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Cancer Metastasis Reviews

Xun Yuan, Ambikai Gajan, Qian Chu, Hua Xiong, Kongming Wu, Gen Sheng Wu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily that can initiate the apoptosis pathway by binding to its associated death receptors DR4 and DR5. The activation of the TRAIL pathway in inducing tumor-selective apoptosis leads to the development of TRAIL-based cancer therapies, which include recombinant forms of TRAIL, TRAIL receptor agonists, and other therapeutic agents. Importantly, TRAIL, DR4, and DR5 can all be induced by synthetic and natural agents that activate the TRAIL apoptosis pathway in cancer cells...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Chandan Kanta Das, Mahitosh Mandal, Donat Kögel
Resistance to therapy is one of the prime causes for treatment failure in cancer and recurrent disease. In recent years, autophagy has emerged as an important cell survival mechanism in response to different stress conditions that are associated with cancer treatment and aging. Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process through which damaged cellular contents are degraded after uptake into autophagosomes that subsequently fuse with lysosomes for cargo degradation, thereby alleviating stress. In addition, autophagy serves to maintain cellular homeostasis by enriching nutrient pools...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Christopher Logothetis, Michael J Morris, Robert Den, Robert E Coleman
Prostate cancer is the most frequent noncutaneous cancer occurring in men. On average, men with localized prostate cancer have a high 10-year survival rate, and many can be cured. However, men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer have incurable disease with poor survival despite intensive therapy. This unmet need has led to recent advances in therapy aimed at treating bone metastases resulting from prostate cancer. The bone microenvironment lends itself to metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, as a result of complex interactions between the microenvironment and tumor cells...
January 29, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Humberto J Ferreira, Manel Esteller
While only a small part of the human genome encodes for proteins, biological functions for the so-called junk genome are increasingly being recognized through high-throughput technologies and mechanistic experimental studies. Indeed, novel mechanisms of gene regulation are being discovered that require coordinated interaction between DNA, RNA, and proteins. Therefore, interdisciplinary efforts are still needed to decipher these complex transcriptional networks. In this review, we discuss how non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are epigenetically regulated in cancer and metastases and consequently how ncRNAs participate in the sculpting of the epigenetic profile of a cancer cell, thus modulating the expression of other RNA molecules...
January 26, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Dongdong Huang, Wenjie Sun, Yuwei Zhou, Peiwei Li, Fang Chen, Hanwen Chen, Dajing Xia, Enping Xu, Maode Lai, Yihua Wu, Honghe Zhang
The association between mutations of key driver genes and colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis has been investigated by many studies. However, the results of these studies have been contradictory. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis to screen key driver genes from the TCGA database and validate the roles of these mutations in CRC metastasis. Using bioinformatics analysis, we identified six key driver genes, namely APC, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, SMAD4 and p53. Through a systematic search, 120 articles published by November 30, 2017, were included, which all showed roles for these gene mutations in CRC metastasis...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
William Hankey, Wendy L Frankel, Joanna Groden
The acquisition of biallelic mutations in the APC gene is a rate-limiting step in the development of most colorectal cancers and occurs in the earliest lesions. APC encodes a 312-kDa protein that localizes to multiple subcellular compartments and performs diverse functions. APC participates in a cytoplasmic complex that promotes the destruction of the transcriptional licensing factor β-catenin; APC mutations that abolish this function trigger constitutive activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway, a characteristic found in almost all colorectal cancers...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
George A Calin, Katrien Van Roosbroeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Recep Bayraktar, Katrien Van Roosbroeck
Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are instrumental in physiological processes, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation, processes which are often disrupted in diseases like cancer. miR-155 is one of the best conserved and multifunctional miRNAs, which is mainly characterized by overexpression in multiple diseases including malignant tumors. Altered expression of miR-155 is found to be associated with various physiological and pathological processes, including hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immune response, inflammation, and tumorigenesis...
December 27, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jeetendra Kumar Nag, Tatyana Rudina, Myriam Maoz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Beatrice Uziely, Rachel Bar-Shavit
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The family name of Beatrice Uziely was mistakenly spelled as Uzieky. The correct name is now presented above.
December 20, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Ijeoma Adaku Umelo, Brunella Costanza, Vincent Castronovo
The discovery of biomarkers able to detect cancer at an early stage, to evaluate its aggressiveness, and to predict the response to therapy remains a major challenge in clinical oncology and precision medicine. In this review, we summarize recent achievements in the discovery and development of cancer biomarkers. We also highlight emerging innovative methods in biomarker discovery and provide insights into the challenges faced in their evaluation and validation.
