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Cancer Metastasis Reviews

Chiara Carlomagno, Alfonso De Stefano, Mario Rosanova, Stefano De Falco, Laura Attademo, Giovanni Fiore, Sabino De Placido
The proportion of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving second or further lines of treatment has not been widely studied. To shed light on this issue, we retrospectively analysed the treatments administered for metastatic disease, and investigated prognostic factors after a diagnosis of metastases, in a consecutive cohort of mCRC patients. Three hundred forty-six mCRC patients were enrolled: 173 were stage II or III (metachronous group), and 173 stage IV (synchronous group) at diagnosis...
July 12, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Milene Volpato, Mark A Hull
The majority of evidence linking anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3FAs) has focussed on decreased CRC risk (prevention). More recently, preclinical data and human observational studies have begun to make the case for adjuvant treatment of advanced CRC. Herein, we review latest data regarding the effect of O3FAs on post-diagnosis CRC outcomes, including mechanistic preclinical data, evidence that O3FAs have beneficial effects on efficacy and tolerability of CRC chemotherapy, and human epidemiological data linking dietary O3FA intake with CRC outcomes...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Wanyeon Kim, Beomseok Son, Sungmin Lee, Hyunhee Do, BuHyun Youn
During radiotherapy, an inflammatory response might be induced by activating various enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism. The eicosanoid pathway associated with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and lipoxygenases (LOXs) can be induced by radiation, and many lipid metabolites might contribute to cancer-associated inflammation, cell proliferation, and cell survival in cancer. The lipid metabolites are also involved in the establishment of the tumor-associated microenvironment through promotion of angiogenesis and formation of vascular network...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Cheng-Chieh Yang, Kuo-Wei Chang
Eicosanoids are bioactive lipids that play crucial roles in various pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation and cancer. They include both the COX-derived prostaglandins and the LOX-derived leukotrienes. Furthermore, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways family of receptor tyrosine kinases also are known to play a central role in the tumorigenesis. Various antitumor modalities have been approved cancer treatments that target therapeutically the COX-2 and EGFR pathways; these include selective COX-2 inhibitors and EGFR monoclonal antibodies...
June 23, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jennifer K Colby, Jonathan Jaoude, Fuyao Liu, Imad Shureiqi
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are enzymatically converted to a variety of bioactive products through insertion of molecular oxygen. PUFA-derived mediators can have either inflammatory or anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving properties, depending upon their specific structures. The relative harm or benefit of these mediators can also be tissue and context dependent. These mediators play important roles in maintaining homeostasis and their dysregulation is involved in pathogenesis of cancers, especially those associated with chronic inflammation...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Yong-Jiang Xu, Zhaojun Zheng, Chen Cao, Jinwei Li, Yuanfa Liu
It has been noted that inflammatory were intimately associated with the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid play crucial roles in chronic inflammation. Accordingly, there is an intricate relationship between eicosanoids and HCC, being supported by the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science studies. Herein, we intend to provide bioanalytical insights into the role of eicosanoids in HCC progression, from cell proliferation, angiogenesis migration, to apoptosis...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Dongjun Lee, Dong-Soo Suh, Sue Chin Lee, Gabor J Tigyi, Jae Ho Kim
Stem cells are a rare subpopulation defined by the potential to self-renew and differentiate into specific cell types. A population of stem-like cells has been reported to possess the ability of self-renewal, invasion, metastasis, and engraftment of distant tissues. This unique cell subpopulation has been designated as cancer stem cells (CSC). CSC were first identified in leukemia, and the contributions of CSC to cancer progression have been reported in many different types of cancers. The cancer stem cell hypothesis attempts to explain tumor cell heterogeneity based on the existence of stem cell-like cells within solid tumors...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Koji Kobayashi, Keisuke Omori, Takahisa Murata
Tumor tissue is composed of tumor cells and surrounding non-tumor endothelial and immune cells, collectively known as the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells manipulate tumor microenvironment to obtain sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply, and evade anti-tumor immunosurveillance. Various types of signaling molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and lipid mediators, are secreted, which co-operate to make up the complex tumor microenvironment. Prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, are abundantly produced in tumor tissues...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Manuel U Ramirez, Elizabeth R Stirling, Nancy J Emenaker, David D Roberts, David R Soto-Pantoja
The metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids produces eicosanoids, a family of biologically active lipids that are implicated in homeostasis and in several pathologies that involve inflammation. Inflammatory processes mediated by eicosanoids promote carcinogenesis by exerting direct effects on cancer cells and by affecting the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, understanding how eicosanoids mediate cancer progression may lead to better approaches and chemopreventive strategies for the treatment of cancer...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Sujanitha Umamaheswaran, Santosh K Dasari, Peiying Yang, Susan K Lutgendorf, Anil K Sood
Clinical and experimental studies support the notion that adrenergic stimulation and chronic stress affect inflammation, metabolism, and tumor growth. Eicosanoids are also known to heavily influence inflammation while regulating certain stress responses. However, additional work is needed to understand the full extent of interactions between the stress-related pathways and eicosanoids. Here, we review the potential influences that stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways have on each other, in the context of eicosanoids...
June 9, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Ala Orafaie, Maryam Moghaddam Matin, Hamid Sadeghian
Cancer-targeted therapy is an expanding and successful approach in treatment of many types of cancers. One of the main categories of targeted therapy is use of small molecule inhibitors. 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is an enzyme which reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces metabolites that are implicated in many important human diseases, such as cancer. Considering the role of 15-LOX (mainly 15-LOX-1) in the progression of some cancers, the discovery of 15-LOX inhibitors could potentially lead to development of novel cancer therapeutics and it can be claimed that 15-LOX inhibitors might be suitable as chemotherapy agents in the near future...
