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Cancer Metastasis Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933405/current-challenges-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#1
Bora Lim, Gabriel N Hortobagyi
Metastasis is one of the most characteristic yet problematic behaviors of cancer cells. Stage IV breast cancer accounts for a large portion of breast cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Despite early detection and improvement in survival owing to advancements in biomedical research and overall improvement of the health system, 6-10% of patients present with stage IV disease in the developed world, with a higher incidence noted elsewhere. Despite advances in biomedical research into cancer, up to 70-80% of patients with stage IV breast cancer die of cancer in 5 years, a disproportionally higher mortality compared with non-metastatic breast cancer...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914000/from-transformation-to-metastasis-deconstructing-the-extracellular-matrix-in-breast-cancer
#2
Shelly Kaushik, Michael W Pickup, Valerie M Weaver
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a guiding force that regulates various developmental stages of the breast. In addition to providing structural support for the cells, it mediates epithelial-stromal communication and provides cues for cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Perturbations in ECM architecture profoundly influence breast tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding how a dysregulated ECM can facilitate malignant transformation is crucial to designing treatments to effectively target the tumor microenvironment...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913999/the-role-of-her2-egfr-and-other-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-breast-cancer
#3
Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Breast cancer affects approximately 1 in 8 women, and it is estimated that over 246,660 women in the USA will be diagnosed with breast cancer in 2016. Breast cancer mortality has decline over the last two decades due to early detection and improved treatment. Over the last few years, there is mounting evidence to demonstrate the prominent role of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in tumor initiation and progression, and targeted therapies against the RTKs have been developed, evaluated in clinical trials, and approved for many cancer types, including breast cancer...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913998/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-past-present-and-future
#4
Alison Spellman, Shou-Ching Tang
Immunotherapy has shown promise in many solid tumors including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer with an evolving role in breast cancer. Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies including immune checkpoint inhibition, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, vaccinations, antibody-drug conjugates, and identifying other emerging interventions targeting the tumor microenvironment. Increasing efficacy of these treatments in breast cancer patients requires identification of better biomarkers to guide patient selection; recognizing when to initiate these therapies in multi-modality treatment plans; establishing novel assays to monitor immune-mediated responses; and creating combined systemic therapy options incorporating conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and endocrine therapy...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896521/pi3k-akt-mtor-role-in-breast-cancer-progression-drug-resistance-and-treatment
#5
Angel Guerrero-Zotano, Ingrid A Mayer, Carlos L Arteaga
Anti-cancer cancer-targeted therapies are designed to exploit a particular vulnerability in the tumor, which in most cases results from its dependence on an oncogene and/or loss of a tumor suppressor. Mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway are freqcuently found in breast cancers and associated with cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug resistance. Several drugs targeting PI3K/ATK/mTOR are currently in clinical trials, mainly in combination with endocrine therapy and anti-HER2 therapy...
