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Cancer Metastasis Reviews

Masoom Raza, Peeyush Prasad, Pragya Gupta, Naveen Kumar, Taruna Sharma, Mandeep Rana, Aaron Goldman, Seema Sehrawat
Brain metastasis is one of the leading causes of death among cancer patients. Cancer cells migrate to various sites and harbor different niche in the body which help cancer cells in their survival. The brain is one of the safest place where cancer cells are protected from immune cells. Breast, lung, and melanoma cancer cells have high propensity to migrate towards the brain. To enter the brain, cancer cells have to cross the blood brain barrier. Survival and finding new niche in the brain are directed by several mechanisms in which different cellular players take part such as astrocytes, microglia, Schwann cells, satellite cells, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells...
October 4, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Roberto A Leon-Ferre, Karthik V Giridhar, Tina J Hieken, Robert W Mutter, Fergus J Couch, Rafael E Jimenez, John R Hawse, Judy C Boughey, Kathryn J Ruddy
Male breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. Because of its rarity, most major breast cancer trials have included only female patients. This has resulted in limited prospective data to guide the clinical management of men with breast cancer. As a result, treatment decisions are typically extrapolated from data generated in female patients. This approach may be suboptimal, particularly considering the differing hormonal milieus between men and women with respect to both breast cancer development and treatment...
September 19, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Michael A Sirover
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) may represent the quintessential example of a moonlighting protein. The latter are a new, intriguing class of cell proteins which exhibit multiple activities in different subcellular locales apart from their initially, well-characterized function. As such, apart from its classical role in energy production, membrane-bound GAPDH is required for membrane fusion, endocytosis and, intriguingly, for iron transport. Cytoplasmic GAPDH regulates mRNA stability and is required for ER to Golgi trafficking...
September 12, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Abhilasha Maheshwari, Paul T Finger
Ocular cancers are unique among the diseases of the eye, threatening both vision and life. In most cases, the diagnosis can be made utilizing a careful clinical history and specialized ocular examination. Eye cancer diagnosis relies heavily on imaging techniques such as high-frequency ultrasound, fluorescein angiography, anterior and posterior segment optical coherence tomography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Once the diagnosis is established, treatment decisions depend on the tumor's location, size, local extension, patterns of growth, and secondary complications...
September 10, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Patrick O Azevedo, Ana E Paiva, Gabryella S P Santos, Luiza Lousado, Julia P Andreotti, Isadora F G Sena, Carlos A Tagliati, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality around the world. The lack of detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms participating in the lung tumor progression restrains the development of efficient treatments. Recently, by using state-of-the-art technologies, including in vivo sophisticated Cre/loxP technologies in combination with lung tumor models, it was revealed that osteoblasts activate neutrophils that promote tumor growth in the lung. Strikingly, genetic ablation of osteoblasts abolished lung tumor progression via interruption of SiglecFhigh -expressing neutrophils supply to the tumor microenvironment...
September 10, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Zhiyong Wang, Juan Callejas Valera, Xuefeng Zhao, Qianming Chen, J Silvio Gutkind
The author's name was tagged incorrectly in XML. "Silvio Gutkind J" should be tagged as "J. Silvio Gutkind". Given name is "J. Silvio" and the Family name is "Gutkind".
September 5, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Chandra Prakash Prasad, Mansi Manchanda, Purusottam Mohapatra, Tommy Andersson
Despite the clinical development of novel adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic drugs, metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The present review focuses on the relevance, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of targeting WNT5A as a future anti-metastatic treatment strategy for breast cancer patients by restoring WNT5A signaling as an innovative therapeutic option. WNT5A is an auto- and paracrine β-catenin-independent ligand that has been shown to induce tumor suppression as well as oncogenic signaling, depending upon cancer type...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Dylan C Dean, Shen Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Although the investigation into biomarkers specific for pulmonary metastasis within osteosarcoma (OS) has recently expanded, their usage within the clinic remains sparse. The current screening protocol after any OS diagnosis includes a chest CT scan; however, metastatic lung nodules frequently go undetected and remain the primary cause of death in OS. Recently, screening technologies such as liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing have revealed a promising array of biomarkers with predictive and diagnostic value for the pulmonary metastasis associated with OS...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Megan L Sulciner, Allison Gartung, Molly M Gilligan, Charles N Serhan, Dipak Panigrahy
Bioactive lipids are essential components of human cells and tissues. As discussed in this review, the cancer lipidome is diverse and malleable, with the ability to promote or inhibit cancer pathogenesis. Targeting lipids within the tumor and surrounding microenvironment may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating cancer patients. Additionally, the emergence of a novel super-family of lipid mediators termed specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) has revealed a new role for bioactive lipid mediators in the resolution of inflammation in cancer biology...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Allison Gartung, Dipak Panigrahy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Preeti Kanikarla-Marie, Scott Kopetz, Ernest T Hawk, Steven W Millward, Anil K Sood, Paolo Gresele, Michael Overman, Kenneth Honn, David G Menter