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Cecilia Pop-Bica, Sebastian Pintea, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Giannino Del Sal, Silvano Piazza, Zhao-Hui Wu, Alvaro J Alencar, Izidore S Lossos, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, George A Calin
The involvement of microRNAs in malignant transformation and cancer progression was previously grounded. The observations made by multiple published studies led to the conclusion that some of these small sequences could be eventually used as biomarkers for diagnosis/prognosis. This meta-analysis investigated whether microRNA-181 family members could predict the outcome of patients carrying different types of cancer. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies evaluating the expression levels of miR-181a/b/c/d in patients with cancer, selecting the publications that assessed the relation between low and high levels of one of these four microRNAs and patients' outcome...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Gabriele Romano, Lawrence N Kwong
Cancer immunotherapy has shown impressive clinical results in the last decade, improving both solid and hematologic cancer patients' overall survival. Nevertheless, most of the molecular aspects underlying the response to this approach are still under investigation. miRNAs in particular have been described as regulators of a plethora of different immunologic processes and thus have the potential to be key in the future developments of immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize and discuss the emerging role of miRNAs in the diagnosis and therapeutics of the four principal cancer immunotherapy approaches: immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive cell therapy, cancer vaccines, and cytokine therapy...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Tony Gutschner, Georg Richtig, Monika Haemmerle, Martin Pichler
Biomarker-driven personalized cancer therapy is a field of growing interest, and several molecular tests have been developed to detect biomarkers that predict, e.g., response of cancers to particular therapies. Identification of these molecules and understanding their molecular mechanisms is important for cancer prognosis and the development of therapeutics for late stage diseases. In the past, significant efforts have been placed on the discovery of protein or DNA-based biomarkers while only recently the class of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has emerged as a new category of biomarker...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Xiuhui Chen, Lingegowda S Mangala, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Xianchao Kong, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Anil K Sood
RNA interference (RNAi) is considered a highly specific approach for gene silencing and holds tremendous potential for treatment of various pathologic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, viral infections, and cancer. Although gene silencing approaches such as RNAi are widely used in preclinical models, the clinical application of RNAi is challenging primarily because of the difficulty in achieving successful systemic delivery. Effective delivery systems are essential to enable the full therapeutic potential of RNAi...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Qihong Huang, Jinchun Yan, Reuven Agami
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes have recently been discovered as key regulators of developmental, physiological, and pathological processes in humans. Recent studies indicate that lncRNAs regulate every step of gene expression, and their aberrant expression can be found in the majority of cancer types. Particularly, lncRNAs were found to function in tumor development and metastasis, which is the major cause of cancer-related death. Thus, exploring key roles of lncRNAs in metastasis is predicted to enhance our knowledge of metastasis, and uncover novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of this process...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jeetendra Kumar Nag, Tatyana Rudina, Myriam Maoz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Beatrice Uziely, Rachel Bar-Shavit
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the main signal-transmitting components in the cell membrane. Over the past several years, biochemical and structural analyses have immensely enhanced our knowledge of GPCR involvement in health and disease states. The present review focuses on GPCRs that are cancer drivers, involved in tumor growth and development. Our aim is to highlight the involvement of stabilized β-catenin molecular machinery with a specific array of GPCRs. We discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular path leading to β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity and their implications for future cancer therapy research...
March 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jongchan Kim, Fan Yao, Zhenna Xiao, Yutong Sun, Li Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs regulating post-transcriptional gene expression. They play important roles in many biological processes under physiological or pathological conditions, including development, metabolism, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and immune response. Over the past 15 years, significant insights have been gained into the roles of miRNAs in cancer. Depending on the cancer type, miRNAs can act as oncogenes, tumor suppressors, or metastasis regulators. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs as components of molecular networks regulating metastasis...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Sara Gandolfi, Jacob P Laubach, Teru Hideshima, Dharminder Chauhan, Kenneth C Anderson, Paul G Richardson
Proteasome inhibitors are one of the most important classes of agents to have emerged for the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past two decades, and now form one of the backbones of treatment. Three agents in this class have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration-the first-in-class compound bortezomib, the second-generation agent carfilzomib, and the first oral proteasome inhibitor, ixazomib. The success of this class of agents is due to the exquisite sensitivity of myeloma cells to the inhibition of the 26S proteasome, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and proliferation of the disease...
December 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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