with locoregional advanced stage disease and are treated with combined modality strategies that can markedly impair quality of life and elicit unpredictable results...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Emil Ter Veer, Nadia Haj Mohammad, Gert van Valkenhoef, Lok Lam Ngai, Rosa M A Mali, Martijn G H van Oijen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
The optimal second- and third-line chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced esophagogastric cancer is still a matter of debate. Therefore, a literature search was carried out in Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and oncology conferences until January 2016 for randomized controlled trials that compared second- or third-line therapy. We included 28 studies with 4810 patients. Second-line, single-agent taxane/irinotecan showed increased survival compared to best supportive care (BSC) (hazard ratio 0...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
C Yeung, J Hilton, M Clemons, S Mazzarello, B Hutton, F Haggar, C L Addison, I Kuchuk, X Zhu, K Gelmon, A Arnaout
Discordance in estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2/neu status between primary breast tumours and metastatic disease is well recognized. In this review, we highlight how receptor discordance between primary tumours and paired metastasis can help elucidate the mechanism of metastasis but can also effect patient management and the design of future trials. Discordance rates and ranges were available from 47 studies (3384 matched primary and metastatic pairs) reporting ER, PR, and HER2/neu expression for both primary and metastatic sites...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
A R Thierry, S El Messaoudi, P B Gahan, P Anker, M Stroun
While various clinical applications especially in oncology are now in progress such as diagnosis, prognosis, therapy monitoring, or patient follow-up, the determination of structural characteristics of cell-free circulating DNA (cirDNA) are still being researched. Nevertheless, some specific structures have been identified and cirDNA has been shown to be composed of many "kinds." This structural description goes hand-in-hand with the mechanisms of its origins such as apoptosis, necrosis, active release, phagocytosis, and exocytose...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Li Min, Jacson Shen, Chongqi Tu, Francis Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Better diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic options are still necessary for patients with sarcomas due to the current limitations of diagnosis and treatment. Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles that are released by various cells and are found in most body fluids. Tumor-derived exosomes have been proven to mediate tumorigenesis, intercellular communication, microenvironment modulation, and metastasis in different cancers, including in sarcomas. Recently, exosomes have been considered as potential biomarkers for sarcoma diagnosis and prognosis, and as possible targets for sarcoma therapy...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Simonetta Ausoni, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Bhuvanesh Singh, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Giacomo Spinato, Giancarlo Tirelli, Roberto Spinato, Giuseppe Azzarello
Despite improvements in functional outcomes attributable to advances in radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical techniques, and imaging techniques, survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients has improved only marginally during the last couple of decades, and optimal therapy has yet to be devised. Genomic complexity and intratumoral genetic heterogeneity may contribute to treatment resistance and the propensity for locoregional recurrence. Countering this, it demands a significant effort from both basic and clinical scientists in the search for more effective targeted therapies...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
João Ramalho-Carvalho, Bastian Fromm, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
The advent of next-generation sequencing methods is fuelling the discovery of multiple non-coding RNA transcripts with direct implication in cell biology and homeostasis. This new layer of biological regulation seems to be of particular importance in human pathogenesis, including cancer. The aberrant expression of ncRNAs is a feature of prostate cancer, as they promote tumor-suppressive or oncogenic activities, controlling multicellular events leading to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. From the small RNAs involved in the RNAi pathway to the long non-coding RNAs controlling chromatin remodeling, alternative splicing, and DNA repair, the non-coding transcriptome represents the significant majority of transcriptional output...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Marek Z Wojtukiewicz, Dominika Hempel, Ewa Sierko, Stephanie C Tucker, Kenneth V Honn
The association between blood coagulation and cancer development is well recognized. Thrombin, the pleiotropic enzyme best known for its contribution to fibrin formation and platelet aggregation during vascular hemostasis, may also trigger cellular events through protease-activated receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, leading to cancer progression. Our pioneering findings provided evidence that thrombin contributes to cancer metastasis by increasing adhesive potential of malignant cells. However, there is evidence that thrombin regulates every step of cancer dissemination: (1) cancer cell invasion, detachment from primary tumor, migration; (2) entering the blood vessel; (3) surviving in vasculature; (4) extravasation; (5) implantation in host organs...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Wenli Liu, Griffin P Rodgers