Platelets can serve as "first responders" in cancer and metastasis. This is partly due to bioactive lipid metabolism that drives both platelet and cancer biology. The two primary eicosanoid metabolites that maintain platelet rapid response homeostasis are prostacyclin made by endothelial cells that inhibits platelet function, which is counterbalanced by thromboxane produced by platelets during activation, aggregation, and platelet recruitment. Both of these arachidonic acid metabolites are inherently unstable due to their chemical structure...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Dali Tong, Qiuli Liu, Lin-Ang Wang, Qiubo Xie, Jian Pang, Yiqiang Huang, Luofu Wang, Gaolei Liu, Dianzheng Zhang, Weihua Lan, Jun Jiang
Therapeutic resistance has been and remains to be the major challenge in developing successful treatments for different cancers and therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms in the development of therapeutic resistance is crucial in combating cancers. Multiple mechanisms underlie the development of therapeutic resistance, and the signaling pathways involved in cancer stem cell repopulation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammatory infiltration, and immunosuppression play pivotal roles in this process...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Kasturi Chatterjee, Sayantan Jana, Preety Choudhary, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Cancer development and metastasis are associated to perturbation in metabolic functions of tumor cells and surrounding inflammatory and stromal cell responses. Eicosanoids and lipid mediators, in this regard, attract potential attention during cancer development. Eicosanoids, which include prostaglandin, prostacyclin, thromboxane, and leukotriene, are synthesized from arachidonic acid when cells are stimulated by stress, cytokines, or other growth factors. However, the underlying mechanism of eicosanoids in cancer development, specially their interactions with proto-oncogene factors in tumor microenvironment, remain unexplored...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
K Slater, P S Hoo, A M Buckley, J M Piulats, A Villanueva, A Portela, B N Kennedy
Uveal melanoma is a rare, but deadly, form of eye cancer that arises from melanocytes within the uveal tract. Although advances have emerged in treatment of the primary tumour, patients are still faced with vision loss, eye enucleation and lethal metastatic spread of the disease. Approximately 50% of uveal melanoma patients develop metastases, which occur most frequently in the liver. Metastatic patients encounter an extremely poor prognosis; as few as 8% survive beyond 2 years. Understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this fatal disease evolved in recent years with the identification of new oncogenic mutations that drive uveal melanoma pathogenesis...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Julian Gomez-Cambronero
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is difficult to treat since cells lack the three receptors (ES, PR, or HER) that the most effective treatments target. We have used a well-established TNBC cell line (MDA-MB-231) from which we found evidence in support for a phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated tumor growth and metastasis: high levels of expression of PLD, as well as the absence of inhibitory miRs (such as miR-203) and 3'-mRNA PARN deadenylase activity in these cells...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Athanassios A Panagiotopoulos, Konstantina Kalyvianaki, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
Many epidemiological studies revealed an association of dietary consumption of fatty acids and prostate cancer. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid and their derivatives such as arachidonic acid and eicosapentanoic acid are important polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal fats and in many vegetable oils. Their metabolism at the cellular level by enzymes such as lipoxygenases and cycloxygenases produces the group of eicosanoids molecules with many biological roles and activities in a variety of human diseases including cancer...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Zhijun Guo, Veronica Johnson, Jaime Barrera, Mariel Porras, Diego Hinojosa, Irwin Hernández, Patrick McGarrah, David A Potter
While cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA) epoxides promotes tumor growth by driving angiogenesis, cancer cell intrinsic functions of CYPs are less understood. CYP-derived AA epoxides, called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), also promote the growth of tumor epithelia. In cancer cells, CYP AA epoxygenase enzymes are associated with STAT3 and mTOR signaling, but also localize in mitochondria, where they promote the electron transport chain (ETC). Recently, the diabetes drug metformin was found to inhibit CYP AA epoxygenase activity, allowing the design of more potent biguanides to target tumor growth...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Milene Volpato, Mark A Hull
The majority of evidence linking anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3FAs) has focussed on decreased CRC risk (prevention). More recently, preclinical data and human observational studies have begun to make the case for adjuvant treatment of advanced CRC. Herein, we review latest data regarding the effect of O3FAs on post-diagnosis CRC outcomes, including mechanistic preclinical data, evidence that O3FAs have beneficial effects on efficacy and tolerability of CRC chemotherapy, and human epidemiological data linking dietary O3FA intake with CRC outcomes...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Wanyeon Kim, Beomseok Son, Sungmin Lee, Hyunhee Do, BuHyun Youn
During radiotherapy, an inflammatory response might be induced by activating various enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism. The eicosanoid pathway associated with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and lipoxygenases (LOXs) can be induced by radiation, and many lipid metabolites might contribute to cancer-associated inflammation, cell proliferation, and cell survival in cancer. The lipid metabolites are also involved in the establishment of the tumor-associated microenvironment through promotion of angiogenesis and formation of vascular network...
September 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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