June 7, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Typhaine Anquetil, Bernard Payrastre, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Julien Viaud
Our knowledge on the role of the different lipid messengers produced by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in normal and cancer cells as well as in platelets during arterial thrombosis has greatly expanded these last 15 years. PI3Ks are a family of lipid kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation of the D3 position of the inositol ring of phosphoinositides to produce phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2 ), and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5 trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 )...
June 4, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Alfredo Erazo-Oliveras, Natividad R Fuentes, Rachel C Wright, Robert S Chapkin
The cell plasma membrane serves as a nexus integrating extra- and intracellular components, which together enable many of the fundamental cellular signaling processes that sustain life. In order to perform this key function, plasma membrane components assemble into well-defined domains exhibiting distinct biochemical and biophysical properties that modulate various signaling events. Dysregulation of these highly dynamic membrane domains can promote oncogenic signaling. Recently, it has been demonstrated that select membrane-targeted dietary bioactives (MTDBs) have the ability to remodel plasma membrane domains and subsequently reduce cancer risk...
June 2, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Peeyush K Lala, Pinki Nandi, Mousumi Majumder
Lymphangiogenesis (formation of new lymphatic vessels), unlike angiogenesis, has been a lesser-focused field in cancer biology, because of earlier controversy regarding whether lymphatic metastasis occurs via pre-existing or newly formed lymphatics. Recent evidence reveals that peri-tumoral or intra-tumoral lymphangiogenesis is a precursor for lymphatic metastasis in most carcinomas and melanomas. Two major lymphangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D, are produced by cancer cells or immune cells such as macrophages in the tumor-stroma to promote sprouting of lymphatics from lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) or LEC precursors (LECP) by binding to their primary (high affinity) receptor VEGF-R3 or secondary receptors VEGF-R2, neuropilin (NRP)2 and α9/β1 integrin...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Ruya Zhao, Rayan Kaakati, Andrew K Lee, Xinjian Liu, Fang Li, Chuan-Yuan Li
Apoptotic caspases have long been studied for their roles in programmed cell death and tumor suppression. With recent discoveries, however, it is becoming apparent these cell death executioners are involved in additional biological pathways beyond killing cells. In some cases, apoptotic cells secrete growth signals to stimulate proliferation of neighboring cells. This pathway functions to regenerate tissues in multiple organisms, but it also poses problems in tumor resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Additionally, it was found that activation of caspases does not irreversibly lead to cell death, contrary to the established paradigm...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Yuxin Wang, Weicang Wang, Katherine Z Sanidad, Pei-An Shih, Xinfeng Zhao, Guodong Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA. It is of practical importance to identify novel therapeutic targets of CRC to develop new anti-cancer drugs and to discover novel biomarkers of CRC to develop new detection methods. Eicosanoids, which are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, are important lipid-signaling molecules involved in the regulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis...
June 1, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Melania Dovizio, Annalisa Bruno, Annalisa Contursi, Rosalia Grande, Paola Patrignani
Several pieces of evidence support the role of activated platelets in the development of the chronic inflammation-related diseases, such as atherothrombosis and cancer, mainly via the release of soluble factors and microparticles (MPs). Platelets and MPs contain a repertoire of proteins and genetic material (i.e., mRNAs and microRNAs) which may be influenced by the clinical condition of the individuals. In fact, platelets are capable of up-taking proteins and genetic material during their lifespan. Moreover, the content of platelet-derived MPs can be delivered to other cells, including stromal, immune, epithelial, and cancer cells, to change their phenotype and functions, thus contributing to cancer promotion and its metastasization...
May 31, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Jiong Hu, Timo Frömel, Ingrid Fleming
Angiogenesis and inflammation are hallmarks of cancer. Arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are primarily metabolized by three distinct enzymatic systems initiated by cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) to generate bioactive eicosanoids, including prostanoids, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. As some of the PUFA metabolites playing essential roles in inflammatory processes, these pathways have been widely studied as therapeutic targets of inflammation...
May 28, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
József Tímár, B Hegedüs, E Rásó
In the past decades, a vast amount of data accumulated on the role of lipid signaling pathways in the progression of malignant melanoma, the most metastatic/aggressive human cancer type. Genomic studies identified that PTEN loss is the leading factor behind the activation of the PI3K-signaling pathway in melanoma, mutations of which are one of the main resistance mechanisms behind target therapy failures. On the other hand, illegitimate expressions of megakaryocytic genes p12-lipoxyganse, cyclooxygenase-2, and phosphodiestherase-2/autotaxin (ATX) are mostly involved in the regulation of motility signaling in melanoma through various G-protein-coupled bioactive lipid receptors...
May 28, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Andreas Weigert, Elisabeth Strack, Ryan G Snodgrass, Bernhard Brüne
The tumor immune landscape gained considerable interest based on the knowledge that genetic aberrations in cancer cells alone are insufficient for tumor development. Macrophages are basically supporting all hallmarks of cancer and owing to their tremendous plasticity they may exert a whole spectrum of anti-tumor and pro-tumor activities. As part of the innate immune response, macrophages are armed to attack tumor cells, alone or in concert with distinct T cell subsets. However, in the tumor microenvironment, they sense nutrient and oxygen gradients, receive multiple signals, and respond to this incoming information with a phenotype shift...
May 28, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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