November 28, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878502/emt-cell-plasticity-and-metastasis
#6
Christine L Chaffer, Beatriz P San Juan, Elgene Lim, Robert A Weinberg
Carcinoma cells that are induced to suppress their epithelial features and upregulate mesenchymal gene expression programs acquire traits that promote an invasive and metastatic phenotype. This is achieved through the expression of a program termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-a fundamental cell-biological process that plays key roles in embryogenesis and wound healing. Re-activation of the EMT during cancer promotes disease progression and enhances the metastatic phenotype by bestowing upon previously benign carcinoma cell traits such as migration, invasion, resistance to anoikis, chemoresistance and tumour-initiating potential...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873079/next-generation-predictive-biomarkers-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibition
#7
Yulian Khagi, Razelle Kurzrock, Sandip Pravin Patel
With the advent of targeted therapies, there has been a revolution in the treatment of cancer across multiple histologies. Immune checkpoint blockade has made it possible to take advantage of receptor-ligand interactions between immune and tumor cells in a wide spectrum of malignancies. Toxicity in healthy tissue, however, can limit our use of these agents. Immune checkpoint blockade has been approved in advanced melanoma, renal cell cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, relapsed refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma, and urothelial cancer...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873078/advances-in-decoding-breast-cancer-brain-metastasis
#8
Chenyu Zhang, Dihua Yu
The past decade has witnessed impressive advances in cancer treatment ushered in by targeted and immunotherapies. However, with significantly prolonged survival, upon recurrence, more patients become inflicted by brain metastasis, which is mostly refractory to all currently available therapeutic regimens. Historically, brain metastasis is an understudied area in cancer research, partly due to the dearth of appropriate experimental models that closely simulate the special biological features of metastasis in the unique brain environment and to the sophistication of techniques required to perform in-depth studies of the extremely complex and challenging brain metastasis...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866304/cell-lineage-determinants-as-regulators-of-breast-cancer-metastasis
#9
Wei Lu, Yibin Kang
The mammary epithelium is organized in a hierarchy of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), progenitors, and differentiated cells. The development and homeostasis of mammary gland are tightly controlled by a complex network of cell lineage regulators. These determinants of cellular hierarchy are frequently deregulated in breast tumor cells and closely associated with cancer progression and metastasis. They also contribute to the diversity of breast cancer subtypes and their distinct metastatic patterns. Cell fate regulators that normally promote stem/progenitor activities can serve as drivers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis whereas regulators that promote terminal differentiation generally suppress metastasis...
November 19, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866303/anesthetic-technique-and-cancer-recurrence-in-oncologic-surgery-unraveling-the-puzzle
#10
Ryungsa Kim
Surgery/anesthetic technique-stimulated immunosuppression in the perioperative period might cause an increase in cancer-related mortality. Whether anesthetic technique can affect the outcomes of cancer patients remains inconclusive. This review discusses data from the available literature on anesthetic techniques applied in oncologic surgery, the long-term outcomes of anesthetic technique, and their relation to survival and cancer recurrence. Searches of the PubMed database up to June 30, 2016, were conducted to identify publications with the terms "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
November 19, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858305/one-microenvironment-does-not-fit-all-heterogeneity-beyond-cancer-cells
#11
Ik Sun Kim, Xiang H-F Zhang
Human cancers exhibit formidable molecular heterogeneity, to a large extent accounting for the incomplete and transitory efficacy of current anti-cancer therapies. However, neoplastic cells alone do not manifest the disease, but conscript a battery of non-tumor cells to enable and sustain hallmark capabilities of cancer. Escaping immunosurveillance is one of such capabilities. Tumors evolve immunosuppressive microenvironment to subvert anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we will focus on tumor-associated myeloid cells, which constitute an essential part of the immune microenvironment and reciprocally interact with cancer cells to establish malignancy toward metastasis...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858304/preface
#12
EDITORIAL
Li Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844253/the-role-of-deubiquitinases-in-breast-cancer
#13
Zhenna Xiao, Peijing Zhang, Li Ma
Although growing numbers of oncoproteins and pro-metastatic proteins have been extensively characterized, many of these tumor-promoting proteins are not good drug targets, which represent a major barrier to curing breast cancer and other cancers. There is a need, therefore, for alternative therapeutic approaches to destroying cancer-promoting proteins. The human genome encodes approximately 100 deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs, also called deubiquitinases), which are amenable to pharmacologic inhibition by small molecules...
November 14, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838868/cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-the-soil-conditioner-in-breast-cancer-metastasis
#14
Andrew R Chin, Shizhen Emily Wang
It has been recognized that cancer-associated mortality is more often a result of the disrupted physiological functions in multiple organs following metastatic dissemination of cancer cells, rather than the presence and growth of the primary tumor. Despite advances in our understanding of the events leading to cancer initiation, growth, and acquisition of invasive properties, we are still unable to effectively treat metastatic disease. It is now being accepted that the secretion of extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes from cancer cells, has a profound impact on the initiation and propagation of metastatic breast cancer...