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is an olfactomedin domain-containing glycoprotein. Multiple signaling pathways and factors, including NF-κB, Wnt, Notch, PU.1, retinoic acids, estrogen receptor, and miR-486, regulate its expression. OLFM4 interacts with several other proteins, such as gene associated with retinoic-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), cadherins, lectins, nucleotide oligomerization domain-1 (NOD1) and nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2), and cathepsins C and D, known to regulate important cellular functions...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Kosei Nakajima, Dong Hyo Kho, Takashi Yanagawa, Melissa Zimel, Elisabeth Heath, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
The skeleton is frequently a secondary growth site of disseminated cancers, often leading to painful and devastating clinical outcomes. Metastatic cancer distorts bone marrow homeostasis through tumor-derived factors, which shapes different bone tumor microenvironments depending on the tumor cells' origin. Here, we propose a novel insight on tumor-secreted Galectin-3 (Gal-3) that controls the induction of an inflammatory cascade, differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone marrow cells, resulting in bone destruction and therapeutic failure...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Raghuveera Kumar Goel, Kiven Erique Lukong
The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn-related kinase (FRK) is a member of the BRK family kinases (BFKs) and is distantly related to the Src family kinases (SFKs). FRK was first discovered in 1993, and studies pursued thereafter attributed a potential tumour-suppressive function to the enzyme. In recent years, however, further functional characterization of the tyrosine kinase in diverse cancer types suggests that FRK may potentially play an oncogenic role as well. Specifically, while ectopic expression of FRK suppresses cell proliferation and migration in breast and brain cancers, knockdown or catalytic inhibition of FRK suppresses these cellular processes in pancreatic and liver cancer...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Minetta C Liu, Javier Cortés, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Christophe Y Calvet, Lluis M Mir
Anti-tumor electrochemotherapy, which consists in increasing anti-cancer drug uptake by means of electroporation, is now implanted in about 140 cancer treatment centers in Europe. Its use is supported by the English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the palliative treatment of skin metastases, and about 13,000 cancer patients were treated by this technology by the end of 2015. Efforts are now focused on turning this local anti-tumor treatment into a systemic one. Electrogenetherapy, that is the electroporation-mediated transfer of therapeutic genes, is currently under clinical evaluation and has brought excitement to enlarge the anti-cancer armamentarium...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jörg Haier, Anda Ströse, Christiane Matuszcak, Richard Hummel
Using the two paralog miR-23∼27∼24 clusters as an example and combining experimental and clinical data in a systematical approach to microRNA (miR) function and dysregulation, a complex picture of their roles in cancer is drawn. Various findings appear to be contradictory to a larger extent and cannot be fully explained by the classical regulatory network models and feedback loops that are mainly considered by one-to-one regulatory interactions of the involved molecules. Here, we propose an extended model of the regulatory role of miRs that, at least, supplements the usually considered single/oligo-target regulation of certain miRs...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Cyrus Chargari, Karyn A Goodman, Ibrahima Diallo, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Chloe Rancoule, Jean-Marc Cosset, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magne
In the era of modern radiation therapy, the compromise between the reductions in deterministic radiation-induced toxicities through highly conformal devices may be impacting the stochastic risk of second malignancies. We reviewed the clinical literature and evolving theoretical models evaluating the impact of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on the risk of second cancers, as a consequence of the increase in volumes of normal tissues receiving low doses. The risk increase (if any) is not as high as theoretical models have predicted in adults...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jason K Sicklick, Paul T Fanta, Kelly Shimabukuro, Razelle Kurzrock
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the deployment of targeted therapies that have demonstrated marked survival benefits in many tumor types, traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy has remained the mainstay of treatment for unresectable and metastatic gallbladder cancer. METHODS: Systematic review of ongoing and prior clinical studies shows a paucity of biomarker-driven therapeutic trials using targeted agents in gallbladder cancer...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Yunfei Liao, Yong Feng, Jacson Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Uncontrolled proliferation and cell growth is the hallmark of many different malignant diseases, including sarcomas. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are members of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and play crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation and growth by controlling cell cycle, transcription, and RNA splicing. In addition, several CDKs influence multiple targets and phosphorylate transcription factors involved in tumorigenesis. There are many examples linking dysregulated activation and expression of CDKs to tumors, and targeting CDKs in tumor cells has become a promising therapeutic strategy...
June 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Keith L Knutson, Lavakumar Karyampudi, Purushottam Lamichhane, Claudia Preston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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