November 12, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566370/tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-in-musculoskeletal-oncology
#15
Boris Michael Holzapfel, Ferdinand Wagner, Laure Christine Martine, Stephan Reppenhagen, Maximilian Rudert, Michael Schuetz, Jim Denham, Jan-Thorsten Schantz, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Currently used surgical techniques to reconstruct tissue defects after resection of musculoskeletal tumours are associated with high complication rates. This drives a strong demand for innovative therapeutic concepts that are able to improve the clinical outcomes of patients suffering from bone and soft tissue tumours. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) provides a technology platform based on biochemical, molecular, cellular and biomaterials modules to selectively direct tissue healing processes for improved defect regeneration...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514544/calcium-role-in-human-carcinogenesis-a-comprehensive-analysis-and-critical-review-of-literature
#16
Bernard Kadio, Sanni Yaya, Ajoy Basak, Koffi Djè, James Gomes, Christian Mesenge
The central role played by calcium ion in biological systems has generated an interest for its potential implication in human malignancies. Thus, lines of research, on possible association of calcium metabolism regulation with tumorigenesis, implying disruptions and/or alterations of known molecular pathways, have been extensively researched in the recent decades. This paper is a critical synthesis of these findings, based on a functional approach of the calcium signaling toolkit. It provides strong support that this ubiquitous divalent cation is involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501725/telomeres-and-telomerase-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-pathogenesis-to-clinical-implications
#17
Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Enrica Rampazzo, Silvia Giunco, Annarosa Del Mistro, Anna Menegaldo, Lorena Baboci, Monica Mantovani, Giancarlo Tirelli, Anita De Rossi
Strongly associated with tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequently lethal, heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis is a multistep and multifactorial process involving genetic and epigenetic events. The majority of HNSCC patients present with locoregional advanced stage disease and are treated with combined modality strategies that can markedly impair quality of life and elicit unpredictable results...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417221/second-and-third-line-systemic-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-esophagogastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Emil Ter Veer, Nadia Haj Mohammad, Gert van Valkenhoef, Lok Lam Ngai, Rosa M A Mali, Martijn G H van Oijen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
The optimal second- and third-line chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced esophagogastric cancer is still a matter of debate. Therefore, a literature search was carried out in Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and oncology conferences until January 2016 for randomized controlled trials that compared second- or third-line therapy. We included 28 studies with 4810 patients. Second-line, single-agent taxane/irinotecan showed increased survival compared to best supportive care (BSC) (hazard ratio 0...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405651/estrogen-progesterone-and-her2-neu-receptor-discordance-between-primary-and-metastatic-breast-tumours-a-review
#19
C Yeung, J Hilton, M Clemons, S Mazzarello, B Hutton, F Haggar, C L Addison, I Kuchuk, X Zhu, K Gelmon, A Arnaout
Discordance in estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2/neu status between primary breast tumours and metastatic disease is well recognized. In this review, we highlight how receptor discordance between primary tumours and paired metastasis can help elucidate the mechanism of metastasis but can also effect patient management and the design of future trials. Discordance rates and ranges were available from 47 studies (3384 matched primary and metastatic pairs) reporting ER, PR, and HER2/neu expression for both primary and metastatic sites...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392603/origins-structures-and-functions-of-circulating-dna-in-oncology
#20
A R Thierry, S El Messaoudi, P B Gahan, P Anker, M Stroun
While various clinical applications especially in oncology are now in progress such as diagnosis, prognosis, therapy monitoring, or patient follow-up, the determination of structural characteristics of cell-free circulating DNA (cirDNA) are still being researched. Nevertheless, some specific structures have been identified and cirDNA has been shown to be composed of many "kinds." This structural description goes hand-in-hand with the mechanisms of its origins such as apoptosis, necrosis, active release, phagocytosis, and exocytose...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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